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**For copies of this Booklet and of the full Review to be sent to addresses
**

in the Americas, Australasia, or the Far East, visit

http://pdg.lbl.gov/pdgmail

or write to

Particle Data Group

MS 50R6008

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Berkeley, CA 94720-8166, USA

From all other areas, visit

http://www.cern.ch/library

or write to

CERN Scientiﬁc Information Service

CH-1211 Geneva 23

Switzerland

To make comments or corrections, send e-mail to PDG@LBL.GOV. We

acknowledge all e-mail via e-mail. No reply indicates nonreceipt. Please

try again.

Visit our WWW site: http://pdg.lbl.gov/

**The publication of the Review of Particle Physics is supported by
**

the Director, Oﬃce of Science, Oﬃce of High Energy and Nuclear

Physics, the Division of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of

Energy under Contract No. DE–AC02–05CH11231; by the U.S. National

Science Foundation under Agreement No. PHY-0652989; by the European

Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN); by an implementing arrangement

between the governments of Japan (MEXT: Ministry of Education,

Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) and the United States (DOE)

on cooperative research and development; and by the Italian National

Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

© 2010 Regents of the University of California

****** INSIDE FRONT COVER ******

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1

**PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET
**

Extracted from the Review of Particle Physics∗

K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010)

(next edition: July 2012)

**Particle Data Group
**

K. Nakamura, K. Hagiwara, K. Hikasa, H. Murayama, M. Tanabashi,

T. Watari, C. Amsler, M. Antonelli, D.M. Asner, H. Baer, H.R. Band,

R.M. Barnett, T. Basaglia, E. Bergren, J. Beringer, G. Bernardi, W. Bertl,

H. Bichsel, O. Biebel, E. Blucher, S. Blusk, R.N. Cahn, M. Carena,

A. Ceccucci, D. Chakraborty, M.-C. Chen, R.S. Chivukula, G. Cowan,

O. Dahl, G. D’Ambrosio, T. Damour, D. de Florian, A. de Gouvˆea,

T. DeGrand, G. Dissertori, B. Dobrescu, M. Doser, M. Drees, D.A. Edwards,

S. Eidelman, J. Erler, V.V. Ezhela, W. Fetscher, B.D. Fields, B. Foster,

T.K. Gaisser, L. Garren, H.-J. Gerber, G. Gerbier, T. Gherghetta,

G.F. Giudice, S. Golwala, M. Goodman, C. Grab, A.V. Gritsan,

J.-F. Grivaz, D.E. Groom, M. Gr¨

unewald, A. Gurtu, T. Gutsche,

H.E. Haber, C. Hagmann, K.G. Hayes, M. Heﬀner, B. Heltsley, J.J. Hern´

andez-Rey,

A. H¨

ocker, J. Holder, J. Huston, J.D. Jackson, K.F. Johnson, T. Junk,

A. Karle, D. Karlen, B. Kayser, D. Kirkby, S.R. Klein, C. Kolda,

R.V. Kowalewski, B. Krusche, Yu.V. Kuyanov, Y. Kwon, O. Lahav,

P. Langacker, A. Liddle, Z. Ligeti, C.-J. Lin, T.M. Liss, L. Littenberg,

K.S. Lugovsky, S.B. Lugovsky, J. Lys, H. Mahlke, T. Mannel, A.V. Manohar,

W.J. Marciano, A.D. Martin, A. Masoni, D. Milstead, R. Miquel,

K. M¨

onig, M. Narain, P. Nason, S. Navas, P. Nevski, Y. Nir, K.A. Olive,

L. Pape, C. Patrignani, J.A. Peacock, S.T. Petcov, A. Piepke, G. Punzi,

A. Quadt, S. Raby, G. Raﬀelt, B.N. Ratcliﬀ, P. Richardson, S. Roesler,

S. Rolli, A. Romaniouk, L.J. Rosenberg, J.L. Rosner, C.T. Sachrajda,

Y. Sakai, G.P. Salam, S. Sarkar, F. Sauli, O. Schneider, K. Scholberg,

D. Scott, W.G. Seligman, M.H. Shaevitz, M. Silari, T. Sj¨

ostrand,

J.G. Smith, G.F. Smoot, S. Spanier, H. Spieler, A. Stahl, T. Stanev,

S.L. Stone, T. Sumiyoshi, M.J. Syphers, J. Terning, M. Titov, N.P. Tkachenko,

N.A. T¨

ornqvist, D. Tovey, T.G. Trippe, G. Valencia, K. van Bibber,

G. Venanzoni, M.G. Vincter, P. Vogel, A. Vogt, W. Walkowiak, C.W. Walter,

D.R. Ward, B.R. Webber, G. Weiglein, E.J. Weinberg, J.D. Wells,

A. Wheeler, L.R. Wiencke, C.G. Wohl, L. Wolfenstein, J. Womersley,

C.L. Woody, R.L. Workman, A. Yamamoto, W.-M. Yao, O.V. Zenin,

J. Zhang, R.-Y. Zhu, P.A. Zyla

Technical Associates:

G. Harper, V.S. Lugovsky, P. Schaﬀner

**∗ The full Review lists all the data, with references, used in obtaining
**

the values given in the Particle Summary Tables. It also contains

much additional information. Some of the material that does appear

in this Booklet is only an abbreviated version of what appears in the

full Review.

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2

PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Physical constants (rev.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2. Astrophysical constants (rev.)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Summary Tables of Particle Physics

Gauge and Higgs bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Leptons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Quarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Mesons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Baryons∗

Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Tests of conservation laws∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Reviews, Tables, and Plots

. . . . . . . . . . 169

9. Quantum chromodynamics (new)∗

10. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics (rev.)∗ 172

11. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix (rev.)∗ 181

12. CP violation (rev.)∗

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

13. Neutrino Mass, Mixing and Oscillations (new)∗ . . . . . 193

14. Quark model (rev.)∗

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

16. Structure functions (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

19. Big-bang cosmology (rev.)∗

21. The Cosmological Parameters (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . 214

22. Dark matter (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

23. Cosmic Microwave Background (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . 221

24. Cosmic rays (new)∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

25. Accelerator physics of colliders (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . 225

26. High-energy collider parameters (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . 226

27. Passage of particles through matter (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . 229

28. Particle detectors at accelerators (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . 244

. . 256

29. Particle detectors for non-accelerator physics (new)∗

30. Radioactivity and radiation protection (rev.)∗

. . . . . 263

31. Commonly used radioactive sources . . . . . . . . . . 265

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

32. Probability (rev.)∗

33. Statistics (rev.)∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

36. Clebsch-Gordan coeﬃcients, spherical harmonics,

and d functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

39. Kinematics (rev.)∗

40. Cross-section formulae for speciﬁc processes (rev.)∗ . . . 296

41. Plots of cross sections and related quantities (rev.)∗ . . . 301

6. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials ∗ . . . . . . 302

4. Periodic table of the elements (rev.)

. . . inside back cover

∗ Abridged

from the full Review of Particle Physics.

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3

The following are found only in the full Review and on the Web:

http://pdg.lbl.gov

3.

5.

7.

8.

15.

17.

18.

20.

34.

35.

37.

38.

**International System of Units (SI)
**

Electronic structure of the elements

Electromagnetic relations

Naming scheme for hadrons

Grand Uniﬁed Theories

Fragmentation functions in e+ e− annihilation

and lepton-nucleon DIS (rev.)

Experimental tests of gravitational theory (rev.)

Big-bang nucleosynthesis (rev.)

Monte Carlo techniques (rev.)

Monte Carlo particle numbering scheme (rev.)

SU(3) isoscalar factors and representation matrices

SU(n) multiplets and Young diagrams

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**8.854 187 817 . . . ×10−12 F m−1
**

4π × 10−7 N A−2 = 12.566 370 614 . . . ×10−7 N A−2

7.297 352 5376(50)×10−3 = 1/137.035 999 679(94)†

2.817 940 2894(58)×10−15 m

3.861 592 6459(53)×10−13 m

0.529 177 208 59(36)×10−10 m

1.239 841 875(31)×10−6 m

13.605 691 93(34) eV

0.665 245 8558(27) barn

0 = 1/μ0 c2

μ0

α = e2 /4π0 c

re = e2 /4π0 me c2

−

λe = /me c = re α−1

a∞ = 4π0 2 /me e2 = re α−2

hc/(1 eV)

hcR∞ = me e4 /2(4π0 )2 2 = me c2 α2 /2

σT = 8πre2 /3

**ﬁne-structure constant
**

classical electron radius

(e− Compton wavelength)/2π

Bohr radius (mnucleus = ∞)

wavelength of 1 eV/c particle

Rydberg energy

Thomson cross section

me

mp

**permittivity of free space
**

permeability of free space

electron mass

proton mass

0.68, 0.68

2.1

1.4

0.68

25

25

4.1

exact

exact

25, 50

25, 50

0.10, 0.43

25

25, 50

exact∗

50

50

25

25, 25

25

50

Uncertainty (ppb)

deuteron mass

uniﬁed atomic mass unit (u)

e

c

(c)2

**electron charge magnitude
**

conversion constant

conversion constant

s−1

**299 792 458 m
**

6.626 068 96(33)×10−34 J s

1.054 571 628(53)×10−34 J s

= 6.582 118 99(16)×10−22 MeV s

1.602 176 487(40)×10−19 C = 4.803 204 27(12)×10−10 esu

197.326 9631(49) MeV fm

0.389 379 304(19) GeV2 mbarn

Value

**0.510 998 910(13) MeV/c2 = 9.109 382 15(45)×10−31 kg
**

938.272 013(23) MeV/c2 = 1.672 621 637(83)×10−27 kg

= 1.007 276 466 77(10) u = 1836.152 672 47(80) me

md

1875.612 793(47) MeV/c2

(mass 12 C atom)/12 = (1 g)/(NA mol) 931.494 028(23) MeV/c2 = 1.660 538 782(83)×10−27 kg

c

h

≡ h/2π

**speed of light in vacuum
**

Planck constant

Planck constant, reduced

Symbol, equation

4

Quantity

Table 1.1. Reviewed 2010 by P.J. Mohr (NIST). The set of constants excluding the last group (which come from the Particle Data Group) is

recommended by CODATA for international use. The 1-σ uncertainties in the last digits are given in parentheses after the values. See the full

edition of this Review for references and further explanation.

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1. Physical constants

12:55

602 176 487(40) × 10 e = 2.NA k(273. 10. 2010 12:55 1.15 K)/(101 325 Pa) b = λmax T σ = π 2 k 4 /603c2 GF /(c)3 Z ) (MS) sin2 θ(M mW mZ αs (mZ ) Avogadro constant Boltzmann constant molar volume.0254 m 1 G ≡ 10 T ˚ ≡ 0. “Electroweak model and constraints on new physics. ideal gas at STP Wien displacement law constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Fermi coupling constant∗∗ 1 barn ≡ 10 m 2 1 erg ≡ 10−7 J 2.997 924 58 × 109 esu = 1 C 1 eV/c = 1.577 215 664 901 532 861 0 ◦ C ≡ 273./ﬁeld *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.758 9. At Q2 = 0.788 3.15 K kg 1 atmosphere ≡ 760 Torr ≡ 101 325 Pa −36 −19 0.718 281 828 459 045 235 J 9000 5.617 343(15)×10−5 eV K−1 22. 1.3 × 104 5.1876(21) GeV/c2 0.670 400(40)×10−8 W m−2 K−4 gN NA k standard gravitational accel. 2010 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.4 1.0 × 105 1.380 6504(24)×10−23 J K−1 = 8. At Q2 ≈ m2W the value is ∼ 1/128.9 × 106 kT at 300 K = [38.399(23) GeV/c2 91. Physical constants 5 12:55 . ∗∗ See the discussion in Sec.152 1.0 × 105 exact 1.4 25 25 † The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.897 7685(51)×10−3 m K 5.23146(12).166 37(1)×10−5 GeV−2 6.708 81(67)×10−39 c (GeV/c2 )−2 9.” †† The corresponding sin2 θ for the eﬀective angle is 0.022 141 79(30)×1023 mol−1 1.9 × 105 2.782 661 758(44) × 10 2 1 eV = 1. ∗ −28 1 in ≡ 0. • ‡ Absolute lab measurements of GN have been made only on scales of about 1 cm to 1 m.1184(7) 50 1700 1700 1700 1700 7000 1.674 28(67)×10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2 = 6.806 65 m s−2 7555(79)×10−11 MeV T−1 2326(45)×10−14 MeV T−1 150(44)×1011 rad s−1 T−1 92(24)×107 rad s−1 T−1 GN 381 451 820 833 gravitational constant‡ 5.141 592 653 589 793 238 weak-mixing angle W ± boson mass Z 0 boson mass strong coupling constant 6.578 μB = e/2me μN = e/2mp e /B = e/m ωcycl e p ωcycl /B = e/mp Bohr magneton nuclear magneton electron cyclotron freq.413 996(39)×10−3 m3 mol−1 2.1 nm 1A 1 dyne ≡ 10−5 N −4 π = 3.6 × 105 2./ﬁeld proton cyclotron freq.231 16(13)†† 80.681 685(68)]−1 eV γ = 0.

GN /c3

gN

Jy

Planck length

standard gravitational acceleration

jansky (ﬂux density)

au, A

pc

ly

2GN M /c2

M

R

L

2GN M⊕ /c2

M⊕

R⊕

L

F

AB

R0

v /R0

Θ0

ρ disk

ρχ

v esc

astronomical unit

parsec (1 au/1 arc sec)

light year (deprecated unit)

Schwarzschild radius of the Sun

Solar mass

Solar equatorial radius

Solar luminosity

Schwarzschild radius of the Earth

Earth mass

Earth mean equatorial radius

luminosity conversion (deprecated)

ﬂux conversion (deprecated)

ABsolute monochromatic magnitude

**Solar distance from Galactic center
**

[Solar circular velocity at R0 ]/R0

circular velocity at R0

local disk density

local dark matter density

escape velocity from Galaxy

**tropical year (equinox to equinox) (2011)
**

yr

sidereal year (ﬁxed star to ﬁxed star) (2011)

mean sidereal day (2011) (time between vernal equinox transits)

c

G

N

c/GN

Symbol, equation

speed of light

Newtonian gravitational constant

Planck mass

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[5]

[6]

[7]

8.4(4) kpc

30.2 ± 0.2 km s−1 kpc−1

240(10) km s−1

3–12 ×10−24 g cm−3 ≈ 2–7 GeV/c2 cm−3

canonical value 0.3 GeV/c2 cm−3 within factor 2–3

498 km/s < v esc < 608 km/s

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

**3.02 × 1028 × 10−0.4 Mbol W
**

[14]

(Mbol = absolute bolometric magnitude = bolometric magnitude at 10 pc)

from above

2.52 × 10−8 × 10−0.4 mbol W m−2

(mbol = apparent bolometric magnitude)

−2.5 log10 fν −56.10 (for fν in W m−2 Hz−1 )

[15]

= −2.5 log10 fν + 8.90 (for fν in Jy)

**149 597 870 700(3) m
**

3.085 677 6 × 1016 m = 3.262 . . . ly

0.306 6 . . . pc = 0.946 053 . . . × 1016 m

2.953 250 077 0(2) km

1.988 4(2) × 1030 kg

6.9551(4) × 108 m

3.842 7(1 4) × 1026 W

8.870 055 94(2) mm

5.972 2(6) × 1024 kg

6.378 137 × 106 m

[5]

[5]

[5]

**31 556 925.2 s ≈ π × 107 s
**

31 558 149.8 s ≈ π × 107 s

23h 56m 04.s 090 53

exact[4]

[1]

[1]

Reference, footnote

[1]

exact[1]

deﬁnition

Value

299 792 458 m s−1

6.674 3(7) × 10−11 m3 kg−1 s−2

1.220 89(6) × 1019 GeV/c2

= 2.176 44(11) × 10−8 kg

1.616 25(8) × 10−35 m

9.806 65 m s−2 ≈ π 2

10−26 W m−2 Hz−1

6

Quantity

2. ASTROPHYSICAL CONSTANTS AND PARAMETERS

Table 2.1. Revised May 2010 by E. Bergren and D.E. Groom (LBNL). Figures in parentheses give 1-σ uncertainties in last place(s).

This table represents neither a critical review nor an adjustment of the constants, and is not intended as a primary reference. See the

full edition of this Review for references and detailed explanations.

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2. Astrophysical constants

12:55

T0

2.725(1) K

3.355(8) mK

369(1) km/s towards (, b) = (263.99(14)◦, 48.26(3)◦ )

627(22) km/s towards (, b) = (276(3)◦ , 30(3)◦ )

vLG

s/k

2 889.2 (T /2.725)3 cm−3

nγ

410.5(T /2.725)3 cm−3

η = nb /nγ

6.23(17) × 10−10

5.1 × 10−10 ≤ η ≤ 6.5 × 10−10 (95% CL)

nb

(2.56 ± 0.07) × 10−7 cm−3

number density of baryons‡

(2.1 × 10−7 < nb < 2.7 × 10−7 ) cm−3 (95% CL)

100 h km s−1 Mpc−1 = h×(9.777 752 Gyr)−1

present day Hubble expansion rate

H0

‡

present day normalized Hubble expansion rate

h

0.72(3)

Hubble length

c/H0

0.925 063 × 1026 h−1 m = 1.28(5) × 1026 m

2.852 × 1051 h−2 m2 = 5.5(5) × 1051 m2

scale factor for cosmological constant

c2 /3H02

critical density of the Universe

ρc = 3H02 /8πGN

2.775 366 27 × 1011 h2 M Mpc−3

= 1.878 35(19) × 10−29 h2 g cm−3

= 1.053 68(11) × 10−5 h2 (GeV/c2 ) cm−3

‡

pressureless matter density of the Universe

Ωm = ρm /ρc

0.133(6) h−2 = 0.26(2)

Ωb = ρb /ρc

0.0227(6) h−2 = 0.044(4)

baryon density of the Universe‡

Ωcdm = Ωm − Ωb − Ων 0.110(6) h−2 = 0.21(2)

dark matter density of the universe‡

dark energy density of the ΛCDM Universe‡

ΩΛ

0.74(3)

dark energy equation of state parameter

w

−1.04+0.09

−0.10

CMB radiation density of the Universe

Ωγ = ργ /ρc

2.471 × 10−5 (T /2.725)4 h−2 = 4.8(4) ×10−5

neutrino density of the Universe‡

Ων

0.0005 < Ων h2 < 0.025 ⇒ 0.0009 < Ων < 0.048

Ωtot = Ωm + . . . + ΩΛ 1.006(6)

total energy density of the Universe‡

σ8

0.80(4)

ﬂuctuation amplitude at 8 h−1 Mpc scale‡

−1

‡

curvature ﬂuctuation amplitude, k0 = 0.002 Mpc

Δ2R

2.41(11) × 10−9

ns

0.96(1)

scalar spectral index‡

running spectral index slope, k0 = 0.002 Mpc−1 ‡

dns /d ln k

−0.04(3)

tensor-to-scalar ﬁeld perturbations ratio,

k0 = 0.002 Mpc−1 ‡

r = T /S

< 0.43 at 95% C.L.

z∗

1090(1)

redshift at decoupling‡

t∗

3.80(6) × 105 yr

age at decoupling‡

sound horizon at decoupling‡

rs (z∗ )

147(2) Mpc

zeq

3180 ± 150

redshift of matter-radiation equality‡

zreion

11.0 ± 1.4

redshift of reionization‡

‡

treion

430+90

age at reionization

−70 Myr

τ

0.09(2)

reionization optical depth‡

‡

t0

13.69 ± 0.13 Gyr

age of the Universe

**present day CMB temperature
**

present day CMB dipole amplitude

Solar velocity with respect to CMB

Local Group velocity with respect to CMB

entropy density/Boltzmann constant

number density of CMB photons

baryon-to-photon ratio‡

[2,3]

[2]

[2]

[2]

[2]

[2]

[2,29]

[2,3]

[2]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[27]

[24]

[28]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[2,3]

[2]

[22]

[2]

[2]

[23]

[14]

[24]

[2]

[25]

from η in [2]

from η in [25]

[26]

[2,3]

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2. Astrophysical constants 7

12:55

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**SUMMARY TABLES OF PARTICLE PROPERTIES
**

Extracted from the Particle Listings of the

**Review of Particle Physics
**

K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010)

Available at http://pdg.lbl.gov

c Regents of the University of California

(Approximate closing date for data: January 15, 2010)

γ

< × −

< × −

τ

− −

−

±

. ± .

− . ± .

· − − − . ± .

% .& ± .

!" #$

±

&.' ± .&

π

± . ± .

. ± .

. ± .

−

.

.

.

.

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4 ρ ..8 π− ω ω → π ..8.. π . − π π− ν − ν − − π π μ νμ ∗ π − μ νμ π − ν π − μ νμ ρ− ν . − π ∗ − π ∗ − → ∗ π ∗ → ∗ − π − → ∗ × − 6 × − 6 .63 ± . 0 × −6 .. < . ± . π .8 4. 4 0 × − 6 .4 .. π− π . ± ..3. − 6.4 E+" !+ /#.6.6.7 −2. π− π ..4 0 × −6 . .. 0 × − 4 < . 0 × − 4 .

− ρ ... 0 × − 6 63 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.67 8.7 π π − # π .. 8 ± .3 − π π .3 3 × − 7 *&975 8 × − 7 *&975 8 !9 3 44 837 0 × − 4 05 05 0 × − 6 4 † .66 63 . 0 5 3 . ∗ → π ∗ − ∗ → %% < .6 0 × − 6 † − 8 0 × − 7 8 . 8 3 4 33 !9 8 8 !9 4 0 × − 6 ± ... ∗ − → π− ∗ − π . − .3. 7 ∗ − → π− ∗ − π . π− → π .4 . 4 .4. 7 ± . ± .7 ∗ − → π − ∗ − π %% .36 ∗ − → π− ∗ − π . − ρ . 4 0 5 − .6 0 5 3 - . 3 3 .4 0 × −6 − .. − .7 0 5 ± . ρ → π π − − π − π − π ± .7 π π ∗ − π ∗ → %% < 6.3 ± . .4 74 ± . − . .7 0 5 4 *&95 *&95 8 !9 .6.8 0 × −4 − . 8 0 5 46 ± . 8 − . 3 12:16 8 0 × − 6 834 0 × − 4 0 × − 6 83 .3 π− → π .6. 3 ± . ± . 2010 12:16 . π− → π ∗ − π ..4 0 × −6 − . 0 × − 4 683 ± 4 0 × − 4 48 − ..

8 ± 6. 7 05 0 × − 6 87 4 .6 .7 ± . 7 83 8 8 0 × − 6 .8 ± .7 0 × − 6 . 38 *&95 38 3 6 .6. 3 0 × − 6 .6 0 × −6 ... 6 0 × − 6 44 - && 46 05 !9 6 6 .8 0 5 . ± . − . .6 05 0 × − 6 05 8 8 4 8 . 6 0 × − 6 87 .. 4 05 87 . ± . 3 .4.38 ± . ± . 8 05 63 . ± . 3 - .7. 3 0 × − 6 6 ± . ± .7. ± .. ± .8. 8 0 × − 4 × − 6 ..8 ± ± ..7 < . 8 0 × − 6 . . 3 0 × − 6 48 - . ± .7 0 × − 6 63 - . ± .4. . 3 − . 3 7. 4 ± .. ..8 ± . 0 × − 6 3 46 . − . 8 33 . .8.8.. ± . 6 . 44 ...7 .66 .8.7 0 5 − .6 . π → − π ∗ − π ∗ − → − π − π π # π ∗ π ∗ → π π # − π π − − π ρ ## − π ρ 2(+& ∗ ρ ∗ − π → − → π π − ∗ π − ## π ∗ − π → ∗ π − 2(+& π ∗ − π → − π − → − π π− − − π π # ∗ ∗ π π− π π− π η η → π π− π ω ω → π − − π π π ∗ π− π π ∗ − π → − π ω ω → π π− π ∗ ω ∗ − π → ω → π π− π ηπ → η π ∗ η ∗ → π π − π − ∗ ρ π π − ∗ − π− π ∗ − → π − ρ ∗ − ∗ ρ π − → − π π − # π − π π − 12:16 . 0 × − 6 0 × − 6 3 . 8 05 05 33 846 . ± . 4 ± . 7 0 × − 4 0 × − 6 6 6 ..6 ± .3 8 ± 0 × − 4 84 ± .. 8 ± . 8 0 5 .7. 7 ± .

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6 6. 7 . .4.. 8 ± .3 0 × −6 .6 . 0 × − 4 × − 4 ± .4.83 . .4 ± .7 ± . ± . 6 ± . .8 ± . 8 4. ± .6 0 × −6 .6.8. . .6. 4. 7 ± . 8 *&95 ± . . .8. 8 0 × − 6 ± . ± . 7 .7 0 × − 7 8 - .7 .4 ± . 7 ± . ± . 0 × −6 4. ± . 0 × −4 8 - ..4 0 × − 4 8 . ± . ± .3 0 × − 4 8 . 7 0 × − 6 48 38 44 3 36 37 83 87 374 763 ± . 7 0 × − 6 12:16 − π .7. .. ± ..7. ± ..44 ± .3.6 . 7 0 × − 6 ± .8 < - ± ± ± *&95 !9 3 8 . 7 !9 6 !97 3 3 !9 36 *&95 8 0 × − 6 × −4 *&95 36 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. .4.6. 7 ± .. .. 8 π− × − 4 < 8 < . 2010 12:16 . ± . 3 . $ − − π .8 .3 0 × − 4 − 4 − 6 − 6 E+" !+ /#. 0 × − 4 − 6 − 7 − 4 − 6 − 6 8 7 0× 0× 0× 0× 0× 8 8 8 8 0 × − 4 0 × − 4 0 × − 4 8 8 8 ± . 0 × − 4 8 .48 ± . 3 0 × − 4 . 7 × − 4 3.7 0 × −6 8 0 × − 4 8 - . 0 × ± ..7 0 × − 7 8 . 8. 8 ± . ρ π − ρ → π π ρ π ρ → π π− ρ− π ρ− → π− π π− π → π π− π → π π → π π− π → π π− π → π π− π → π π− π π − π # π π π− − → π π − π ## − → ρ π π 2/) − → ρ π π 2/) − → σ π π ρ ## ρ $ -"# ρ $$+"' -"# ρ *#'+ -"# B# π π− π π− 2(+& ## σ π π− π− → π π− π π− → π − π π − π π π η π ω π π π− π η π π− ω π π− π π− η π η π π − η η η ∗ ∗ → π− ∗ ∗ → . 8 .4 .67 0 × −4 6. 0 5 ± . 0 × − 4 ± .8 4. 0 × − 7 0 × − 4 0 × − 7 8 8 8 . ± .3 0× 0× ± . 8 < - . ± . .

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4 < 3.6 < . × − 7 × − 8 × − 8 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 4 × − 7 × − 4 × − 3 × − 7 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 4 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 6 6 8 7 7 6 33 4 374 38 37 3 874 3 86 88 7 8 3 3 86 4 4 383 384 374 84 86 4 3 4 4 8 3 3 4 374 88 88 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.76 < .3 < 6. < .36 < . < . < 7. < . ) < .7 < 4.8 − . < . < . < 6. 7 < . 6 < 6. 6 < 6. < . < .8 < 6.4 < . < . 6 < 6. < . 3 < . 0 × × −4 *&95 × −4 *&95 < 4 < 4 μ− &#-* ) γγ 12:16 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( * * < . < .7 < . 7 < 7.6 < 4. < 6.8 < . < .8 < 6.7 < .7 < 4. < 7. < .. < 6. < 7. < . 2010 12:16 . < . 3 < .4 < . < . π π − π π − ) − μ μ− π − π μ μ− η − η μ μ− π π− − ρ − π π − μ μ− ρ μ μ− ω − ω μ μ− − − φ − − μ μ− φμ μ− − − μ μ − π − ∗ − − π μ μ− ∗ − μ μ π π − π μ μ− μ± ∓ π ± μ∓ η ± μ∓ π π − ± μ∓ ρ ± μ∓ ω ± μ∓ − ± μ∓ φ ± μ∓ ± μ∓ − π ± μ∓ ∗ ± μ∓ π− "" π− μ "" − π − "" − π − μ "" − "" − μ "" π − π − μ "" − π − μ "" − μ "" & − 6 8 C /1 '# "'# !+ %$# !& '!( )#* !+ %$# K& % '!( )#* !+ & . < . −4 .

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8 ± . 7 0 × − 4 E+" !+ /#-'# = π π π π− ρ π π π π − −2.3 ± . ± .0 × 6 . 8 0 × . ± .83 ± .4 ± . 6 0 5 . ± . 8 0 5 .7 ± . 8 ± .80 5 .84 ± . 0 × . 4 ± 6.0 5 . 0 5 7 .0 5 . 0 5 .4 − . 4 0 5 : 836 84 4 † ± 3 0 × − 4 .4 ± .78 ± . 7 ± . 8 ± . ± .6 0 × : . 8 × − 4 8 . .88 ± . 0 × : . ± . ± . 7 0 5 .630 5 . $ − π φπ φπ φ → − ∗ ∗ → − π → − π → − π π → − ∗ ∗ → − π π ∗ − π π - - φρ − π ∗ ∗ π π− − π π − φ π π − − ρ π 2φ < φρ π φ → − φ φ → − → ρ π − π π − # π π− - . 6 0 × − 6 *&95 8 × − 4 836 88 *&95 . ± 6. ± .0 5 7 3 3 4 8 36 : 7. ± . 0 5 7 5 . ± . η ν η ν η ν η ν ν ∗ ν ν → π π− - 6. 6 0 × − 6 3 . 80 5 .60 × 8 − 6 − 6 − 6 − 6 !9 37 3 8 E+" !+ /#. 3 0 × . 0 5 86 34 3 . 3 0 5 4 . 8 0 × − 6 . ± . 6 0 × − 6 . ± . 8 0 × − 6 4 3 344 < < - 8 4 344 . ± . ± . 6 0 × 6. ± . ± . 0 × 8. 6 ± . 0 × − 4 . 7 0 5 6 . 8 ± .

6 ± . 2010 12:16 .77 ± .8 ± . 80 5 .660 × −6 . 40 5 . 4 0 × − 6 − 6 − 4 − 6 − 6 − 6 *&95 37 7 7 7 77 4 8 67 34 8 78 388 346 6 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. → π π− π ρ π ρ → π π − π π π π− π η π ω π π π− π π− π η ρ η π π 2(+& ω π π π π− π ω π π − η π π π− π 7 7. 4 ± .7 ± .30 5 4 . 4 0 5 . ± . 7 ± . 70 5 . 4 0 × − 6 .3 ± .

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CP % → ∗ − . ± . ± . CP % → χ − . ± . CP % → : π π − π . δB % → ∗ ± +* → : − π . ± . CP % *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ± . CP % → : − π . CP % → − . ± . ± . ± . ± . − . ± . ± . CP % → CP % CP - 0 . ± . ∗ − . ± . ± . π − . ± . ± . δ ∗B % → ∗ ± +* → ∗ CP % CP - 0 − . ± . ± . ± . CP % → χ − . CP % CP -− 0 → ∗ π − . ± . ± . π . ± . ± . CP % → CP - 0 ∗ . CP % − . CP % → CP -− 0 ∗ − . ∗ CP % → CP -− 0 . ± . 2010 12:16 . → CP % π CP -− 0 → . CP % B % → . CP % → ∗ . − . CP % → χ ∗ . CP % → ∗ ∗ − . ± . → : − π . ∗B % → ∗ . . δB % → ± +* B % → ∗ . CP % → π − . ± . → − . → ∗ − . . ± . ± . CP % → D ∗ CP % CP - 0 π − . ∗ CP % → DCP -− 0 π − . CP % → CP % CP - 0 π .

. ± . − .66 η ∗ − . ± . ∗ π . . ± . ω . η ∗ − . η . η ∗ . ∗ π − . ω π ∗ − . − . 3 . π . ± . ± . ± . . ± . ± .4 η − . π − π . ω ∗ .7 − . % → % → → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → % → % → % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % → CP % CP CP π . ± .4 . ± . − . ± . ± . ± . ω ∗ . ± . η ∗ . ± . − .

± . ± . − . ± . φ ∗ − . − . ± . ± . . ± . ± . 2010 12:16 . ± . ∗ ρ − . − . . ± . φ ∗ − . φ − . . ± . ± . ± . − π . ∗ π . . 3 π . φ π ∗ . ± . − . ± . ρ π . − . ± . ± .4 −8 ρ − . ± . − . ± . ± . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. . π π − π . φ γ − . ± . ρ . π π . ± . ± . − − . & ( π . φ . × ∗ − π π . ∗ γ . ± . ∗ π . ± . η γ − . ± . & ( γ . ρ ∗ ∗ − . ρ γ − . ± . ± . ± . ∗ − . ± .

μ μ− − . ± . 4 ρ π − . ± . 8 ρ π . ∗ − − . ± . ∗ − − . − . & & π . ± . % % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % γ % → CP CP 12:16 . ± . η π . η ρ . ∗ − μ μ − . ± . ± . . ± . − . π . ± . ± .6 π π − π # − . ± . − . ∗ & & . ± . ± . η ρ . -∗0 -∗0 ± ◦ → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → * − . ± . ± . η π − . & & − . ± . 7 π . ± . − − . ω ρ − . ρ ρ − . ± . ± . ω π − .

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83 ± . 7 ± .3 .4. 7 05 05 05 0 × − 6 05 05 0 × − 6 0 × − 6 .6 0 × −6 6 7 6 68 8 !9 87 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.. ... 4 ± . /. 7 ± . . ν &#-* ν ν τ τ ∗ ν ∗ ν τ τ − π ν ∗ ∗ → ν × K − π ∗ ∗ ν × K → − π . 2010 12:16 .6 . 0 5 ± . 3 ± . . ..%/0 -.0 !$#" + $#" !+ ν &#-* ν .8 .7 - 8 8 8 ± . ±4 ± .7.. . ± ..

7 8 8 8 8 8 8 ∗ !+ - - - - 87 4.3 . - . × < D"') !+ −.6 ± . 4 0 × ± .3 0× 0× 0× .66 0 × −4 . − . 2010 12:16 .3 - 7. : − π . 0 5 . 8 . ± . 3 05 05 05 ± . 4 0 × − 6 6 . × . - ( - . 4 < . - - -− π ρ 0π 0π - 0 -− 0 : − π . ± . π : π− .4 . - − . - 7. . − .4 − . .78 . ± . − ∗ ∗ CP -− 0 ∗ CP - 0 ± .6 . 8 - - 12:16 − 7 − 7 − 7 − 4 − 4 − 6 − 8 − 8 0 × − 4 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 !9 6 *&95 *&95 *&95 86 8 776 7 76 483 84 86 *&95 *&95 *&95 64 84 84 86 !9 7 8 8 8 8 8 ± . 0 5 ±8 05 ±4 ± .8 0 5 8. × . ± . 0 5 6. .. . 7 ± . − .7 × − 3 ± . 6 ± .64 ± . 0 × 7. : π− . .6 0 5 . ± . 3 . 8 .7 ± .8 ± .6 . 7 0 × −6 . - − . 8 7.3 0 × −4 63 < < - . . 4. − 4 − 8 − 4 − 4 0 × − 4 ± . − .6 0 5 .4 3. - ( . 0 5 3 ±4 05 .4 ± .3 .6 ± . 8 0 × − 6 6.8 ± . ± . 8 8 *&95 *&95 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 8 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.. 0 × −6 74 4 - .3 0 × − 6 8 - < < < < . 0 × ± . ± . 6.8 . 4 × − 7 0 × − 3 0× 0× ± . 4 8.3 0 × −6 3. ± . 3 6.7 .8 0 × −4 . π : π π − π . -∗0 π ν ≥ ∗− π ν → ν × K ∗ π − → ν × K ∗ π − ∗ π − ∗ ν × K ∗ → π ν η ν η ν ω ν ρ ν ν && ν μ νμ τ ντ ν γ ν γ μ νμ γ . 7 . 4 0 × − 6 . 3 0 × . 8 0 × − 4 ± . ± . 0 5 ..

2010 ∗ π π π− π π − # π ρ π ωπ ∗ − π π − π π ∗ π ∗ CP - 0 π ∗ CP -− 0 π ∗ ω π ∗ ρ ∗ ∗ CP - 0 ∗ CP -− 0 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ π π− π ∗ ∗ − π π π π ∗ π π − ∗ π ∗ ∗ − π π π ∗ − π π π− π ∗∗ π ∗ π - π × K → π− π ∗ π × K ∗ → − π ∗ π ∗ × K → − π π × K → ∗− π ∗ π ∗ × K → ∗− π π × K → ∗− π ×K → π ∗ π π − ∗ ρ ∗ π ∗ ×K ∗ → π ∗ π π − ∗ ρ .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

− 6 ± .8 *&95 *&95 78 6 68 8 8 77 7 67 3 8 !9 6 - .3 . 3 0 × − 6 - 7 4. ± . 4 0 5 7 .3 0 × − 6 7 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 4 ± . ± .4 0 × − 4 - 8. 3 . 8 0 × − 6 < < < < - . ± . 8 ± . 8 0 × − 4 - 6. 7 ± . 4 0 × − 6 . 6 0 × − 6 . − 6 ± . ± . ± . 2010 12:16 . < - × − 8 *&95 × − 6 × − 6 *&95 8 *&95 8 *&95 8 *&95 37 × − 7 × − 6 4. 4 ±4 0× 05 0× 0× 0× 0× 0× 0× − 6 − 6 − 6 ± .67 . - . .4 . 7 ± . ± . 7 ± . 7 0 × − 4 8 - 7.3 7. 7 − .6 < . 0 × − 6 4. ± . − 4 3 3 6 8 43 3 78 3. 0 5 . 4 4. .4 < . 4 0 × − 4 8 - 8. - − 6 − 6 − 4 − 4 - .8 ± .67 0 × ± . 0 × − 6 6. 7. 3 0 5 . 4 .6 ± . 4 0 × − 6 7 . 7 0 5 .7 0 × − 4 8 - .3 *&95 8 8 4 3 8 8 ± . ± .8 0 × −6 ± .66 0 × −4 - 0 × − 4 × − 6 .7 ± . . ± . ±4 0× 0× ± . 3 ± . 12:16 ± 6.7 . 8 × − 8 . 0 × − 4 8 < 8 < . × − 8 . 7 ± . 4 0 × ± . .7 − 6 × − 8 ± .6 ± .

. 6 ± . 0 × − 6 3 .3 0 × − 4 × − 4 3.3 - .7 ± . 8 .8 - . 3 0 × − 4 443 - 7. . × − 6 4 . ± . 0 × − 4 443 . ± . 8 0 × − 6 8 8 - . 3 0 × − 4 8.4 . 6 . ± . × − 4 *&95 8 - . 4 0 × − 4 . 3 × − 4 *&95 8 < . ± . − . 8 < × − 4 *&95 68 < 7 × − 4 *&95 68 - 3. 3 − .6 5 6 . 7 < . ± . 0 × − 6 8 - 4.3 - .4 0 × 8 0 × − 4 66 - 6.6 0 5 - . 3 ± . × − 6 7 . ± . 8 0 × − 6 . 6 − .8 ± .8 −6 .3 < < < < - 0 × − 6 0 × − 6 364 363 ± . 6 ± . ± . × − 4 *&95 8 < . − . 0 × − 6 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 3 6 3 3 88 73 3 434 438 68 733 4 4 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ± . ± . × K → π × K → ∗ γ ∗ × K → π sJ × KsJ → γ sJ × KsJ → π π− sJ × KsJ → π sJ × KsJ → ∗ γ ∗ sJ ∗ sJ × KsJ → γ × K → ∗ ∗ × K → ∗ × K → ∗ sJ × KsJ → ∗ × K → ∗ ∗ × sJ KsJ → ∗ sJ × KsJ → sJ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ -∗0 ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 12:16 < 3. ± .3 ± .8 0 × −6 6. × − 6 8 . 8 87 *&95 87 - ±3 0 × − 4 - 6.4 0 5 87 8 05 0 × − 4 . 2010 12:16 .8 0 × − 4 66 - .6 0 × − 4 8 − . 7 0 × − 4 6 .

< 4 < 4 < 8 . < < < 4 < 6. 7 7 < 3 × − 4 × − 4 × − 6 × − 6 × − 8 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 × − 6 × − 6 . ± . 7 ± . → − . ∗ ∗ - − − ∗ < < ∗ − ∗ < ∗ − - ∗ ∗ - π ∗ π η ∗ η ρ ∗ ρ ω ∗ ω ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ − π ∗− π − ∗ π ∗− ∗ π − ∗− η η .47 ± . 8 < 4 < 8 < 6. → . ∗ . 4 .8 × − 4 × − 4 < - × K. < . 8 ± .7 < 0 × − 6 × − 4 × − 4 0 × − 6 × − 6 . < - ∗ η /ψ π π− /ψ × K . → /ψ γ × K. 0 × −4 .-!'! !+ - < < < < 05 0 × − 7 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 .6 < . → π− /ψ π × K. ± . < . × K. . × K. → /ψ γ . × K. × K. ∗ . → ∗ . → . 4 ± . π × K.4 0 × −4 < - ± . → ψ γ × K. → ψ γ . .

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− . . 6.3 ± .6 0 × . π− /ψ π 7. 7 . .6 4 3 .7 ± . 6.640 × .7 . ± . 0 × 6. 8 0 × 6 . 4 × . 2010 12:16 . 4. 4 0 × − 4 - . . ± . 4 ± .8 0 × − 7 × − 7 ± . 68 73 437 437 686 *&95 8 3 *&95 7 *&95 67 *&95 3 *&95 3 *&95 6 *&95 7 *&95 68 *&95 3 *&95 4 *&95 4 *&95 3 *&95 4 *&95 4 *&95 3 *&95 84 *&95 6 *&95 38 4 *&95 376 − 6 84 − 4 − 6 − 6 − 8 !9 *&95 6 86 8 4 × − 4 0 × − 8 *&95 !9 6 4 4 0 × −8 × − 8 *&95 4 6 0 × −8 × − 7 *&95 4 6 × − 7 × − 7 *&95 *&95 4 4 4 !9 4 4 - ± .7 . 3 .4 ± . 0 × . 8 0 × − 7 < *&95 *&95 − 4 8. 4. . < 12:16 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 7 ± .

× K. × K. × K. → /ψ π . ∗ /ψ /ψ /ψ /ψ η /ψ η /ψ φ # /ψ ω /ψ π /ψ ρ π # /ψ π /ψ /ψ & ( /ψ ) & /ψ /ψ π ψ π ψ ψ ∗ ψ π π − ψ ψ × Kψ → ψ × Kψ → − χ π ×Kχ → π π − χ . → /ψ η → . × K. → . → /ψ γ . π /ψ π . → /ψ γ . → ψ π × K. π− /ψ π × K. × K.

. 7 . !+ . 4 ± . × −7 × −8 *&95 *&95 8 8 . 4 !9 8 !9 - .66 − .66 − . 3 × − 8 *&95 < . × 4 . ± 6. 8 0 × − .7 8. 6. 3. 0 × − 8 73 6 6 7 36 3 6 33 8 3 3 4 7 783 8 3 887 643 4 7 3 76 64 463 63 3 48 4 87 4 8 4 8 7 7 43 0 × − 8 0 × − 7 0 × − 7 0 × − 8 4 43 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 ± . 4 0 × ± 6. < × × − 3 × − 7 < < < < − 7 − 4 − 7 − 7 − 8 − 6 −7 − 7 − 4 − 7 − 7 − 4 − 4 − 6 − 4 − 4 − 7 − 3 .66 0 × ± .8 6.7 × − 7 *&975 8 < 4. - × − 4 ± .4 . 4 × ± . . × − 7 *&95 8 < . 7. 4 . 0 × − 7 ± . × < . . 0× 0× ± . −4 . 8 × − 4 0 × − 7 0 × − 4 0 × − 4 × − 7 *&95 *&95 !9 !9 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 !9 *&95 η ∗ η - η ∗ η ∗ η ∗ - ± .8 4.66 0 × −4 × − 7 < .3 ± . 6 × .46 .66 . 6. 0 × ± .8 0 × −7 ± .6 . . 7 . ± .6 ± . 4 ± . 3. × − 7 *&975 8 < . × × ± . 3 × − 7 *&975 8 < .8 . < < < < < - ± . . 8 . ± .48 8.7 0 × −7 - 0× < - ∗ 0× 0× 0× 0× . . 4 ± . χ ∗ χ π ×Kχ → π π − < 3. 7 . . 4 ± . . 7 0 × ± . 6 .6 0 × ± .7 4. 7. 4 .

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2010 12:16 . ∗ 12:16 !9 4 7 764 8 4 4 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 η × Kη → η π π η × Kη → η π π η × Kη → ∗ η × Kη → ∗ × K → η π π × K → ∗ φ × Kφ → ∗ - . 12:16 .

× − 8 *&95 47 . . 0 × - 48 < < . .6 − . × − 8 × − 8 *&95 *&95 47 4 < 4. × − 8 *&95 4 < 6. −7 . 3 477 0 × − 8 < .6 × − 8 *&95 47 < . − . 4 × − 8 *&95 644 0 × − 8 × − 8 0 × − 7 0 × − 7 !9 *&95 773 76 ω ω ∗ ω π ∗ ω ∗ ω ∗ → ×K η π ×K → η π ∗ π ∗ π π− π π − π # ω × π π− K → × K → π π− ρ × Kρ → π π− × K → .

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86 − . 7 . ± . . ± . . 8 . < . 4 × − 8 *&95 6 7.3 ± . 3 × − 7 *&95 8 - 3 ±7 0 × − 3 8 < 4. 8 ± . 4 . 3 . . 4 0 × − 7 × − 8 6. ± . ± . − .7 ∗ 8 8 < - ± . 4 × − 8 *&95 6 < 6. .3 3. 7 . π π− × K → π π− × K → π π− ρ ± .3 0 × −8 .3 .3 × − 7 - 4.4 - ∗ - π ± . 8.7 0 × − 8 0 × − 7 77 !9 7 0 × − 8 × − 7 × − 7 × − 3 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 447 447 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 44 67 8 8 44 47 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 7 8 ± .4 − . 2010 12:16 .8 π π *&95 8 8 - π π 8 *&95 π ∗ π ∗ π − π π − π π # 6 *&95 . 7 7. 4 < 6.3 - < < < < < < < < 4. - 8 . 6. 8 0 × − 7 0 × − 8 0 × − 7 78 78 8 0 × − 7 8 0 × − 8 773 0 × − 8 74 < . − . 4 7. 8 4. 7 - . 7 × − 8 - .

6 3 . 3 0 × − 8 × − 3 < .6 ± . 7 8. < ± . 3. < < < < < 0 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 . 0 × − 8 × − 7 × − 7 . < . × − 7 . 7 < . 8 0 × − 8 ± . 4 − . < < < < 7. .86 < 4. < 8. . × − 8 *&95 77 778 74 48 8 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 74 63 6 8 8 8 *&95 76 73 7 *&95 733 *&95 *&95 *&95 73 73 74 4 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 73 73 74 44 74 7 7 8 74 *&95 !9 4 < . 3. 6 0 × − 8 ± .3 0 × −8 . . 3 0 × − 8 × − 7 × − 8 × − 8 . 3 < - ± . . 4 × − 7 . 0 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 ± . 6 ± .7 0 × − 8 0 × − 7 × − 8 ± . 7 0 × − 7 ± .3 × − 7 . × − 8 6.8 ± . < 7. 8 - . × − 8 *&95 6 - 4.4 ± .6 - - 8. 6 0 × − 7 × − 3 7. 0 × − 8 ± . ρ ∗ π π − ∗ ρ ∗ × K → ω π ∗ ρ ρ ∗ ρ × K → ω π ∗ × K → ω π ∗ × K → ω π π π − π − π # ∗ ∗ π− π − # ∗ π − ∗ ∗ ∗ π − − φ × K → − × K → − × K → − × K. 7 ± . 0 × −7 . - 6. ± . 0 × − 8 ± . 2010 12:16 . → . 6. 6.7 644 66 !966 7 !9 3 488 48 *&95 *&95 8 637 66 8 8 66 *&95 *&95 8 8 0 × − 8 !9 68 × − 7 *&95 66 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 7 0 × − 8 8. 7 0 × − 8 × − 4 × − 6 . 8 0 × − 8 - . 4.3 - . 3 0 × − 7 ± . < < < . 3. − φ × Kφ → − × K → − − # ∗ − ∗ φ φ π ∗ φ φ φ ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ 12:16 - . ± .68 ± . 7. 0 × − 7 − .7 < .8 × − 3 . 8 *&95 0 × − 8 - φφ η η ± .7 - . 3 0 × − 8 . 8 .63 ± . 7 ± . × − 8 *&95 44 < 4.

± . 6. 7 0 × ± . < . 7 0 × − 7 × − 7 ± . 8 − . 6 3. 3 − . 7 .4 × − 8 *&95 8 < < 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 4. 3 0× 0× ± .7 . 7 0 × − 8 ± .3 − 7 − 7 − 8 − 7 − 8 − 8 − 8 - .38 # < < < < . 0 × . 7. !9 4 *&95 76 868 86 7 743 0 × − 8 44 0 × − 8 464 < 4. 6. × . 0 × ± . × − 4 − 7 − 6 − 7 − 8 - .6 0 × ± . 8 86 *&95 − 8 4 × − 3 × − 8 × − 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 76 4 < . < × − 8 × −3 ± . 0 × − 7 ± . × . 8 . 4 0 × 4. 0 × − 8 × − 8 . 4 0 × − 7 *&95 *&95 ± .4 ± . × − 8 *&95 8 *&95 *&95 86 7 8 76 4 !9 !9 44 44 7 7 8 776 77 - 7. 0 × −7 . 6. - . 4 . ± . × − 6 × − 7 × − 6 *&95 !9 12:16 634 8 784 48 7 7 7 8 8 78 *&95 *&95 *&95 77 8 8 476 443 *&95 *&95 68 64 *&95 44 %*-# 'O)+ ! !+ ρ γ π π π π π− ρ π π × K → π π− π ρ π × Kρ → π π− ×K → π π π− π ×K → π π− π π − π # π π π ρ π π π− π π ρ ρ ρ ×K → π π− π π ω π ω ρ η π η ρ η π η ρ φπ φρ π ×K → η π π × K → ηπ < - . 4.3 3 . 4. 4 6. .8 .8 . ω φ < . 4. . 0 × − 6. 0 × ± . 2010 12:16 .7 . < × K. 8 0 × − 8 ± . × − 8 *&95 48 < 4. 6 0 × − 7 0 × − 8 × − 8 ± . 3 0 × − 7 − .7 . → ω φ ∗ γ γ η γ η γ φ γ π− π γ ρ γ π− π γ π γ π γ ∗ γ ∗ γ ∗ γ 6 ∗ γ 4 - . .7 4.7 − . 7 0 × − 3 ± . 8 . 4 0 × − 7 ± . 7.3 < < < ± . 0 × − 8 .6 . 0 × 4. 8 × − 7 × − 8 ± .6 . < .4 ± .3 .4 < ∗ π γ - .

× − 3 *&95 67 . ! π # &&π < & × K.6 < 6. 6 × − 4 × − 4 ± . & & . π π π π− π− ρ ρ × K → ω π π π × K → ω π π π π π− π− π ρ × K → ω π < < < - → ω π ρ × K . 3. 6 7. 7 &( π - 6. < < 4. < . & ) / ( < < γ π− & (π & (ρ < &) π - (( (( ∗ < - / & & / && ∗ & & − ( &π − ( / − ( /.8 < 3. γ - . × − 8 × − 7 *&95 *&95 6 64 × − 3 *&95 7 × − 3 *&95 46 < < - 6. 3 < 6. → & × K → . 3 < 6. 6 < < 8. 8 8.7 . & & & ( # && ∗ & & ∗ × K → .-*+ $#" ± !+ ± 9 " ± π ± π - ω - . 8. × − 4 0 × − 8 × − 8 × − 6 × − 8 5 × − 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 8 466 4 8 8 *&95 *&95 7 *&95 *&95 667 8 8 .

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4. 0 × . ± . 8 0 × − 8 . 7 − .6 − . 0 × − 8 0 × − 8 46 0 × − 8 4 × − 3 × − 3 × − 8 0 × − 8 0 × − 8 0 × − 8 × − 3 ± .4 . 3 . − . 4 6 . 6 × − 7 7 .7 × − 7 . × − < &( & ( 868 K& !+ && && . −8 . × − 7 7. .8 < < < < < 4. − . 3 0 × − 7 − .8 ± . ± .6 8 7 *&95 *&95 *&95 ± . ± . 8 7.7 × − 7 .6 × − 8 . - 4.3 ± .4 × − 3 . (− & s π 8 *&95 !9 7 *&95 &( (( 7 *&95 .4 0 × − 4. . 8 . - 46 46 64 0 × − 7 0 × − 7 0 × − 7 *&95 68 8 4 6 683 4 8 67 7 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 4 4 8 38 *&95 8 8 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. × 7 . 3 . 0 × − 4 . 8 ± . 7 0 × − 8 . 2010 12:16 . 3 − .8 - 6. 0 × −8 7.3 −7 . ± . ± . 4 . 4.

) ) & & - .7 4. .7 . . 4 8. 3 ± .77 − .6 . 6 . 8 ± . .3 ± .3 0 × −8 × − 7 8. 6 . 8 − . - . 3. 6.6 . < × − 8 0 × − 7 0 × − 6 0 × − 6 ± . 7 - ± . × − × − ± . . 3 < − π ( &π − π π− ( &π − π π− π ( &π − ( ( ) & < & π − π ) & π −− & π π ) − − ( / ( & π → * π− * ( × K* → ( π− * ( × K* ) ± . ± .4 .3 ± 6. 7.3 .6 . 3 ± . 8 6 . 7 7. . 4 . 7. 2010 12:16 .6 - . - 6 . .64 5 - . 8 . 6 4.4 . . 6 0 × .6 .8 . 3 . ± . 8. 7 ± . 8 7.4 . 6. 4 × − 6 × − 6 × − 3 × − × − 3 × − × − 7 × − 8 × − 3 × − 3 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 86 86 864 86 8 3 8 3 8 8 3 76 784 784 78 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 784 863 863 863 8 7 8 7 8 7 786 786 786 86 864 863 76 73 7 8 3 8 8 7 784 78 786 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. .4 4.4 −8 . 6 ± . ± . × − × − 4 0 × − 3 0 × − 3 0 × − 3 × − 7 × − 4 0 × − 8 . . . 0 × − 4 0 × − 7 0 × − 4 0 × − 4 0 × − 4 × − 4 0 × − 7 0 × − 7 *&95 12:16 4 8 67 *&95 8 6 8 47 47 8 *&95 44 !9 44 %$# !& '!( %$# '!( )#* !+ C% /1 '# "'# % !+ π − π − π μ μ− π ν ν − − μ μ− νν ρ ν ν ∗ − ∗ − *( ∗ − μ μ *( ∗ ν ν *( π μ− π − μ π ± μ∓ μ− − μ ± μ∓ μ± τ ∓ ∗ μ− ∗ − μ ∗ ± μ∓ π− π − μ μ π − μ ρ− ρ− μ μ ρ− μ − − μ μ *( *( *( *( *( *( *( *( *( *( − μ ∗ − ∗ − μ μ ∗ − μ < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 4.4 .

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6 ∗ CP % → π − . . CP % → π − − . → ∗ π π − . ± . ± . → ∗ − . ± . − . CP % → η ∗ − . ± . × −8 CP % → η ∗ . → π ∗ π − . CP % → ∗ − . CP % → η ∗ . % → − . 2010 12:16 . ± . CP % → φ ∗ − . CP % . % → ω ∗ − . CP % → − . CP % → φ π ∗ . ± . CP % → π ∗ π − . CP % *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ± . ± . ± . CP % → η ∗ . ± . ± . → π − π # . × −6 ! / . ± . CP % → ∗ π − − . ± . ± . ± . CP % → ∗ ρ . CP % → ∗ − π . CP % → π − π ± × − CP % − CP % → ρ . ± . CP % → ω ∗ . CP % → − − . % → ω π ∗ − . ± . ± . ± . ± . ± . ± . CP % − . ± . ± . )# $!# B* * − . ± . CP % → ∗ φ .8 − CP % → π π − . ± .

→ ± π ∓ − . → ∗ γ − . ± . ± ./ψ. ± . ± .3 % − . − . ∗− % → ∗ − − . % % → ρ − . → ∗ − − . ± . − % → − − . − % . − % → ∗ ∗ − ./ψ. ± . ± . η " % → η . ± . → π − . ± . ± . ± . ± . ± . ± . η " % → η − . " π η -70 " % → η − . ± . ± . ± . ± . ± . η -70 " % → η . % → π . ± . ± . ρ " . ± . 2010 12:16 . ± . ± . % → ω − . -∗0 CP -∗0 CP − . 12:16 → ρ π − . 0 π % → ∗ % → ∗ % → CP CP /ψ π − . % % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP % CP CP . ± . " → − . ± . ∗ − % → ∗ ∗− − . % → ∗ ∗ − . ∗− % → ∗ − − . → & ( π − . → π π . " → − . " π % → π . . % ω " % → π π . ± . − % → ∗ ∗− − . % " " % → . ± . − . ∗ − % → ∗ − − . ± . ± . → ρ− π − . → ∗ − . ± . % → ∗ ∗− − . ± . ± . ± . ± . % → ∗ ∗− . → ∗ γ − . ± . ∗ ∗− % → ∗ ∗− . ± . ± . ± . 0 π % → /ψ π − . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ∗ ∗− % → ∗ ∗− − . ± . → ∗ μ μ− . ± . → & & ∗ . ω " → ω . 3 % → ρ . ρ " % → . ± . ± . % → − − . → ∗ − − .

± . ± . → ρ γ − . ± . π π − # . % → π− − . ± . ρ π % → ρ π . ± . ± . % π π → ρ π − . ± . ± . ± . " π γ " π γ % → π γ − . ± . ± . % " "− " % → − "') − . ± . − ρ ρ % → ρ ρ − . ρ π % → ρ π − . ± . % " " % → % → ρ γ − . . % → $ % → $ " " " π π− " π π− − . Cρ π % → ρ π− − . ± . ± . ρ π % → ρ π . ∗ ∗ " γ % → γ − . 2010 12:16 . % → % → % → . − ρρ % → ρ ρ ∗ −. ± . ± . π % → π− . " " % → − . η " γ % → η γ − . ± . − . ± . ∗ ∗ " γ % → γ − . ± . ± . % → ρ γ . ± . ± . ± . ± . ρ π % Cρ π % → ρ π− . π π % → π π − . ± . ± . C π % → π− − . ρ ρ % → ρ ρ . φ" % → φ . ± . ± . ± . " "− " % → φ − . ± .% A π π *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. . ± . ± . ± . − . " " " % → − . φ" → − . " " − " % → − "') . ± . % → π π− − . ρ ρ % → ρ ρ . ± . " "− " → − − . π π − # − . ± . % C % → − π − . ± . π C π % → π− . λ % → /ψ < . . ± . ± . " " " % % → π γ . ± . → π π − − . → − − . % → ρ γ . η " γ % → η γ − . ± .

8 " β % → : π π− . ± . ± . − . ± . ∗ . − − / % → ∗− π − . ± . . . ± . " ∗ % → β . ± . 4 χ " χ " % → χ − . ± . ± . η " -∗0 ./ψ " ∗ % → /ψ . − / % → − π − . % → η . . ± . ± ./ψ " ∗ % → /ψ . ± . ± . − . ± .3 − / % → ∗− π − . − − / % → − ρ − . ∗ . ∗ . − / % → − ρ − . χ " β. η " % → η . 7 % → χ − ./ψ-!0 " % → /ψ . − − / % → − π − . − . ± . ± . % → χ . 3 " β % → /ψ ∗ . ± . × . − . 12:16 . ± ./ψ-!0 " % → /ψ − .

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0 5 . 8 0 × − 6 - − . 0 5 5 6 73 63 6 8 ± 05 ± . 6 ± . 4 ± 05 05 05 05 . .. . . − π − ρ . ± 6. ± . 6 ± . 0 × − 6 .8 ± 3. 83 - .6 − .8 ± 6. 0 × . 7 0 5 4 .43 ± . . . −.7 ± 7 . ± . 8 0 × . ± . 0 × 6.660 × −4 . .68. 60 × . 7 ± . ± 8 .7 .0 × −6 78 - 6. 7 0 × .0 × −4 − π − ∗ − ω π − − − ∗ π π− ∗ − π − π π π− − π π π− # − π ρ − ∗ − π π ∗ − ∗ − ρ !9 6 !9 !93 *&95 < . ± .64 ± . 0 × . ± . ± . 8 5 *&95 < 6. ± .38 ± . − .43. 7 0 × − 6 - . ± 8. 3 0 × . 6 ± . ± . 4 0 5 7. 12:16 *&95 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 68 67 7 4 3 3 6 77 3 3 8 43 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. − . ± 4. 4 ± . 3 ± .4 < 6. ± . . ± .7 ± . 0 × − 6 .6 0 × . . *&95 - < - . 8 - D"') !+ ± &#-* . 0 × − 6 − 6 − 4 − 4 − 6 − 4 − 4 − 4 − 4 − 6 − 6 − 6 − 6 − 6 . ν &#-* − ν − τ ν τ ∗ − ν ∗ − ν τ τ − ν π ∗ − ν × K ∗− → π− ∗ − ν × ∗− → π− K -∗0 π ν ≥ ∗ π − ν − ν × ∗ π − K − → − ν × K − → ∗ π − ∗ − ν × ∗ − K ∗− → π ρ− ν π − ν ( ( . 2010 12:16 . - . . ± 6.7 ± 8. 0 × − 6 8 - .7 0 5 ∗ !+ - . 0 × − 6 . ± . 7 0 5 . ± . 0 5 . 7 . ± . 80 × −4 83 76 86 ± 6. 60 × . 6 0 × . 8 0 × × . 0 5 .8 ± 4. 8 0 × − 6 6 . 6 0 5 5 8 8 ± .3 . 0 5 .4. 0 × . 7 0 5 4 . .

4 *&95 76 4.3 ± . 8 0 × − 6 7 0 × − 6 8 6. 7 × − 7 *&95 < .4 ± - − π − π − π K → π −× K → ∗ γ ∗ − × K → π − sJ 8 *&95 84 × − 7 . −4 . ± . ± . 6 < *&95 12:16 - . 0 × . 6 × .. 7 < - . ± . 8 0 × − 6 36 . 7 0 × − 6 - 7. 6 0 × 3 . 8 37 .6 ± 4. ± 6. ± 6. 6 0 × !9 7 8 × − 4 *&95 8 - × − 4 . 40 5 4.30 5 . ± 4.38 ± 4.67 0 × −7 8 8 - 8 . 7 ± .660 × −6 .33 ± .30 5 . < ∗ − ∗ ∗ − π π π− 2 # ∗ − ρ π ∗ − ∗ − π π− π π ∗− π π − ∗ − ω π ω × K → ∗− π - 6. ± 3. 7 ± . × − 6 − 7 *&95 33 < < 4. 0 × *&95 *&95 !9 8 34 84 - .6 ± . 8 0 × − 4 × − 4 .8 0 × - . 4 0 × − 7 3 < . − 4 − 4 − 6 0 × − 6 367 .670 × −4 − π − 6 7 77 6 3 67 67 - - !9 6 7 8 7 4 6. 0 × − 6 . 4 × − 7 *&95 8 < 4. 3 ± . × . × − 8 *&95 8 < 6. 2010 12:16 .6 × − 7 × − 4 *&95 < *&95 834 < . 3 − 6. ± - 3. 0 × − 4 . ± 84 . − 6. 0 × − 7 < . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 4 × − 8 *&95 8 < 4. 3 . ± - ∗ − ∗ - − 6 − 6 − 4 ± . 7 ± . 0 × .60 × . ∗ − π ∗ − ∗ − π π π − ∗∗− π − π × K − → − π π− − π × K − → ∗− π π − ∗ − × π KD∗ − → π− ∗ − × π KD∗ − → π− D∗ − π × KD∗ − → ∗− π π − ∗ − ρ ∗ − − ∗ − − ∗ ∗ ∗ − − × K − → − × π K − → − × sJ KsJ − → − × sJ π KsJ − → − ∗− ∗− ∗ −× . ± 6. 0 × − 6 .

< . 7 0 × .8 ± . 3 0 × − 4 . 6 ± . − × KsJ → γ −× sJ KsJ → ∗ γ −× sJ KsJ → π π− −× sJ KsJ → π ∗ − sJ ∗ sJ × KsJ → γ − × K → ∗ ∗ − × K → ∗ − × K → ∗ ∗− × K → ∗ − × sJ KsJ → ∗ − sJ × KsJ → sJ − π ∗ − π − ρ ∗ − ρ − ∗ − - 8. 6 ± . 3 × . 0 × − 6 . < 6. 4 < - 4. 7 − × − 4 *&95 8 < . ± . 6 − . π− ∗ − × K ∗ − → π− π − 2# ∗ π ρ 8 8. ± . ± . 4 ± .40 × 6 . 8 ± .60 × −7 6 . ± . ± . 3 0 × − 7 . 0 × − 7 - 6. 2010 12:16 . 3 0 × − 4 668 × − 4 *&95 4 4 × − 4 *&95 66 . ± .8 6. < . 7 ± . ± . 7 0 × − 7 . 8 0 × − 7 . ± .660 × −4 . . 3 0 × − 7 4 . − ∗ − − ∗ − − ∗− − ∗ ∗− ∗ − π ∗− π − ∗ π ∗− ∗ π . 4 0 × − 7 . 8 < .6 .4 < 12:16 ± × − 7 . 3 0 × 8 8 - . × − 4 *&95 8 < 6. −6 . ± . × − 4 6. 4 0 × − 7 . ± .3 < . 7 0 × − 7 . 0 × − 4 444 - 7. 8 × − 4 *&95 8 - . × − 6 × − 6 7 . − < - < < < < - . 3 ± . 4 0 × − 7 − 4 − 4 − 4 3 6 *&95 8 8 *&95 *&95 7 *&95 8 8 *&95 *&95 4 7 3 *&95 84 *&95 6 *&95 38 8 6 6 *&95 8 6 63 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 8 0 × − 4 444 - - 6. 6 0 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 × − 6 × − 6 × − 4 - × − 4 6 . ± . 4 0 × − 7 !9 4 7 *&95 3 < < - . 0 × − 4 668 - .

7 0 × . 3 0 5 *&95 687 - . ± . . 4 0 × × − 4 − 6 − 7 −8 − 7 − 7 − 8 − 7 −4 *&95 *&95 !9 *&95 *&95 *&95 8 376 84 7 86 87 73 7 3 4 68 6 3 83 3 8 3 8 8 8 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.4 6. ± 6 . ± .4 ± 6. ± 8.7 ± . ± . 0 × − 6 . 0 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 .6 ± . ± 6. ± .8 ± 8. ± . ± .60 × . 4. 7 0 × − 6 . . 2010 12:16 .38 ± . 7 0 × − 4 .670 × −4 .60 × −4 × − 7 4 0 × − 8 × − 7 × − 7 . 0 × − 4 . . 7 0 × .7 ± . 6 ± 8. 3 . 7 ± .66 ± ± . 8 −6 6. 4 0 × − 4 × − 4 .3 ± 4. 8 0 × . ± . 6 ± .670 × −4 .80 × 4 0× − 4 − 6 − 6 − 7 × − 7 − 7 . 3 0 × − 4 . − . 0 × × × . 7 ± 4. 8 0 × − 4 . 4 0 × − 6 .0 5 . 3 × − 6 × − 6 *&95 *&95 734 43 < 8.3 ± . 80 × .3 ± .60 × −4 .8 ± . η η ω φ π− ∗ ∗ γ ∗ π ∗ ρ ∗ η ∗ η ∗ π− π ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ π π− π− π ∗ − ∗ ∗ ω ∗ − ∗ ∗ − − ∗ - < < . 8 . 7 0 × − 4 × − 7 . 4 0 × − 4 < < < < - ∗ − - ∗ − ∗ - − < ∗ − ∗ − ∗ − ∗ × K → ∗− ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ !9 8 !9 *&95 *&95 *&95 !9 7 *&95 *&95 *&95 !9 8 *&95 34 67 8 6 7 78 4 4 3 73 73 3 3 3 7 734 43 43 *&95 688 78 436 68 668 < < . 0 × − 4 × − 4 . 4. 0 × − 4 .3 ± 7. 8 0 × . 3 ± . - 3 . 0 × − 6 .6 ± 8.-!'! !+ η η ∗ η ∗ /ψ π− /ψ ∗ /ψ /ψ η /ψ η /ψ φ /ψ ω # /ψ /ψ π /ψ η π− /ψ π π − # /ψ π /ψ /ψ ρ /ψ ω . 0 × . ± 6.3 × − 6 8 . ± . 8 ± . 8 8 ± 12:16 - < < < < < . 3 0 × . 7 . 8 × − 6 4 . 8 0 × − 6 < . 7 .

± → ± /ψ π /ψ & & /ψ γ /ψ ψ ψ × Kψ → ψ × Kψ → − ψ π − ψ ∗ χ . × K. → π ∗ . ± ∓ × K. /ψ φ /ψ η π− /ψ π /ψ ρ ∗ − /ψ π ∗ π− /ψ π < . × K. 6 . → ψ γ ∗ . − → . → π− /ψ π . 8 7 7. × K. 4 < < < < − − × K. → /ψ γ ∗ . → ψ γ .4 8. × K. × K. − π /ψ π . 4 8. → ± ∓ ± . 7. × K. × K. × K. → /ψ γ . → ψ π ± .

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0 × − 4 × − 4 *&95 *&95 7 748 8 6 7 4 443 × − 8 *&95 *&95 8 8 8.660 × 6 . ± . 3 ± . → χ π < - χ . − . ± . − . 6 0 × 4. π− π η η ∗ η η ∗ η ∗ η ∗ < < < ± . 3 ± . ± . 0 × 8 < - − ×K. × − 8 *&95 4 4. 4 × − 8 × −7 *&95 *&95 4 4 - . 3 ± 8. − . 8 × 8. 4 0 × .6 8 . −7 4. 0 × − 4 . − .4 × − 3 × −8 *&95 *&95 *&95 8 36 33 6 3 3 6 8 < < < < - × − 7 . 4. ± . 7 0 × . 7 0 × − 4 × − 4 × − 4 . 4 0 × − 4 - 8. 7. → χ π − ×K.0 × 6. 0 × 4 4 8 < 4 × − 8 *&975 8 < .6 . × − 8 × −8 *&95 *&95 4 4 . 0 × . ± . − π . ± .4 . 6 . −7 6. 4 0 × − 4 .8 ± . 7 0 × − 4 *&95 *&95 !9 - . 4 0 × . .8 . 0 × − 7 8 - . 6. 8 − .

± . ± . 0 × − 4 ± 4 0 × − 4 ∗ !+ - .4 ± .0 × - .7 ± . ∗ . 4 0 × . 7 ± . 4 0 × 6. 0 × .80 × . 4 0 × − 6 ± 6. ± . 8 ± . - × −3 × − 7 ± . 0 × 8 . 2010 12:16 . − 4 433 − 4 − 7 − 7 − 7 − 4 − 4 64 63 48 4 63 − 4 − 7 − 8 − 7 − 8 − 8 − 7 − 7 0 × − 8 *&95 !9 8 !9 6 !9 4 87 8 7 8 7 7 43 73 764 4 4 4 4 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 8 ± . 0 × .

2010 12:16 . × − 8 < 3. 6 × − 4 . 7 0 × − 7 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 67 8 746 *&95 8 773 7 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. × − 8 4 . 0 × − 8 .8 0 × − 4 .43 − . 7 0 × − 8 < π π − 2# 8 - 773 *&95 7. 6 . 4 ± .8 ± .4 0 × . 6 0 × − 8 . < ### < - < - × − 8 × − 7 . × − 8 . < . < 7. 8 0 × − 8 3.640 × −7 - . 4 ± . 6 × − 7 - π− π π− ρ π − π− π − π π − # ∗ π− π 76 8 6 . × − 8 7 . 4 0 × − 8 × − 8 < < π− π ρ − ρ− π− π 2# π∗ π− × K π∗ → π π∗ π ×K π∗ → π− ∗ π ∗ π ∗ π $ π − "-! π 3. ± . 4 ± × − 8 × − 8 12:16 < × − 8 × − 8 . ± . 6 0 × − 8 . × 8 . 0 × − 8 47 8 786 447 < . 0 × − . 3 ± . 0 × − 8 < 4. × − 8 × − 8 7.8 ± . 4 − !9 8 77 *&95 *&95 8 8 8 8 8 *&95 447 *&95 67 8 8 8 !9 77 !9 7 78 !9 8 8 8 *&95 - 3 . 4 − . 0 × − 8 π− *&95 - - ∗ − $ π ∗ −× π *&95 - - 8 8 8 8 *&95 8 ∗ π − ∗ 8 8 *&95 74 - ρ *&95 . ! ω ∗ ω π ∗ ω ∗ ω ∗ ω π − # - . −7 6. ± .0 × −7 . ± - - K ∗ → π × K → π π− π− $ × K$ → π ∗ π ∗ − π ∗ − π 8 *&95 6 . 8 0 × − 8 4. 3 0 × − 7 7 . .4 ± . ± . 8 0 × 8 . < 3. 0 × − 8 74 - . 6 ± . 3 0 × − 8 .8 −8 . 8 0 × − 8 6.60 × −7 ± . 7 0 × − 8 .4 − .3 − .4 −7 . ± . < 6. 7 −8 . < - ρ− .7 − .70 × −7 . 4 ± . 3 0 × − 8 6 . - × K → η π → ω π × K ± ∓ × K ± → η π± − − × K → ω π − ∗ × K → ω π − ∗ × K − → ω π − ± ∓ × K ± → η π± . ± . 3 ± . 7 8. 8 ± . ω < 7 . 8 0 × . ± .

< ### - ∗ − ∗ φ ∗ − π < < < − π ∗ − π π η η − < < . 3 0 × − 7 − 8 − 8 < × − 7 × − 6 .8 < < < < $$$ < < < .4 . × − 7 . 6 ± . 8 0 × 4.4 ± !9 74 *&95 *&95 *&95 48 44 47 43 74 6 76 *&95 *&95 *&95 7 *&95 73 *&95 *&95 73 73 *&95 7 7 *&95 47 . × − 7 . 3 0 × − 8 .7 . × 4. × 4 . 3 4. 4 0 × − 7 .6 0 × . × − 7 6.66 ± .6 .37 ± . 8 . 8 ± 4. . 2010 12:16 . 0 × − 3 . 3 × − 7 .7 × − 7 < < < < < - − 6. 0 × − 8 . 70 × −7 × − 4 × − 8 . . 7 × − 8 . ∗ ρ ∗ π− π− − ∗ − ρ ρ − ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ π − ∗ ∗ − ∗ ∗ φ φ π ∗ φ π ∗ < " π < ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ φ ∗ ρ ∗ φ < < < < < ∗ . 3 × − 8 . × − 8 - 12:16 47 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 74 47 47 66 8 8 666 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 6 8 8 6 666 67 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 663 73 7 7 8 8 7 784 47 8 7 8 8 48 476 443 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 0× - φφ η η < φ . 8 ± 8. 8 . . 4 0 × − 7 × − 7 × − 7 . ± . 0 × − 8 6. − < ∗ γ - < η γ η γ φγ π− γ 6. 7 ± . × − 8 .8 − . - 3.40 × −7 8 7 7 8 !9 6 7 *&95 7 488 48 74 − 8 − 8 − 3 − 8 − 6 − 8 × − 8 6 . 4 0 × − 8 . × 7.8 ± .76 < < γ . 0 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 . 8 − . ± .60 × −7 .43 ± .4 0 × . × − 6 4. − . × − 8 6. × . ± 7. 8 ± . 3 0 × − 8 . × − 3 .3 - π − γ # π− γ π π− π γ γ γ ∗ γ - 8. 0 × − 8 - 4.4 − × − 8 . 3.6 . × − 7 .6 −8 . × − 7 × − 3 .80 × .0 × −7 .7 ± 4.

4 ± . − . × − 8 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 7 43 7 76 7 443 4 446 43 467 × − 8 *&95 8 − 4 − 8 − 7 − 7 − 8 − 3 − 8 − 3 *&95 *&95 *&95 86 7 7 8 737 76 74 4 × − 3 *&95 47 × − 3 *&95 47 .7 × . 6 6 .8 ± . ∗ γ < 6 < . × − 8 . ± .3 × .7 × − 8 4. 6 ± . 7 0 × . 8 0 × . 6 3. ± . 2010 12:16 . 6 ± . × . 6 < 4. 0 × − 3 .6 ± .40 × . 6 ∗ γ 4 ∗ ρ γ γ × − 6 × − 7 × − 6 12:16 *&95 *&95 68 64 *&95 44 %*-# 'O)+ ! !+ - ωγ φγ π π− π π η π ηη η π η η η η η ρ η × K → π π− ηρ η × K → π π − < < < < < < < . × − 3 7 × − 3 7 × − 3 6. 0 × 6.8 × − 3 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 − 8 × − 8 × − 3 76 7 *&95 !9 6 *&95 *&95 !9 3 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 74 868 868 8 7 77 48 7 4 477 *&95 *&95 776 7 4. 6 × − 3 6. 0 × . 4 0 × − .60 × . × − 6 77 4 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 8 44 436 8 76 47 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 7 7. . × − 6 .7 < 4 < ωη - ω η - ω ρ < ω × K → π π − < ωω < φπ < φη < φη < φρ < φ × K → π π − < φω < φφ < ± ∓ × K ± → π < ± ηπ ± ∓ × K ± → π < η π± π π− π < ρ π ρ∓ π ± π π− π π− < ρ π π − < ρ ρ π− π < ρ × K → < π π− × K → < π π− π− × K → π < × K → − ∓ ± π ∓ ± π < π π− π π < ρ ρ− π < . × − 4 6. 7 0 × − 7 6.6 × . 4 − 6. 7 0 × − 3 . × . × 3 . × − 8 × − 3 6. −3 . 4 − . × .6 0 × .6 × .6 0 × −7 . × 6 × . 7 −8 .8 × 8 .7 × . 6 ± . × − 3 . 8 ± 4.

4 ± . ± . 0 × − 7 .34 < − 8 .7 ± 6. 6 × . 6 ± . → & & . 4 0 × − 6 . × . → π × K. 2010 12:16 . 8 .7 × − 3 *&95 8 − 8 − 3 − 3 − 3 − 8 − 3 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 4 686 684 6 66 6 . ± .7 − . 0 × − 4 .6 ± .60 × −8 7 × − *&95 *&95 *&95 483 48 643 6 × − 3 *&95 67 .4 .6 ± 7. ω π π π π− π− π − ρ ρ ∓ ± π × K ∓ → ω π ∓ → ω π π × K − ρ × K − → ω π − → ω π ρ × K π π π π− π− π− − × K → π π − π π π π− π− π− π < < < < - 7 × . −8 . × − 3 . × 8. ± .88 ± . 70 × . 4 < < < *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 *&95 7 8 466 466 8 8 8 8 *&95 7 668 *&95 73 . 7 × − 4 . × 6. 0 × 4 . 4± . . 4 ± . & π × K. ± . ± . 4 0 × − 6 .0 × . × K. . 4 0 × − 7 < 7 88 *&95 *&95 667 667 8 3 3 37 38 33 *&95 *&95 *&95 8 8 6 64 *&95 *&95 *&95 64 64 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. < 7.4 < − 3 − 6 − 7 − 6 − 7 × − 8 × − 8 × − 8 6.7 0 × . × K. 7 0 × . 5 K& !+ && && < < π π− && & × K. 60 × −4 . − . 7. 7 < < < < - 6. < . & 4. 4 × . → & & ∗ & & ∗ .60 × −6 8 . 7 0 × − 4 × − 8 × − 7 × − 6 × − 4 × − 6 × − 6 . → − & ∗− & −− ) / − π− ( &π − ( & − ( &π − π− π ( &π − π− π π− ( &π − π− ( &π − π − # ( &π . × 6. 8 × .60 × −4 . &( %%% < < π− &) - − < ( < & ( < (( < < / − − &) π (( - ∗ (( (( - - / /−− / && < / < - − (& ∗ & & ∗ − & − & & π ∗ − & & π .4 − .7 × . × . 0 × .0 × −4 . × − 6 . . → & .3 - 7 − 8 − 7 − 6 × − 4 . ± . 6 0 × − 7 6. − .

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5 5 5 5 5 44 474 68 66 * 1.3 < . < 6. χ γ χ γ χ π π − π χ π π − π φπ π − < .

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38 3 76 8 78 6 66 43 83 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:16 .

χ ω χ γ χ γ χ π π − π χ π π − π φπ π − φ → φπ π − ∗− π ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗π ∗ ∗ π − ∗ − ∗ ∗− && ± π∓ − π ψ 12:16 .

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%/0 437 4 488 7 7 76 8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:16 .

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2010 12:16 ..64 0 5 67 7 6 6 384 6 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.6 0 5 . .4 . 8 ± 6 .7 ± . 0 × − 6 .86 − . - ±4 0 5 .

7 8. . ± . ± . π π− − π π π− − π π− − π π π− π π π− − π π− − π π π− − π π π− − π π π− π π− π π π− − π π− − π π π− π π − π -. π π− − π π π− − π π− − π π π− π π π− − π π− − π π π− − π π π− − π π π− π π− π π π− − π π− − π π π− π π − π χ ω ' 8 . 4 0 × − 4 . 7. 0 × − 4 8 . 4 0 × − 6 . ± . 7 0 × − 4 .0 . ± . ± .3 0 5 . ± . 8 0 × − 4 . 3 0 × − 6 -.. 0 × − 4 - 7 6 7 7 7 7 77 .6 . 0 × − 4 . 3 ± . 8 0 × − 4 . ± . /. . 0 × − 4 737 737 - 7 4 78 743 76 7 7. 0 × − 4 ± 4 0 × − 7 ± .3 . 0 × − 4 ±4 0 × − 4 ± . 3 743 ± . ± . 3 ± 6 .

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2010 12:16 .%/0 8 33 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

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2010 12:16 ." 2 : . #- ω 9#" %#* *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

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and charge conservation. Results from CERN [1] and Fermilab [2] indicate no CP T -violating eﬀect. lepton. CP T INVARIANCE General principles of relativistic ﬁeld theory require invariance under the combined transformation CP T . the superweak angle. Using our best values of the CP -violation parameters. The best test comes from the limit on the mass 0 diﬀerence between K 0 and K . and “Number Conservation Laws. T. where φSW = (43.) In contrast.-J.05)◦ . Limits can also be placed on speciﬁc CP T -violating decay amplitudes. whose observation would violate conservation laws. we collect together a Table of experimental limits on all weak and electromagnetic decays. Wolfenstein (Carnegie-Mellon University).e. not in the Particle Physics Booklet. For the beneﬁt of Booklet readers. Given the small value of (1 − |η00 /η+− |). mass diﬀerences. we get |(m 0 − K mK 0 )/mK 0 | ≤ 0. we include the best limits from the Table in the following text. baryon.” i. and on a few reactions. CP . the phase of should be very close to 44◦ . Any such diﬀerence contributes to the CP -violating parameter . C. The simplest tests of CP T invariance are the equality of the masses and lifetimes of a particle and its antiparticle. In keeping with the current interest in tests of conservation laws. TESTS OF CONSERVATION LAWS Updated May 2010 by L. Assuming CP T invariance. and C.e. φ .. hadronic ﬂavor. Assuming that there is no other source of CP T violation than this mass diﬀerence.G. Limits in this text are for CL=90% unless otherwise speciﬁed. The Table is in two parts: “Discrete Space-Time Symmetries. The references for these data can be found in the the Particle Listings in the Review. Lin (LBNL). it is possible to deduce that[1] m K 0 − mK 0 ≈ 2(mK 0 − mK 0 ) |η| ( 32 φ+− + 31 φ00 − φSW ) L S sin φSW . if the entire source 0 of CP violation in K 0 decays were a K 0 − K mass diﬀerence. the value of φ00 − φ+− provides a measure of CP T violation in KL0 → 2π decay. and CP T . 2010 12:58 . and moments. (See the review “CP Violation in KL decay” in this edition.8 × 10−18 at CL=90%. T . The Table is given only in the full Review of Particle Physics.. A discussion of these tests follows.51 ± 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.” i. P . φ would be 44◦ + 90◦ . Trippe (LBNL).

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A number of other CP -violating observables are being measured in B decays. measured to be < 2. In the Standard Model much larger CP -violating eﬀects are expected. This could be explained in terms of K 0 –K mixing.26) × 10−3. muon number Lμ . the best limits are on μ → eγ and μ → 3e.334 ± 0. The ﬁrst of these.013. the best limit comes from the coherent conversion process in a muonic atom. The best limit comes from the search for neutrinoless double beta decay (Z. A)+e− +e− . 2010 12:58 . The best laboratory limit is t1/2 > 1. Other searches for CP or T violation involve eﬀects that are expected to be unobservable in the Standard Model.232 ± 0. measured as Γ(μ → eγ)/Γ(μ →all) < 1. and the electron (0. CP AND T INVARIANCE Given CP T invariance. b) Conversion of one charged-lepton type to another. CP violation and T violation are equivalent. except for the eﬀect of neutrino mixing associated with neutrino masses.098 ± 0. which is associated with B–B mixing.65 ± 0.0 × 10−12 . The original evidence for CP violation came from the measurement of |η+− | = |A(KL0 → π + π − )/A(KS0 → π + π − )| = 0 (2.023.3 × 10−12 .07 ± 0.011) × 10−3 . direct evidence for CP violation in the B decay am0 plitude comes from the asymmetry [Γ(B → K − π + ) − Γ(B 0 → + − K π )]/[sum] = −0. A) → e− + (Z. is the parameter sin(2β) now measured quite accurately to be 0. A) → (Z + 2.9×1025 yr (CL=90%) for 76 Ge. μ− + (Z. For semileptonic processes. measured as Γ(μ− Ti → e− Ti)/Γ(μ− Ti → all) < 4.007)%.671 ± 0. For purely leptonic processes. The most sensitive are probably the searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron. Direct tests of T violation are much more diﬃcult. and tau number Lτ . Evidence for CP violation in the kaon decay amplitude comes from the measurement of (1 − |η00 /η+− |)/3 = Re( /) = (1.2 × 10−11 and Γ(μ → 3e)/Γ(μ → all) < 1. A nonzero value requires both P and T violation.07) × 10−26 e cm. which also leads to the asymmetry [Γ(KL0 → π − e+ ν) − Γ(KL0 → π + e− ν)]/[sum] = (0. a measurement by CPLEAR of the diﬀerence between the oscillation probabilities of K 0 to K 0 and K 0 to K 0 is related to T violation [3]. A).9 × 10−26 e cm. Searches for violations are of the following types: a) ΔL = 2 for one type of charged lepton. CONSERVATION OF LEPTON NUMBERS Present experimental evidence and the standard electroweak theory are consistent with the absolute conservation of three separate lepton numbers: electron number Le . Of special interest *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

as in KL → eμ and K + → π + e− μ+ . A) → e+ + (Z − 2.13) × 10−3 eV2 [5]. 12:58 is the case in which the hadronic ﬂavor also changes. Chlorine.4 × 10−8 and Γ(τ → eγ)/Γ(τ → all) < 3. c.3 × 10−11 . It is expected even in the standard electroweak theory that the lepton numbers are not separately conserved.g..e. 2010 12:58 . u. the leptonnumber violation would be observed ﬁrst in neutrino oscillations. This mixing space can also be explored by accelerator-based longbaseline experiments. A). hadronic ﬂavor is conserved. as a consequence of lepton mixing analogous to CabibboKobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing. Furthermore. evidence for such oscillations for reactor ν has been found by the KAMLAND detector. The most recent result from MINOS gives Δ(m2 ) = (2. Borexino. t) into a quark of another ﬂavor is forbidden. This conﬁrms previous indications of a deﬁcit of νe . if the only source of lepton-number violation is the mixing of low-mass neutrinos then processes such as μ → eγ are expected to have extremely small unobservable probabilities.43 ± 0.3 × 10−8 . Underground detectors observing neutrinos produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere have found a factor of 2 deﬁciency of upward going νμ compared to downward. The case most studied is μ− +(Z. The SNO experiment has detected the total ﬂux of neutrinos from the sun measured via neutral current interactions and found it greater than the ﬂux of νe . In the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.7 × 10−12 and Γ(K + → π + e− μ+ )/Γ(K + → all) < 1. However. CONSERVATION OF HADRONIC FLAVORS In strong and electromagnetic interactions. c) Conversion of one type of charged lepton into another type of charged antilepton. the conversion of a quark of one ﬂavor (d.59 ± 0. for which the most probable explanation is νμ → ντ oscillations with nearly maximal mixing. e. s. Strong evidence for neutrino mixing has come from atmospheric and solar neutrinos. Limits on the conversion of τ into e or μ are found in τ decay and are much less stringent than those for μ → e conversion. d) Neutrino oscillations. For small neutrino masses. i.6 × 10−11 . Super-Kamiokande. Gallium) and the KamLAND data yields Δ(m2 ) = (7. which have been the subject of extensive experimental searches. b. Γ(τ → μγ)/Γ(τ → all) < 4. A global analysis combining all solar neutrino data (SNO.20) × 10−5 eV2 [4]. the strongest limit being Γ(μ− Ti → e+ Ca)/Γ(μ− Ti → all) < 3. This provides compelling evidence for νμ disappearance. measured as Γ(KL → eμ)/Γ(KL → all) < 4.

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0009) × 1010 h 0 0 2 transitions in the B and Bs systems via mixing are also well established. Limits for charm-changing or bottom-changing neutral currents are much less stringent: Γ(D0 → μ+ μ− )/Γ(D0 → all) < 1.5292 ± 0.12) × 1012 h ΔC = 2 transition in the charm sector with the mass diﬀerence +0. 0.4 to 1.005)×1012 h H L sH sL ¯ s−1 . 2010 12:58 . The low rate Γ(KL → μ+ μ− )/Γ(KL → all) = (6. (c) Flavor-changing neutral currents.39−0. The ΔB = m(KL ) − m(KS ) = (0.006. which is directly measured by ¯ s−1 .77 ± 0. In the strangeness-changing semileptonic decay of strange particles. the weak interactions violate these conservation laws in a manner described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing (see the section “CKM Mixing Matrix”). Combining results from BNL-E787 and BNL-E949 experiments yield Γ(K + → π + νν)/Γ(K + → all) = (1. Corresponding rules are ΔC = ΔQ and ΔB = ΔQ. There is now strong evidence of = (17. and from a detailed analysis of KL → πeν.84 ± 0.59 ) × 1010 h ¯ s−1.7 ± 1.2)×10−10 . See the full Review of Particle Physics for references and Summary Tables. All results are consistent mD0 − mD0 = (2. In the Standard Model this occurs only in second-order weak interactions.002 ±0.0012 ±0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. the nonzero value for this rate is attributed to a combination of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. which occurs in the Standard Model only as a second-order weak process with a branching fraction of (0. For example. (b) Change of ﬂavor by two units.507±0. the FCNC transition s → d+(u+u) is equivalent to the charged-current transition s → u + (u + d).63 H L with the second-order calculations in the Standard Model. The measured mass diﬀerences between the eigenstates ¯ s−1 and (mB 0 − mB 0 ) are (mB 0 − mB 0 ) = (0.5 × 10−8.0021).1) × 10−10 [6].3 × 10−6 and Γ(B 0 → μ+ μ− )/Γ(B 0 → all) < 1. Tests for FCNC are therefore limited to hadron decays into lepton pairs. The classic example 0 is ΔS = 2 via K 0 − K mixing. One cannot isolate ﬂavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) eﬀects in non leptonic decays. The best test should come from K + → π + νν. the strangeness change equals the change in charge of the hadrons. Standard Model. The way in which these conservation laws are violated is tested as follows: (a) ΔS = ΔQ rule.11) × 10−9 puts limits on such interactions. Tests come from limits on decay rates such as Γ(Σ+ → ne+ ν)/Γ(Σ+ → all) < 5 × 10−6 . In the Standard Model the neutral-current interactions do not change ﬂavor. Such decays are expected only in second-order in the electroweak coupling in the Standard Model. Im x) = (−0. measured to be (Re x. which yields the parameter x.

where CF ≡ 2 (Nc − 1)/(2Nc) = 4/3 is the color-factor (“Casimir”) associated with gluon emission from a quark. Quantum chromodynamics 12:55 169 9. When one takes μR close to the scale of the momentum transfer Q in a given process.a (iγ μ ∂μ δab − gs γ μ tC L= ab Aμ − mq δab )ψq. f ACD f BCD = CA δAB where CA ≡ Nc = 3 is the B color-factor associated with gluon emission from a gluon. (9. The AC μ correspond to the gluon ﬁelds. The Lagrangian of QCD is given by 1 A A μν C . The Feynman rules of QCD involve a quark-antiquark-gluon (q q¯g) vertex. i. Gluons are said to be in the adjoint representation of the SU(3) color group. and a 4-gluon vertex (proportional to gs2 ). color-neutral) combinations of quarks. the gauge ﬁeld theory that describes the strong interactions of colored quarks and gluons.a are quark-ﬁeld spinors for a quark of ﬂavor q and mass mq . tB ] = ifABC tC . Paris). 9. Running coupling : In the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD). predictions for observables are expressed in terms of the renormalized coupling αs (μ2R ). with a color-index a that runs from a = 1 to Nc = 3. QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS Written October 2009 by G. then αs (μ2R Q2 ) is indicative of the eﬀective strength of the strong interaction in that process. 9.2) where the fABC are the structure constants of the SU(3) group. anti-quarks. They encode the fact that a gluon’s interaction with a quark rotates the quark’s color in SU(3) space. The γ μ are the Dirac γ-matrices. 2010 12:55 . (9. Neither quarks nor gluons are observed as free particles. g2 The fundamental parameters of QCD are the coupling gs (or αs = s ) 4π and the quark masses mq . there are eight kinds of gluon.1) ψ¯q. A is given by Finally.P. Ab-initio predictive methods for QCD include lattice gauge theory and perturbative expansions in the coupling.b − 4 Fμν F q where repeated indices are summed over. The quantity gs is the QCD coupling constant.1. The ψq.1.e. Zurich) and G.e. tA ab tab = TR δAB . the ﬁeld tensor Fμν A A B C Fμν = ∂μ AA ν − ∂ν Aμ − gs fABC Aμ Aν [tA . The tC ab correspond to eight 3 × 3 matrices and are the generators of the SU(3) group. Basics Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). i.e.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Hadrons are color-singlet (i.1. A Useful color-algebra relations include: tA ab tbc = CF δac . a 3-gluon vertex (both proportional to gs ). Salam (LPTHE. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. is the SU(3) component of the SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) Standard Model of Particle Physics. Dissertori (ETH.” Quarks are said to be in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color group. 2010 9. with C running from 1 to 2 Nc − 1 = 8. and gluons. where TR = 1/2 is the color-factor for a gluon to split to a q q¯ pair. quarks come in three “colors. a function of an (unphysical) renormalization scale μR .

b2 .1 for momentum transfers in the 100 GeV –TeV range.5) is to solve the RGE exactly.5) again parametrized in terms of a constant Λ. Note that Eq. Numerically. it is the non-perturbative scale of QCD. b1 ln t b21 (ln2 t − ln t − 1) + b0 b2 1 1− 2 + αs (μ2R ) b0 t b0 t b40 t2 b31 (ln3 t − 5 2 1 1 ln t − 2 ln t + ) + 3b0 b1 b2 ln t − b20 b3 2 2 2 . Quantum chromodynamics The coupling satisﬁes the following renormalization group equation (RGE): dαs (9.3) μ2R 2 = β(αs ) = −(b0 α2s + b1 α3s + b2 α4s + · · ·) dμR where b0 = (11CA − 4nf TR )/(12π) = (33 − 2nf )/(12π) is the 1-loop beta-function coeﬃcient.3) is the origin of asymptotic freedom.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. at ﬂavor thresholds). c = 19 . One may relate the coupling for the theory with nf + 1 light ﬂavors to that with nf ﬂavors through an equation of the form n ∞ μ2 (n +1) 2 (n ) (n ) αs f (μR ) = αs f (μ2R ) 1 + cn [αs f (μ2R )]n ln R2 .g. and the ﬁrst few cn 1 . c = 0.e. owing to the zero value for the c10 coeﬃcient. (9. when one chooses μR = mh . c = c2 . and b3 = (( 6 6508 50065 6472 1093 3 2 4 ( 1078361 162 + 27 ζ3 )nf + ( 162 + 81 ζ3 )nf + 729 nf )/(4π) [9.10]. αs ∼ 0.2020569). 13). the last two speciﬁcally in the MS scheme (here ζ3 1.4) mh n=1 =0 where mh is the mass of the (nf + 1)th ﬂavor. i. 3 and 4-loop coeﬃcients are 2 − n T (10C + 6C ))/(24π 2 ) = (153 − 19n )/(24π 2 ). (9. Λ (9. giving αs (μ2R ) = (b0 ln(μ2R /Λ2 ))−1 . b1 = (17CA A F f R f 325 2 149753 + 3564ζ ) − 3 b2 = (2857 − 5033 3 9 nf + 27 nf )/(128π ). 2010 12:55 . and c = − 11 coeﬃcients are c11 = 6π 10 22 20 11 21 24π 2 72π 2 7 when mh is the MS mass at scale mh (c20 = 24π 2 when mh is the pole mass — see the review on “Quark Masses”). Working in an energy range where the number of ﬂavors is constant. (9. and in which the remaining heavier quark ﬂavors decouple from the theory. A convenient approximate analytic solution to the RGE that includes also the b1 . numerically (including the discontinuities. (9. 11.e. An alternative to the use of formulas such as Eq. The minus sign in Eq. Here Λ is a constant of integration. (9. (9. Terms up to c4 are to be found in Refs. In such cases the quantity Λ is not deﬁned − *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.5) is one of several possible approximate 4-loop solutions for αs (μ2R ). Eq. i. 12. and b3 terms is given by (e.4). The β-function coeﬃcients. the matching is a small eﬀect. b60 t3 μ2 t ≡ ln R2 . 2010 170 12:55 9.3) only if one neglects all but the b0 term. and the 2. Ref. the fact that the strong coupling becomes weak for processes involving large momentum transfers (“hard processes”). which corresponds to the scale where the perturbativelydeﬁned coupling would diverge. and that a value for Λ only deﬁnes αs (μ2R ) once one knows which particular approximation is being used. are given for the coupling of an eﬀective theory in which nf of the quark ﬂavors are considered light (mq μR ). a simple exact analytic solution exists for Eq. the bi .

This is evidenced in Fig. Quantum chromodynamics 12:55 171 at all. and in a maximal increase of the combined error up to 0. For the error an overall. correlation coeﬃcient is introduced and determined by requiring that the total χ2 of the combination equals the number of degrees of freedom. are shown. Nevertheless. 172 is αs (MZ2 ) = 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The central value is determined as the weighted average of the individual measurements. For these reasons.4 τ-decays (N3LO) Quarkonia (lattice) 0. 9. 0. Right: Summary of measurements of αs as a function of the respective energy scale Q. which incorporates results with recently improved theoretical predictions and/or experimental precision. 172.1: Left: Summary of measurements of αs (MZ2 ). evolved to the Z mass scale.5 July 2009 α s(Q) Deep Inelastic Scattering e+e– Annihilation Heavy Quarkonia 0. where the various inputs to this combination. It is worth noting that a cross check performed in Ref. The coeﬃcients given above hold for a coupling deﬁned in the modiﬁed minimal subtraction (MS) scheme [14]. depend on the renormalization scheme in which the coupling is deﬁned. The value of the coupling.13 α s (Μ Z) 1 α s (Μ Z) = 0.4. used as input for the world average value.0007 .2 e+e– jets & shps (NNLO) electroweak fits (N3LO) e+e– jets & shapes (NNLO) 0.3.0012. 9. Most notably. it has become standard practice to quote the value of αs at a given scale (typically MZ ) rather than to quote a value for Λ. 2010 9. 9. a-priori unknown.1184 ± 0.12 QCD 0. excluding the most precise determination from lattice QCD gives only a marginally diﬀerent average value. Measurements of the strong coupling constant : For this review it was decided to quote a recent analysis by Bethke [172].2 (right) provides strongest evidence for the correct prediction by QCD of the scale dependence of the strong coupling.2 (left).e. as well as the exact forms of the b2 . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. consisting in excluding each of the single measurements from the combination. there remains an apparent and long-standing systematic diﬀerence between the results from structure functions and other determinations of similar accuracy. i. resulted in variations of the central value well below the quoted uncertainty. The world average quoted in Ref. Fig. in determinations of the coupling. by far the most widely used scheme.1 0.3 Υ decays (NLO) DIS F2 (N3LO) DIS jets (NLO) 0.0007 10 Q [GeV] 100 Figure 9. Both plots are taken from Ref. the convention used to subtract inﬁnities in the context of renormalization.1184 ± 0. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review. c10 (and higher order) coeﬃcients.11 0. 172. 2010 12:55 .

2 cos θW (10. 2 and in the Section on “The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix”. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics 10. 3. respectively. (10. where di ≡ j Vij dj . ψi . ELECTROWEAK MODEL AND CONSTRAINTS ON NEW PHYSICS Revised November 2009 by J. and Bμ for the SU(2) and U(1) factors. and A ≡ B cos √ θW + W sin θW is the (massless) photon ﬁeld. After spontaneous symmetry breaking the Lagrangian for the fermion ﬁelds. Mixing. 2. For example. The extension of the formalism to allow an analogous leptonic mixing matrix is discussed in the Section on “Neutrino Mass. Mexico) and P. In the minimal model thereare three fermion families φ+ and a single complex Higgs doublet φ ≡ φ0 which is introduced for mass generation. (Constraints on V and tests of universality are discussed in Ref. 10.1) i θW ≡ tan−1 (g /g) is the weak angle. with gauge bosons Wμi .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.2b) ≡t3L (i). Introduction The standard electroweak model (SM) is based on the gauge group [1] SU(2) × U(1). − √ 2 2 sin θW *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. the coupling of a W to an electron and a neutrino is e (10. The left-handed fermion the ith fermion family transform as doublets ﬁelds of νi u Ψi = and di under SU(2). respectively. e = g sin θW is the positron electric 3 charge.4]. is gmi H ψ i i ∂ − mi − LF = ψi 2MW i g − √ Ψi γ μ (1 − γ 5 )(T + Wμ+ + T − Wμ− ) Ψi 2 2 i −e qi ψ i γ μ ψi Aμ i − g i 5 ψ i γ μ (gVi − gA γ ) ψi Zμ . The vector and axial-vector couplings are gVi ≡t3L (i) − 2qi sin2 θW . Erler (U. and the corresponding gauge coupling constants g and g . Langacker (Institute for Advanced Study). −1/2 for di and ei ) and qi is the charge of ψi in units of e. where t3L (i) is the weak isospin of fermion i (+1/2 for ui and νi . i = 1. T + and T − are the weak isospin raising and lowering operators.3) Wμ− e γ μ (1 − γ 5 )ν + Wμ+ ν γ μ (1 − γ 5 )e . 2010 12:55 . W ± ≡ (W 1 ∓ iW 2 )/ 2 and Z ≡ −B sin θW + W 3 cos θW are the massive charged and neutral weak boson ﬁelds. 2010 172 12:55 10. The second term in LF represents the charged-current weak interaction [3.) The right-handed ﬁelds are SU(2) singlets.1. and V − i i is the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. and Flavor Change”.2a) i gA (10.

1876 ± 0.60]. (10. 10. MH . can be calculated when values for mt and MH are given. the ﬁne structure constant. 2010 10. 6 2π (10. GF = 1. The Yukawa coupling of H to ψi . which has been determined from the Z lineshape scan at LEP 1. H is the physical neutral Higgs scalar which is the only remaining part of φ after spontaneous symmetry breaking.07 MeV . (10. conversely (as is done at present). and Flavor Change”. and the fermion masses and mixings). The possibility of Majorana masses is discussed in the Section on “Neutrino Mass. √ 2 . this term gives rise to the eﬀective four-fermion interaction with the Fermi constant given (at tree level. A variety of related cross-section and asymmetry formulae are also discussed there.22 MeV |Vij |2(10. In the presence of right-handed neutrinos.31 ± 0.e. α = 1/137. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics 12:55 173 For momenta small compared to MW . and the last is the weak neutral-current interaction.0021 GeV. There are a number of popular schemes [61–68] leading to values which diﬀer by small factors depending on mt and MH .33b) 6 2π CGF MZ3 i2 i2 √ gV + gA 6 2π *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. W and Z decays : The partial decay width for gauge bosons to decay into massless fermions f1 f 2 (the numerical values include the small electroweak radiative corrections and ﬁnal state mass eﬀects) is Γ(W + → e+ νe ) = Γ(W + → ui dj ) = Γ(Z → ψi ψ i ) = 3 GF MW √ ≈ 226. See the full Review for more details. sin2 θW and the W boson mass. which is ﬂavor diagonal in the minimal model. deﬁnition s2W ≡ 1 − MW Z Experiments are at such level of precision that complete O(α) radiative corrections must be applied. i. Mixing. Renormalization and radiative corrections The SM has three parameters (not counting the Higgs boson mass.1. MW .1). 2010 12:55 . A particularly useful set contains the Z-boson mass. is gmi /2MW . The value of sin2 θW is extracted from Z pole observables and neutral-current processes [11. These are discussed in the full edition of this Review. CP violation lowest order in perturbation theory) by GF / 2 = g 2 /8MW is incorporated in the SM by a single observable phase in Vij . The third term in LF describes electromagnetic interactions (QED).035999084(51).3.166364(5) × 10−5 GeV−2 . With these inputs.33a) 3 CGF MW √ |Vij |2 ≈ 706. Eq. and the Fermi constant. MH can be constrained by sin2 θW and MW . including the MS deﬁnition s 2Z and the on-shell 2 /M 2 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.. and depends on the renormalization prescription.1) gives rise also to Dirac neutrino masses. MZ = 91. which is derived from the muon lifetime formula. which is currently best determined from the e± anomalous magnetic moment.18 ± 0.2. mi is the mass of the ith fermion ψi . In Eq. In non-minimal models there are additional charged and neutral scalar Higgs particles [10]. 10.

W and Z decays.34) where the 3 is due to color and the factor in brackets represents the universal part of the QCD corrections [164] for massless quarks [165].A . but since *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Working in the on-shell scheme. strongly top quark mass dependent.4952 ± 0.1200. while for quarks α2 α3 α4 αs (MV ) + 1. 300.02 MeV (νν).0003 GeV .06 MeV (dd). (10. An uncertainty in αs of ±0.0007 GeV .A by the eﬀective couplings g V..085 ± 0.0023 GeV [11] and ΓW = 2. we identify three precision observables with sensitivity to similar types of new physics as the other processes discussed here. as well as two-loop order ααs and α2 self-energy corrections [170] are also included. However. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics ⎧ 167.A deﬁned in Eq. (10.34) is new [166]. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 382. In practice. Electroweak corrections to the Z widths i2 are then incorporated by replacing g i2 V. and generally not included in this Section. The branching fraction of the ﬂavor changing transition b → sγ is of comparatively low precision.Z running QED coupling [61.8 MeV in ΓZ . incorporates the largest radiative corrections from the terms of GF MW.31) of the full Review.0 4s . The MS normalization accounts also for the leading electroweak corrections [66].33c) (10. the corrections are included 2M 5 Z in g bV.042 GeV [173] (see the Gauge & Higgs Boson Particle Listings for more details).21 ± 0. in the on-shell √ scheme the Z widths are proportional to 1 + ρt . fermion mass eﬀects and further QCD corrections proportional to m 2q (MZ2 ) [168] which are diﬀerent for vector and axial-vector partial widths.99 ± 0. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 375. The dominant eﬀect is to multiply Γ(bb) by the vertex correction 1 + δρb¯b .0016 introduces an additional uncertainty of 0. asymmetries. (10.04 MeV (bb). 2010 174 12:55 10.06 MeV (uu). i. parity violation. The QED factor 1 + 3αqf2 /4π. These are addressed elsewhere in this Review.20 ± 0. The Z → f f¯ widths contain a number of additional corrections: universal (non-singlet) top quark mass contributions [167].35) We have assumed αs (MZ ) = 0.4957±0.94 ∓ 0. There is additional (negative) quadratic mt dependence in the Z → bb vertex corrections [172] which causes Γ(bb) to decrease with mt . These predictions are to be compared with the experimental results ΓZ = 2. there is a large number of experiments and observables testing the ﬂavor structure of the SM. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ + − ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 83. 10. ΓW ≈ 2.01 MeV (e e ). corresponding to ±0. m2 where δρb¯b ∼ 10−2 (− 1 t2 + 1 ).e.98 ± 0.0910±0. where ρt = 3GF m2t /8 2π 2 . 2010 12:55 . as discussed before.171].*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. C =3 1+ π π π π ≈ (10.409 2s − 12. Hence.77 3s − 80. and ﬂavor non-universal [169]. family universal. Precision flavor physics In addition to cross-sections. For 3 fermion families the total widths are predicted to be ΓZ ≈ 2. and singlet contributions starting from two-loop order which are large. For leptons C = 1. The O(α4s ) contribution in Eq.4. expressing the widths in 3 .05% in the hadronic widths.

0/44. MW [160. Γ(had). Electroweak model and constraints on new physics 12:55 175 it is a loop-level process (in the SM) its sensitivity to new physics (and SM parameters. L3. whose measured value deviated in the past by as much as 3. MH .114–116]. gL *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The τ -lepton lifetime and leptonic branching ratios are primarily sensitive to αs and not aﬀected signiﬁcantly by many types of new physics. αs (MZ ). and Γ(inv) are not independent of ΓZ .207]. The SM prediction of σhad (LEP 1) moved closer to the measurement value which is slightly higher. it suﬃces if either the statistical components dominate or there are many components of similar size.3% probability contour (for 2 parameters).3% probability range or the 39. See the full Review for more details.5.f.7 σ) deviations.133] and thallium [134]. is now in agreement. the ﬁt describes well the data with a (0. The reason is not that we assume that theoretical and systematic errors are intrinsically bell-shaped (which they are not) but because in most cases the input errors are combinations of many diﬀerent (including statistical) error sources. 10. DELPHI. the principal Z pole observables can be found in Table 10. Δαhad and the heavy quark masses shown in Table 10. the muon anomalous magnetic moment [189]. as well [11]. the weak charges of the electron [125]. The agreement is generally very good. However.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Note that the values of Γ( + − ). neutrino scattering [98. The predictions result from a global least-square (χ2 ) ﬁt to all data using the minimization package MINUIT [208] and the electroweak library GAPP [90].5.o. Its combined experimental and theoretical uncertainty is comparable to typical new physics contributions. An exception is the theory dominated error on the τ lifetime. = 43.b) χ2 /d. having an independent and reliable low energy measurement of αs in a global analysis allows the comparison with the Z lineshape determination of αs which shifts easily in the presence of new physics contributions. Despite the few discrepancies discussed in the following. such as heavy quark masses) is enhanced. and σhad and that the SM errors in those latter are largely dominated by the uncertainty in αs . and 2 from NuTeV is a 2 σ discrepancy in QW (Cs) has also been resolved. 2010 12:55 . cesium [132. but its new physics sensitivity is suppressed by an additional factor of m2e /m2μ ). A0LR (SLD) from hadronic ﬁnal states diﬀers by 1. which we recalculate in each χ2 -function call since it depends itself on αs . Experimental results The values for mt [6].8 σ. Likewise. Only the ﬁnal result for gμ − 2 from BNL and AF B from LEP 1 are currently showing large (2.4 in the full Review. Sizes and shapes of the output errors (the uncertainties of the predictions and the SM ﬁt parameters) are fully determined by the ﬁt. In addition. Thus. we treat all input errors (the uncertainties of the values) as Gaussian. Also shown in both Tables are the (3) SM predictions for the values of MZ . By far the most precise observable discussed here is the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (the electron magnetic moment is measured to even greater precision. Rb . and do not necessarily correspond to the 68. the b → sγ observable [174–175]. 2010 10. and OPAL results include common systematic errors and correlations [11]. and 1σ errors are deﬁned to correspond to Δχ2 = χ2 − χ2min = 1.7 σ from the SM prediction. In most cases. the R . which should yield approximately Gaussian combined errors by the large number theorem. and the τ lifetime are listed in Table 10.5 σ and 2.6 where the LEP 1 averages of the ALEPH. The heavy ﬂavor results of LEP 1 and SLD are based on common inputs and correlated.

0005 −73.0 0.03001 ± 0.384 ± 0.503 ± 0.0 0.A νe = −0.5 1.11 ± 0.420 ± 0.1481 ± 0.30399 ± 0.5 −0. The result.5 0. mt . The ﬁrst MW value is from the Tevatron [207] and the second one from LEP 2 [160].3 80.0027.893±0.923 ± 0.3027 ± 0. and obtain Ab = 0.4 ± 3.7 0. 173. in this case.2 ± 1.1 −0. which is from LEP 1 alone and in excellent agreement with the SM.0308 ± 0. compared with the SM best ﬁt predictions. and CCFR [94] are included.7 0.3 1.507 ± 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics Table 10.3. mc .02 −116. (Deviation) is for MH = 117 GeV ﬁxed.0003 −0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.022 which is 1.35 −116.5 0.6 (4511. The νe are dominated by the CHARM II [116] world averages for gV.77) × 10−9 (4509.017.7%) residual anti-correlation.0 0.3: Principal non-Z pole observables.1 0.1 0.014 −0.2 0. This illustrates that some of the discrepancy is related to the one in ALR . the uncertainty is from (MZ ). but not shown in the Table. is 3.13 ± 0. one can use A = 0.04 290.48 −3 3. and their correlations have M Z .09 ± 0.00002 −0. CHARM [93].b) Ab can be extracted from AF B when Ae = 0.3). and αs .44 × 10 173. 10. Ab = 0.5 2. as well.07 ± 0. and gR are from NuTeV [98] and have a very small (−1. e-DIS [123] and the older ν-DIS constraints from CDHS [92].0011 −0. The values of MW and mt diﬀer from those in the Particle Listings when they 2 .38+0.035 ± 0. gL 2 as discussed in Sec.5 (3.031 80. M H . 2010 12:55 .02 ± 2. it appears that † Alternatively.08) × 10−9 2.1 −0.0398 ± 0.033 0.017. The ττ value is the τ lifetime world average computed by combining the direct measurements with values derived from the leptonic branching ratios [5].015 −0.1501 ± 0. gVνe = −0. The errors results.040 ± 0.0018 0.2 1.76 ± 0. while the column denoted Dev.0 1.1 ± 1. Quantity mt [GeV] MW [GeV] 2 gL 2 gR gVνe νe gA QW (e) QW (Cs) QW (Tl) ττ [fs] Γ(b→sγ) Γ(b→Xeν) 1 (g − 2 − α ) 2 μ π Value Standard Model Pull Dev. 2010 176 12:55 10. the theory uncertainty is included in the SM prediction. The column denoted Pull gives the standard deviations for the principal ﬁt with MH free.3 80.2 σ below the SM prediction† and also 1.881 ± 0.0001 −0.014 −0.376 ± 0.2 −0.5064 ± 0.6 0.7 −0.017 and gA are the total (experimental plus theoretical) uncertainties.1 −0.1 0. α been accounted for.0016 is taken from a ﬁt to leptonic asymmetries (using lepton universality). (0.07) × 10−3 0. which has been adjusted include recent preliminary results.0473 ± 0.09 currently in agreement with the SM but this statement is preliminary (see Sec.6 σ below B Ab = 0. In all other SM predictions.0403 ± 0.51 −0.15 ± 0.6 0. mb .9 σ low. 10. Thus.020 obtained from AF LR (b) at SLD.20 ± 0.0053 −73.6 291.00017 0.

Ab = 0.4 20. 2010 10.0 2.01633 ± 0.0035 0.027 0.8 0.7 −2.7 −0.4 −0.6 −0.015 0.0043 0.7 AF B (0. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics 12:55 177 Table 10.00012 0.3 0.6 −0.6 (0.010 −0.8 0.4 0.1874 ± 0.00066 0.0004 0.1876 ± 0.b) at least some of the problem in AF B is experimental. Quantity MZ [GeV] ΓZ [GeV] Γ(had) [GeV] Γ(inv) [MeV] Γ( + − ) [MeV] σhad [nb] Re Rμ Rτ Rb Rc (0.4 0.0739 ± 0.μ) 0.984 ± 0.9357 ± 0.1 1.0010 0.3 0.6 20.1544 ± 0.4: Principal Z pole observables and their SM predictions (0.2324 ± 0.037 20.0169 ± 0.0707 ± 0.1475 ± 0. it is most likely of tree-level type aﬀecting preferentially the third generation. respectively.1 1. mixing of the b quark with heavy exotics [210].1034 ± 0.1 0.q) (cf.0017 1.6 0.4 (0. Examples include the decay of a scalar neutrino resonance [209].1035 ± 0.1498 ± 0.0016 0.9348 ± 0.0% deviation by new physics that enters only at the level of radiative corrections since about a 20% correction to κ b would be necessary to account for the central value of Ab [211].8 σ.0001 0.5 1.3 −0.0007 −2. Table 10.0049 0.0021 2.0025 91. If this deviation is due to new physics. that (0.0013 0.899 ± 0.0145 ± 0.7418 ± 0. and *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.s) AF B (0.484 ± 0.670 ± 0. It would be diﬃcult to account for this 4.7 −0.136 ± 0. Note.0114 0.3).0005 −0.4954 ± 0.6 AF B (0.541 ± 0.b) AF B is strongly statistics dominated.4952 ± 0.5 1.5 −0.6680 ± 0.69 ± 0.8 1.735 ± 0. 2010 12:55 .0020 499.0 0.0 2.0060 0. however.1 0.091 0.5 20.4 0.0 0.3 0.015 — — 41.0009 −0.050 20.00021 −0.1 0.5 1.2316 ± 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.q) s¯2 (AF B ) Ae Aμ Aτ Ab Ac As 0.895 ± 0.0976 ± 0.764 ± 0.0018 0. The three values of Ae are (i) from ALR for hadronic ﬁnal states [152].9 −0.0007 −0.0001 0.τ ) 0.0 ± 1.7 0. (ii) from ALR for leptonic ﬁnal states and from polarized Bhabba scattering [154].2 1.4 −0.17224 ± 0.15138 ± 0.7 −0.21629 ± 0. and (iii) from the angular distribution of the τ polarization at LEP 1.00005 0.6 0.0012 0.1 −0.b) AF B (0.0992 ± 0.00003 0. The combined the uncertainty in value.086 41.0023 1.00216 0.008 1.015 0.8 0.7444 ± 0.045 0.142 ± 0.07 — — 84.780 ± 0.785 ± 0.23146 ± 0. The two Aτ values are from SLD and the total τ polarization.033 20.e) AF B Value Standard Model Pull Dev. The ﬁrst s2 (AF B ) is the eﬀective angle extracted from the hadronic charge asymmetry while the second is the combined lepton asymmetry from CDF [157] and DØ [158].020 0. 91.8 −0.804 ± 0.010 1.0030 0.923 ± 0.010 1.8 −0.1 −0.735 ± 0.0021 0.1721 ± 0.013 deviates by 2.0009 — — 501.5 83.1439 ± 0.005 ± 0.8 0.21578 ± 0.4 1.c) AF B (0.0188 ± 0.

0021 from SLD (using lepton-family universality and including correlations) is also 1.00216 [152]. and theoretical uncertainties.7 of the full Review are in reasonable agreement with each other.e.3 and Table 10.) a ﬁt to AF B . The results (for the older low energy neutral-current data see Refs.1481 ± 0. as well as some other less precise observables. MH . ΓZ . We have therefore included in Table 10. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. based on all hadronic data from 1992–1998 diﬀers 1. however.1 σ below the SM (b) prediction.4 (the MS top quark mass given there corresponds to mt = 173. and from a variety of neutral-current processes spanning a very wide Q2 range. where the larger error in the on-shell scheme is due to the stronger sensitivity to mt .23100 ± 0. m b .2 ± 1. These are correlated with αs . the errors include full statistical. s 2Z = 0.1513 ± 0. i. are used in the global ﬁts described below.23116 ± 0. systematic.23146 ± 0. yields the result in Table 10. The left-right asymmetry. The largest discrepancy is the value s 2Z = 0.8 σ above the SM prediction. The correlations on the LEP 1 lineshape and τ polarization.3 GeV).1–Sec.23116 ± 0. The observables in Table 10.23067 ± 0.8 σ from the SM expectation of 0.22292 ± 0. again assuming universality. The data allow a simultaneous determination of MZ . while the corresponding eﬀective angle is related by Eq. but there is now experimental agreement between this SLD value and the LEP 1 value.32). subject to the theoretical constraints [5.6 σ low [160]. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics a heavy Z with family-nonuniversal couplings [212. indicating the quantitative success of the SM. σhad . are also accounted for. A0LR = 0. while AF B (LEP 2) is 1. 10.00029 from the SLD asymmetries (in both cases when combined with MZ ) is 1.1475 ± 0. and the deep inelastic and ν-e scattering observables. and Δαhad are also allowed to ﬂoat in the ﬁts.0010. It is diﬃcult. The weak mixing angle can be determined from Z pole observables.2.00013. The extracted Z pole value of αs (MZ ) is based on a formula with negligible theoretical uncertainty if one assumes the exact validity of the SM.00013 from the global ﬁt to all data. MW . and (3) the strong coupling αs (MZ ).3 and Table 10. the SLD lepton asymmetries. mt . the LEP/SLD heavy ﬂavor observables.) αs is determined mainly from R .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.00023 from MW and MZ and — as a consequence — for the global ﬁt. (m c. 58 and 59) shown in Table 10. The SLD result has the additional diﬃculty (within the SM) of implying very low and excluded [161] Higgs masses. obtained from (0.7 σ above the value 0.00028.15138 ± 0. 2010 12:55 . The (5) theoretical correlations between Δαhad and gμ − 2.00028 from the forward-backward asymmetries into bottom and charm quarks. and between the charm and bottom quark masses. and Aτ (Pτ ). (10. 10.213].7 σ low. One should keep in mind. An average of Rb measurements at LEP 2 at energies between 133 and 207 GeV is 2. This is also true for s 2Z = 0. Ae (Pτ ). that this value. including the CDF/DØ average mt = 173.4. however. are included. s2W = 0. to simultaneously account for Rb .0027. and ττ and is only weakly correlated with the other variables. s2 = 0. The combined value of A = 0.00012.. Similarly.17] described in Sec. 2010 178 12:55 10. which has been measured on the Z peak and oﬀ-peak [214] at LEP 1. The global ﬁt to all data. A = 0.23193 ± 0.1 ± 1. The weak mixing angle is determined to s 2Z = 0. which is 2. In all ﬁts.3 GeV.4 an additional column (denoted Deviation) indicating the deviations if MH = 117 GeV is ﬁxed.

0018 −0.22321(17) 0.22484(76) 0. αs (MZ ) = 0.213(19) 0.222(18) 0.1183 ± 0.23121(17) 0.1183(16) 112+110 − 52 Z pole (no mt ) 0.0008). and the most recent unquenched lattice calculation [217] (0.1183 (†) 117 (†) e-D DIS (SLAC) 0. as well as with other determinations.23100(23) 0.001 ± 0.22311(59) 0.0016 . the top quark mass.0028. is very sensitive to such types of new physics as non-universal vertex corrections.23128(6) 0.22262(48) 0.1183 (†) 117 (†) νμ -N DIS (isoscalar) 0.23067(29) 0. One predicts [218] αs (MZ ) = 0.c) 0. 2010 10. In contrast.22292(28) 0. and MH [in GeV] for various (combinations of) observables.9 GeV.0050) the average from HERA [216] (0.23116(13) 0.1183 (†) 33+27 −17 AF B + MZ 0.0015 from the Z lineshape and the τ lifetime.2251(15) 0.1183 (†) 117 (†) Elastic νμ (ν μ )-e 0.1202 ± 0.23152(21) 0.1183 ± 0. The two values are in remarkable agreement with each other. They are also in agreement with other recent values.23193(28) 0. one can predict αs (MZ ) assuming grand uniﬁcation. where the ﬁrst (second) uncertainty is from the inputs (thresholds).2230(77) 0. Non-supersymmetric uniﬁed theories predict the low value αs (MZ ) = 0. but consistent with the experimental αs (MZ ) = 0.001 ± 0. is theory dominated but less sensitive to new physics.2314(14) 0. Data All data s 2Z s2W αs (MZ ) 0.22201(54) 0.5: Values of s 2Z .001. 2010 12:55 . Using α(MZ ) and s 2Z as inputs.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.22283(34) 0.22376(67) 0.1183 (†) 117 (†) Elastic νμ (ν μ )-p 0. This is slightly larger.1183 (†) 67+38 −28 MZ 0.1183 (†) 117 (†) QW (e) 0.2335(18) 0.2311(77) 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1198 ± 0.0032). The (†) symbol indicates a ﬁxed parameter. For more details and other determinations. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics 12:55 179 Table 10.211(33) 0. See also the note on “Supersymmetry” in the Searches Particle Listings. αs .1174+0. s2W . the value derived from τ decays.130 ± 0.203(33) 0.1183(15) MH 90+27 −22 All indirect (no mt ) 0. There is a strong correlation between the quadratic mt and logarithmic MH terms in ρ in all of the indirect data except for the Z → bb vertex. Unless indicated otherwise.1183 (†) 389+264 −158 MW + MZ 0. see our Section 9 on “Quantum Chromodynamics” in this Review.1183 (†) 117 (†) αs (MZ ) = 0.1213(30) 170+234 − 93 0.2332(15) 0. The data indicate a preference for a small Higgs mass. mt = 170.1183 (†) 117 (†) QW (APV) 0. such as from jet-event shapes at LEP [215] (0.9 ± 1.073 ± 0.2254(18) 0.1198 ± 0.1198(28) 90+114 − 44 LEP 1 (no mt ) SLD + MZ (b.01 for the simplest theories based on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM. is used as an additional constraint in the ﬁts.2233(14) 0.23118(14) 0.

respectively.75 2 S Figure 10. As two further reﬁnements.25 1.50 e scattering ν scattering APV T 0. Hence. we account for (i) theoretical uncertainties from uncalculated higher order contributions by allowing the T parameter (see next subsection) subject to the constraint T = 0 ± 0. by the so-called T and S parameters.4 GeV (95% CL) [161].00 asymmetries 0. In addition to non-degenerate multiplets. MH ≤ 149 (145.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.75 1 1. 2010 180 12:55 10. 2010 12:55 .50 all: MH = 340 GeV -0.25 ΓZ. Rq 1. Constraints on new physics A number of authors [226–231] have considered the general eﬀects on neutral-current and Z and W boson observables of various types of heavy (i. (10. for example.25 0. S and T represent the contributions of new physics only.25 0.36) Including the results of the direct searches at LEP 2 [161] and the Tevatron [219] as extra contributions to the likelihood function drives the 95% upper limit to MH ≤ 147 GeV. observables (other than Rb ) which favor mt values higher than the Tevatron range favor lower values of MH . where the latter is typically rather large in Technicolor theories.75 -0.25 all: MH = 117 GeV -0. (10. The diﬀerence in χ2 for the global ﬁt is Δχ2 = χ2 (MH = 300 GeV) − χ2min ≈ 25.00 -1.5 0. (ii) the MH dependence of the correlation matrix which gives slightly more weight to lower Higgs masses [220].25 all: MH = 1000 GeV -1 -0. The resulting limits at 95 (90. Rl.37) 10. 99)% CL are. these include heavy degenerate multiplets of chiral fermions which break the axial generators. the data favor a small value of MH . 1.. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics Therefore. respectively.7. MH ≥ 114. The 90% central conﬁdence range from all precision data is 55 GeV ≤ MH ≤ 135 GeV. σhad. The MH dependence through Δ strongest individual pulls toward smaller MH are from MW and A0LR . which break the vector part of weak SU(2). Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review.00 -0.5 1.e. These eﬀects can be described.1: 1 σ constraints (39. MW has additional r W which is not coupled to m2t eﬀects.35%) on S and T from various inputs combined with MZ .02.25 0 0. Mnew MZ ) physics which contribute to the W and Z self-energies but which do not have any direct coupling to the ordinary fermions. 194) GeV. (0. is below the direct lower bound. MH = 90+27 −22 GeV.75 MW 0. as in supersymmetric extensions of the SM.b) while AF B favors higher values. The central value of the global ﬁt result.5 -1.5 -0.75 -1.

We deﬁne [4–6] V |Vus | . 2010 12:56 .1. many of which can be displayed and compared in the ρ¯. Ligeti (LBNL). (11. η¯). The physical states are obtained by diagonalizing the up and down quark mass matrices by four u. It can be parameterized by three mixing angles and a CP -violating phase. The vertices are exactly (0. due to the deﬁnition in Eq. The six vanishing combinations can be represented as triangles in a complex plane. and Y.2) VCKM ≡ VL VL = ⎝ Vcd Vcs Vcb ⎠ . Vtd Vts Vtb This Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix [1. The most commonly used unitarity triangle arises from ∗ ∗ + Vcd Vcb + Vtd Vtb∗ = 0 . VL.4) 2 1 − λ [1 − A2 λ4 (¯ ρ + i¯ η)] ∗ )/(V V ∗ ) is phase-convention These ensure that ρ¯ + i¯ η = −(Vud Vub cd cb independent and the CKM matrix written in terms of λ.4). by dividing each side by Vcd Vcb (1. s12 = λ = Vus |Vud |2 + |Vus |2 √ 3 2 ρ + i¯ η ) 1 − A λ4 Aλ (¯ ∗ s13 eiδ = Vub = Aλ3 (ρ + iη) = √ . 0) and. It is known experimentally that s13 s23 s12 1.R . (11. 0).5) V =⎝ Aλ3 (1 − ρ − iη) −Aλ2 1 ∗ ∗ Unitarity implies i Vij Vik = δjk and j Vij Vkj = δik . 11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (¯ ρ.3) s12 s23 −c12 c23 s13 eiδ −c12 s23 −s12 c23 s13 eiδ c23 c13 where sij = sin θij . An important goal of ﬂavor physics is to overconstrain the CKM elements. When the Higgs ﬁeld acquires a vacuum expectation value. The CKM quark-mixing matrix 11. As a result. (11. They arise from the Yukawa interactions of the quarks with the Higgs condensate. −λ 1 − λ2 /2 Aλ2 (11.6) ∗ (see Fig. THE CKM QUARK-MIXING MATRIX Revised February 2010 by A. ρ¯ and η¯ is unitary to all orders in λ. cij = cos θij . To O(λ4 ). η¯ plane. 1). s23 = Aλ2 = λ cb . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Z. Vud Vub (11. quark mass terms are generated. Ceccucci (CERN). and it is convenient to exhibit this hierarchy using the Wolfenstein parameterization. A. the charged current W ± interactions couple to the physical up and down-type quarks with couplings given by ⎞ ⎛ Vud Vus Vub u d† (11.2] is a 3 × 3 unitary matrix. ⎞ ⎛ s12 c13 s13 e−iδ c12 c13 V = ⎝ −s12 c23 −c12 s23 s13 eiδ c12 c23 −s12 s23 s13 eiδ s23 c13 ⎠ .d unitary matrices. Sakai (KEK). ⎞ ⎛ λ Aλ3 (ρ − iη) 1 − λ2 /2 ⎠ + O(λ4 ) . 2010 12:56 181 11. The angles θij can be chosen to lie in the ﬁrst quadrant. Introduction The masses and mixings of quarks have a common origin in the Standard Model (SM). and δ is the phase responsible for all CP -violating phenomena in ﬂavor changing processes in the SM.

K ± → π 0 μ± ν and KS0 → πeν gives |Vus | = 0.2246 ± 0. f+ (0) = 0. The average of these two determinations is quoted by Ref.011.2.189 ± 0.8 ± 3. Averaging these two determinations.10.25.2.2 ± 5.97425 ± 0. The KLOE measurement of the K + → μ+ ν(γ) branching ratio [16] with the lattice QCD value.2.007 [17] leads to |Vus | = 0. K 0 → πμν. |Vcd | : The most precise determination of |Vcd | is based on neutrino and antineutrino interactions.038 with fDs = (242.3. 2010 182 12:56 11.2252 ± 0. [9] as |Vus | = 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.7) |Vud | = 0. we obtain |Vcd | = 0.01 ± 0. (11. (11. which are pure vector transitions. Combining the data on KL L K ± → π 0 e± ν. 11. |Vus | : The magnitude of Vus is extracted from semileptonic kaon decays or 0 → πeν. Taking the average of the nine most precise determinations [8] yields [9] (11. Magnitudes of CKM elements 11. 2010 12:56 .0014. Combining the results [26–29].3) MeV [42].2.230 ± 0. fK /fπ = 1.98 ± 0.9644 ± 0.10) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. |Vud | : The most precise determination of |Vud | comes from the study of superallowed 0+ → 0+ nuclear beta decays.1: Sketch of the unitarity triangle.0049 [12]. The diﬀerence of the ratio of double-muon to single-muon production by neutrino and antineutrino beams is proportional to the charm cross section oﬀ valence d-quarks. Using the recent Ds+ → μ+ ν [37.1. leptonic kaon decays.2259 ± 0. The recent D → Kν measurements [24. |Vcs | : The determination of |Vcs | is possible from semileptonic D or leptonic Ds decays.2. The CKM quark-mixing matrix Figure 11.030 ± 0.43] combined with the lattice QCD calculation of the form factor [23] gives |Vcs | = 0.8) 11.00022.9) 11. 11.41] data gives |Vcs | = 1.4.38. (11.40] and Ds+ → τ + ν [38.0009.036.023 ± 0.2. we obtain |Vcs | = 1.0012 with the unquenched lattice QCD calculation value.

At leading order in ΛQCD /mb there is only one such function.2.07 . CDF measured Δms = (17.51]. The large and pure BB samples at the B factories ν decays in events where the other B is permit the selection of B → Xu ¯ fully reconstructed [56]. |Vts | = (38.70].14) 11.c ΛQCD limit B → D(∗) ¯ all form factors are given by a single Isgur-Wise function [49]. (11. The Vcb and Vub minireview [48] quotes the combination with a scaled error as |Vcb | = (40. To extract |Vub | from exclusive channels.13) Several uncertainties are reduced in the lattice QCD calculation of the ratio Δmd /Δms .76+0. Vtd /Vts = 0. Using unquenched lattice QCD calculations [63] and assuming |Vtb | = 1.1) × 10−3 . we ﬁnd |Vtd | = (8.8.4 ± 0. so one has to use B–B oscillations or loop-mediated rare K and B decays.15) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.12) 11.58 −0. which is normalized at zero recoil. |Vub | : ν decay suﬀers from The determination of |Vub | from inclusive B → Xu ¯ ν backgrounds.507 ± 0.88 ± 0.58]. (11. and access wider kinematic regions because of improved signal purity.005. 2010 11.3) × 10−3 . The Vcb and Vub minireview [48] quotes the combination |Vub | = (3. The (2.2. Δmd = (0.11) 11. one can measure the four-momenta of both the leptonic and hadronic systems.6) × 10−3 .7 ± 2.47 ) pb [71] average cross section measured by DØ [72] and CDF [73] implies |Vtb | = 0.2. The mass diﬀerence of the two neutral B meson mass eigenstates is well measured. Determinations from exclusive ν decays are based on the fact that in the mb. The theoretical uncertainties in the inclusive and exclusive determinations are diﬀerent. 2010 12:56 . The CKM quark-mixing matrix 12:56 183 11. |Vtd | and |Vts | : These CKM elements cannot be measured from tree-level top quark decays. where q = b. d [69. (11. (11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.89 ± 0.10 ± 0. |Vtb | : The determination of |Vtb | from top decaysuses the ratio of branching fractions B(t → W b)/B(t → W q) = |Vtb |2 /( q |Vtq |2 ) = |Vtb |2 . For the Bs0 system.2. which is related to the photon energy spectrum in B → Xs γ [50.77 ± 0.44) × 10−3 . the form factors have to be known.6 ± 1.6. (11.001 ± 0. The direct determination of |Vtb | without assuming unitarity has become possible from the single top quark production cross section.5. With this full-reconstruction tag method. which gives a new and signiﬁcantly improved constraint. s.005) ps−1 [60]. In most regions of phase space where the large B → Xc ¯ charm background is kinematically forbidden the rate is determined by nonperturbative shape functions.211 ± 0.07) ps−1 [61] with more than 5σ signiﬁcance. |Vcb | : The determination of |Vcb | from inclusive semileptonic B decays use the semileptonic rate measurement together with the leptonic energy and the hadronic invariant-mass spectra. Unquenched lattice QCD calculations of the B → π¯ ν form factor for q 2 > 16 GeV2 are available [57.7.

23) × 10−3 [75].. The b → s¯ q q penguin dominated decays have the same CKM phase as the b → c¯ cs tree dominated decays. measuring Sf = −ηf sin 2β. Therefore. α = φ . Here q/p describes B 0 –B 0 mixing and. Of these. The dominant uncertainties are due to the bag parameter and the parametric uncertainty proportional to σ(A4 ) [i. Re( /) = (1. β / φ1 : The time-dependent CP asymmetry of neutral B decays to a ﬁnal state f common to B 0 and B 0 is given by [85. decays such as B 0 → φK 0 and η K 0 provide sin 2β measurements in the SM. provides constraints in the ρ¯. (11. || = (2. If new physics contributes to the b → s *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.93].3. β → π/2 − β (but not β → π + β) has been resolved by a time-dependent angular analysis of B 0 → J/ψK ∗0 [90. demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation. and : The measurement of CP violation in K 0 –K 0 mixing. where ηf is the CP eigenvalue of f and 2φ is the phase diﬀerence between the B 0 → f and B 0 → B 0 → f decay paths. 2010 12:56 . The measurement of provides a qualitative test of the CKM mechanism because its nonzero experimental average. The CKM quark-mixing matrix 11. σ(|Vcb |4 )].e. Cf = (1 − |λf |2 )/(1 + |λf |2 ). Γ(B 0(t) → f ) + Γ(B 0(t) → f ) (11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1. η¯ plane bounded by hyperbolas approximately.3. to a good Af = 4 ∗ = e−2iβ+O(λ ) in the usual approximation in the SM. ω) [92. 0 ) The b → c¯ cs decays to CP eigenstates (B 0 → charmonium KS.20) This measurement of β has a four-fold ambiguity. While Re( /) ∝ Im(Vtd Vts∗ ).2. The world average is [64] sin 2β = 0. Phases of CKM elements The angles of the unitarity triangle are ∗ Vcd Vcb Vtd Vtb∗ β = φ1 = arg − = arg − . (11. Af (A¯f ) is the amplitude of B 0 → f (B 0 → f ) decay.86] Γ(B 0(t) → f ) − Γ(B 0(t) → f ) = Sf sin(Δm t) − Cf cos(Δm t). many measurements of CP -violating observables can be used to constrain these angles and the ρ¯. 2010 184 12:56 11. and λf = (q/p)(A¯f /Af ). η. η¯ parameters. q/p = Vtb∗ Vtd /Vtb Vtd phase convention. up to corrections suppressed by λ2 . because of large hadronic uncertainties.023 . 2 ∗ Vtd Vtb∗ Vud Vub ∗ Vud Vub γ = φ3 = arg − . a prediction of the KM ansatz. Cf = 0 and Sf = sin(arg λf ) = ηf sin 2φ. this quantity cannot easily be used to extract CKM parameters. 11. then |Af | = |A¯f |.673 ± 0.16) ∗ Vcd Vcb Since CP violation involves phases of CKM elements. If f is a CP eigenstate and amplitudes with one CKM phase dominate.91] and a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B 0 → D 0 h0 (h0 = π 0 .L are the theoretically cleanest examples.3.67 ± 0.015) × 10−3 [75]. 11.233 ± 0.18) where Sf = 2 Imλf /(1 + |λf |2 ).

110]. α is constrained as ◦ α = (89.002 ± 0. 2010 11.0006 (1st row). The Belle [100] and BABAR [101] ◦ measurements yield α = (120+11 −7 ) [95].9999 ± 0. D0 → KS π + π − [109. which implies that the ﬁnal states are almost purely CP -even. The CKM quark-mixing matrix 12:56 185 loop diagrams and has a diﬀerent weak phase.27 −0.23) 11. us) and B − → D 0 K − The interference of B − → D0 K − (b → c¯ (b → u¯ cs) transitions can be studied in ﬁnal states accessible in both D0 and D0 decays [85]. Analyses in two-body D decays using the GLW [103.101 ± 0. 12.73+0. and the sizable experimental error of B 0 → π 0 π 0 .0+4.4.28 ) × 10 diagrams is small. |Vcd |2 + |Vcs |2 + |Vcb |2 = 1. the longitudinal polarization fractions in B + → ρ+ ρ0 and B 0 → ρ+ ρ− are measured to be close to unity [96]. It is possible to extract from the data the B and D decay amplitudes. the relative strong phases. 11. Global fit in the Standard Model Using the independently measured CKM elements mentioned in the previous sections. a more stringent check *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. only a loose constraint is obtained at present. The results and their uncertainties are summarized in Fig. |Vud |2 + |Vcd |2 + |Vtd |2 = 1. B 0 . Combining these three decay modes [95]. −6 implies that the eﬀect of the penguin B(B 0 → ρ0 ρ0 ) = (0.074 (2nd row).4 −4.4.098 ± 0.2 ) . We obtain |Vud |2 + |Vus |2 + |Vub |2 = 0. This is an important distinction from α and β.3. and |Vus |2 + |Vcs |2 + |Vts |2 = 1. In such decays the penguin contribution can be sizable. the time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B 0 → π + π − π 0 gives the best model independent extraction of α [99]. Furthermore. B 0 → π 0 π 0 . (11.3. 11. Then Sπ+ π− no longer measures sin 2α. However. the unitarity of the CKM matrix can be checked. α / φ2 : ∗ V . γ is constrained as ◦ (11. and γ.9 ± 5. B 0 → ρ± π ∓ . Because the isospin analysis gives 16 mirror solutions. implying that the measurements of γ are unlikely to be aﬀected by physics beyond the SM. The isospin analysis gives α = (89. but mixing induced CP violations can still occur in the four decay amplitudes.25) γ = (73+22 −25 ) . [86].005 (1st column).1 of Ref. as well as in a Dalitz plot analysis of D0 . Because of the more complicated isospin relations.074 (2nd column). but α can still be extracted using the isospin relations among the B 0 → π + π − . so it can be measured in tree level B decays.104] and ADS methods [105] have been made by the B factories [106].3. γ / φ3 : The angle γ does not depend on CKM elements involving the top quark. 2010 12:56 . and B + → π + π 0 amplitudes and their CP conjugates [94]. it would give rise to Sf = −ηf sin 2β and possibly Cf = 0.3 and Table 12.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The ﬁnal state in B 0 → ρ+ π − decay is not a CP eigenstate. Combining these analyses [95]. For the second row. The B 0 → ρ+ ρ− decay can in general have a mixture of CP -even and CP -odd components. only time-dependent Since α is the phase between Vtb∗ Vtd and Vub ud CP asymmetries in b → u¯ ud dominated modes can directly measure it.4)◦ [95] with a mirror solution at 3π/2 − α. respectively.

0007 ⎠.0007 0.11 ) × 10 .5 -1.0 Δmd & Δms sin 2β 0.5 2.00015 0.0 1. A = 0. The CKM matrix elements can be most precisely determined by a global ﬁt that uses all available measurements and imposes the SM constraints.95 γ .5 εK -1.118].132+0. η¯ plane from various measurements and the global ﬁt result.00020 −0.0403 0. w/ cos 2 β < 0 (excl.5 Δmd η εK 0.00026 0.0011 +0. The results for the Wolfenstein parameters are λ = 0.95.00012 +0.00347+0.022 −0.015 .5 0. ρ¯ = 0. η¯ plane.d.00016 −0.2: 95% CL constraints on the ρ¯. 11. at CL > 0. There are several approaches to combining the experimental data [6. is also consistent with the SM expectation.2253 ± 0.27) +0.b |Vij | from the W leptonic branching ratio [35].0011 0.0007 .95) 0.808+0.0 sol.002 ± 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.00016 +0.95 >0 1. which provide similar results.0 -0. (11. 2010 186 12:56 11.97428 ± 0.2253 ± 0.027.0 ρ Figure 11.341 ± 0.022 −0.97345−0. VCKM = ⎝ 0.5 1. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.19 −5 and the Jarlskog invariant is J = (2.2 illustrates the constraints on the ρ¯. is obtained subtracting the sum of the ﬁrst row from the measurement 2 of u.2252 ± 0.014 .26) The allowed ranges of the magnitudes of all nine CKM elements are ⎞ ⎛ 0. Fig.013 . 2010 12:56 .999152 −0. The CKM quark-mixing matrix L at C ed lud exc 1.c. ◦ α + β + γ = (183+22 −25 ) .5 excluded area has CL > 0.0 γ -1. The sum of the three angles.0410−0.000030 0.0007 −0.00015 +0.0 α γ β α Vub α -0. η¯ = 0. yielding 2 2 |Vcd | + |Vcs | + |Vcb |2 = 1.000045 (11.91−0.s.0007 0. The shaded 95% CL regions all overlap consistently around the global ﬁt region.102.00862+0.

and loop-dominated decays. Z. and are suppressed by powers of the new physics scale. Even if |zij | are suppressed by a loop factor and |Vti∗ Vtj |2 (in the down quark sector). and rare decays severely constrain the magnitudes and phases of possible new physics contributions to ﬂavor-changing interactions. Similar to measurements of sin 2β in tree. if there is new physics at the TeV scale. and 100 TeV for Bs0 – B 0s mixing [118. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. obeying the SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) gauge symmetry. 103 TeV for D0 – D0 mixing. |zij | 1 is required. Γ(B → ργ). mixing. semileptonic. The overconstraining measurements of CP asymmetries. To illustrate the level of suppression required for non-SM contributions. and the W . and quark masses.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. it will be important to know the ﬂavor parameters as precisely as possible to understand the underlying physics. The data imply that Λ/|zij |1/2 has to exceed about 104 TeV for K 0 – K 0 mixing. as in the SM.5. Thus. New physics with a generic weak phase may still contribute to meson mixings at a signiﬁcant fraction of the SM [125. 500 TeV for B 0 – B 0 mixing. consider a class of models in which the dominant eﬀect of new physics is to modify the neutral meson mixing amplitudes [121] by (zij /Λ2 )(q i γ μ PL qj )2 . t.123]. they may receive unrelated new physics contributions. h in the SM. The CKM quark-mixing matrix 12:56 187 11. overconstraining the magnitudes and phases of ﬂavor-changing neutral current amplitudes give good sensitivity to new physics. 2010 12:56 . Δmd . or new physics particles) can be parameterized by operators composed of SM ﬁelds. K. however. one expects percent-level eﬀects. In the SM. The observable eﬀects of non-SM interactions are encoded in the coeﬃcients of these operators. Implications beyond the SM The eﬀects in B. so they should be measured as precisely as possible. these coeﬃcients are determined by just the four CKM parameters. For example. 2010 11. The CKM elements are fundamental parameters. and Γ(B → Xd + − ) are all proportional to |Vtd Vtb∗ |2 in the SM.118]. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. which may be observable in forthcoming experiments. The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version. Z. and D decays and mixings due to high-scale physics (W . When new particles are seen at the LHC.

If we are interested in computing only a(t) and b(t). In particular. The present measurements of CP asymmetries provide some of the strongest constraints on the weak couplings of quarks. The CP transformation combines charge conjugation C with parity P . Af = f |H| M . the charged W bosons couple to left-handed + electrons.18) |ψ(t) = a(t)|M 0 + b(t)|M + c1 (t)|f1 + c2 (t)|f2 + · · · . CP is still preserved in most weak interaction processes. by conjugating all internal quantum numbers. eR . The simpliﬁed time evolution is determined by a 2 × 2 eﬀective *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. will evolve in time acquiring components that describe all possible decay ﬁnal states {f1 . as discovered in neutral K decays in 1964 [1]. and strong interactions. e+ .1. that is. however. CP VIOLATION IN MESON DECAYS Revised September 2009 by D.. The CP symmetry is. . x → −x.and neutral-meson decays : We deﬁne decay amplitudes of M (which could be charged or neutral) and its CP conjugate M to a multi-particle ﬁnal state f and its CP conjugate f as Af = f |H| M . B. B. 0 (12. In this review.1. 2010 188 12:56 12. a left-handed electron e− L is transformed under CP into a right-handed positron. and to their CP -conjugate right-handed positrons. Future measurements of CP violation in K. the handedness of space is reversed. Af = f |H| M . Formalism In this section. D. .1. and therefore. these symmetries are respected by the gravitational. we give the formalism and basic physics that are relevant to present and near future measurements of CP violation in meson decays. Nir (Weizmann Institute). on the other hand. CP violation in meson decays 12. e. approximations. e− L . 12. R We observe that most phenomena are C. we present a general formalism for.and P -symmetric.g.}. violate C and P in the strongest possible way.17) |ψ(0) = a(0)|M 0 + b(0)|M . Af = f |H| M . but to neither their C-conjugate left-handed positrons. and Bs meson decays will provide additional constraints on the ﬂavor parameters of the Standard Model. (12.2. While weak interactions violate C and P separately. Q → −Q for electromagnetic charge. electromagnetic. nor their L P -conjugate right-handed electrons. particles and antiparticles are interchanged. The weak interactions. we can use a simpliﬁed formalism. For example. for example. and alternative formalisms that are speciﬁc to each system. also CP -symmetric. and can probe new physics. . Neutral-meson mixing : A state that is initially a superposi0 tion of M 0 and M .1. where H is the Hamiltonian governing weak interactions. 12. Under C.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. say 0 (12. or Bs meson. D. f2 . e+ . Thus. CP violation in the decay of a pseudoscalar meson M that might be a charged or neutral K. Kirkby (UC Irvine) and Y. Charged. and classiﬁcation of.13) 12. and observed in recent years in B decays. violated in certain rare processes. Under P . Subsequent sections describe the CP -violating phenomenology. e− R . 2010 12:56 .

with the normalization |q|2 + |p|2 = 1.19) H=M− Γ. 2010 12.34) In charged meson decays. p and q: 0 |ML ∝ p |M 0 + q |M 0 0 |MH ∝ p |M − q |M . Solving the eigenvalue problem for H yields 2 M∗ − (i/2)Γ∗12 q = 12 .22) 12. where mixing eﬀects are absent. To 0 specify the components of the strong interaction eigenstates. while CP violation 0 in neutral-meson decays is complicated by M 0 ↔ M oscillations. (12. CP violation in charged-meson decays depends only on the combination |Af /Af |.30) 0 dΓ M phys (t) → f /dt = e−Γt Nf |(p/q)Af |2 + |Af |2 cosh(yΓt) − |(p/q)Af |2 − |Af |2 cos(xΓt) ∗ ∗ + 2 Re((p/q)Af Af ) sinh(yΓt) − 2 Im((p/q)Af Af ) sin(xΓt) .1. (12. Deﬁning x ≡ Δm/Γ and y ≡ ΔΓ/(2Γ). (12. on |q/p| and on λf ≡ (q/p)(Af /Af ). this is the only possible source of CP asymmetries: |Af − /Af + |2 − 1 Γ(M − → f − ) − Γ(M + → f + ) = . for neutral-meson decays only.4. CP violation in decay is deﬁned by |Af /Af | = 1 . Af . Classiﬁcation of CP -violating eﬀects : We distinguish three types of CP -violating eﬀects in meson decays: I. additionally. since otherwise the mesons would only oscillate and not decay.1. can be written in terms of Hermitian matrices M and Γ as i (12.35) Af ± ≡ Γ(M − → f − ) + Γ(M + → f + ) |Af − /Af + |2 + 1 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. one obtains the following time-dependent decay rates: 0 dΓ Mphys (t) → f /dt = e−Γt Nf |Af |2 + |(q/p)Af |2 cosh(yΓt) + |Af |2 − |(q/p)Af |2 cos(xΓt) + 2 Re((q/p)A∗f Af ) sinh(yΓt) − 2 Im((q/p)A∗f Af ) sin(xΓt) .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. q/p. Any complex matrix. 2 The eigenvectors of H have well-deﬁned masses and decay widths. we introduce two complex parameters. 2010 12:56 . M 0 and M . and Af . CP -violating observables : All CP -violating observables in M and M decays to ﬁnal states f and f can be expressed in terms of phaseconvention-independent combinations of Af .20) (12.31) where Nf is a common. (12. p M12 − (i/2)Γ12 (12. normalization factor. CP violation in meson decays 12:56 189 Hamiltonian H that is not Hermitian. Af . and depends. such as H.3. time-independent. together with. 12. in the light (ML ) and heavy (MH ) mass eigenstates.

CP violation in interference between a decay without mixing. M 0 → M → f (such an eﬀect occurs only in decays to ﬁnal states that are common to M 0 0 and M . (12.38) with q Af λf ≡ .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.2. If.13). to lowest order in GF . and can be measured via the asymmetry of “wrong-sign” decays induced by oscillations: 0 0 (t) → − X dΓ/dt M phys (t) → + X − dΓ/dt Mphys ASL (t) ≡ 0 0 dΓ/dt M phys (t) → + X + dΓ/dt Mphys (t) → − X 1 − |q/p|4 . but not for K mesons. the decay amplitudes fulﬁll |AfCP | = |AfCP |. then AfCP has a particularly simple form (see Eq. is deﬁned by Im(λf ) = 0 . using the asymmetry of neutral meson decays into ﬁnal CP eigenstates fCP 0 0 (t) → fCP dΓ/dt M phys (t) → fCP − dΓ/dt Mphys AfCP (t) ≡ 0 . KS (KL ) would be CP -even (odd). below). and a decay with mixing. 0 M 0 → f . M → ± X (taking |A+ X | = |A− X | and A− X = A+ X = 0. CP violation in meson decays II. as is the case in the Standard Model. III. (12. including all CP eigenstates). and therefore would (would not) decay to two pions. CP (and T ) violation in mixing is deﬁned by |q/p| = 1 . the interference between decays with and without mixing is the only source of the asymmetry and AfCP (t) = Im(λfCP ) sin(xΓt). 2010 190 12:56 12.3. only the KobayashiMaskawa (KM) phase is CP -violating. (12. (12. this is the only source of CP violation. 12. 12. The Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix for quarks is described in the preceding CKM review and in the full edition. K Decays The decay amplitudes actually measured in neutral K decays refer to the mass eigenstates KL and KS .50) . and in most of its reasonable extensions).36) In charged-current semileptonic neutral meson decays M. π 0 π 0 |H|KL π + π − |H|KL η00 ≡ 0 0 .37) 1 + |q/p|4 Note that this asymmetry of time-dependent decay rates is actually time-independent. 2010 12:56 . in addition. (12. η+− ≡ + − π π |H|KS π π |H|KS *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. rather than to the K and K states referred to in Eq. Theoretical Interpretation: The KM Mechanism Of all the Standard Model quark parameters. In the CP limit. for example. We deﬁne CP -violating amplitude ratios for two-pion ﬁnal states. as expected to a good approximation for B mesons. The ﬁnal π + π − and π 0 π 0 states are CP -even.40) 0 dΓ/dt M phys (t) → fCP + dΓ/dt Mphys (t) → fCP If ΔΓ = 0 and |q/p| = 1. (12.39) p Af = This form of CP violation can be observed. (12.74). (12.

2010 12.4 ± 0.233 ± 0.32 ± 0. (12. Historically.010) × 10−3 (12.29]. (12. (12.56) where δL is a weighted average of muon and electron measurements.07)◦ . CP violation in K → 3π decays has not yet been observed [19. CP violation in meson decays 12:56 191 Another important observable is the asymmetry of time-integrated semileptonic decay rates: Γ(KL → + ν π − ) − Γ(KL → − ν π + ) . as well as in KL decays to π + π − γ and π + π − e+ e− [19].51) δL ≡ Γ(KL → + ν π − ) + Γ(KL → − ν π + ) CP violation has been observed as an appearance of KL decays to two-pion ﬁnal states [19].*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.53) where the phase φij of the amplitude ratio ηij has been determined: φ00 = (43.7 ± 0.222 ± 0.9950 ± 0. (12.010) × 10−3 |η+− | = (2. φ+− = (43.0008 .52) |η00 /η+− | = 0. CP violation in neutral K decays has been described in terms of parameters .08)◦ .06) × 10−3 .54) CP violation has also been observed in semileptonic KL decays [19] δL = (3. |η00 | = (2.

and .

by 1 − λπ0 π0 1 − λπ+ π− η00 = = .1. The observables η00 . . and to those of Section 12. η+− . and δL are related to these parameters.

− 2.

η+− = = . .

+ .

. 1 + λπ0 π0 1 + λπ+ π− δL = 1 − |q/p|2 1 + |q/p|2 = 2Re(.

) 1 + |.

B and Bs Decays The upper bound on the CP asymmetry in semileptonic B decays [20] 0 implies that CP violation in B 0 − B mixing is a small eﬀect (we use ASL /2 ≈ 1 − |q/p|. for the purpose of analyzing CP asymmetries in hadronic B decays. Within the Standard Model. the goal of the search for D0 –D0 mixing is not to constrain the CKM parameters.|2 . where φM (B) refers to the phase of M12 appearing in Eq. the CP -violating eﬀects are predicted to be negligibly small. we can use −iφ (12.73) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Here CP violation plays an important role.4. but rather to probe new physics. (12. D Decays First evidence for D0 –D0 mixing has been recently obtained [34–36]. Within the Standard Model. Long-distance contributions make it diﬃcult to calculate the Standard Model prediction for the D0 –D0 mixing parameters.37)): ASL = (−0. 12.0002 ± 0.4 ± 5.70) Thus.0028. Therefore. (12. by physics of the ﬁrst two generations. the corresponding phase factor is given by e −iφM(B) ∗ = (Vtb∗ Vtd )/(Vtb Vtd ). the most sensitive searches involve the D → K + K − and D → K ± π ∓ modes. 2010 12:56 . since the mixing and the relevant decays are described.6) × 10−3 =⇒ |q/p| = 1. to an excellent approximation.42) that 0 is appropriate for B 0 − B oscillations. (12. (12.57) 12. (12. At present.5. see Eq.72) λf = e M(B) (Af /Af ) . Observation of CP violation in D0 –D0 mixing (at a level much higher than O(10−3 )) will constitute an unambiguous signal of new physics.

∗V ∗V Vtb Vtd cb cd 12. Vqq tf + (12. we can neglect the pqu For B → J/ψKS and other ¯b → c¯c¯ terms.13). t is the quark in the loop) diagrams (see Fig. there are contributions from both tree (t) and penguin (pqu . For q = c or u.6. 12. within the Standard Model. 2 2 Im(λf ) 1 − λf Sf ≡ (12. where qu = u. A large class of interesting processes proceed via quark transitions of the form b → qqq with q = s or d. CψKS = 0.2) which carry diﬀerent weak phases: ∗ Vq∗u b Vqu q pqfu . 2010 192 12:56 12. but this Af should not be confused with the Af of Eq. CP violation in meson decays Some of the most interesting decays involve ﬁnal states that are 0 common to B 0 and B [40. All three types of CP violation have been observed in K → ππ decays: 1 Aπ0 π0 Aπ+ π− Re(.c. An alternative notation in use is Af ≡ −Cf . Summary and Outlook CP violation has been experimentally established in neutral K and B meson decays: 1. (12.74) 2 . Consequently. 1 + λf 1 + λf where we assume that ΔΓ = 0 and |q/p| = 1.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. It is convenient to rewrite Eq. Cf ≡ 2 .75) Af = Vqb qu =u.41].t s processes.40) for B decays as [42–44] Af (t) = Sf sin(Δmt) − Cf cos(Δmt). c. we have: ∗ Vtb∗ Vtd Vcb Vcd SψKS = Im − . (12.

4) × 10−6 (I) 6 Aπ0 π0 Aπ+ π− q 1 (II) Re(.5 ± 0. ) = − = (2.

02) × 10−3 2 p 1 Im(.) = 1 − = (1.66 ± 0.

ﬁrst in B 0 → K + π − decays (and more recently also in B → π + π − . and current limits are consistent with Standard Model expectations. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. (12.) = − Im(λ(ππ)I=0 ) = (1.098 ± 0.86) 2. B 0 → ηK ∗0 . and B + → ρ0 K + decays).673 ± 0. J/ψπ 0 and π + π − ): |AK − π+ /AK + π− |2 − 1 AK + π− = = −0.87) Searches for additional CP asymmetries are ongoing in B.023 . K + K − KS .013 (I) |AK − π+ /AK + π− |2 + 1 (III) SψK = Im(λψK ) = 0.57 ± 0.02) × 10−3 . D. (III) 2 (12. ﬁrst in B → J/ψKS decays and related modes (as well as other ﬁnal CP eigenstates: η KS . 2010 12:56 . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and K decays. and CP violation in interference of decays with and without mixing has been observed. Direct CP violation has been observed.

17. say ντ . L). i. ντ and ν¯τ .21.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. U. can be described assuming 3-neutrino mixing in vacuum. E. in vacuum. and tauon. NEUTRINO MASS. reactor and accelerator neutrinos [4–16. after traveling a suﬃciently large distance L. the “νμ survival probability”. and must have diﬀerent masses. with energy E is produced in some weak interaction process. Nakamura (IPMU.g. say νμ . The ﬁrst possibility is realized when there exists a lepton charge L carried by νj (e. L(νj ) = 1). The notion of neutrino type or ﬂavour is dynamical: νe is the neutrino which is produced with e+ . (13. Tokyo and KEK) and S. Tokyo). It follows from the current data that at least 3 of the neutrinos νj .1) implies that the individual lepton charges Ll . the probability that νμ will not change into a neutrino of a diﬀerent ﬂavour.e. must be light. νe and ν¯e . are not conserved. Massive neutrinos and neutrino mixing. which enter into the expression for the lepton current in the CC weak interaction Lagrangian. muon.18].22] have provided compelling evidences for the existence of neutrino oscillations [17. be bigger than 3 if. If the νμ → ντ oscillation or transition probability P (νμ → ντ .20. I. are given by: νlL (x) = Ulj νjL (x). μ. It is a well-established experimental fact that the neutrinos and antineutrinos which take part in the standard charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) weak interaction are of three varieties (types) or ﬂavours: electron. The neutrino νj has a distinctive antiparticle ν¯j : ν¯j diﬀers from νj by the value of L it carries *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ν¯τ ). the massive neutrinos νj can be Dirac or Majorana particles [27. l = e. μ. τ. At present there are no compelling experimental evidences for the existence of more than 3 light neutrinos. caused by nonzero neutrino masses and neutrino mixing. L). ν¯μ . The ﬂavour of a given neutrino is Lorentz invariant. 2010 12:56 13. transitions in ﬂight between the diﬀerent ﬂavour neutrinos νe . Neutrino mixing 193 13.T. e. Eq. P (νμ → ντ . or lepton mixing. which is conserved by the particle interactions. E. Trieste and IPMU. Oscillations of neutrinos are a consequence of the presence of neutrino mixing. m1 = m2 = m3 .. τ . ν3 . The existence of oscillations implies that if a given ﬂavour neutrino. E. m1. l = e. All neutrino oscillation data. MIXING. or produces an e− . U.. atmospheric. L = Le + Lμ + Lτ . P (νμ → νμ . ντ (antineutrinos ν¯e . Petcov (SISSA/INFN. say ν1 . νμ and ν¯μ . The number of massive neutrinos νj . n. L) = 0. is diﬀerent from zero. can. will be smaller than one. AND OSCILLATIONS Written May 2010 by K.1) j where νjL (x) is the LH component of the ﬁeld of a neutrino νj possessing a mass mj and U is a unitary matrix . Being electrically neutral.g.2.3 1 eV.. One would observe a “disappearance” of muon neutrinos on the way from the νμ source to the detector if only νμ are detected and they take part in oscillations. νμ . In the formalism used to construct the Standard Model. Among the three diﬀerent ﬂavour neutrinos and antineutrinos.28].the neutrino mixing matrix [1. (13. except for the LSND result [23]. 2010 12:56 . this means that the LH ﬂavour neutrino ﬁelds νlL (x).18]. ν2 . in general. there exist sterile neutrinos [1] and they mix with the ﬂavour neutrinos. the probability that it will change into a diﬀerent ﬂavour neutrino. etc. The experiments with solar. in CC weak interaction processes. no two are identical.

(13. Neutrino oscillations in vacuum. In this case exp[i(αj1 − αk1 )] = ±1 is the relative CP-parity of Majorana neutrinos χj and χk . however. . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. e. νj ≡ χj . α31 . In this case U can be cast in the form [30] U =V P (13. (13. l = e.31]. Even in the mixing involving only 2 massive Majorana neutrinos there is one physical CP violation Majorana phase. αn1 . μ. (13. ei 2 . Eq. II. the massive Majorana neutrino ﬁelds cannot “absorb” phases. τ .. (13. l = e.1). by (n − 1) phases more than in the Dirac neutrino case: in contrast to Dirac ﬁelds. In this respect the neutrino mixing with Dirac massive neutrinos is similar to the quark mixing.. n. On the basis of the existing neutrino data it is impossible to determine whether the massive neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana fermions. qj = 0. In the case of n = 3 there are 3 CP violation phases . j = 2..” CP invariance holds if U is real. 2010 194 12:56 13. while P is a diagonal matrix with the additional (n − 1) Majorana CP violation phases α21 .3) The Majorana phases will conserve CP if [32] αj1 = πqj . A massive Majorana particle χj is identical with its antiparticle χ ¯ j : χj ≡ χ ¯j .g. |νl .5) |νl = j p˜j being the 4-momentum of νj . p˜j . p˜j .1). . In the case of n neutrino ﬂavours and n massive neutrinos. μ. 29). the state of the neutrino νl . α21 α31 αn1 P = diag 1.. we get: |¯ νl = Ulj |¯ νj . 2010 12:56 . Suppose the ﬂavour neutrino νl is produced in a CC weak interaction process and is observed by a neutrino detector capable of detecting also neutrinos νl .. only (n − 1)(n − 2)/2 phases are physical and can be responsible for CP violation in the lepton sector. the massive neutrinos are Majorana fermions. the n × n unitary neutrino mixing matrix U can be parametrised by n(n − 1)/2 Euler angles and n(n + 1)/2 phases. (13. will be a coherent superposition of the states |νj of neutrinos νj : ∗ Ulj |νj . Neutrino oscillations are a quantum mechanical consequence of the existence of nonzero neutrino masses and neutrino (lepton) mixing. produced in a weak interaction process. (13.7) j Note the presence of U in Eq. Ref. If.. 2.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. “the Dirac CP violating phase.. 1.e. If the massive neutrinos νj are Dirac particles. and of the relatively small splitting between the neutrino masses. U ∗ = U .. The condition of CP invariance of the leptonic CC weak interaction reads [29]: ∗ = Ulj ρj . The neutrinos νj can be Majorana particles if no lepton charge is conserved (see.. takes place and the masses mj of all neutrinos νj are suﬃciently small. ei 2 . For the state vector of the ﬂavour antineutrino ν¯l . Neutrino mixing (L(¯ νj ) = − 1).one Dirac and two Majorana.. (13. ei 2 .4) Ulj where ηCP (χj ) is the CP parity of the Majorana neutrino χj [32]. τ . (13. For n = 3 there is one CP violating phase in U . If lepton mixing.7). the neutrino mixing matrix U contains n(n − 1)/2 CP violation phases [30.5) and U ∗ in Eq. l = l.. Eq. ρj = − i ηCP (χj ) = ±1 . 3.. i.2) where the matrix V contains the (n − 1)(n − 2)/2 Dirac CP violation phases.

Suppose that the neutrinos are observed via a CC weak interaction process and that in the detector’s rest frame they are detected after time T after emission.12) Lvjk = 4π = 2. T = (tf −t0 ) and L = k(xf − x0 ). p p[M eV ] ∼ (13.10) δϕjk = (Ej − Ek ) T − pj + pk pj + pk The ﬁrst term in the r.35. The deviations of Ej and pj from the values for a massless neutrino E and p = E. (13. If the spectrum of neutrino masses is not degenerate. the states |νj . The relation T = L/¯ v has not emerged so far from any dynamical (wave packet) calculations.h.10) is negligible. or Ej = Ek . pj = pk = p. (13. What is relevant for the calculation of the probability P (νl → νl ) = |A(νl → νl )|2 is the interference factor Dj Dk∗ . and are extremely small. p˜j in the r. where Ej = p2j + m2j . the interference *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.9) where Dj describes the propagation of νj between the source and the † and Ul j are the amplitudes to ﬁnd νj in the initial and in detector.37]: † Ul j Dj Ujl . v¯ = (Ej /(Ej +Ek ))vj +(Ek /(Ej +Ek ))vk being the “average” velocity of νj and νk . τ . E0 being a characteristic energy of the process.7) have the same 3-momentum [37.11) δϕjk ∼ = 2p Ljk 2 where Lvjk is the neutrino oscillation length associated with Δm2jk . μ. (13. p = E. which can be cast in the form: m2j − m2k Ej + Ek L + L.k = pj.5) will have diﬀerent energies and diﬀerent momenta. Then the amplitude of the probability that neutrino νl will be observed if neutrino νl was produced by the neutrino source can be written as [33. after traveling a distance L. Ujl the ﬁnal ﬂavour neutrino state. p = . Although the cases considered above are physically quite diﬀerent.Eq.5) . Eq.h.h. L. The latter depends on the phase δϕjk = (Ej − Ek )T − (pj − pk )L. independently of the process in which they were produced: p˜j = p˜k . If the states of νj and ν¯j in Eq.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Eq. In the wave packet treatment of the problem. pj ≡ |pj |.8) A(νl → νl ) = j Dj ≡ Dj (˜ pj . being suppressed by the additional factor (m2j + m2k )/p2 since for relativistic neutrinos L = T up to terms ∼ m2j. T ) = e−i˜pj (xf −x0 ) = e−i(Ej T −pj L) . pj = pk . l.k /p2 .11). 2010 12:56 13. are proportional to m2j /E0 . (13. of Eq. (13. j = k. (13. x0 and xf are the space-time coordinates of the points of neutrino production and detection. where vj. (13. (13. of Eq. is Lorentz-invariant. respectively.k /Ej. (13. 2010 12:56 .9) corresponds to a plane-wave description of the propagation of neutrinos νj . which corresponds to the conditions in both past and currently planned future neutrino oscillation experiments [36].k .s. pj = pk .41]. they lead to the same result for the phase diﬀerence δϕjk : m2j − m2k pj + pk L L = 2π v sgn(m2j − m2k ) . j = k [33].s. Neutrino mixing 195 We will consider the case of relativistic neutrinos νj . One arrives at the same conclusion if Ej = Ek . l = e. (13.10) vanishes i) if [39] T = (Ej +Ek ) L/(pj +pk ) = L/¯ v . (13. The phase diﬀerence δϕjk .s. of Eq. or ii) if one assumes [40] that Ej = Ek = E0 . the ﬁrst term in the r.48 m |Δm2jk | |Δm2jk |[eV 2 ] We can consider p to be the zero neutrino mass momentum. pj = kpj .

j = 2. at least two neutrinos νj should not be degenerate in mass and lepton mixing should take place. Rjk l j lj lk l k jk jk It follows from Eq.Eq.13) 2p j P (¯ νl → ν¯l ) = j j>k l l Rjj +2 j>k ll |Rjk | cos( Δm2jk 2p ll L + φjk ). τ .. In the case (μe) (τ e) (τ μ) of 3-neutrino mixing one has [45]: ACP = −ACP = ACP . (13. μ. Δm221 Δm213 Δm232 (μe) L + sin L + sin L . The conditions of CP invariance read [30. l = e.11): Δm2jk ll l l l l L − φjk P (νl → νl ) = Rjj +2 |Rjk | cos( ). (13. and ii) the experiments investigating the νl → νl and ν¯l → ν¯l oscillations cannot provide information on the nature . As a measure of CP violation in neutrino oscillations we can consider (l l) (ll ) the asymmetry: ACP = P (νl → νl ) − P (¯ νl → ν¯l ) = −ACP . l = e.44].8). Thus. and Eq. l. (13. 2010 196 12:56 13.14) that P (νl → νl ) = P (¯ νl → ν¯l ).18). τ . than source-detector distance L (otherwise the oscillations will not have time to develop before neutrinos reach the detector).37]) . e. Thus. i) in the case of oscillations in vacuum. (13. where l. so that *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.g. (13.14) that we can have CP violation eﬀects in neutrino oscillations only if U is not real.9). [33. The oscillations eﬀects can be large if at least for one Δm2jk we have |Δm2jk |L/(2p) = 2πL/Lvjk 1. only the Dirac phase(s) in U can cause CP violating eﬀects leading to P (νl → νl ) = P (¯ νl → ν¯l ).Eq. the oscillation length Lvjk is of the order of. Eq. μ. (n − 1). caused by oscillations in vacuum. 2010 12:56 . (13. Consider next neutrino oscillations in the case of one neutrino mass squared diﬀerence “dominance”: suppose that |Δm2j1 | |Δm2n1 |..35. (13. Even if JCP = 0.e. cannot be used to test the CP invariance in the lepton sector.13) . . (13.42.10) that in order for neutrino oscillations to occur. (13. (13. we get for the survival νl → ν¯l ). We see from Eq. (13.14) imply that P (νl → νl ) and P (¯ the Majorana phases in the neutrino mixing matrix U [30]. For the νl → νl and ν¯l → ν¯l oscillation probabilities we get from Eq. Neutrino mixing between the states of νj and νk is subject to a number of conditions. the study probabilities: P (νl → νl ) = P (¯ of the “disappearance” of νl and ν¯l . l = e. It follows from Eq. τ . JCP controls the magnitude of CP violation eﬀects in neutrino oscillations in (l l) the case of 3-neutrino mixing.43]: P (νl → νl ) = P (¯ νl → ν¯l ). This is a consequence of CPT invariance.8) . (13.14) l l = U U ∗ U U ∗ and φl l = arg Rl l . Thus.Dirac or Majorana. μ..18) ACP = 4 JCP sin 2p 2p 2p ∗ U U∗ where JCP = Im Uμ3 Ue3 e2 μ2 is analogous to the rephasing invariant associated with the CP violation in the quark mixing [46]. (13. which we will assume to hold.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. l..13) νl → ν¯l ) do not depend on Eq. of massive neutrinos [30. U = 1. |Δm2n1 | L/(2p) 1 and |Δm2j1 | L/(2p) 1. (13. (13. we will have ACP = 0 unless all three sin(Δm2ij /(2p))L = 0 in Eq. i.2) and Eq. (13. l = l . or smaller. Eq.13) and Eq. the localization condition and the condition of overlapping of the wave packets of νj and νk at the detection point being the most important (see. In the case of CPT invariance.

and/or the energy resolution of the detector. . Δm231 : |Δm221 |/|Δm231 | ∼ = 0.. keeping only the oscillating terms involving Δm2n1 : P (νl(l ) → νl (l) ) ∼ νl(l ) → ν¯l (l) ). say Δm221 . which the OPERA experiment is aiming to detect.13) and Eq. l = e) on a distance L ∼ 1 km.032. (13. Neutrino mixing 197 ∼ 1.20) with n = 3. In certain cases the dimensions of the neutrino source. and/or 2π(L/Lvjk )(ΔE/E) 1. (13. (13.20) = δll − 4|Uln |2 δll − |Ul n |2 sin2 4p It follows from the neutrino oscillation data that in the case of 3-neutrino mixing. l = τ . ΔE. (13. |Δm231 | ∼ = 2. Daya Bay and RENO experiments. The νμ → ντ oscillations. the interference terms in P (νl → νl ) and P (¯ νl → ν¯l ) will be strongly suppressed and the neutrino ﬂavour conversion will be.4 × 10−3 eV2 . corresponding to the CHOOZ and the Double Chooz. seen in the K2K and MINOS experiments. is much smaller in absolute value than the second one. If [29] 2πΔL/Lvjk 1. have to be included in the analysis of the neutrino oscillation data.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 13.14). one of the two independent neutrino mass squared diﬀerences.. j = 2. and of ii) the accelerator νμ (l. (13. = P (¯ Δm2n1 P (νl(l ) → νl (l) ) ∼ L . (n − 1).20) with n = 3 and l = μ. ΔL. can be described in the case of 3-neutrino mixing by Eq. Eq. l = μ). Under these conditions we exp[i(Δm2j1 L/(2p)] = obtain from Eq.. describes with a relatively good precision the oscillations of i) reactor ν¯e ( l.

26. Matter eﬀects in neutrino oscillations.30) L P 2ν (νl → νx ) = 1 − P 2ν (νl → νl ). 2 Δm221 Pee ∼ L (13. When neutrinos propagate in matter (e. L P 2ν (νl → νl ) = 1 − sin2 2θ sin2 π v .g. the oscillations due to Δm231 are strongly suppressed by the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and the oscillations due to Δm231(32) are strongly suppressed (averaged out) due to integration over the region of neutrino production. e. in the Earth. In the case of. Lv = 4π p/Δm2 .g.52]. the probabilities of neutrino transitions in matter can diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the corresponding vacuum oscillation probabilities. The data of ν-oscillations experiments is often analyzed assuming 2-neutrino mixing: |νl = |ν1 cos θ + |ν2 sin θ. their coherent forward-scattering from the particles present in matter can change drastically the pattern of neutrino oscillations [25. In this case we get for the νe and ν¯e survival probabilities: P (νe → νe ) = P (¯ νe → ν¯e ) ≡ Pee .26) 1 − sin2 2θ12 sin2 = |Ue3 |4 + 1 − |Ue3 |2 4p with θ12 determined by cos2 θ12 = |Ue1 |2 /(1 − |Ue3 |2 ).g. III. where θ is the neutrino mixing angle in vacuum and νx is another ﬂavour neutrino or sterile (anti-) neutrino. while |Δm231(32) | L/(2p) 1..26) describes the eﬀects of reactor ν¯e oscillations observed by the KamLAND experiment (L ∼ 180 km). Suppose next that in the case of 3-neutrino mixing. sin2 θ12 = |Ue2 |2 /(1 − |Ue3 |2 ).. Thus. In this case we have [41]: Δm2 = m22 − m21 > 0. (13. etc. in which the ﬁrst compelling evidence for neutrino oscillations was obtained. |Δm221 | L/(2p) ∼ 1. Eq. Sun or a supernova). (13. 2010 12:56 .. x = τ was used.30) with l = μ. (13. x = l = l or νx ≡ ν¯s . Eq. in the atmospheric neutrino data analysis [13]. solar νe transitions in the Sun and 3-neutrino mixing. e.determined by the average probabilities: P¯ (νl → νl ) = P¯ (¯ νl → ν¯l ) ∼ = j |Ul j |2 |Ulj |2 . |νx = −|ν1 sin θ + |ν2 cos θ.

48. 13. We discuss the relevant data in the full edition. The νe undergo transitions into (νμ + ντ )/ 2.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. As a consequence of the eﬀects of the solar matter.10: The regions of squared-mass splitting and mixing angle favored or excluded by various experiments. averaging over the region of neutrino √ production in the Sun.5 sin2 2θ ) 0.93. 2010 198 12:56 13. the solar νe transitions observed by the SuperKamiokande and SNO experiments exhibit a characteristic dependence 3ν (ν → ν ) ∼ |U |4 + (1 − |U |2 )2 sin2 θ . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.056 and sin2 2θ12 0. The regions of the oscillation parameter space favored or excluded by various neutrino oscillation experiments are shown in Fig.3. Murayama (University of California.10. IV. The evidence for ﬂavour neutrino oscillations. The data on sin2 θ12 : P e e = e3 e3 12 3ν show that P ∼ = 0. Neutrino mixing Figure 13. where we used the P = e3 e3 12 experimental limits |Ue3 |2 < 0. The evidence for ﬂavour neutrino oscillations/transitions is compelling. University of Tokyo). The ﬁgure was contributed by H. which is a strong evidence for solar matter eﬀects in the transitions [85] since in the case of transitions in vacuum 3ν ∼ |U |4 + (1 − |U |2 )2 (1 − 0. Berkeley. and IPMU. 2010 12:56 .

Depending on the values of the lightest neutrino mass [113]. m2j |Δm221. Correspondingly. ei 2 . |Δm231 | ∼ 2 2 ∼ sin 2θ23 = 1. Thus. Thus. where . These results imply that Δm221 |Δm231 | and that θ23 ∼ = π/4.77)) of U has the form: JCP = (1/8) cos θ13 sin 2θ12 sin 2θ23 sin 2θ13 sin δ. ii) with inverted ordering (IO): 1 m3 < m1 < m2 .18)) in the “standard” parametrisation (Eq.31 |.304. One may expect that the dominant contribution in the (ββ)0ν -decay amplitude is due to the exchange of the light Majorana neutrinos νj . (13. α31 are the two Majorana phases.40 × 10−3 eV 2 . the pattern of neutrino mixing is drastically diﬀerent from the pattern of quark mixing. m1 = 1 (m23 + Δm223 − Δm221 ) 2 .. the size of CP violation eﬀects in neutrino oscillations depends on the currently unknown values of the “small” angle θ13 and the Dirac phase δ.65 × 10−5 eV 2 . sin θ13 < 0. and to obtain rather stringent limit on the angle θ13 : Δm221 ∼ = 2. Z) → (A. etc.4 and θ13 < π/13. Δm221 > 0. or b) inverted hierarchical (IH): m3 m1 < m2 . = 7. The existing neutrino oscillation data do not allow to determine the sign of Δm231(32) . All compelling data on neutrino oscillations can be described assuming 3-ﬂavour neutrino mixing in vacuum.056 (at 3σ). min(mj ). Neutrino mixing 199 V. m2 =(m23 + Δm223 ) 2 . Z − 2). 124). sij = sin θij . δ = [0. 2010 12:56 13. Z + 2) + e− + e− (see e. Ref. m0 0. m2(3) =(m21 + Δm221(31) ) 2 . Three neutrino mixing. ei 2 ) . In this case the (ββ)0ν -decay rate is proportional to | < m > |2 . the angles θij = [0. Δm231 > 0. with a relatively good precision. 2π] is the Dirac CP violation phase and α21 . In this case U can be parametrised as ⎤ ⎡ s12 c13 s13 e−iδ c12 c13 U = ⎣ −s12 c23 − c12 s23 s13 eiδ c12 c23 − s12 s23 s13 eiδ s23 c13 ⎦ s12 s23 − c12 c23 s13 eiδ −c12 s23 − s12 c23 s13 eiδ c23 c13 α21 α31 × diag(1.g. (13. sin2 θ12 ∼ = 0. θ12 ∼ = π/5. and |Δm231 |. two types of neutrino mass spectrum are possible: i) with normal ordering: m1 < m2 < m3 . π/2]. Δm232(31) < 0. At present no experimental information on the CP violation phases in the mixing matrix U is available. sin2 2θ23 . The latter can be triggered by the exchange of the neutrino νj if it is identical with its antiparticle. The only feasible experiments having the potential of establishing that the massive neutrinos are Majorana particles are at present the experiments searching for (ββ)0ν -decay: (A. the neutrino mass spectrum can also be: a) normal hierarchical (NH): m1 m2 < m3 . sin2 θ12 . Δm221 > 0. The existing neutrino oscillation data allow us to determine the parameters which drive the solar νe and the dominant atmospheric νμ → ντ oscillations. All three types of spectrum are compatible with the existing data.10 eV. 1 Δm221 > 0.77) where cij = cos θij . or c) quasi-degenerate (QD): m1 ∼ = m2 ∼ = m3 ≡ m0 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (13. Z) → μ+ + (A. The Majorana nature of massive neutrinos νj manifests itself in the existence of |ΔL| = 2 processes: μ− + (A. The JCP factor (see Eq.

2010 12:56 . Determining the type of neutrino mass spectrum. <2m > is the “(ββ)0ν -decay eﬀective Majorana mass”. For details and references. see the full Review. | < m > | = | j Uej mj |. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. the status of the CP symmetry in the lepton sector and the nature of massive neutrinos are among the major goals of the future studies in neutrino physics.

where s is 0 (antiparallel quark spins) or 1 (parallel quark spins). States in the natural spin-parity series P = (−1)J must. The very short lifetime of the t quark makes it likely that bound-state hadrons containing t quarks and/or antiquarks do not exist. Boulder).) are forbidden in the q q¯ model. SU(4) is badly broken owing to the much heavier c *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2+− . They are related to the charge Q (in units of the elementary charge e) through the generalized Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula Q = Iz + B+S+C+B+T . 2010 12:56 . the axial vectors (1++ ) and (1+− ). If the orbital angular momentum of the qq state is . DeGrand (University of Colorado. then the parity P is (−1)+1 . e. or T) has the same sign as its charge Q.2. is deﬁned only for the q q¯ states made of quarks and their own antiquarks. or C-parity C = (−1)+s . However.g. and s quarks are grouped into an octet and a singlet of light quark mesons: 3⊗3=8⊕1 . Antiquarks have the opposite ﬂavor signs. 3−+ . the nine possible q q¯ combinations containing the light u. according to the above. The meson spin J is given by the usual relation | − s| ≤ J ≤ | + s|. The mesons are classiﬁed in J P C multiplets. etc. The orbital excitations = 1 are the scalars (0++ ). Following SU(3). 1−+ . Thus. but would lie outside the q q¯ model (see section below on exotic mesons). Table 14. Radial excitations are denoted by the principal quantum number n. 2010 200 12:56 14. Quarks have the additive baryon number 1/3. CP = +1. Amsler (University of Z¨ urich).3. B. have s = 1 and hence. they are qq bound states of quarks q and antiquarks q (the ﬂavors of q and q may be diﬀerent).*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1. QUARK MODEL Revised September 2009 by C. With this convention. Assignments for many of the known mesons are given in Tables 14. The J P C = 0−− state is forbidden as well. C. positive parity. The charge conjugation. In the quark model. Quantum numbers of the quarks Quarks are strongly interacting fermions with spin 1/2 and. The = 0 states are the pseudoscalars (0−+ ) and the vectors (1−− ). antiquarks -1/3. (14. and the tensors (2++ ). and for the charged ud¯ and d¯ u states (isospin I = 1). Antiquarks have negative parity. 14.2) A fourth quark such as charm c can be included by extending SU(3) to SU(4). Mesons Mesons have baryon number B = 0. the bottomness of the B + is +1. T. mesons with natural spin-parity and CP = −1 (0+− .2 and 14.. and B. the strangeness of the K + is +1. any ﬂavor carried by a charged meson has the same sign as its charge. by convention. Krusche (University of Basel).1 gives the other additive quantum numbers (ﬂavors) for the three generations of quarks. and the charm and strangeness of the Ds− are each −1. 14. d.1) where B is the baryon number. 2 (14. The convention is that the flavor of a quark (Iz . The C-parity can be generalized to the G-parity G = (−1)I++s for mesons made of quarks and their own antiquarks (isospin Iz = 0). Mesons with such exotic quantum numbers may exist. S. Quark model 14.

...... so far all established baryons are 3-quark (qqq) conﬁgurations........ (14.. and c quarks as a function of isospin I...........22) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.. ud ........ The color part of their state functions is an SU(3) singlet.. Nevertheless. ... the sixteen mesons are grouped into a 15-plet and a singlet: 4 ⊗ 4 = 15 ⊕ 1 ......... Quark model quark... The nonets of light mesons occupy the central planes to 3 which the c¯ c states have been added......... d.... 2010 12:56 201 14........ s.. − K* K *0 − − dc− − uc D*0 * D sc Ds* − Figure 14.. du . The light quark mesons are members of nonets building the middle plane in Fig.... Baryons: qqq states Baryons are fermions with baryon number B = 1....... spin........ − . ..... ....... − .su J .......antiquark pairs.............. in the most general case..e.................... a completely antisymmetric state of the three colors.... are generally assumed to be negligible................. ds us−.......... ................. Thus it can be written as | qqq A = | color A × | space......21) where the subscripts S and A indicate symmetry or antisymmetry under interchange of any two equal-mass quarks. sd .............. ...................... .. − . 2010 12:56 ...... the state function must be antisymmetric under interchange of any two equal-mass quarks (up and down quarks in the limit of isospin symmetry).*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.... Although recently some experimental evidence for (qqqq q¯) pentaquark states has been claimed (see review on Possible Exotic Baryon Resonance)..1(a) and (b)... and hypercharge Y = S+B − C ..... ..............3................. .... and the much heavier charmonium or bottomonium states...................... i........... 14...... ...............3) The weight diagrams for the ground-state pseudoscalar (0−+ ) and vector (1−− ) mesons are depicted in Fig...... ... /ψ φ sd... . charm C....... ..... . . ......... 14.......................... . ﬂavor S .. ......... Isoscalar states with the same J P C will mix..... 14.. they are composed of three quarks plus any number of quark ..... (14....1..... π η ηc η′ π– K – uc− dc− D– sc− C Y I Ds− Ds* + cs− π+ K0 D0 (b) D*0 cu− cd− D* + *+ K *0 K..... in an SU(4) classiﬁcation..... .......... − ω − .... ......... 0 ........... spin...... .. us− ...................... − ... ......... ............ (14.. Ds+ − − cs cd− cu D0 K0 (a) + D + K ............ ...... but mixing between the two light quark isoscalar mesons. − .... − du ........... ρ+ − ud .. isospin A ..... ...... ρ ...... Note the contrast with the state function for the three nucleons in 3 H or 3 He: | N N N A = | space. .... − − ....................... Since the quarks are fermions........... 0 ds ... ..... su ................ ρ .. ...... ......1: SU(4) weight diagram showing the 16-plets for the pseudoscalar (a) and vector mesons (b) made of the u....

such as the octet that includes the nucleon. Ξ cc+ Σ c0 + Ωcc ddc Ξc dsc 0 Σ− n udd Λ+c. Σ c+ udc Ω0 ssc c uuc usc Ξ c+ uud uds Λ . (a) The 20-plet with an SU(3) octet.2(b) show the SU(4) baryon multiplets that have as their bottom levels an SU(3) octet. For further details. The three ﬂavors imply an approximate ﬂavor SU(3). All particles in a given SU(4) multiplet have the same spin and parity. magnetic moments.” shows how relative decay rates in. Section 37. d. However.Σ 0 dds dss Ξ ++ Ξ cc dcc ucc scc (a) Σc++ p uus uss − (14. If these have the same spin and parity. The charmed baryons are discussed in more detail in the “Note on Charmed Baryons” in the Particle Listings. and s quarks.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. see the full Review of Particle Physics. mixed-symmetry. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. which requires that baryons made of these quarks belong to the multiplets on the right side of 3 ⊗ 3 ⊗ 3 = 10S ⊕ 8M ⊕ 8M ⊕ 1A . The addition of the c quark to the light quarks extends the ﬂavor symmetry to SU(4). etc. The “ordinary” baryons are made up of u. In the ground state multiplet. the existence of baryons with t-quarks is very unlikely due to the short lifetime of the top. The addition of a b quark extends the ﬂavor symmetry to SU(5). due to the large mass of the c quark.2(a) and 14. on “SU(3) Isoscalar Factors and Representation Matrices. such as the decuplet that includes the Δ(1232). 2010 12:56 . (b) The 20-plet with an SU(3) decuplet. Here the subscripts indicate symmetric. The mechanism is the same as for the mesons (see above).23) Σ+ Ξ Ω ++ ccc 0 (b) + Ξ cc Σ c0 + Ωcc ddc Ξc Δ− ddd Σ− Δ0 − uuc usc ssc udd uds dds Ξ Σ c+ udc dsc 0 ++ Ξ cc dcc ucc scc Ωc0 Δ Σ0 uss dss sss Σ c++ Ξ+ + c uud uus Ξ0 uuu Δ++ Σ+ Ω− Figure 14. The 1 is a uds state (Λ1 ). and the octet contains a similar state (Λ8 ). 2010 202 12:56 14. the SU(3) ﬂavor singlet Λ1 is forbidden by Fermi statistics. s. say. d. or antisymmetric states under interchange of any two quarks. Figures 14. or an SU(3) decuplet. this symmetry is much more strongly broken than the SU(3) of the three light quarks. Quark model This diﬀerence has major implications for internal structure. they can mix. and c quarks. 10 → 8 ⊗ 8 decays may be calculated.2: SU(4) multiplets of baryons made of u.

1 is called deep (Q2 M 2 ) inelastic (W 2 M 2 ) scattering (DIS). the masses of the initial and scattered leptons.1. in the parton model. Martin (University of Durham). or Z. If EE sin2 (θ/2) m2 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. k k P. where θ is the lepton’s scattering angle with respect to the lepton beam direction. y= q·P ν = is the fraction of the lepton’s energy lost in the nucleon k·P E rest frame. 16. x is the fraction of the nucleon’s x= 2M ν momentum carried by the struck quark. The ﬁlled circle in this ﬁgure represents the internal structure of the proton which can be expressed in terms of structure functions. Deep inelastic scattering High-energy lepton-nucleon scattering (deep inelastic scattering) plays a key role in determining the partonic structure of the proton.G. 16. m2 . Foster (University of Oxford). Structure functions 203 16. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The exchanged particle is a γ.1. W 2 = (P + q)2 = M 2 + 2M ν − Q2 is the mass squared of the system X recoiling against the scattered lepton. 2010 12:56 16. W ± . Q2 + M 2 + m2 is the center-of-mass energy squared of the xy lepton-nucleon system. Invariant quantities: q·P = E − E is the lepton’s energy loss in the nucleon rest frame M (in earlier literature sometimes ν = q · P ). Here. A. 16. P is the four-momentum of a nucleon with mass M . and M. E and E are the initial and ﬁnal lepton energies in the nucleon rest frame. M q W Figure 16. The process N → X is illustrated in Fig. → − − → Q2 = −q 2 = 2(EE − k · k ) − m2 − m2 where m (m ) is the initial (ﬁnal) lepton mass. m and m .D. then ν= ≈ 4EE sin2 (θ/2). are neglected. and W is the mass of the recoiling system X. In what follows. it transfers four-momentum q = k − k to the nucleon. 2010 12:56 . Vincter (Carleton University).1: Kinematic quantities for the description of deep inelastic scattering. STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS Updated September 2007 by B. Q2 where. The quantities k and k are the four-momenta of the incoming and outgoing leptons. s = (k + P )2 = The process in Fig.

an alternative approach is to express the tensors in Eq. (16. (For transverse nucleon polarization.1. gA 2 2 formalism is adopted. which describes the interaction of the appropriate electroweak currents with the target nucleon. 1–4) d2 σ 2πyα2 j = ηj Lμν (16.1. (16. dxdy Q4 j For neutral-current processes. j = W . Although here the helicity where gVe = − 1 + 2 sin2 θW . Q2 + MZ2 2 2πα 2 2 GF MW Q2 2 1 . The factors ηj in Eq. For incoming leptons of charge e = ±1 and helicity λ = ±1. Structure functions 16. Lγμν = 2 kμ kν + kμ kν − k · k gμν − iλεμναβ k α k β . Z and γZ representing photon and Z exchange and the interference between them.2) j Wμν . whereas for charged-current interactions there is only W exchange.4) ηZ = ηγZ . (16. the summation is over j = γ. the cross section for the scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons can be expressed in terms of the products of leptonic and hadronic tensors associated with the coupling of the exchanged bosons at the upper and lower vertices in Fig.) Lμν is the lepton tensor associated with the coupling of the exchange boson to the leptons. DIS cross sections : d2 σ d2 σ d2 σ 2π M ν = x (s − M 2 ) = .3) in terms of the polarization of the lepton. 2010 204 12:56 16. ηγZ = .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 16. there is a dependence on the azimuthal angle of the scattered lepton.3) e = − 1 . 2 γ LW μν =(1 + eλ) Lμν . (16. e e 2 γ LZ μν = (gV + eλgA ) Lμν . is given by . (16.2) denote the ratios of the corresponding propagators and couplings to the photon propagator and coupling squared GF MZ2 Q2 √ ηγ = 1 .1) dx dy dx dQ2 E dΩNrest dE In lowest-order perturbation theory.1 (see Refs. e e γ LγZ μν =(gV + eλgA ) Lμν . ηW = 2 2 4πα Q2 + MW The hadronic tensor.

with S 2 = −M 2 and S · P = 0. 1–3) qμ qν Pˆμ Pˆν F2 (x. S . 1 (16. 16. Jν (0) P. S Jμ† (z). Q2 ) + Wμν = −gμν + P ·q q2 qα P β F3 (x. Q2 ) S β g1 (x.5) Wμν = d4 z eiq·z P. Q2 ) + S β − P ·q P ·q − iεμναβ *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Q2 ) F1 (x. Q2 ) 2P · q qα S·q β + iεμναβ P g2 (x. 2010 12:56 . 4π where S denotes the nucleon-spin 4-vector. Structure functions of the proton The structure functions are deﬁned in terms of the hadronic tensor (see Refs.2.

13) where λ . F2 . (16. The CC structure functions.6) g 5 P ·q P ·q q2 where P ·q qμ . and where λ is the helicity of the incoming lepton and ηW is deﬁned in Eq. γ γZ e )ηγZ F2 F2NC = F2 − (gVe ±λgA e2 e + (gVe 2 +gA ±2λgVe gA ) ηZ F2Z (16.9) with ± for ± . 2 where i = NC.10) γ γZ The NC structure functions F2 .5 (x.7) The cross sections for neutral.14) Q Q *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Q2 ) of Eq. which derive exclusively from W exchange. (16.8) xF3i . (16. (16. Q ) (16.. The factor η NC = 1 for unpolarized e± beams.3) is still true.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. given by Ref.12) The polarized cross-section diﬀerence Δσ = σ(λn = −1. λ ) − σ(λn = 1. (16. the − sign is taken for an incoming e+ or ν and the + sign for an incoming e− or ν. (16.and charged-current deep inelastic scattering on unpolarized nucleons can be written in terms of the structure functions in the generic form d2 σ i 4πα2 i x2 y 2 M 2 = η 1 − y − F2i 2 2 dxdy xyQ Q y2 + y 2 xF1i ∓ y − (16. LW μν of Eq. F2Z are. 2010 12:56 . but with e. Q2 ) + −gμν + (x. for e± N → e± X. whereas η CC = (1 ± λ)2 ηW (16. Thus.6). (16. λ ) .8). Q2 ) + P ·q 2 P ·q qμ qν S · q Pˆμ Pˆν 2 + g4 (x. 2 8πα2 i d2 Δσ i M2 2 2M = η y 2 − y − 2x y −λ xg1i + λ 4x3 y 2 2 g2i dxdy xyQ2 Q2 Q M2 M2 + 2x2 y 2 1 − y − x2 y 2 2 g3i Q Q M2 M2 − 1 + 2x2 y 2 1 − y − x2 y 2 2 g4i + xy 2 g5i (16. Pˆμ = Pμ − q2 S·q Sˆμ = Sμ − qμ . are F1CC = F1W . may be expressed in terms of the ﬁve structure functions g1. 2010 12:56 16. xF3CC = xF3W .4). In the last term of Eq.11) and similarly for F1NC . for incoming neutrinos η CC = 4ηW . λn are the helicities (±1) of the incoming lepton and nucleon. For incoming neutrinos. whereas γZ e e e2 xF3NC = −(gA ±λgVe )ηγZ xF3 +[2gVe gA ±λ(gVe 2 +gA )]ηZ xF3Z . Structure functions 205 1 1 P ˆμ Sˆν + Sˆμ Pˆν − S · q Pˆμ Pˆν g3 (x. q2 (16. F2CC = F2W . [5].. λ corresponding to the outgoing charged lepton.. respectively. respectively. CC corresponds to neutral-current (eN → eX) or chargedcurrent (eN → νX or νN → eX) processes.

the structure functions + + F W . Structure functions with i = NC or CC as before. . i gL = g4i − 2xg5i . . . q γ γZ q2 Z 1 e2q . (16. (16.14) may be written in the form d2 σ i 2πα2 i η Y+ F2i ∓ Y− xF3i − y 2 FLi . 2eq gVq . g W . Therefore. the analogy with the Callan-Gross i = 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. F3W = 2(u − d − s + c .1. contributions to the structure functions F i and g i can be expressed in terms of the quark distribution functions q(x. where Y± = 1 ± (1 − y)2 and FLi = F2i − 2xF1i . F2γZ . g1 .19) g1W − = (Δu + Δd + Δs + Δc .) . 2010 206 12:56 16. g W are obtained by the ﬂavor interchanges d ↔ u. where q = u. the quark-parton model predicts 2xF1i = F2i and g4i = 2xg5i . the structure functions are: − − F2W = 2x(u + d + s + c . q2 F2γ . = η −Y+ g4i ∓ Y− 2xg1i + y 2 gL dxdy xyQ2 (16. . are the Dicus relations [7] gL there are only two independent polarized structure functions: g1 (parity conserving) and g5 (parity violating). The quantity Δq is the diﬀerence q ↑ −q ↓ of the distributions with the quark spin parallel and antiparallel to the proton spin. For the charged-current processes e− p → νX and νp → e+ X. The structure functions for scattering on a neutron are obtained from those of the proton by the interchange u ↔ d.) . 2gV gA (q − q) . For both the neutral. In the M 2 /Q2 → 0 limit. . 16. F3 .2.and charged-current processes. where only the active ﬂavors are to be kept and where CKM mixing has been neglected. 2010 12:56 . F3Z = 0. u. For the neutral-current processes ep → eX. Structure functions in the quark-parton model : In the quark-parton model [8. Q2 ) of the proton.) . g5W − = (−Δu + Δd + Δs − Δc . 2eq gA .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (16.17) In the naive quark-parton model.8) and Eq. q γ γZ q q q F3 . g1 .) . eq gA . For e+ p → νX and νp → e− X. in analogy with the unpolarized structure functions F1 and F3 .9].16) with i = NC or CC. d. Further discussion may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. relations [6] FLi = 0. Eq. gVq 2 + gA (Δq + Δq) . g5Z = 0. g1 = 2 q γ γZ q q q g5 . d etc. . with ± according to whether 2 2 q is a u− or d−type quark respectively. = dxdy xyQ2 d2 Δσ i 4πα2 i i .The quantity q(x. gV gA (Δq − Δq) . . . (16. g5 . 2eq gVq . F2Z = x e2q . Q2 )dx is the number of quarks (or antiquarks) of designated ﬂavor that carry a momentum fraction between x and x + dx of the proton’s momentum in a frame in which the proton momentum is large. (16. gVq 2 + gA (q + q) .18) q q q where gV = ± 1 − 2eq sin2 θW and gA = ± 1 . s ↔ c in the − − expressions for F W .

00006 (cf. 2010 12:56 . ranging from ix = 1 (x = 0. all other data are rebinned to the x p values of the ZEUS data. and for electrons (SLAC) and muons (BCDMS. The data are plotted as a function of Q2 in bins of ﬁxed x. 16. For the purpose of plotting.7: The proton structure function F2 measured in electromagnetic scattering of positrons on protons (collider experiments ZEUS and H1). where ix is the number of the x bin. The ZEUS binning in x is used in this plot.Q ) * 2 x 10 9 10 8 H1 ZEUS BCDMS E665 NMC SLAC 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 10 10 -1 -2 -3 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 2 10 6 2 Q (GeV ) p Figure 16. Structure functions 207 2 i F2(x. Some points have been slightly oﬀset in Q2 for clarity.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. F2 has been i x multiplied by 2 . Fig. in the kinematic domain of the HERA data.10 for data at smaller x and Q2 ). E665. 2010 12:56 16. NMC) on a ﬁxed target. for x > 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.85) to ix = 28 (x = 0. Statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature are shown.000063).

A..*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. −1. Introduction to Standard Big-Bang Model The observed expansion of the Universe [1.3] is a natural (almost inevitable) result of any homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model based on general relativity.2. In order to account for the possibility that the abundances of the elements had a cosmological origin. ν2 is the observed frequency and v12 is the relative velocity between the emitter and the observer. we can use the metric given by Eq.1) and ds2 = 0 to write R2 ν1 = . Subsequent work on Big-Bang nucleosynthesis further conﬁrmed the necessity of our hot and dense past.3) ν2 c where ν1 is the frequency of the emitted light.5]. These two quantities appear in the most general expression for a space-time metric which has a (3D) maximally symmetric subspace of a 4D space-time. Alpher and Herman proposed that the early Universe which was once very hot and dense (enough so as to allow for the nucleosynthetic processing of hydrogen).2.e. Alpher and Herman predicted that a direct consequence of this model is the presence of a relic background radiation with a temperature of order a few K [6.1. determined by R(t).1) 1 − kr2 Note that we adopt c = 1 throughout. These relativistic cosmological models face severe problems with their initial conditions. (19. Peacock (University of Edinburgh). we can choose the curvature constant k to take only the discrete values +1. It was the observation of the 3 K background radiation that singled out the Big-Bang model as the prime candidate to describe our Universe. Big-Bang cosmology 19. less than cosmological scales) such that the expansion velocity is non-relativistic. We can deﬁne the redshift as ν1 − ν2 v12 z≡ .1.1. 19.3.7]. 19. The redshift : The cosmological redshift is a direct consequence of the Hubble expansion. (19. or spatially ﬂat geometries. and has expanded and cooled to its present state [4. The Robertson-Walker Universe : The observed homogeneity and isotropy enable us to describe the overall geometry and evolution of the Universe in terms of two cosmological parameters accounting for the spatial curvature and the overall expansion (or contraction) of the Universe. In 1948. to which the best modern solution is inﬂationary cosmology. or 0 corresponding to closed.A. (19. For light signals. z = (ν1 − ν2 )/ν2 is valid on all distance scales. By rescaling the radial coordinate.1.5) 1+z = ν2 R1 This result does not depend on the non-relativistic approximation. 19. The Friedmann-Lemaˆıtre equations of motion : The cosmological equations of motion are derived from Einstein’s equations Rμν − 12 gμν R = 8πGN Tμν + Λgμν . While the deﬁnition. Olive (University of Minnesota) and J. (19. 19. A local observer detecting light from a distant emitter sees a redshift in frequency. open. (19. 2010 12:56 . BIG-BANG COSMOLOGY Revised September 2009 by K.6) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 208 12:56 19. known as the Robertson-Walker metric: dr2 2 2 2 2 ds2 = dt2 − R2 (t) + r (dθ + sin θ dφ ) .1. relating the redshift to the relative velocity in this simple way is only true on small scales (i.

The Friedmann equation then becomes k/R02 = H02 (Ωm + Ωr + Ωv − 1) . ρ is the energy density and u = (1. (19.78 h−1 Gyr (19. 0. Note that one can now rewrite the Friedmann equation as k/R2 = H 2 (Ωtot − 1) .11) = 1. and the Universe is spatially ﬂat. It is often necessary to distinguish diﬀerent contributions to the density. Einstein’s equations lead to the Friedmann-Lemaˆıtre equations 2 R˙ k 8π GN ρ Λ 2 − 2+ .10) can also be simply derived as a consequence of the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. 2010 12:56 . is deﬁned by H ≡ 100 h km s−1 Mpc−1 ⇒ H −1 = 9.μ = 0. With the perfect ﬂuid source.13) Ωtot = ρ/ρc . and when Ωtot = 1. (19. plus the quantity ΩΛ = Λ/3H 2 .8) = H ≡ R 3 R 3 and ¨ R Λ 4πGN = − (ρ + 3p) . leads to a third useful equation ρ˙ = −3H (ρ + p) . where gμν is the space-time metric described by Eq.9) R 3 3 where H(t) is the Hubble parameter and Λ is the cosmological constant.7) Tμν = −pgμν + (p + ρ) uμ uν . and we therefore denote the present-day density parameter of the vacuum by Ωv . Definition of cosmological parameters : The Friedmann equation can be used to deﬁne a critical density such that k = 0 when Λ = 0. (19. The ﬁrst of these is sometimes called the Friedmann equation.10) Eq. 0. 3H 2 ρc ≡ = 1.4. (19. when Ωtot < 1. (19. 2010 19. one can see that when Ωtot > 1. where the scaled Hubble parameter.14).1). k = 0. (19. For Λ = 0.05 × 10−5 h2 GeV cm−3 . 0) is the velocity vector for the isotropic ﬂuid in co-moving coordinates. It is common to assume that the matter content of the Universe is a perfect ﬂuid. it is clear that the Universe must be expanding or contracting. h.88 × 10−26 h2 kg m−3 8π GN (19.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. p is the isotropic pressure. in which the Λ term is taken to the rhs and interpreted as an eﬀective energy–momentum tensor Tμν for the vacuum of Λgμν /8πGN . Big-Bang cosmology 12:56 209 Gliner [17] and Zeldovich [18] have pioneered the modern view. (19. k = −1 and the Universe is open. (19. we may wish to drop the assumption that the vacuum energy density is constant.12) −1 = 2998 h Mpc . It is therefore convenient to deﬁne present-day density parameters for pressureless matter (Ωm ) and relativistic particles (Ωr ).15) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (19. In more general models. 19. The cosmological density parameter Ωtot is deﬁned as the energy density relative to the critical density. Energy μν conservation via T . k = +1 and the Universe is closed.1.14) From Eq. for which (19.

19) R(t) ∝ t2/3 .23]. relativistic particles. k/R2 in the Friedmann equation can be neglected so long as w > −1/3. even a closed Universe will expand forever. For w = −1. For large values of Λ > 0 (larger than the Einstein static value needed to halt any cosmological expansion or contraction).2. if k = 0. 19.067 −0. Eq.17) to obtain H = 1/2t . w = p/ρ which is constant.3. Eq. A pressureless gas (w = 0) leads to the expected dependence ρ ∝ R−3 . (19. (19.21) = Ω m + Ωr + 2 2 R˙ 2 0 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.17) R(t) ∝ t2/[3(1+w)] . (19.068 [24]. Let us ﬁrst assume a general equation of state parameter for a single component.16) becomes ρ ∝ R−4 .21].5. the Universe will eventually recollapse independent of the sign of k.1. The presence of vacuum energy can dramatically alter the fate of the Universe. acting as a cosmological constant with equation of state w = −1. Standard Model solutions : During inﬂation and again today the expansion rate for the Universe is accelerating. and may not even be constant [19. usually expressed as the value of w as a function of epoch [22. (19. q0 = − (19.1.1.20. Big-Bang cosmology where the subscript 0 indicates present-day values. deﬁned as ¨ RR 1 (1 + 3w) Ωv . There is now much interest in the more general possibility of a dynamically evolving vacuum energy. it is the sum of the densities in matter. 19. 19. One way to quantify this is the deceleration parameter. it is appropriate to assume an equation of state corresponding to a gas of radiation (or relativistic particles) for which w = 1/3. 2010 210 12:56 19.5. This leads to an exponential expansion of the Universe √ R(t) ∝ e Λ/3t . we will assume that the vacuum energy is a cosmological constant with w = −1 exactly. q0 . for which the name ‘dark energy’ has become commonly used. we get H = 2/3t . (19. if Λ < 0.16) Note that at early times when R is small. (19. and vacuum that determines the overall sign of the curvature. (19.10) can be ˙ written as ρ˙ = −3(1 + w)ρR/R and is easily integrated to yield ρ ∝ R−3(1+w) . one can substitute w = 1/3 into Eq.20) The equation of state of the vacuum need not be the w = −1 of Λ. A Radiation-dominated Universe: In the early hot and dense Universe. A variety of techniques exist whereby the vacuum density as a function of time may be measured. Unless stated otherwise. Note that the quantity −k/R02 H02 is sometimes (unfortunately) referred to as Ωk . If there is a dominant source of vacuum energy. For example.006+0. A Matter-dominated Universe: Non-relativistic matter eventually dominates the energy density over radiation. and domination by a cosmological constant or some other form of dark energy should be considered. In this case. The best current measurement for the equation of state (assumed constant) is w = −1.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.18) R(t) ∝ t1/2 . (19. Curvature domination occurs at rather late times (if a cosmological constant term does not dominate sooner). 2010 12:56 . In this case. Thus. and.5. Similarly.

but photon energies and arrival rates are redshifted. this exact answer may be approximated to a few % accuracy by (19. and distances : The key quantities for observational cosmology can be deduced quite directly from the metric. Big-Bang cosmology 12:56 211 This equation shows us that w < −1/3 for the vacuum may lead to an accelerating expansion. (19.3Ωv )−0. Age of the Universe : The dynamical ∞ result for the age of the Universe may be written as dz H0 t0 = . with Ωv = 0.2. the analysis of high-z SNe has allowed the ﬁrst meaningful test of cosmological geometry to be carried out. These relations lead to the following common deﬁnitions: angular-diameter distance: DA = (1 + z)−1 R0 r (19.3 − 0.24) luminosity distance: DL = (1 + z) R0 r . leading to the best existing direct value for H0 : 74. Over the range of interest < < (0. Better still. |Ωv | ∼ 1).28) can be expressed analytically as √ 2 1 + Ωv H0 t 0 = √ ln √ (Ωm < 1) .28) 2 0 (1 + z) [(1 + z) (1 + Ωm z) − z(2 + z)Ωv ]1/2 where we have neglected Ωr and chosen w = −1. (19. the integral in Eq.30) 3 Ωv 1 − Ωv The present consensus favors ages for the oldest clusters of about 12 Gyr [36. Current data indicate that vacuum energy is indeed the largest contributor to the cosmological density budget.7Ωm + 0. 19. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.26 ± 0. 2010 12:56 .03 if k = 0 is assumed (5-year mean WMAP) [24]. Fluxes. The main scale for the distance here is the Hubble length.3 . Introduction to Observational Cosmology 19. These distance-redshift relations are expressed in terms of observables by using the equation of a null radial geodesic plus the Friedmann equation: 1 1 R0 (1 − Ωm − Ωv − Ωr )(1 + z)2 dt = dz = R(t) H(z) H0 (19. 2010 19. 1/H0 .25) −1/2 + Ωv (1 + z)3+3w + Ωm (1 + z)3 + Ωr (1 + z)4 dz .22) (2) The apparent ﬂux density of an object is deduced by allowing its photons to ﬂow through a sphere of current radius R0 r. (1) The proper transverse size of an object seen by us to subtend an angle dψ is its comoving size dψ r times the scale factor at the time of emission: d = dψ R0 r/(1 + z) . luminosities. and the bandwidth dν is reduced. (19. (19.3.37].74 ± 0.6 km s−1 Mpc−1 [25]. 19. SNe results extend the distance ladder to the point where deviations from uniform expansion are negligible.1 < ∼ Ωm ∼ 1. In combination with Cepheid data from the HST and a direct geometrical distance to the maser galaxy NGC4258.29) H0 t0 23 (0.1.2. For the special case that Ωm + Ωv = 1.2.2 ± 3.03 and Ωm = 0.

we can specify N (T ) up to temperatures of O(100) GeV. (19. nγ = p γ = ργ . In the radiation-dominated epoch. Note also that both s and nγ scale as T 3 .41) deﬁnes the eﬀective number of degrees of freedom. For photons. Radiation content of the Early Universe : At the very high temperatures associated with the early Universe. (19. In the standard SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) model. In this case. p. it is straightforward to compute the thermodynamic quantities. we can approximate the energy density (at high temperatures) by including onlythose particles with mi T . 19. T ∝ R−1 in an adiabatically expanding universe.39) ργ = 15 3 3T π2 Eq. At higher temperatures. ρ. (19. Eq. Thermodynamics of the early Universe : Through much of the radiation-dominated period. In the Standard Model. (19. The value of N (T ) at any given temperature depends on the particle physics model. using the microwave background and large-scale structure: t0 = 13. we can neglect any such chemical potential when computing total thermodynamic quantities.3. massive particles are pair produced. Big-Bang cosmology These methods are all consistent with the age deduced from studies of structure formation.10) can be integrated (neglecting the T -dependence of N ) giving us a relationship between the age of the Universe and its temperature . then we can neglect the mass and the thermodynamic quantities are easily computed.41) 8 30 30 B F where gB(F ) is the number of degrees of freedom of each boson (fermion) and the sum runs over all boson and fermion states with m T . we have π2 4 π2 7 T ≡ N (T ) T 4 . Eq.10) can be converted into an equation for entropy conservation. ρ= gB + gF (19. N (T ) will be model-dependent. 19. by taking into account new particle degrees of freedom as the temperature is raised. The change in N (ignoring mass eﬀects) can be seen in the table below. and are part of the thermal bath. this corresponds to the relationship between expansion and cooling.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 212 12:56 19. In general. . If for a given particle species i we have T mi .40) d(sR3 )/dt = 0 .2. and since the net baryon density relative to the photon density is known to be very small (of order 10−10 ).13 Gyr [24]. we have (in units where = kB = 1) 4ργ π2 4 1 2ζ(3) 3 T . where the extra accuracy comes at the price of assuming the Cold Dark Matter model to be true. N (T ). In equilibrium. The Hot Thermal Universe 19. (19. thermal equilibrium is established by the rapid rate of particle interactions relative to the expansion rate of the Universe.69 ± 0.3.3. For radiation. sγ = T .1. s. a chemical potential is often associated with baryon number. and the entropy density.

43) where t is measured in seconds and TMeV in units of MeV.4[N (T )]−1/2 . (19.42) 32π 3 GN N (T ) Put into a more convenient form 2 t TMeV = 2.1/2 90 t= T −2 . 2010 12:56 . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (19.

Z mW.001 < ∼ Ων < ∼ 0. η is related to the fraction of Ω contained in baryons. Big-Bang cosmology Temperature T < me me < T < mμ mμ < T < mπ mπ < T < T c † Tc < T < mstrange ms < T < mcharm mc < T < mτ mτ < T < mbottom mb < T < mW. The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version. 19. 4 He. with a primordial mass fraction of about 25%. c¯ τ± b. 19. 2010 12:56 . The nucleosynthesis predictions can be compared with observational determinations of the abundances of the light elements. 2010 19. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. s¯ c. (19. The Universe at late times We are beginning to inventory the composition of the Universe: total: Ω = 1. Nucleosynthesis takes place at a temperature scale of order 1 MeV. u ¯. Z H0 t.4.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.005 ± 0.7. The nuclear processes lead primarily to 4 He. and 7 Li.03 photons: Ωγ = 4.Z < T < mHiggs mH < T < mtop mt < T New Particles γ’s + ν’s e± μ± π’s π’s + u. the theory which predicts the abundances of the light element isotopes D.006 (from CMB anisotropy) matter: Ωm = 0.54) 5. ¯b W ±.004 CDM: ΩCDM = Ωm − Ωb neutrinos: 0. d¯ + gluons s.26 ± 0.66 × 107 η h−2 .55) or 1010 η = 274Ωb h2 . t¯ 12:56 213 4N (T ) 29 43 57 69 205 247 289 303 345 381 385 427 †T c corresponds to the conﬁnement-deconﬁnement transition between quarks and hadrons.5 × 10−10 . the baryon-to-photon ratio. Consistency between theory and observations leads to a conservative range of (19. η. Lesser amounts of the other light elements are produced: about 10−5 of D and 3 He and about 10−10 of 7 Li by number relative to H.74 ± 0.6 × 10−5 Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics.03 baryons: Ωb = 0.3. 3 He.05 dark energy: Ωv = 0.0.044 ± 0.1 × 10−10 < η < 6. d. The abundances of the light elements depend almost solely on one key parameter. Ωb Ωb = 3. Nucleosynthesis : An essential element of the standard cosmological model is Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN).

The Cosmological Parameters 21. 21.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. although observations of large-scale structure have already placed interesting upper limits. The neutrino energy density is often not taken as an independent parameter. In addition. through global statistical descriptors such as the matter and radiation power spectra.1.1. photons. because it can be determined from the other parameters using Eq. Lahav (University College London) and A. and indeed the inﬂation models so far described automatically generate negligible spatial curvature. 2010 214 12:08 21. This reduces the standard parameter set to nine. The spatial curvature does not appear in the list. can be related to the photon density using thermal physics arguments. or can be set to the Harrison–Zel’dovich value n = 1. which is believed to have last happened at neutrino decoupling. Parametrizing the Universe The term ‘cosmological parameters’ is forever increasing in its scope. at least until an epoch where interactions allow interchanges between the densities of the diﬀerent species. by O. so we can set k = 0. These also allow us to track the history of the Universe back in time. and so one can be eliminated. neutrinos. as well as simple numbers describing properties of the Universe. and so r could be set to zero. Parameter estimation [2] suggests n = 1 is ruled out at some signiﬁcance. Liddle (University of Sussex). there is no observational evidence for the existence of tensor perturbations (though the upper limits are quite weak). the density parameters then must sum to unity.1. We need to describe the nature of perturbations in the Universe.1. the neutrino energy density. As described in Sec. and it is currently diﬃcult to see the eﬀect of the neutrino mass. and indeed some simpliﬁcation is possible. 21. such as its expansion rate and curvature. Presently n is in a somewhat controversial position regarding whether it needs to be varied in a ﬁt. Also now of great interest is how the matter budget of the Universe is built up from its constituents: baryons.1. The standard cosmological model : The basic set of cosmological parameters is therefore as shown in Table 21.1. 2010 12:08 . and dark energy. 21. Provided the neutrino sector has the standard interactions. The global description of the Universe : The complete present state of the homogeneous Universe can be described by giving the current values of all the density parameters and of the Hubble parameter h. To probe further back into the Universe’s history requires assumptions about particle interactions. The original usage referred to the parameters describing the global dynamics of the Universe.3. 21. There may also be parameters describing the physical state of the Universe. and perhaps about the nature of physical laws themselves. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. shortly before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). models based on these eleven parameters are able to give a good ﬁt to the complete set of high-quality data available at present. dark matter. such as the ionization fraction as a function of time during the era since recombination. THE COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS Updated September 2009. The total present matter density Ωm = Ωcdm + Ωb is usually used in place of the dark matter density.2. and nowadays includes the parametrization of some functions.R. 21. Observations are consistent with spatial ﬂatness. while relativistic. Typical comparisons of cosmological models with observational data now feature between ﬁve and ten parameters.

Note that gravitational instability generates non-Gaussianity.43 (95% conf.014 −0. the primordial spectra are usually assumed to be power laws. For present data.963+0.133 ± 0.41 ± 0.0006 ΩΛ = 0.2 for the former).11) × 10−9 n = 0. based on one dynamical ﬁeld. with the amplitudes of waves of diﬀerent wavenumbers being randomly drawn from a Gaussian distribution of width given by the power spectrum. 21. 2010 21. including ΛCDM. then all ﬂuids and ﬁelds are homogeneous on those slices. before they evolve signiﬁcantly.1. Limits on ΩΛ and h weaken if the Universe is not assumed ﬂat.47 × 10−5 See Sec. More general perturbations : The standard cosmology assumes adiabatic.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.2. amplitude at k=2Kpc Density perturb. which is the smallest set that can usefully be compared to the present cosmological data set. This model (usually with n kept as a parameter) is referred to by various names.2 (2.006 Ωb h2 = 0. We give values (with some additional rounding) as obtained using a ﬁt of a ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law initial spectrum to WMAP5 data alone [2].03 Ωm h2 = 0. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.03 Ωr h2 = 2. The simplest inﬂation models.0227 ± 0. The Cosmological Parameters 12:08 215 Table 21. The density perturbation amplitude is speciﬁed by the derived parameter σ8 . Gaussianity refers to a property of the initial perturbations. Adiabaticity means that all types of material in the Universe share a common perturbation.3. Uncertainties are one-sigma/68% conﬁdence unless otherwise stated. this leaves seven parameters. Parameter Hubble parameter Total matter density Baryon density Cosmological constant Radiation density Neutrino density Density perturb. with the perturbations completely described by the variation of the spatial curvature of the slices. the concordance cosmology.4 but Bayesian model selection techniques [9] suggest the data is not conclusive. so that if the space-time is foliated by constant-density hypersurfaces.) τ = 0. 2010 12:08 . Gaussianity means that the initial perturbations obey Gaussian statistics.74 ± 0.1. Gaussian perturbations. Extensions to the standard model 21.1: The basic set of cosmological parameters.72 ± 0.015 r < 0. and the standard cosmological model.087 ± 0. Tensors are assumed zero except in quoting a limit on them. With n set to one. 21. predict adiabatic ﬂuctuations and a level of non-Gaussianity which is too small to be detected by any experiment so far conceived. spectral index Tensor to scalar ratio Ionization optical depth Bias parameter Symbol Value h Ωm Ωb ΩΛ Ωr Ων Δ2R n r τ b 0.2. 21. in this context. The exact values and uncertainties depend on both the precise data-sets used and the choice of parameters allowed to vary (see Table 21.017 See Sec.

2. in order to explain observations indicating that the Universe is presently accelerating. but often w is kept as a free parameter to be added to the set described in the previous section. In general. For highprecision predictions of CMB anisotropies. it is better to use a scalar-ﬁeld description in order to have a self-consistent evolution of the ‘sound speed’ associated with the dark energy perturbations. Direct measures of the Hubble constant : One of the most reliable results on the Hubble constant comes from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project [18]. but not all. further possibilities exist under the general heading ‘dark energy’. as it is the negative pressure of this material. As described by Olive and Peacock.2.1. 13). the function w could itself vary with redshift.3. dark matter and dark energy are quite distinct concepts.3.1. This study used the empirical period– luminosity relations for Cepheid variable stars to obtain distances to 31 galaxies. These can be excited. 2010 12:08 . while perturbing the relative amounts of diﬀerent materials. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. though constraints on individual modes are beginning to become meaningful. and Type II Supernovae) measured over distances of 400 to 600 Mpc.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. In general. 21. Present observations are consistent with a cosmological constant. researchers assume the weak energy condition w ≥ −1. this will generate a cold dark matter isocurvature perturbation. Probes 21. surface brightness ﬂuctuations. for example. A † Unfortunately this is rather a misnomer. and so the full set of perturbations is described by a matrix giving the spectra and their correlations. 21. there is one growing adiabatic mode and N − 1 growing isocurvature modes (for reviews see Ref.2. 2010 216 12:08 21. with w = −1 corresponding to a cosmological constant. If one ﬁeld decays to form normal matter. Constraining such a general construct is challenging. rather than its energy. while the second survives to become the dark matter. Isocurvature perturbations: An isocurvature perturbation is one which leaves the total density unperturbed. They estimated H0 = 72 ± 3 (statistical) ± 7 (systematic) km s−1 Mpc−1 . 12 and Ref. with no evidence that any other than the adiabatic mode must be non-zero. Tully–Fisher relation. with the mechanism mimicking that of early Universe inﬂation [15]. though practical experiments devised so far would be sensitive primarily to some average value weighted over recent epochs. it may be necessary to use a more sophisticated parametrization of the dark energy.† A particularly attractive possibility (usually called quintessence. The Cosmological Parameters 21. Furthermore. Most.2. there are also correlations between the diﬀerent modes. while generally in physics matter and energy are interchangeable terms. though that word is used with various diﬀerent meanings in the literature) is that a scalar ﬁeld is responsible. Dark energy : While the standard cosmological model given above features a cosmological constant. and calibrated a number of secondary distance indicators (Type Ia Supernovae. in inﬂationary models where there are two or more ﬁelds which acquire dynamically-important perturbations. If the Universe contains N ﬂuids. a fairly modelindependent description of dark energy can be given just using the equation of state parameter w. that is responsible for giving the acceleration. In the future.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.69 ± 0. For further details and all references. Fields and Sarkar in this volume quote the range 0. H0 = 74 ± 4 km s−1 Mpc−1 (including both statistical and systematic errors).21. cold dark matter.4. A similar upper limit of 2 eV has been derived from CMB anisotropies alone [40–42].86 at 95% conﬁdence from a compilation of data including SNe Ia.1.13 Gyr (assuming ﬂatness). the ΛCDM model is almost universally accepted by cosmologists as the best description of the present data. by comparing the 2dF galaxy power spectrum with a four-component model (baryons.7 [39].019 ≤ Ωb h2 ≤ 0. and is consistent with the determination from BBN. The above analyses assume that the primordial power spectrum is adiabatic. The WMAP team ﬁnd the limit w < −0. The Cosmological Parameters 12:08 217 recent study [19] of 240 Cepheids observed with an improved camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope has yielded an even more accurate ﬁgure.72.74. 2010 12:08 . with the cosmological constant case w = −1 giving an excellent ﬁt to the data. The spatial geometry is very close to ﬂat (and usually assumed to be precisely ﬂat). An upper limit on the total neutrino mass of 0. 2010 21.3. see the full Review of Particle Physics. as there is a useful coincidence that for a ﬂat Universe the position of the ﬁrst peak is strongly correlated with the age.3 is imposed. The latter corresponds to an upper limit of about 2 eV on the total neutrino mass. with approximate values of some of the key parameters being Ωb ≈ 0. Potential systematic eﬀects include biasing of the galaxy distribution and non-linearities of the power spectrum. adiabatic. and a Hubble constant h ≈ 0.1 in this Booklet.44]. This is in good agreement with the ages of the oldest globular clusters [61] and radioactive dating [62]. and massive neutrinos). and the initial perturbations Gaussian. The major sources of uncertainty in these results are due to the heavy element abundance of the Cepheids and the distance to the ﬁducial nearby galaxy (called the Large Magellanic Cloud) relative to which all Cepheid distances are measured. The baryon density Ωb is now measured with quite high accuracy from the CMB and large-scale structure.04 if a concordance prior of Ωm = 0.04. giving Ων < 0.17 eV was reported by combining a large number of cosmological probes [45].*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.1. See also “Astrophysical Constants.” table 2. 21. The WMAP5 result is 13. The basic ingredients are given by the parameters listed in Sec. there is no evidence of evolution of the dark energy density. ΩΛ ≈ 0.3. Limits on neutrino mass from galaxy surveys and other probes: Large-scale structure data can put an upper limit on the ratio Ων /Ωm due to the neutrino ‘free streaming’ eﬀect [37. scale-invariant and Gaussian.4. 21. Ωcdm ≈ 0.024 (95% conﬁdence).38]. Additional cosmological data sets have improved the results [43. While ΩΛ is measured to be non-zero with very high conﬁdence. it is estimated that Ων /Ωm < 0. One parameter which is very robust is the age of the Universe.13 (95% conﬁdence limit). assuming a prior of h ≈ 0. a cosmological constant. Bringing observations together Although it contains two ingredients—dark matter and dark energy— which have not yet been veriﬁed by laboratory experiments. For example. and nearly scale-invariant. 21.

DARK MATTER Revised September 2009 by M. axions would constitute cold DM. 22. e. For example. determination of ΩDM comes from global ﬁts of cosmological parameters to a variety of observations. Dark matter 22. The existence of axions [9] was ﬁrst postulated to solve the strong CP problem of QCD. they also occur naturally in superstring theories. non–baryonic matter Ωnbm h2 = 0. see the Section on Cosmological Parameters for details.1) where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/(s·Mpc). Evidence for Dark Matter : The existence of Dark (i. Although very light. axions. The currently most accurate. (22.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.e. ΩDM > ∼ 0. which again correlates with the gravitational potential felt by the gas.1. and—most directly—studies of (weak) gravitational lensing of background galaxies on the cluster. Gerbier (Saclay.1) must satisfy several conditions: they must be stable on cosmological time scales (otherwise they would have decayed by now). Ref. which are a measure of their potential energy if the cluster is virialized. The rotational velocity v of an object on astable Keplerian orbit with radius r around a galaxy scales like v(r) ∝ M (r)/r.. They are pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with the (mostly) spontaneous breaking of a new global “Peccei-Quinn” (PQ) U(1) symmetry at scale fa . 3 ﬁnds a density of cold. Instead. 22. in most galaxies one ﬁnds that v becomes approximately constant out to the largest values of r where the rotation curve can be measured. measurements of the X-ray temperature of hot gas in the cluster. M (r) ∝ r. with mass density ρ(r) ∝ 1/r2 .1.2) may well contribute to (baryonic) DM.006 .e. (22.110 ± 0. non-luminous and non-absorbing) Matter (DM) is by now well established. and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).g.3 GeV cm− 3. MACHOs [4] or cold molecular gas clouds [5].1. Drees (Bonn University) and G. The most recent estimate of the DM density in the “neighborhood” of our solar system is 0. If r lies outside the visible √ part of the galaxy and mass tracks light. i. An important example is the measurement of galactic rotation curves. Theory 22. where M (r) is the mass inside the orbit... using measurements of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of the spatial distribution of galaxies. if somewhat indirect. Candidates include primordial black holes. and they must have the right relic density. one would expect v(r) ∝ 1/ r. This implies the existence of a dark halo. The observation of clusters of galaxies tends to give somewhat larger values. they must interact very weakly with electromagnetic radiation (otherwise they wouldn’t qualify as dark matter). and a lower bound on the DM mass density. Ωb h2 = 0.0006 . CEA). ΩDM 0.1. These observations include measurements of the peculiar velocities of galaxies in the cluster. 2010 218 12:56 22. (22.2. see the Section on Axions in this Review for further details.2. Candidates for Dark Matter : Candidates for non-baryonic DM in Eq.1. Some part of the baryonic matter density [3]. 2010 12:56 . since they were *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.0227 ± 0.

c is the speed of light. (22. cosmic strings will form during the PQ phase transition at T fa . If θi ∼ O(1).6) Here T0 is the current CMB temperature. These coherent oscillations transform the energy originally stored in the axion ﬁeld into physical axion quanta.1 pb in Eq.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. respectively). σA is the total annihilation cross section of a pair of WIMPs into SM particles. this would correspond to an axion mass around 0. Their present relic density is then approximately given by (ignoring logarithmic corrections) [11] Ωχ h2 const. therefore. Finally. it will begin to oscillate once ma becomes comparable to the Hubble parameter H. therefore. At T < ∼ 1 GeV.5) [10].175 θi2 .5) will saturate Eq. Freeze out happens at temperature TF mχ /20 almost independently of the properties of the WIMP. MPl is the Planck mass. The currently best motivated WIMP candidate is. The contribution of this mechanism to the present axion relic density is [9] 1. On the other hand.1 meV. (22. values of fa near the Planck scale become possible if θi is for some reason very small. However. Their present relic density can be calculated reliably if the WIMPs were in thermal and chemical equilibrium with the hot “soup” of Standard Model (SM) particles after inﬂation. if the postinﬂationary reheat temperature TR > fa . if both χ and some sleptons have mass below ∼ 150 GeV. .1) can also be satisﬁed if χ has a large higgsino or wino component.1 pb · c . 2010 12:56 22. and with cross sections of approximately weak strength. . v is the relative velocity between the two WIMPs in their cms system. the axion develops a mass ma due to instanton eﬀects. At temperatures well above the QCD phase transition.e. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) χ are particles with mass roughly between 10 GeV and a few TeV. χ could be (mostly) a bino or photino (the superpartner of the U(1)Y gauge boson and photon. Detailed calculations [15] show that the lightest neutralino will have the desired thermal relic density Eq. · T03 0. (22. Unless the axion ﬁeld happens to ﬁnd itself at the minimum of its potential (θi = 0). larger ma . or if mχ is close to the mass of some sfermion (so that its relic density is reduced through co-annihilation with this sfermion). Dark matter 219 produced non-thermally. leading to a smaller preferred value of fa . i.5) Ωa h2 = κa fa /1012 GeV where the numerical factor κa lies roughly between 0. it is.6) contains factors of T0 and MPl . Eq. the lightest superparticle (LSP) in supersymmetric models [12] with exact R-parity (which guarantees the stability of the LSP). quite intriguing that it “happens” to come out near the typical size of weak interaction cross sections. Notice that the 0. and . (22.5 and a few. Eq. 3 σ v σA v MPl A (22. denotes thermal averaging. 2010 12:56 . (22. the axion is massless. comfortably above laboratory and astrophysical constraints [9]. which is often bigger than that in Eq.1) for fa ∼ 1011 GeV. parameterized by the “misalignment angle” θi . Their decay will give an additional contribution to Ωa . and the axion ﬁeld can take any value. (22. or if 2mχ is close to the mass of the CP-odd Higgs boson present in supersymmetric models. (22.1) in at least four distinct regions of parameter space. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11..

129 Xe. for ma c2 = ωres . The cross section depends on the nature of the couplings.. from Ge to Xe. For nonrelativistic WIMPs. and the mass of the WIMP.3. much lower than the usual radioactive backgrounds. the sensitivity drops because of the detector energy threshold. the WIMP ﬂux decreases ∝ 1/mχ . The ﬁrst term is ﬁxed by the local density of dark matter. and 133 Cs. This is why the experimental observable. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review. whereas at high masses. Axion searches : Axions can be detected by looking for a → γ conversion in a strong magnetic ﬁeld [26]. the mass and cross section of the WIMP (with some uncertainty [6] due to the halo model). 2010 12:56 . for a ﬁxed mass density. fa .2. For spin-dependent coupling. the sensitivity also decreases because. 22. For these velocities. the spin-independent cross section scales approximately as the square of the mass of the nucleus. used target nuclei include 19 F. Cross sections calculated in MSSM models induce rates of at most 1 evt day−1 kg−1 of detector. WIMPs interact with ordinary matter through elastic scattering on nuclei. 73 Ge. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version. They both employ high quality cavities. Dark matter 22. The sensitivity is best for WIMP masses near the mass of the recoiling nucleus. With expected WIMP masses in the range 10 GeV to 10 TeV. which is basically the scattering rate as a function of energy. the mean WIMP velocity. one in general has to distinguish spin-independent and spin-dependent couplings.2. whose strength gaγγ is an important parameter of axion models. i. Expected interaction rates depend on the product of the local WIMP ﬂux and the interaction cross section. 131 Xe. equivalently.. the neutralino). The cavity “Q factor” enhances the conversion rate on resonance. i.3 GeV/cm3 (see above). is usually expressed as a contour in the WIMP mass–cross section plane. 2010 220 12:56 22..*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.2. so higher mass nuclei. while the latter involve axial vector currents (and obviously only exist if χ carries spin). The typical shape of exclusion contours can be anticipated from this discussion: at low WIMP mass. typical nuclear recoil energies are of order of 1 to 100 keV. The expected interaction rate then mainly depends on two unknowns. typically 220 km/s. and for the selection of extremely radio-pure materials. Such a conversion proceeds through the loop-induced aγγ coupling. a few hundred kilometers per second at the location of our solar system.g.2. the cross section depends on the nuclear spin factor. e. There currently are two experiments searching for axionic DM. taken as 0. Basics of direct WIMP search : The WIMP mean velocity inside our galaxy relative to its center is expected to be similar to that of stars. Experimental detection of Dark Matter 22. 127 I. The former can involve scalar and vector WIMP and nucleon currents (vector currents are absent for Majorana WIMPs.e. This indicates the need for underground laboratories to protect against cosmic ray induced backgrounds. 23 Na. One then needs to scan the resonance frequency in order to cover a signiﬁcant range in ma or. are preferred for this search. Due to coherence eﬀects.e.

Before this epoch. φ) = am Ym (θ.725 ± 0. since we notice no preferred direction.. while afterwards they can freely stream towards us.355 ± 0. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2009 by D. Since all mapping experiments involve diﬀerence measurements.1. The dipole is a frame-dependent quantity. Monopole measurements can only be made with absolute temperature devices. a00 . and one can thus determine the ‘absolute rest frame’ as that in which the CMB dipole would be zero.3. over a wide range of angular scales. m The vast majority of the cosmological information is contained in the temperature 2-point function.e. they are insensitive to this average level. 23.2. The dipole is interpreted to be the result of the Doppler shift caused by the solar system motion relative to the nearly isotropic blackbody ﬁeld. the power per unit ln is m |am |2 /4π. Smoot (UCB/LBNL).64 × 10−34 g cm−3 0. the expansion of the Universe cools the plasma so that by a redshift z 1100 (with little dependence on the details of the model). In the hot Big Bang picture.260 eV cm−3 . The Dipole : The largest anisotropy is in the = 1 (dipole) ﬁrst spherical harmonic. 2010 12:56 .008 mK [6]. 23. Theoretical models generally predict that the am modes are Gaussian random ﬁelds to high precision.001 K (1σ) [7]. φ). Scott (University of British Columbia) and G.2. manifesting themselves at the epoch of the last scattering of the CMB photons.2. 2010 23. i. A blackbody of the measured temperature corresponds to nγ = (2ζ(3)/π 2 ) Tγ3 411 cm−3 and ργ = (π 2 /15) Tγ4 4. The Monopole : The CMB has a mean temperature of Tγ = 2. Cosmic microwave background 12:56 221 23.g. a process usually referred to as recombination [12]. which can be considered as the monopole component of CMB maps. e..*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. with *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.F.2. These anisotropies are usually expressed by using a spherical harmonic expansion of the CMB sky: T (θ. Description of CMB Anisotropies Observations show that the CMB contains anisotropies at the 10−5 level. the hydrogen and helium nuclei can bind electrons into neutral atoms. as conﬁrmed by measurements of the radial velocities of local galaxies [9]. Higher-Order Multipoles : The variations in the CMB temperature maps at higher multipoles ( ≥ 2) are interpreted as being mostly the result of perturbations in the density of the early Universe. Equivalently. standard slow-roll inﬂation’s nonGaussian contribution is expected to be one or two orders of magnitude below current observational limits [13]. such as the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite [7]. the variance as a function only of angular separation. the CMB photons are tightly coupled to the baryons. 23. tests show that Gaussianity is an extremely good simplifying approximation [14]. Although non-Gaussianity of various forms is possible in early Universe models.2. Such measurements of the spectrum are consistent with a blackbody distribution over more than three decades in frequency (with some recent evidence for deviation at low frequencies [8]) . with amplitude 3. 23.

Such signatures found in existing WMAP data are generally considered to be subtle foreground or instrumental artefacts [15.6. Together with the assumption of Gaussian statistics. fsky .2. it dominates the scatter at lower s. We plot power spectrum estimates from these experiments. However. splitting the polarization pattern into a part that comes from a divergence (often referred to as the ‘E-mode’) and a part with a curl (called the ‘B-mode’) [44]. CMB Polarization Since Thomson scattering of an anisotropic radiation ﬁeld also generates linear polarization. 23. 23.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.e. there is no preferred axis..16]. this variance is increased by 1/fsky and the modes become partially correlated. 2010 12:56 . the most intuitive and physical decomposition is a geometrical one. i. the variance of each measured C (i. More explicitly. For fractional sky coverage.. Thus averages of am s over m can be used as estimators of the C s to constrain their expectation values. with two quantities required for each pixel in a map. a single spherical harmonic Ym corresponds to angular variations of θ ∼ π/. σ. as well as BOOMERANG [38] and CBI [39] in Fig. Cosmic microwave background only some relatively weak indications of non-Gaussianity or statistical anisotropy at large scales. while the eﬀects of instrumental noise and resolution dominate at higher s [17]. 23. Hence the cosmic variance is an unavoidable source of uncertainty when constraining models. It is important to understand that theories predict the expectation value of the power spectrum. The summed over power all ms at each is (2 + 1)C /(4π). A statistically isotropic sky means that all ms are equivalent.2. Angular Resolution and Binning : There is no one-to-one conversion between multipole and the angle subtended by a particular spatial scale projected onto the sky. However.4. which are quite consistent with what we describe below. the variance of the temperature ﬁeld (or equivalently the power spectrum in ) then fully characterizes the anisotropies. Probably the most robust constraints currently available come from the combination of the WMAP ﬁve year data [34] with smaller scale results from the ACBAR [35] and QUAD [36] experiments (together with constraints from other cosmological data-sets). whereas our sky is a single realization. For an idealized full-sky observation.5. Other recent experiments also give powerful constraints. the variance of the variance) is [2/(2 + 1)]C2 . the modes are deﬁned *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. CMB maps contain anisotropy information from the size of the map (or in practice some fraction of that size) down to the beam-size of the instrument. Polarization is a spin-2 ﬁeld on the sky. One can think of the eﬀect of a Gaussian beam as 2 rolling oﬀ the power spectrum with the function e−(+1)σ . often given as the Q and U Stokes parameters. the CMB is predicted to be polarized at the roughly 5% level of the temperature anisotropies [42]. which are the quantities predicted by a theoretical model. where C ≡ |am |2 . Current Anisotropy Data There has been a steady improvement in the quality of CMB data that has led to the development of the present-day cosmological model. 23. 2010 222 12:56 23.e. The linear polarization pattern can be decomposed in a number of ways. and the algebra of the modes in -space is strongly analogous to spin-orbit coupling in quantum mechanics [43]. This sampling uncertainty (known as ‘cosmic variance’) comes about because each C is χ2 distributed with (2 + 1) degrees of freedom for our observable volume of the Universe.

016. while the B-mode pattern can be thought of simply as a 45◦ rotation of the E-mode pattern. 2010 12:56 . Constraints on Cosmologies The 5-year WMAP data alone. yield the following results [14]: A = (2.0227 ± 0.960 ± 0. together with constraints from Hubble constant determination [18].013. Ωb h2 = 0. 2010 23.006. while tensors generate roughly equal amounts of E. with the Hessian for the E-modes having principle axes in the same sense as the polarization. the precise value depends sensitively on how much freedom is allowed in the shape of the primordial power spectrum. the CMB data alone provide only a very weak constraint. supernovae [64] and baryon acoustic oscillations [29]. This limit depends on how the slope n is restricted and whether dn/d ln k = 0 is allowed. one must ﬁrst eliminate the foreground contributions and other systematic eﬀects down to very low levels.43 using WMAP alone.10) × 10−9 . Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review.136 ± 0. Since inﬂationary scalar perturbations give only E-modes. The 95% conﬁdence upper limit on r is 0. Cosmic microwave background 12:56 223 Figure 23. while the B-modes have (−1)+1 parity. within the context of a 6 parameter family of models (which ﬁxes Ωtot = 1 and r = 0).22 with the addition of other data [14]. from the combination with supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation constraints (and setting w = −1). For Ωb h2 . tightening to r < 0. However. and ACBAR experiments.004 and τ = 0.2: Band-power estimates from the WMAP. perhaps the best WMAP constraint is 1. QUAD. For Ωtot . h = 0. even if it is rather weak. Note that for h. BOOMERANG. Globally one sees that the E-modes have (−1) parity (like the spherical harmonics). 23. Ωm h2 = 0.8.013.084 ± 0.and B-modes.006 ± 0.44 ± 0. then the determination of a non-zero B-mode signal is a way to measure the gravitational wave contribution (and thus potentially derive the energy scale of inﬂation). CBI. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. in terms of second derivatives of the polarization amplitude. unless spatial ﬂatness or some other cosmological data are used.0006. n = 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.705 ± 0.

5 λI or 28 X0 . whose thickness is 11. If a(Eμc ) and b(Eμc ) are assumed constant. since the diﬀerential muon ﬂux at very high energies is proportional to E −α (one power steeper than the primary spectrum). the total vertical ﬂux at depth X is proportional to (ebX − 1)−α+1 . The average muon ﬂux at the surface goes as cos2 θ. (Straggling is extremely important. Groom (LBNL).013 m−2 s−1 sr−1 at X = 1 km. with b = 4. it is half this in a vertical detector. characteristic of ∼3 GeV muons. but scales with depth as exp(−h/λI ). The exception is the Li-Be-B group. The vertical p + n ﬂux at sea level is about 2% of the muon ﬂux. (km water equivalent). but these EM shower remnants are much more abundant at lower energies. when prompt muon production becomes important. At ∼10 GeV/nucleon the primary cosmic rays are mostly protons (79%) and alpha particles (15% of the cosmic ray nucleons).0 × 10−6 cm2 g−1 and α = 3. but for h > ∼ 300 g cm can be fairly well represented by I/Isurface = exp[(h − 1033 g cm−2 )/ (630 g cm−2 )]. but it is also neglected here. see the full Review.004 of the muon ﬂux.) Furthermore.7 . 2010 12:56 . Above ∼ 10 TeV. Cosmic rays 24.5 of the full Review.e. which is overabundant by a large factor relative to solar abundance.E. Most of the energy is converted to gamma rays via π 0 → γγ and deposited by ionization in EM showers. The e+ /e− ﬂux for E > 1 GeV averages about 0. The spectrum is evidently truncated at a few times 1019 eV by inelastic collisions with the CMB (GZK mechanism). Calculators to convert h to altitude in a ”standard atmosphere” can be found on the web. At the summit of Mauna Kea (4205 m = 600 g cm−2 ) the vertical ﬂux is about twice that at sea level. π ± → μ± + ν competes with further nuclear interaction.w. gradually steepens to reﬂect the primary spectrum in the 10–100 GeV range. The muon energy spectrum at the surface is almost ﬂat below 1 GeV. 24.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. normalized to 0. The intensity from a few GeV to beyond 100 TeV is proportional to E −2.6. The primary cosmic rays initiate hadronic cascades in the atmosphere. The vertical muon ﬂux for E > 1 GeV goes through a broad maximum −2 it at an atmospheric depth h ≈ 170 g cm−2 . This function.w. which is typically several hundred GeV. gives a reasonable ﬁt to the depth-intensity data shown in Fig. The ﬂux at depths > ∼ 10–20 km. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. entirely due to neutrino interactions. COSMIC RAYS Written August 2008 by D. the energy spectrum of atmospheric muons is one power steeper than the primary spectrum. then the range is given by ln(1 + E/Eμc ). The abundance ratios of heavier nuclei follow the solar abundance ratios. The energy loss rate for muons is usually written as a(E) + b(E)E. The rate in a thin horizontal detector is roughly 1 cm−2 min−1 .. and below ∼ 100 TeV. and steepens further at higher energies because pions with Eπ > ∼ 100 GeV tend to interact before they decay. For charged pions. 2010 224 12:56 24. where a(E) (ionization) and b(E) (radiative loss rate/E) are slowlyvarying functions of E. is about 2 × 10−9 m−2 s−1 sr−1 . probably due to the spallation of heavier nuclei in the interstellar medium.e. The pion ﬂux is 50 times smaller. For details and references. Ionization and radiative loss rates are equal at the muon critical energy Eμc . few hadrons reach the ground.

2) can now be recast in terms of emittances and amplitude n1 n2 functions as L =f . one termed the transverse emittance. Desler and D. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Luminosity The event rate R in a collider is proportional to the interaction cross section σint and the factor of proportionality is called the luminosity: (25.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. by the time the beam reaches high energy. (25. Eq. 2010 12:56 . extending all the way back to the source for hadrons and. all one has to do is make high population bunches of low emittance to collide at high frequency at locations where the beam optics provides as low values of the amplitude functions as possible. β ∗ .3) = πσ 2 /β . ACCELERATOR PHYSICS OF COLLIDERS Revised August 2005 by K. in the case of electrons. the luminosity is n1 n2 L =f (25. The amplitude function is a beam optics quantity and is determined by the accelerator magnet conﬁguration.1) R = L σint . Accelerator physics of colliders 12:56 225 25. The transverse emittance is a beam quality concept reﬂecting the process of bunch preparation.2.4) 4 x βx∗ y βy∗ Thus. . A. and the particle distributions are not altered during collision. β. that the proﬁles are independent of position along the bunch. When expressed in terms of σ and β the transverse emittance becomes (25. Edwards (DESY). Of particular signiﬁcance is the value of the amplitude function at the interaction point.2) 4πσx σy where σx and σy characterize the Gaussian transverse beam proﬁles in the horizontal (bend) and vertical directions and to simplify the expression it is assumed that the bunches are identical in transverse proﬁle. the amplitude function. 25. mostly dependent on synchrotron radiation. The beam size can be expressed in terms of two quantities. Whatever the distribution at the source. If two bunches containing n1 and n2 particles collide with frequency f . and the other. (25. how small depends on the capability of the hardware to make a near-focus at the interaction point. to achieve high luminosity. 2010 25. Further discussion and references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. Clearly one wants β ∗ to be as small as possible. the normal form is a good approximation thanks to the central limit theorem of probability and the diminished importance of space charge eﬀects.

008 330 1. For existing (future) colliders the latest achieved (design) values are given. s.25 V : 0. 2010 11:56 26.700 2013 1999 DAΦNE (Frascati) 226 VEPP-2000 (Novosibirsk) Updated in early 2010 with numbers received from representatives of the colliders (contact J. Parameters for the defunct SPEAR.08 GeV/beam 6 2008 2002 CESR-C (Cornell) 1 H : 0. LBNL).3 to PM quads) H : 0.11 V : 0.08 GeV/beam 0. TRISTAN.009 ±0.m. stands for superconducting.06 − 0.06 − 0.2 (±0. r. Rev.8 low current: 1 high current: 2 0.5 1. DORIS.22 76 at 2.s. 26.75 V : 0.94 V : 0. D54. quantities are.0.52 0. 2010 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.3 max) — 2008 BEPC-II (China) H : 340 V : 6. Part I). 1 July 1996. PEP.40 0.0027 450 (1000 achievable) 0. SLC.012 H : 380 V : 5.0 V : 0. HIGH-ENERGY COLLIDER PARAMETERS: e+ e− Colliders (I) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.2 0.c.. H and V indicate horizontal and vertical directions.64 Luminosity (1030 cm−2 s−1 ) Time between collisions (μs) Energy spread (units 10−3 ) Interaction regions β ∗ .015 ±0.0 Physics end date 2008 Physics start date 1 H : 0.05 ±2 H : 1000 V : 30 5 1 0.3 0.10 ±1 125 (round) 4 100 Maximum beam energy (GeV) Bunch length (cm) — 1. Beringer. High-energy collider parameters 11:56 .63 ±2.014 to 0.82 at 2. amplitude function at interaction point (m) Free space at interaction point (m) Beam radius (10−6 m) 2 H : 0. where appropriate. PETRA.04 0.40 H : 800 V : 4.89 (2. and VEPP-2M colliders may be found in our 1996 edition (Phys.6 20 6 — 1994 VEPP-4M (Novosibirsk) 1 1 H : 1.7 1.

23*)(H).7 H : 124 (e− ). 0.61/0. 0.5 e− : +1. e+ : +0. Beringer. 2.0057 e− : 11(H).2.048(V ) 26.50 (H). 0.00590 or 0.03 0. 0. amplitude function at interaction point (m) ±0. 0. For existing (future) colliders the latest achieved (design) values are given. ‡ 1 1 e− : 0.77 e− /e+ : 1.0042 e− /e+ : 0.78/ − 0.04 H : 157 V : 4. 2010 11:56 Time between bunch trains: 200ms.20/ − 1.026(H).00021(V ) e+ : 0.5–4 (3. High-energy collider parameters 1 e− : 0.2 (0.58 (+300/−500) mrad cone H: 8 V : 0.032(H).64 (3. H and V indicate horizontal and vertical directions.7 0. 3 × 10−4 (V ) e+ : 0. 2010 Interaction regions e− : 1. ∗ With dynamic beam-beam eﬀect.58/0.004 8 × 105 e− : 7 e+ : 4 — 2014? SuperKEKB (KEK) August 12.0042 1.5 0. 0.33 (8.2 (0. 117 (e+ ) V : 0.025(H). r.28.0 0.73/0.50 (H).032(H).0 nominal) e+ : 2.0059 (V ) β ∗ .062(V ) e+ : 10(H).2 e+ : 6.75/−0. HIGH-ENERGY COLLIDER PARAMETERS: e+ e− Colliders (II) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages 11:56 227 . 0.5/0.6 0. s.0059 (V ) e+ : 1. ±300 mrad cone +0.1/1.c. LBNL).35 ±0.s.7 e− : 8.00786 Time between collisions (μs) 10−3 ) 21083 Luminosity (1030 cm−2 s−1 ) 12069 (design: 3000) e− : 4.3‡ 2 × 104 (upgradeable to 500) 250 — TBD ILC (TBD) e− /e+ : 0.84 e− /e+ : 0.0004 ±3.m.00025(V ) 1 1 H : 0. where appropriate. stands for superconducting.639 V : 0.012 (V ) 1 0.27*)(H). 0.0 nominal) e+ : 3.02 V : 0.0 × 106 0.65 Free space at interaction point (m) Beam radius (μm) Bunch length (cm) Energy spread (units 0.94 e− /e+ : 0..5 GeV) — TBD Physics end date 1999 SuperB (Italy) 1999 PEP-II (SLAC) Physics start date KEKB (KEK) Updated in early 2010 (contact J.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.1 nominal) (nominal Ecm = 10.64 0.5 nominal) Maximum beam energy (GeV) — 2008 e− : 7–12 (9.012 (V ) e+ : 0.7 × 10−4 (V ) H : 0. Quantities are.73 (+300/-500) mrad cone) e− : 0.

s.834 16 0.55 (2. pk and ave denote peak and average values.9 (45) 7.0) 38 16. function at interaction point (m) β∗.7 90 55 107 85 (pk) 55 (ave) 0.659 0.87) 24.25 34% pol pp (pol. 0. LBNL).336 e: 0.5 p: 28 p¯: 16 e: 280(H). 50(V ) Beam radius (10−6 m) ±2 p: 50 p¯: 45 e: 0.) 2001 0. and Heavy Ion Colliders † 2 colliding beams 1 ﬁxed target (e beam) 6.c.18(V ) 2 high L 6.030 p: 0.6(H).26(V ) p: 2.0) 38 15. s. where appropriate.55 (5.90) 1 dedicated +2 26.HIGH-ENERGY COLLIDER PARAMETERS: ep. 50(V ) p: 265(H).45(H).28 Numbers in parentheses refer to goals for operation in 2010.0 (3. For existing (future) colliders the latest achieved (design) values are given.1 TeV/n Cu Cu 2004 3.27 (pk) 0.6 (45) 7.0020 (ave) 0.980 Maximum beam energy (TeV) 75 pp ep e: 0.5) pp 2009 LHC† (CERN) 228 HERA (DESY) Updated in early 2010 (contact J.95 (49.5 Bunch length (cm) 396 96 Time between collisions (ns) 402 0. 2 high L 0.83) 99.75 135 30 107 0. Free space at interaction point (m) ±6. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. High-energy collider parameters 11:56 .0040 (pk) 0. Quantities are.0 × 10−3 (1.85 145 30 107 0. 2010 11:56 26.1 TeV/n d Au 2002 2 high L +2 0. Interaction regions Circumference (km) ampl. Beringer. H and V indicate horizontal and vertical directions.8 (1347) 1.m.94 (5.83 p: 8.020 (pk) 0.28 0.9 145 30 321 0.1 TeV/n Au Au 2000 RHIC (Brookhaven) 0.14 (ave) 0.76 TeV/n (1. stands for superconducting.5 (2. pp. 0.0008 (ave) — 6 total.38 TeV/n) — 7.. r. pp.0 × 104 (170) Pb Pb 2010 2. 2010 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.3 × 10−5 ) 1.92 Particles collided Luminosity (1030 cm−2 s−1 ) — 2007 Physics end date 1987 1992 Physics start date TEVATRON (Fermilab) 0.

leading to ionization.022 1415(10) × 1023 mol−1 g mol−1 0. Symbol α Deﬁnition Fine structure constant (e2 /4π0 c) M Incident particle mass E Incident part.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. For particles with *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 27.817 940 325(28) fm 6. or collective excitation.2. Groom (LBNL). 2010 12:56 .035 999 11(46) MeV/c2 MeV MeV 0. Electronic energy loss by heavy particles [1–32] 27.1. In thin absorbers few collisions will take place and the total energy loss will show a large variance [1]. Bichsel (University of Washington).R.1: Summary of variables used in this section. 2010 12:56 27. also see Sec.E. energy γM c2 T Kinetic energy me c2 Electron mass × c2 Classical electron radius re e2 /4π0 me c2 NA Avogadro’s number ze Charge of incident particle Z Atomic number of absorber A Atomic mass of absorber K/A 4πNA re2 me c2 /A Units or Value 1/137.2052 MeV Es Scale energy 4π/α me c2 RM Moli`ere radius g cm−2 27. Moments and cross sections : The electronic interactions of fast charged particles with speed v = βc occur in single collisions with energy losses E [1].2.307 075 MeV g−1 cm2 for A = 1 g mol−1 I Mean excitation energy eV (Nota bene! ) δ(βγ) Density eﬀect correction to ionization energy loss ρ Z/A × 28. D. The kinematic variables β and γ have their usual meanings. and S. atomic.1.816 eV ωp Plasma energy ( 4πNe re3 me c2 /α) (ρ in g cm−3 ) Ne Electron density (units of re )−3 wj Weight fraction of the jth element in a compound or mixture ∝ number of jth kind of atoms in a compound or mixture nj (716.7 below. Most frequently the energy losses are small (for 90% of all collisions the energy losses are less than 100 eV). 27.510 998 918(44) MeV 2. Passage of particles through matter 229 27. PASSAGE OF PARTICLES THROUGH MATTER Revised January 2010 by H.408 g cm−2 )−1 for A = 1 g mol−1 — 4αre2 NA /A X0 Radiation length g cm−2 Ec Critical energy for electrons MeV Eμc Critical energy for muons GeV 21.2. Klein (LBNL). Notation Table 27.

27.2. β) 2πre2 me c2 z 2 (1 − β 2 E/Tmax ) = . (27. scattering from free electrons is adequately described by the Rutherford diﬀerential cross section [2]. Vertical bands indicate boundaries between diﬀerent approximations discussed in the text. etc. and this “density eﬀect. Data below the break at βγ ≈ 0.1 1 10 100 1 [MeV/c] βγ 100 1000 10 4 10 100 1 [GeV/c] Muon momentum 10 5 10 6 10 100 [TeV/c] Fig. μ+ on Cu μ− 10 LindhardScharff 100 Bethe Radiative AndersonZiegler Eμc Radiative losses Radiative effects Minimum ionization reach 1% Nuclear losses Without δ 1 0. M1 is the mean energy loss in δx. β) = R B(E) .2) dE dE At high energies σB is further modiﬁed by polarization of the medium. dE so that M0 is the mean number of collisions in δx.01 0.” discussed in Sec.4. Ne is either measured in electrons/g (Ne = NA Z/A) or electrons/cm3 (Ne = NA ρZ/A). β) dσ (E.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1) dE β2 E2 where Tmax is the maximum energy transfer possible in a single collision. must also be included. β)/dE contains all contributions. The short dotted lines labeled “μ− ” illustrate the “Barkas eﬀect. (27. dσR (E.001 0. 2010 12:56 .” the dependence of stopping power on projectile charge at very low energies [6]. For electrons bound in atoms Bethe [3] used “Born Theorie” to obtain the diﬀerential cross section dσB (E. β) Mj (β) = Ne δx E j dE . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and data at higher energies are from Ref. M2 − M12 is the variance. The number of collisions is Poisson-distributed with mean M0 . Passage of particles through matter Stopping power [MeV cm2/g] charge ze more massive than electrons (“heavy” particles). Solid curves indicate the total stopping power.1 are taken from ICRU 49 [4]. 27. 2010 230 12:56 27. 5.1: Stopping power (= −dE/dx) for positive muons in copper as a function of βγ = p/M c over nine orders of magnitude in momentum (12 orders of magnitude in kinetic energy). where dσ(E.1 1 10 0. But in matter electrons are not free. Less important corrections are discussed below. It is convenient to deﬁne the moments dσ(E. The mean number of collisions with energy loss between E and E + dE occuring in a distance δx is Ne δx (dσ/dE)dE.

A minor dependence on M at the highest energies is introduced through Tmax . but for all practical purposes dE/dx in a given material is a function of β alone.3) dx A β2 2 I2 2 It describes the mean loss rate in the region 0. although there is a slow decrease in the rate of energy loss with increasing Z.3). Mean energy loss behavior below this region is discussed in Sec. and the other variables are deﬁned in Table 27. Extensive tables are available[5. 27. R/M is a function of E/M or pc/M . Both limits are Z dependent. 27. Stopping power at intermediate energies : The mean rate of energy loss by moderately relativistic charged heavy particles. δ(βγ).5 to 3. (27. Few concepts in high-energy physics are as misused as dE/dx. The function as computed for muons on copper is shown as the “Bethe” region of Fig. for Z > 6. 2010 12:56 27. In a TPC (Sec. is well-described by the “Bethe” equation. the mean of 50%–70% of the samples with the smallest signals is often used as an estimator. where λI is the nuclear interaction length). 27.6. Passage of particles through matter 231 27. and the radiative eﬀects at high energy are discussed in Sec.235 − 0. the units are MeV g−1 cm2 . in MeV g−1cm−2. 2010 12:56 .2.4.3) may be integrated to ﬁnd the total (or partial) “continuous slowing-down approximation” (CSDA) range R for a particle which loses energy only through ionization and atomic excitation. Since dE/dx in the “Bethe region” depends only on β. Although it must be used with cautions and caveats. In practice. With the symbol deﬁnitions and values given in Table 27. The qualitative behavior diﬀerence at high energies between a gas (He in the ﬁgure) and the other materials shown in the ﬁgure is due to the density-eﬀect correction. Eq.gov/AtomicNuclearProperties/].1. 28. Only in the Bethe region is it a function of β alone. Even with samples of hundreds of events a dependable value for the mean energy loss cannot be obtained. 27. and for muons below a few hundred GeV (above which radiative eﬀects dominate). pdg. The values of minimum ionization go roughly as 0.2.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1 < ∼ βγ < ∼ 1000 for intermediate-Z materials with an accuracy of a few %.3) still forms the basis of much of our understanding of energy loss by charged particles. the mass dependence is more complicated elsewhere. range is a useful concept only for low-energy hadrons (R < ∼ λI .6).7. Here Tmax is the maximum kinetic energy which can be imparted to a free electron in a single collision.lbl. (27. It is considerably below the mean given by the Bethe equation.1. particles with the same velocity have similar rates of energy loss in diﬀerent materials. The mass scaling of dE/dx and range is valid for the electronic losses described by the Bethe equation. At the lower limit the projectile velocity becomes comparable to atomic electron “velocities” (Sec.28 ln(Z). 27. 27. 27.0 as Z goes from 7 to 100. Far better and more easily measured is the most probable energy loss. R/M as a function of βγ = p/M c is shown for a variety of materials in Fig. The stopping power in several other materials is shown in Fig.6. dE/dx as described in Eq. Except in hydrogen. 27. (27. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. dE Z 1 1 2me c2 β 2 γ 2 Tmax δ(βγ) 2 − ln − β − = Kz 2 .2.1. relevant only for muons and pions. but not for radiative losses.3. The stopping power functions are characterized by broad minima whose position drops from βγ = 3.2.4. M1 /δx.4. The main problem is that the mean is weighted by very rare events with large single-collision energy deposits. discussed in Sec. and at the upper limit radiative eﬀects begin to be important (Sec.2.2.5).2. discussed in Sec. 27.

valid for 2γme /M 1.1 Sn Pb 1. A comparison with Eq.4. δ/2 → ln(ωp /I) + ln βγ − 1/2 . its electric ﬁeld ﬂattens and extends.3) and ωp is the plasma energy deﬁned in Table 27. Radiative eﬀects. gaseous helium. 27. Tmax is given by Tmax = 2me c2 β 2 γ 2 .18–20]. see also pdg. and at lower momenta in higher-Z absorbers. so that the distant-collision contribution to Eq. tin. real media become polarized. Estimates of the mean excitation energy I based on experimental stopping-power measurements for protons. For hadrons with E 100 GeV. (27.21.1.0 10 100 βγ = p/Mc 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Passage of particles through matter 10 − dE/dx (MeV g−1cm2) 8 6 5 H2 liquid 4 He gas 3 2 1 0.4) In older references [2.7] the “low-energy” approximation Tmax = 2me c2 β 2 γ 2 .1 1.0 10 100 Pion momentum (GeV/c) 10 100 1000 Proton momentum (GeV/c) 1000 10 000 Figure 27. are not included. However.3) shows that |dE/dx| then grows as ln βγ rather than ln β 2 γ 2 . At very high energies.1 0. deuterons.0 10 100 Muon momentum (GeV/c) 1000 1.3) increases as ln βγ.gov. 1 + 2γme /M + (me /M )2 (27. (27.lbl.0 Fe Al C 1000 10 000 1. (27. See Fig. carbon. These become signiﬁcant for muons in iron for βγ > ∼ 1000. For a particle with mass M and momentum M βγc. it is limited by structure eﬀects. 27.5) where δ(βγ)/2 is the density eﬀect correction introduced in Eq. and alpha particles are given in ICRU 37 [10]. iron. 2010 232 12:56 27.AtomicNuclearProperties.2. aluminum.1 0. Density eﬀect : As the particle energy increases.2: Mean energy loss rate in liquid (bubble chamber) hydrogen. (27. relevant for muons and pions. limiting the ﬁeld extension and eﬀectively truncating this part of the logarithmic rise [2–7. and lead. is often implicit. and that the mean excitation energy I is replaced by the plasma energy *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 .

0 5.42. Energetic knock-on electrons (δ rays) : The distribution of secondary electrons with kinetic energies T I is [2] d2 N 1 Z 1 F (T ) = Kz 2 (27. 27.02 0. Since the plasma frequency scales as the square root of the electron density.0 2. iron.0 10.0 20.05 0. For spin-0 particles F (T ) = (1 − β 2 T /Tmax ). the correction is much larger for a liquid or solid than for a gas.7) dT dx 2 A β2 T 2 for I T ≤ Tmax .0 Pion momentum (GeV/c) 0.05 2 0. βγ = 1.2 0.0 10. which in turn is due to (rare) large energy transfers to a few electrons.0 50. For lead we read R/M ≈ 396.1 5 βγ = p/Mc 0.5 1. carbon.0 Proton momentum (GeV/c) Figure 27. At extreme energies (e. These are especially relevant for high-energy muons. ωp .02 1. 27. 27. > 332 GeV for muons in iron. as discussed in Sec. where Tmax is given by Eq. the indistinguishability of projectile and target means that the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. but is about unity for T Tmax .. helium gas. forms for spins 1/2 and 1 are also given by Rossi [2].2 0. The remaining relativistic rise comes from the β 2 γ 2 growth of Tmax .1 0. (27. For example: For a K + whose momentum is 700 MeV/c.6.0 5. Here β is the velocity of the primary particle. 2010 12:56 27.4).0 Muon momentum (GeV/c) 0.2.0 5.2.1 0.2.4: Range of heavy charged particles in liquid (bubble chamber) hydrogen.2 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.0 100.0 2 5 2. Passage of particles through matter 233 50000 20000 C Fe 10000 Pb R/M (g cm−2 GeV−1) 5000 2000 H2 liquid He gas 1000 500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0. 27. as is illustrated by the examples in Fig.0 1. and at a considerably higher energy for protons in iron). The factor F is spin-dependent.5 10.0 2.5 1. When these events are excluded.0 10. the Fermi plateau (see Sec. the energy deposit in an absorbing layer approaches a constant value.g. radiative eﬀects are more important than ionization losses. and so the range is 195 g cm−2 . For incident electrons.5. and lead.6 below).0 5 0. 2010 12:56 .1 2 0.

Talman [27].6.3)) as Tcut → Tmax . (27. and |dE/dx|T <Tcut approaches the constant “Fermi plateau. The Bethe dE/dx and LandauVavilov-Bichsel Δp /x in silicon are shown as a function of muon energy in Fig.* the energy loss probability distribution f (Δ. δ rays of even modest energy are rare. † Rossi [2].2. Δp /x scales as a ln x + b. The restricted energy loss rate is δ dE β2 2me c2 β 2 γ 2 Tcut Tcut 2Z 1 1 − = Kz − ln 1 + . 2.1. but it was later included by Bichsel [26]. 27. where d2 N/dT dx is given cut by Eq.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The cosine of the production angle is essentially unity in practical cases.7. 27.05–0. The high-energy behavior of δ(βγ) (Eq. For β ≈ 1 particle. (27. Restricted energy loss rates for relativistic ionizing particles : Further insight can be obtained by examining the mean energy deposit by an ionizing particle when energy transfers are restricted to T ≤ Tcut ≤ Tmax . 2. The case x/ρ = 1600 μm was chosen since it has about * G < ∼ 0.9) This form approaches the normal Bethe function (Eq. where restricted loss rates for two examples of Tcut are shown in comparison with the full Bethe dE/dx and the Landau-Vavilov most probable energy loss (to be discussed in Sec. (27.3).3) and Eq.g. Additional formulae are given in Ref. (27.2.25]. 27. Fluctuations in energy loss : For detectors of moderate thickness x (e. for example. 22. Since Tcut replaces Tmax in the argument of the logarithmic term of Eq. 2010 234 12:56 27. Equation (27.7. the βγ term producing the relativistic rise in the close-collision part of dE/dx is replaced by a constant.) This behavior is illustrated in Fig. (27. 27. It is Vavilov’s κ [25]. where G is given by Rossi [Ref.10) I I 2 where ξ = (K/2) Z/A (x/β ) MeV for a detector with a thickness x in g cm−2 . (27. reaches a Fermi plateau.” (The density eﬀect correction δ eliminates the explicit βγ dependence produced by the distant-collision contribution. like the restricted energy loss. The most probable energy loss is [26] ξ 2mc2 β 2 γ 2 Δp = ξ ln + ln + j − β 2 − δ(βγ) . is such that 2mc2 ξ Δp −→ ξ ln + j . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Eq. dx T <Tcut A β2 2 2 Tmax 2 I2 (27.10]. (27.5)).7 below). (27. and others give somewhat diﬀerent values for j.11) (ωp )2 βγ > ∼100 Thus the Landau-Vavilov most probable energy loss. The most probable loss is not sensitive to its value. 2010 12:56 .7). scintillators or LAr cells). and j = 0. on average only one collision with Te > 1 keV will occur along a path length of 90 cm of Ar gas [1].200 [26].2. † While dE/dx is independent of thickness. x) is adequately described by the highly-skewed Landau (or Landau-Vavilov) distribution [24.9) is equal to TTmax T (d2 N/dT dx)dT . The density correction δ(βγ) was not included in Landau’s or Vavilov’s work. βγ.6.6. It can be veriﬁed that the diﬀerence between Eq. − 27. Passage of particles through matter range of T extends only to half the kinetic energy of the incident particle.7) is inaccurate for T close to I.

usually toward a higher value.0 Silicon 2. For very thick absorbers the distribution is less skewed but never approaches a Gaussian. In the case of Si illustrated in Fig.0 100.7.0 10. Also see Talman [27]. Radiative losses are excluded.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.8.5 0. the most probable energy loss per unit thickness for x ≈ 35 g cm−2 is very close to the restricted energy loss with Tcut = 2 dE/dx|min . The mean of the energy-loss given by the Bethe equation. (It ﬁnds its application in dosimetry. 1 for an argon-ﬁlled TPC cell. 1 of Ref. the distributions are signiﬁcantly wider than the Landau width w = 4ξ [Ref.) It rises as ln βγ because Tmax increases as β 2 γ 2 .5 Landau/Vavilov/Bichsel Δp /x for : x/ρ = 1600 μm 320 μm 80 μm 1. The most probable energy loss should be used. The large single-collision energy transfers that increasingly extend the long tail are rare.6: Bethe dE/dx. 27. Eq. The incident particles are muons.10). Folding in experimental resolution displaces the peak of the distribution.2. 15]. 2010 12:56 27.0 Figure 27.664 MeV g−1 cm2 . and the Landau most probable energy per unit thickness in silicon.5 Bethe 2. (27.3). two examples of restricted energy loss. where only bulk deposit is of relevance. The change of Δp /x with thickness x illustrates its a ln x + b dependence. In this case. MeV g−1 cm2 (Electonic loses only) 3. While Δp /x may be calculated adequately with Eq.1 1.0 Restricted energy loss for : Tcut = 10 dE/dx|min Tcut = 2 dE/dx|min 1. The Landau distribution fails to describe energy loss in thin absorbers such as gas TPC cells [1] and Si detectors [26]. Minimum ionization (dE/dx|min ) is 1. making the mean of an experimental distribution consisting of a few hundred events subject to large ﬂuctuations and sensitive to cuts as well as to background. (27. 26. 27. is ill-deﬁned experimentally and is not useful for describing energy loss by single particles. . Passage of particles through matter 235 the same stopping power as does 3 mm of plastic scintillator.0 0.0 Muon kinetic energy (GeV) 1000. Examples for thin silicon detectors are shown in Fig.6. Energy loss in mixtures and compounds : A mixture or compound can be thought of as made up of thin layers of pure elements in the right proportion (Bragg additivity). as shown clearly in Fig. Fig. 27.

(27. Z/A = wj Zj /Aj = nj Zj / nj Aj . Eq. However. (27. I as deﬁned this way is *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.12) dx dx j where dE/dx|j is the mean rate of energy loss (in MeV g cm−2 ) in the jth element.3) can be inserted into Eq. for example.12) to ﬁnd expressions for Z/A. and δ. (27. 2010 12:56 . I . dE dE = wj .

20 and 28. 27.22) = 4αre2 A Z 2 Lrad − f (Z) + Z Lrad .2. If we deﬁne 1 rms θ0 = θ rms (27. 4αre NA /A = (716. It is both (a) the mean distance over which a high-energy electron loses all but 1/e of its energy by bremsstrahlung. and high-energy photons by e+ e− pair production. and is accurate to 11% or better for 10−3 < x/X0 < 100. with larger tails than does a Gaussian distribution. because in a compound electrons are more tightly bound than in the free elements.13) plane = √ θspace . because it is the electron density that matters. The function f (Z) is an inﬁnite sum. Multiple scattering through small angles A charged particle traversing a medium is deﬂected by many small-angle scatters. and x/X0 is the thickness of the scattering medium in radiation lengths (deﬁned below). 27. or the recipes given in Ref.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 5). the strong interactions also contribute to multiple scattering.14) z x/X0 1 + 0. If possible. βc. X0 has been calculated and tabulated by Y. The characteristic amount of matter traversed for these related interactions is called the radiation length X0 . one uses the tables given in Refs. (However. and (b) 79 of the mean free path for pair production by a high-energy photon [37].4. 27. X0 A −1 2 −2 −1 For A = 1 g mol . 2010 236 12:56 27.3.23) where a = αZ [39]. βcp Here p. This value of θ0 is from a ﬁt to Moli`ere distribution [33] for singly charged particles with β = 1 for all Z. It is also the appropriate scale length for describing high-energy electromagnetic cascades. although other processes (Møller scattering.1. Most of this deﬂection is due to Coulomb scattering from nuclei.002 a6 . and dominates above a few tens of MeV in most materials. 2010 12:56 . with a width given by [34. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. but at larger angles (greater than a few θ0 .S.0369 a2 + 0.35] 13. but for elements up to uranium can be represented to 4-place accuracy by f (Z) = a2 (1 + a2 )−1 + 0. deﬁned below) it behaves like Rutherford scattering. 21 (repeated in Ref. Passage of particles through matter an underestimate.408 g cm ) . usually measured in g cm−2 .20206 − 0. While ionization loss rates rise logarithmically with energy. for hadronic projectiles. velocity. as shown in Fig.2. and δ as calculated this way has little relevance. bremsstrahlung losses rise nearly linearly (fractional loss is nearly independent of energy). Radiation length : High-energy electrons predominantly lose energy in matter by bremsstrahlung.4. Energy loss by electrons : At low energies electrons and positrons primarily lose energy by ionization. (27. It is roughly Gaussian for small deﬂection angles. e+ annihilation) contribute. 2 then it is usually suﬃcient to use a Gaussian approximation for the central 98% of the projected angular distribution. and charge number of the incident particle. and hence the eﬀect is called multiple Coulomb scattering.6 MeV θ0 = (27.0083 a4 − 0. Bhabha scattering. and z are the momentum.038 ln(x/X0 ) . 27. Photon and electron interactions in matter 27. Lrad and Lrad are given in Table 27.10. Tsai [38]: N 1 (27.) The Coulomb scattering distribution is well represented by the theory of Moli`ere [33]. which include eﬀective excitation energies and interpolation coeﬃcients for calculating the density eﬀect correction.4.

9. These and other suppression eﬀects in bulk media are discussed in Sec. Passage of particles through matter 237 Table 27. while the ionization loss rate varies only logarithmically with the electron energy. and near y = 0.5% (high Z) of the total. Element Z Lrad Lrad H He Li Be Others 1 2 3 4 >4 5.924 ln(1194 Z −2/3 ) Ionization loss by electrons and positrons diﬀers from loss by heavy particles because of the kinematics. Except at these extremes. Critical energy : An electron loses energy by bremsstrahlung at a rate nearly proportional to its energy. where there is a substantial diﬀerence in ionization at the relevant energy because of *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. If it is ignored and the ﬁrst line simpliﬁed with the deﬁnition of X0 given in Eq. and 28. where the infrared divergence is removed by the interference of bremsstrahlung amplitudes from nearby scattering centers (the LPM eﬀect) [41.144 5. where screening may become incomplete. 27. Complete discussions and tables can be found in Refs. who deﬁnes the critical energy as the energy at which the ionization loss per radiation length is equal to the electron energy.805 5. 10.621 5.2: Tsai’s Lrad and Lrad . Among alternate deﬁnitions is that of Rossi [2]. for use in calculating the radiation length in an element using Eq. the cross section can be approximated in the “complete screening case” as [38] dσ/dk = (1/k)4αre2 ( 43 − 43 y + y 2 )[Z 2 (Lrad − f (Z)) + Z Lrad ] (27. and still in the complete-screening approximation. where y = k/E is the fraction of the electron’s energy transfered to the radiated photon.15 Z −1/3) 6. (27. 2010 12:56 . The critical energy Ec is sometimes deﬁned as the energy at which the two loss rates are equal [46].3.28) Nγ = − X0 3 kmin 3E 2E 2 27. dk X0 NA k 3 3 This formula is accurate except in near y = 1. it is the same as the ﬁrst deﬁnition with the approximation |dE/dx|brems ≈ E/X0 .44].22). we have 4 4 dσ A = (27.5. 2010 12:56 27. At small y (the “infrared limit”) the term on the second line ranges from 1. and the identity of the incident electron with the electrons which it ionizes.4. Equivalently. the number of photons with energies between kmin and kmax emitted by an electron travelling a distance d X0 is 2 2 − kmin kmax d 4 4(kmax − kmin ) kmax ln + . (27.27) − y + y2 . spin.71 ln(184.79 4. This form has been found to describe transverse electromagnetic shower development more accurately (see below). At very high energies and except at the high-energy tip of the bremsstrahlung spectrum.42] and dielectric suppression [43.4.31 4. The accuracy of approximate forms for Ec has been limited by the failure to distinguish between gases and solid or liquids. (27.26) + 19 (1 − y)(Z 2 + Z) .74 4.7% (low Z) to 2.22).*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

29) dx X0 NA in the complete-screening limit valid at high energies. where wZ is the proportion by weight of the element with atomic number Z. I. not all these processes result in energy deposition.15. Separate ﬁts to Ec (Z).4. 1/λeﬀ ≈ elements wZ /λZ . The mass attenuation coeﬃcient is μ/ρ. and data for 30 eV< k <100 GeV for all elements is available from the web pages given in the caption. 27. Passage of particles through matter the density eﬀect. using the Rossi deﬁnition. where ρ is the density.16: The photon mass attenuation length (or mean free path) λ = 1/(μ/ρ) for various elemental absorbers as a function of photon energy. have been made with functions of the form a/(Z + b)α . Z + 1. 27. 27. Energy loss by photons : Contributions to the photon cross section in a light element (carbon) and a heavy element (lead) are shown in Fig. Here x = E/k is the fractional energy transfer to the pair-produced electron (or positron). Tsai’s formula for the diﬀerential cross section [38] reduces to dσ A = 1 − 43 x(1 − x) (27. 100 Absorption length λ (g/cm 2 ) 10 Sn 1 Si Fe Pb 0.01 0. Since coherent processes are included. 27.4. 2010 12:56 . At low energies it is seen that the photoelectric eﬀect dominates. (27. and other factors. 27. 27. For Z > 6 we obtain 710 MeV 610 MeV Ec ≈ (solids and liquids) . Rayleigh scattering. but α was found to be essentially unity.1 H C 0. 2010 238 12:56 27. and *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.27). and photonuclear absorption also contribute. The increasing domination of pair production as the energy increases is shown in Fig.17 of the full Review. The processes responsible for attenuation are given in Fig. The accuraccy is a few percent. ≈ (gases) .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The photoelectric cross section is characterized by discontinuities (absorption edges) as thresholds for photoionization of various atomic levels are reached.10.001 10 10 10 –4 –5 –6 10 eV 100 eV 1 keV 10 keV 100 keV 1 MeV 10 MeV Photon energy 100 MeV 1 GeV 10 GeV 100 GeV Fig.14. Photon attenuation lengths for a variety of elements are shown in Fig. For a chemical compound or mixture.24 Z + 0. Using approximations similar to those used to obtain Eq. The intensity I remaining after traversal of thickness t (in mass/unit area) is given by I = I0 exp(−t/λ).92 Since Ec also depends on A. Here k is the photon energy. although Compton scattering. such forms are at best approximate.

2010 12:56 . k dσLP M /dk. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 52 by a factor of two. so that ELP M = (1. the interaction is spread over a comparatively long distance called the formation length (∝ E(E − k)/k) via the uncertainty principle. ELP M scales as the 4th power of the mass of the incident particle. Eqns. X0 /ρ. (27. Since the longitudinal momentum transfer to a given center is small (∝ k/E(E − k). The pair-production cross sections for diﬀerent photon energies are shown in Fig.11 of the full Review.4 × 1010 TeV/cm) × X0 /ρ for a muon. bremsstrahlung is suppressed by a factor (kme /ωp E)2 [44]. other materials behave similarly. In crystalline media. Because of this. particularly for high-Z materials.30 will fail because of quantum mechanical interference between amplitudes from diﬀerent scattering centers. Bremsstrahlung and pair production at very high energies : At ultrahigh energies. in cm. For example. even weak factors can perturb the interaction. (27. with coherent enhancement or suppression possible [42].42]. When the formation length is long.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The longitudinal development is governed by the high-energy part of the cascade.” The interference is usually destructive. Magnetic ﬁelds can also suppress bremsstrahlung. the situation is more complicated.5. Calculations of the “Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal” (LPM) eﬀect may be made semi-classically based on the average multiple scattering. & Koch for a more detailed treatment [51]. several additional mechanisms can also produce suppression. If k E. In amorphous media. The energyweighted bremsstrahlung spectrum for lead.26–27. Eq. since the Feynman diagrams are variants of one another.5.30) is accurate to within a few percent down to energies as low as 1 GeV. for k < ωp E/me ∼ 10−4 . 27. and then dissipate their energy by ionization and excitation rather than by the generation of more shower * This deﬁnition diﬀers from that of Ref. it initiates an electromagnetic cascade as pair production and bremsstrahlung generate more electrons and photons with lower energy. appears. in the case of bremsstrahlung). the emitted photon can coherently forward scatter oﬀ of the electrons in the media.31) ELP M = 4πcρ ρ Since physical distances are involved. 27. Equation Eq.29) may be integrated to ﬁnd the high-energy limit for the total e+ e− pair-production cross section: (27. 2010 12:56 27. as can be seen by the solid curve in See the review by Motz. Electron energies eventually fall below the critical energy. the formation length is the distance over which the highly relativistic electron and the photon “split apart.30) σ = 79 (A/X0 NA ) . bremsstrahlung is suppressed if the photon energy k is less than E 2 /(E + ELP M ) [42]. and therefore scales as the radiation length in the material. pair production is reduced for E(k − E) > k ELP M . The cross section is very closely related to that for bremsstrahlung.7 TeV/cm) × . (27. In alternate language. Passage of particles through matter 239 k is the incident photon energy. With appropriate scaling by X0 /ρ. or more rigorously using a quantum transport approach [41. is shown in Fig.4. For photons.15 of the full Review. The cross section is of necessity symmetric between x and 1 − x. 27. 27. where* X0 (me c2 )2 αX0 = (7. Olsen. Electromagnetic cascades When a high-energy electron or photon is incident on a thick absorber. 27.

at energies from 1 GeV to 100 GeV. For many purposes it is suﬃcient to take b ≈ 0. given by [60.5RM . The results are very similar for the electron number proﬁles.35) where Es ≈ 21 MeV (Table 27. At high enough energies. To use Eq.33) fails badly for about the ﬁrst two radiation lengths. since b depends upon both Z and incident energy.33). As a result Eq. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. We have made ﬁts to shower proﬁles in elements ranging from carbon to uranium. j = e. In describing shower behavior. The transverse development of electromagnetic showers in diﬀerent materials scales fairly accurately with the Moli`ere radius RM . (27. we regard this as superseded by the EGS4 result. 2010 240 12:56 27.34).5. The gamma function distribution is very ﬂat near the origin. 27. (27. The energy deposition proﬁles are well described by Eq. Measurements of the lateral distribution in electromagnetic cascades are shown in Refs. (27.5 for electron-induced cascades and Cγ = +0. only 10% of the energy lies outside the cylinder with radius RM .0 and Cγ = −0.5. the LPM eﬀect (Sec. (27.5 or by ﬁnding a more accurate value from Fig.5 for photon-induced cascades.33) dt Γ(a) The maximum tmax occurs at (a − 1)/b. then ﬁnds a either by assuming b ≈ 0. Passage of particles through matter particles. The “shower length” Xs = X0 /b is less conveniently parameterized. and the Rossi deﬁnition of Ec is used. it is therefore convenient to introduce the scale variables t = x/X0 and y = E/Ec .0 × (ln y + Cj ) .5) reduces the cross sections for bremsstrahlung and pair production. one ﬁnds (a − 1)/b from Eq. the number of electrons crossing a plane near shower maximum is underestimated using Rossi’s approximation for carbon and seriously overestimated for uranium. (27. (27. On the average. The distributions are characterized by a narrow core. 60 and 61. (27. and hence can cause signiﬁcant elongation of electromagnetic cascades [42]. so that distance is measured in units of radiation length and energy in units of critical energy. Essentially the same b values are obtained for incident electrons and photons. (27.34) where Ce = −0. and broaden as the shower develops.33) with tmax = (a − 1)/b = 1. which are excluded from ﬁts.1). About 99% is contained inside of 3. Because ﬂuctuations are important.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.61] RM = X0 Es /Ec .4.33) should be used only in applications where average behavior is adequate. but at this radius and beyond composition eﬀects become important and the scaling with RM fails.” [2] but with Ce = −1. Eq. 2010 12:56 . 27. and Grindhammer [59] describes them with the function 2r R2 f (r) = 2 .37) (r + R2 )2 where R is a phenomenological function of x/X0 and ln E. γ . 27.19. The mean longitudinal proﬁle of the energy deposition in an electromagnetic cascade is reasonably well described by a gamma distribution [58]: dE (bt)a−1 e−bt = E0 b (27. while the EGS4 cascade (or a real cascade) increases more rapidly. A similar form for the electron number maximum was obtained by Rossi in the context of his “Approximation B. as shown in Fig. They are often represented as the sum of two Gaussians. As a corollary of this Z dependence. but there is some dependence on the atomic number of the medium.19.

but both are used in high-energy physics detectors. e. The cosine of the angle θc of Cherenkov radiation. The “muon critical energy” Eμc can be deﬁned more exactly as the energy at which radiative and ionization losses are equal. but for protons the “critical energy” is much. relative to the particle’s direction. “Hard” losses are therefore more probable in bremsstrahlung.. and γt = 1/(1 − βt2 )1/2 . large energy ﬂuctuations. bremsstrahlung. Muon energy loss at high energy At suﬃciently high energies.7.3). Values of δ for various commonly used gases are given as a function of *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. radiative processes become more important than ionization for all charged particles.6. Cherenkov radiation. and above Eμc radiative eﬀects dominate. 2010 12:56 27. The simulated [70] momentum distribution of an incident 1 TeV/c muon beam after it crosses 3 m of iron is shown in Fig. and in fact energy losses due to pair production may very nearly be treated as continuous. The radiative cross sections are expressed as functions of the fractional energy loss ν. Cherenkov and transition radiation [75. These processes are characterized by small cross sections. and is diﬀerent from the Rossi deﬁnition we used for electrons.76. The hard bremsstrahlung photons and hadronic debris from photonuclear interactions induce cascades which can obscure muon tracks in detector planes and reduce tracking eﬃciency [74]. (27. this “critical energy” occurs at several hundred GeV. and photonuclear contributions. This deﬁnition corresponds to the solid-line intersection in Fig. βt γt = 1/(2δ + δ 2 )1/2 . or 2(1 − 1/nβ) (27. is 1/nβ. 27. 27. The threshold velocity βt is 1/n. hard spectra. 27. 2010 12:56 . 27. the mean range x0 of a muon with initial energy E0 is given by x0 ≈ (1/b) ln(1 + E0 /Eμc ) .40) tan θc = β 2 n2 − 1 ≈ for small θc . It is convenient to write the average rate of muon energy loss as [71] −dE/dx = a(E) + b(E) E . To the approximation that these slowly-varying functions are constant. The bremsstrahlung cross section goes roughly as 1/ν over most of the range.32] A charged particle radiates if its velocity is greater than the local phase velocity of light (Cherenkov radiation) or if it crosses suddenly from one medium to another with diﬀerent optical properties (transition radiation). for a particle with velocity βc in a medium with index of refraction n. (27. The dependence of Eμc on atomic number Z is shown in Fig. and b(E) is the sum of e+ e− pair production. For muons and pions in materials such as iron. and the associated generation of electromagnetic and (in the case of photonuclear interactions) hadronic showers [62–70]. while for the pair production case the distribution goes as ν −3 to ν −2 [72]. Neither process is important for energy loss. (There is no simple scaling with particle mass.) Radiative eﬀects dominate the energy loss of energetic muons found in cosmic rays or produced at the newest accelerators.g. It serves the same function: below Eμc ionization losses dominate. in gases. and can be found by solving Eμc = a(Eμc )/b(Eμc ).38) Here a(E) is the ionization energy loss given by Eq. where δ = n − 1.23 of the full Review.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Passage of particles through matter 241 27. At these energies the treatment of energy loss as a uniform and continuous process is for many purposes inadequate. much higher. (27. Therefore.39) where Eμc = a/b.22 in the full Review.12 of the full Review.

Tamm [79] showed that for dispersive media the radiation is concentrated in a thin conical shell whose vertex is at the moving charge. The photons propage at the group velocity vg = dω/dk = c/[n(ω) + ω(dn/dω)]. Coherent radio Cherenkov radiation from electromagnetic showers (containing a net excess of e− over e+ ) has been used to study cosmic ray air showers [84] and to search for νe induced showers. 27. ωp ≈ 20 eV. 2010 242 12:56 27. (27. For a particle with γ = 103 . θc + η = 900 .45) For styrene and similar materials. see Table 6. (27. 78. (27. The γ dependence of the emitted energy thus comes from the hardening of the spectrum rather than from an increased quantum yield. unless the medium is non-dispersive (dn/dω = 0). 2010 12:56 . aﬀecting the Cherenkov radiation. About half the energy is emitted in the range 0. The number of photons produced per unit path length of a particle with charge ze and per unit energy interval of the photons is d2 N αz 2 α2 z 2 1 = sin2 θc = 1 − dEdx c re me c2 β 2 n2 (E) ≈ 370 sin2 θc (E) eV−1 cm−1 (z = 1) . This eﬀect may have timing implications for ring imaging Cherenkov counters [81]. 2παz 2 d2 N 1 = .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. this simpliﬁes to vg = c/n. (27. The number spectrum dNγ /d(ω diverges logarithmically at low energies and decreases rapidly for ω/γωp > 1.81 eV . and whose opening half-angle η is given by d dn cot η = (ω tan θc ) cot θc = tan θc + β 2 ω n(ω) . Transition radiation. but it is probably unimportant for most applications.7 eV. Passage of particles through matter pressure and wavelength in Ref. For practical use. and let k = 2π/λ be its wavenumber. Inevitable absorption in a practical detector removes the divergence. When two particles are within < ∼ 1 wavelength. The energy I radiated when a particle with charge ze crosses the boundary between vacuum and a medium with plasma frequency ωp is αz 2 γωp /3. (See Fig. The Cherenkov wavefront ‘sideslips’ along with the particle [80]. (27. for air it is 0. The radiation from an e+ e− pair at close separation is suppressed compared to two independent leptons [82]. equivalently. Data for other commonly used materials are given in Ref.1 ≤ ω/γωp ≤ 1.42) must be multiplied by the photodetector response function and integrated over the region for which β n(ω) > 1.24. In a non-dispersive medium. 77. For values at atmospheric pressure. In his classical paper.1.) This cone has a opening half-angle η. the radiated photons are in the soft x-ray range 2 to 40 keV. Let ω be the photon’s frequency.42) or.43) 1 − dxdλ λ2 β 2 n2 (λ) The index of refraction n is a function of photon energy E = ω. The number of photons with energy ω > ω0 is given by the answer *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.41) dω dω ω0 ω0 where ω0 is the central value of the small frequency range under consideration. the electromagnetic ﬁelds from the particles may add coherently. where ωp = 4πNe re3 me c2 /α = ρ (in g/cm3 ) Z/A × 28. Practical Cherenkov radiator materials are dispersive. and. Eq.

to problem 13. 2010 12:56 dS/d( ω) Differential yield per interface (keV/keV) 27.25: X-ray photon energy spectra for a radiator consisting of 200 25 μm thick foils of Mylar with 1. Most of the radiation is produced in a distance d(ω) = (2c/ω)(1/γ 2 + θ2 + ωp2 /ω 2 )−1 . dI/dω approaching zero as L/d(ω) → 0. Curves are shown with and without absorption. The equation and reference numbering corresponds to that version. 32. for ω > γωp /10. At increasing frequencies above the position of the last interference maximum (L/d(w) = π/2).25 for a realistic detector conﬁguration. in practical detectors it is enhanced by using a stack of N foil radiators—foils L thick. 85. 2 γωp αz 2 π2 −1 + Nγ (ω > ω0 ) = ln .519 αz 2/π = 0. In practical situations it is tens of μm. (27.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Nγ = 2. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. which have opposite phase. The amplitudes at successive interfaces interfere to cause oscillations about the single-interface spectrum. d(ω). where L is typically several formation lengths—separated by gas-ﬁlled gaps. The number of photons above a ﬁxed energy ω0 γωp thus grows as (ln γ)2 .) Although one might expect the intensity of coherent radiation from the stack of foils to be proportional to N 2 . the angular dependence of the formation length conspires to make the intensity ∝ N . 2010 12:56 . (See also Ref.46) π ω0 12 within corrections of order (ω0 /γωp)2 . For example. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. For regular spacing of the layers fairly complicated analytic solutions for the intensity have been obtained [85]. 86 and references therein. but the number above a ﬁxed fraction of γωp (as in the example above) is constant. Here θ is the x-ray emission angle.15 in Ref.5 mm air γ = 2 ×104 Single interface 200 foils 10−3 With absorption 10−4 10−5 1 10 100 X-ray energy ω (keV) 1000 Figure 27. overlap more and more and the spectrum saturates. 27. This is illustrated in Fig.5 mm spacing in air (solid lines) and for a single surface (dashed line). √ √ For θ = 1/γ the formation length has a maximum at d(γωp / 2) = γc/ 2 ωp . Since the useful x-ray yield from a single interface is low. characteristically 1/γ. the formation zones.59% × z 2 . Adapted from Ref. The particle stays “in phase” with the x ray over a distance called the formation length. Passage of particles through matter 243 Without absorption 10−2 25 μm Mylar/1.

Knoll [3]. The quoted numbers are usually based on typical devices.1. Most detectors in high-energy. 2010 12:56 . Revised September 2009. and should be regarded only as rough approximations for new designs.1: Typical resolutions and deadtimes of common detectors. vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMT) has been employed by a vast majority of all particle physics experiments to date [11]. nuclear.2. Table 28. Chakraborty (Northern Illinois U) and T.1. and deadtime In this section we give various parameters for common detector components. Summary of detector spatial resolution. Green [4]. The quoted numbers are usually based on typical devices. and hybrid photodetectors. A more detailed discussion of detectors can be found in Refs.1. Vacuum photodetectors : Vacuum photodetectors can be broadly subdivided into three types: photomultiplier tubes. 2010 244 12:56 28. microchannel plates. temporal resolution. More detailed discussions of detectors and their underlying physics can be found in books by Ferbel [1].1. 100 nm λ 1000 nm. and should be regarded only as rough approximations for new designs. In Table 28. and Grupen [6].1 are given typical resolutions and deadtimes of common detectors. 1 and 56. or E ≈ a few eV. In the former. Detector Type Accuracy (rms) Bubble chamber 10–150 μm Streamer chamber 300 μm Proportional chamber 50–100 μma Drift chamber 50–100 μm Scintillator — Emulsion 1 μm Liquid argon drift [7] ∼175–450 μm Micro-pattern gas detectors [8] 30–40 μm Resistive plate chamber [9] 10 μm Silicon strip pitch/(3 to 7)a Silicon pixel 2 μma a Resolution Dead Time Time 1 ms 2 μs 2 ns 2 nsd 100 ps/na — ∼ 200 ns < 10 ns 1–2 ns 50 msa 100 ms 200 ns 100 ns 10 ns — ∼ 2 μs 20 ns — a a a a See full Review for qualiﬁcations and assumptions. Photomultiplier tubes: A versatile class of photon detectors. Detectors at accelerators 28. Sumiyoshi (Tokyo Metro U).2. 28. Generally. PARTICLE DETECTORS AT ACCELERATORS This is an abridgment of the discussion given in the full Review of Particle Physics (the “full Review”). 28. and astrophysics rely on the detection of photons in or near the visible range. the equation and reference numbering corresponds to that version. Both “transmission-” and “reﬂection-type” PMT’s are widely used. Photon detectors Updated September 2009 by D.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 28. Leroy & Rancoita [5]. photodetection involves generating a detectable electrical signal proportional to the (usually very small) number of incident photons. 28. This range covers scintillation and Cherenkov radiation as well as the light detected in many astronomical observations.2. the photocathode material is deposited on the inside of a transparent window *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Kleinknecht [2].

or dynode. solid-state detectors are proving to be the better choice. while in the latter.3.7. rugged. solid-state photodetectors are competing with vacuum.and gaseous photodetectors. and often cheaper. 2010 12:56 . Solid-state photon detectors : In a phase of rapid development. Compared to traditional vacuum. Typically. which are collected at the anode for delivery to the external circuit. These are discussed in Sec. To limit the number of readout channels. They are particularly well suited for detection of γ. They also allow ﬁne pixelization. Gaseous photon detectors : In gaseous photomultipliers (GPM) a photoelectron in a suitable gas mixture initiates an avalanche in a high-ﬁeld region. an exponential cascade of impact ionizations initiated by the initial photogenerated e-h pair under a large reverse-bias voltage leads to an avalanche breakdown [17]. Thus. Very large arrays containing O(107 ) of O(10 μm2 )-sized photodioides pixelizing a plane are widely used to photograph all sorts of things from everyday subjects at visible wavelengths to crystal structures with X-rays and astronomical objects from infrared to UV. n is the number of dynodes in the chain. 2010 28.6. The structure is discussed in some detail in Sec.and X-rays.8 (depending on the dynode material). where k ≈ 0.or gas-based devices for many existing applications and making way for a multitude of new ones. producing a large number of secondary impactionization electrons. where pixel-to-pixel signal transfer takes place over thousands of synchronous cycles with sequential output through shift registers [16]. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and A a constant (which also depends on n). 28. these are made into charge-coupled devices (CCD). solid-state devices are more compact. The total gain of a PMT depends on the applied high voltage V as G = AV kn . In principle the charge multiplication and collection processes are identical to those employed in gaseous tracking detectors such as multiwire proportional chambers. G is in the range of 105 –106 . tolerant to magnetic ﬁelds. micromesh gaseous detectors (Micromegas). are easy to integrate into large systems.2. The cathode material has a low work function. When a photon hits the cathode and liberates an electron (the photoelectric eﬀect). In avalanche photodiodes (APD). Custom-made CCD’s have virtually replaced photographic plates and other imagers for astronomy and in spacecraft. Detectors at accelerators 12:56 245 through which the photons enter. As a result. Except for applications where coverage of very large areas or dynamic range is required. 28.7–0. detectable electrical response can be obtained from low-intensity optical signals down to single photons. 28.2. The multiplication process is repeated typically 10 times in series to generate a suﬃcient number of electrons. chosen for the wavelength band of interest. 28. and can operate at low electric potentials.2. high spatial resolution is achieved at the expense of speed and timing precision.4. the latter is accelerated and guided by electric ﬁelds to impinge on a secondary-emission electrode. which then emits a few (∼ 5) secondary electrons. or gas electron multipliers (GEM). lightweight. Silicon photodiodes (PD) are widely used in high-energy physics as particle detectors and in a great number of applications (including solar cells!) as light detectors. while matching or exceeding most performance criteria. the photocathode material rests on a separate surface that the incident photons strike.

3. Organic scintillators are broadly classed into three types. 28. Plastic scintillators are by far the most widely used.F. Inorganic crystals form a class of scintillating materials with much higher densities than organic plastic scintillators (typically ∼ 4–8 g/cm3 ) with a variety of diﬀerent properties for use as scintillation detectors. Crystal organic scintillators are practically unused in high-energy physics. Decay times are in the ns range. Organic scintillators Revised September 2007 by K. plastic scintillators in the form of scintillating ﬁbers have found widespread use in tracking and calorimetry [25]. Woody (BNL). Typical photon yields are about 1 photon per 100 eV of energy deposit [22].-Y. Due to their high density and high eﬀective atomic number. SCIFI calorimeters are fast.03 to 1.L. they can be used in applications where high stopping power or a high conversion eﬃciency for electrons or photons is required. Ease of fabrication into desired shapes and low cost has made plastic scintillators a common detector component. which consist of a totally active absorber (as opposed to a sampling calorimeter). Inorganic scintillators: Revised September 2009 by R.1). *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The resulting photoelectron signal will depend on the collection and transport eﬃciency of the optical package and the quantum eﬃciency of the photodetector. usually in the blue to green wavelength regions [21]. all of which utilize the ionization produced by charged particles to generate optical photons. Many of these crystals also have very high light output. and can have leadglass-like resolution. and plastic. Detectors at accelerators 28. dense. SCIFI trackers can handle high rates and are radiation tolerant. Scintillating and wavelength-shifting fibers : The clad optical ﬁber is an incarnation of scintillator and wavelength shifter (WLS) which is particularly useful [33]. 2010 12:56 . Densities range from 1. These include total absorption electromagnetic calorimeters (see Sec. WLS scintillator readout of a calorimeter allows a very high level of hermeticity since the solid angle blocked by the ﬁber on its way to the photodetector is very small. Johnson (FSU). SCIFI techniques have become mainstream [35]. Recently. A one-cm-thick scintillator traversed by a minimum-ionizing particle will therefore yield ≈ 2 × 104 photons. liquid. Zhu (California Institute of Technology) and C.20 g cm−3 .9.3. as well as serving as gamma ray detectors over a wide range of energies. rise times are much faster. 28. 28. and can therefore provide excellent energy resolution down to very low energies (∼ few hundred keV). but the low photon yield at the end of a long ﬁber (see below) forces the use of sensitive photodetectors. radiation hard.3.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.4. Since the initial demonstration of the scintillating ﬁber (SCIFI) calorimeter [34]. crystalline. 2010 246 12:56 28.

5 provides values of relevant parameters in some commonly used gases at NTP (normal temperature. for unit charge minimum ionizing particles.4 8. Gaseous detectors 28. Although devices using Cherenkov radiation are often thought of as only particle identiﬁcation (PID) detectors.7 11. EI : ﬁrst excitation.1.667 1. Cherenkov detectors Revised September 2009 by B.8 16.49 1.8 16.495 0. Table 28. The refractive index n and the particle’s path length through the radiator L appear in the Cherenkov relations allowing the tuning of these quantities for particular applications. Cherenkov counters contain two main elements.0 24.67 3. (1) a radiator through which the charged particle passes. and (2) a photodetector.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. one atm). dE/dx|min . Ratcliﬀ (SLAC). EX . Gas-ﬁlled detectors localize the ionization produced by charged particles. 27. Detectors at accelerators 12:56 247 28. NP . 2010 28.5 10.0 41.5 13 25 41 28 48 90 35 63 NT cm−1 8 40 97 312 54 112 220 100 120 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Cherenkov detectors utilize one or more of the properties of Cherenkov radiation discussed in the Passages of Particles through Matter section (Sec. 20◦ C. or of the center of gravity of the collected charge.45 2.6. (1) fast particle counters. Energy loss and charge transport in gases : Revised March 2010 by F. 1 atm) for unit-charge minimum-ionizing particles (MIPs) [57–63]. WI : average energy per ion pair.6 11.2 6.53 6. and (3) tracking detectors performing complete event reconstruction. The statistics of ionization processes having asymmetries in the ionization trails. and pressure. For thin gas layers. Sauli (CERN) and M. The energy loss of charged particles and photons in matter is discussed in Sec.6 8. the existence of a velocity threshold for radiation. Gas He Ne Ar Xe CH4 C2 H6 iC4 H10 CO2 CF4 Density.5: Properties of noble and molecular gases at normal temperature and pressure (NTP: 20◦ C. generally after charge multiplication.5.38 3.84 3. mg cm−3 Ex eV EI eV WI eV dE/dx|min keV cm−1 NP cm−1 0.6 13.26 2.839 1.6 15.61 2. Titov (CEA Saclay). 27 of this Review): the prompt emission of a light pulse. Table 28.3 37 26 22 30 26 26 34 54 0. As Cherenkov radiation is a weak source of photons. primary and total number of electron-ion pairs per cm.6.8 8. and the dependence of the Cherenkov cone half-angle θc and the number of emitted photons on the velocity of the particle and the refractive index of the medium.35 6. aﬀect the coordinate determination deduced from the measurement of drift time.78 19. the width of the energy loss distribution can be larger than its average. light collection and detection must be as eﬃcient as possible.87 1.0 10.91 5.5 7. ionization energy.32 1. 2010 12:56 .N. requiring multiple sample or truncated mean analysis to achieve good particle identiﬁcation. in practice they are used over a broader range of applications including.7 12.66 5.1 12.179 0. 28. (2) hadronic PID. NT : diﬀerential energy loss.6 21.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. In a simple approximation. The number of electronion pairs per primary ionization. the total number of electron-ion pairs (NT ) is usually a few times larger than the number of primaries (NP ).66]. its inverse. Once released in the gas. it creates electron-ion pairs. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Multi-Wire Proportional and Drift Chambers : Revised March 2010 by Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Maxim Titov (CEA Saclay). which results in “cooling” electrons into the energy range of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum (at ∼ 0. acts almost as a set of independent proportional counters. Drift chambers. the Lorentz force acting on electrons between collisions deﬂects the drifting electrons and modiﬁes the drift properties. Detectors at accelerators When an ionizing particle passes through the gas. CO2 . permits localization of tracks to sub-mm accuracy. is the ﬁrst Townsend coeﬃcient. 2010 248 12:56 28. for argon.6. but often the ejected electrons have suﬃcient energy to further ionize the medium. the mean free path for ionization. 28. most of the increase of avalanche particle density occurs very close to the anode wires. The coordinate along each wire can be obtained by measuring the ratio of collected charge at the two ends of resistive wires. inserted between two cathodes. α = 1/λi . Making use of the charge proﬁle induced on segmented cathodes. taking into account the electronic structure of the medium. introduced in the late ’60’s. The drift velocity and diﬀusion of electrons depend very strongly on the nature of the gas. electrons gain enough energy between collisions to ionize molecules. gas kinetic theory provides the drift velocity v as a function of the mean collision time τ and the electric ﬁeld E: v = eEτ /me (Townsend’s expression). localize and measure energy deposit by charged particles over large areas. and a simple electrostatic consideration shows that the largest fraction of the detected signal is due to the motion of positive ions receding from the wires. allowing coverage of large areas at reduced cost. In wire chambers. Large drift velocities are achieved by adding polyatomic gases (usually CH4 . developed in the early ’70’s. or CF4 ) having large inelastic cross sections at moderate energies. detect. If the electric ﬁeld is increased suﬃciently. the so-called center-of gravity (COG) method. has an exponentially decreasing probability. A mesh of parallel anode wires at a suitable potential. As shown in Table 28. Detection of charge on the wires over a predeﬁned threshold provides the transverse coordinate to the wire with an accuracy comparable to that of the wire spacing. electrons and ions drift in opposite directions and diﬀuse towards the electrodes. 2010 12:56 .5 eV) of the elastic cross-section of argon. although very fast. and under the inﬂuence of an applied electric ﬁeld. This determines the characteristic shape of the detected signals in the proportional mode: a fast rise followed by a gradual increase. In the presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld. λi . or cluster size. Electrons released in the gas volume drift towards the anodes and produce avalanches in the increasing ﬁeld. decreases exponentially with the ﬁeld. Above a gas-dependent threshold. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) [65. there is about 1% probability for primary clusters to contain ten or more electron-ion pairs [59]. The electron component. contributes very little to the signal.2. can be used to estimate the longitudinal position of a track by exploiting the arrival time of electrons at the anodes if the time of interaction is known [69].5. The probability for a released electron to have an energy E or larger follows an approximate 1/E 2 dependence (Rutherford law). The distance between anode wires is usually several cm.

Each hole acts as an independent proportional counter.4. and single photo-electron time resolution in the ns range.6. an order of magnitude improvement in granularity over wire chambers. with a thickness of 50 μm. is the basis for charged particle tracking in a large number of particle and nuclear physics experiments. allowing the multi-layer GEM detectors to operate at overall gas gain above 104 in the presence of highly ionizing particles.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 28. 2010 12:56 . giving rise to excellent spatial resolution: 12 μm accuracy. Karlen (U. while strongly reducing the risk of discharges. Since the amount of ionization along the length of the track depends on the velocity of the particle. these detectors oﬀer intrinsic high rate capability (> 106 Hz/mm2 ). The small ampliﬁcation gap produces a narrow avalanche. neutron detection and medical physics. Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors : Revised March 2010 by Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Maxim Titov (CEA Saclay) By using pitch size of a few hundred μm.5. Detectors at accelerators 12:56 249 28. excellent spatial resolution (∼ 30 μm). Canada) The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. UV and visible photon detection. where they are ampliﬁed. The intrinsic 3D segmentation gives the TPC a distinct advantage over other large volume tracking detector designs which record information only in a 2D projection with less overall segmentation. ionization and momentum *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. either gas or liquid. particularly for pattern recognition in events with large numbers of particles. astroparticle and neutrino physics. The central insulator is usually (in the original design) the polymer Kapton. For this application. Electrons released by the primary ionization particle in the upper conversion region (above the GEM foil) drift into the holes. The hole diameter is typically between 25 μm and 150 μm. while the corresponding distance between holes varies between 50 μm and 200 μm. towards a surface segmented into 2D readout pads. precise spatial measurements in the plane transverse to the magnetic ﬁeld are most important. It consists of a drift region and a narrow multiplication gap (25–150 μm) between a thin metal grid (micromesh) and the readout electrode (strips or pads of conductor printed on an insulator board). 2010 28. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector consists of a thin-foil copper-insulator-copper sandwich chemically perforated to obtain a high density of holes in which avalanches occur [86]. Most of avalanche electrons are transferred into the gap below the GEM. The performance and robustness of GEM and Micromegas have encouraged their use in high-energy and nuclear physics. A uniform electric ﬁeld drifts tracks of electrons produced by charged particles traversing a medium. Several GEM foils can be cascaded.6. limited by the micro-mesh pitch. has been achieved for MIPs. Electrons from the primary ionization drift through the holes of the mesh into the narrow multiplication gap. multi-particle resolution (∼ 500 μm). The micro-mesh gaseous structure (Micromegas) is a thin parallel-plate avalanche counter. invented by David Nygren in the late 1970’s [74]. Application of a potential diﬀerence between the two sides of the GEM generates the electric ﬁelds. Gaseous TPC’s are often designed to operate within a strong magnetic ﬁeld (typically parallel to the drift ﬁeld) so that particle momenta can be estimated from the track curvature. where charge multiplication occurs in the high electric ﬁeld (50–70 kV/cm). The signal amplitudes and arrival times are recorded to provide full 3D measurements of the particle trajectories. as well as very good time resolution and energy resolution (∼ 12% FWHM with 6 keV x rays) [89]. of Victoria and TRIUMF. Time-projection chambers : Written September 2007 by D.

2010 250 12:56 28. the gas ampliﬁcation system used in TPC’s have exclusively been planes of anode wires operated in proportional mode placed close to the readout pads. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The TR intensity for a single boundary crossing always increases with γ. as discussed in Sec. Performance has been recently improved by replacing these wire planes with micro-pattern gas detectors. 103. 2010 12:56 . The TR signal in the active regions is in most cases superimposed upon the particle’s ionization losses. Inst.7.6. and 2 the spacing. Romaniouk (Moscow Eng. The x rays.6. are emitted at a characteristic angle 1/γ from the particle trajectory. Mylar. The cluster-counting method works better for detectors with thin gas layers. 1 is its thickness. and (rarely) lithium are used as radiators. and the x-ray energy is Ex . In the simplest concept. The total energy measurement technique is more suitable for thick gas volumes. namely GEM [86] and Micromegas [88] devices. 27. Nevski (BNL) and A. To minimize self-absorption. Those detectors normally work as threshold devices. where n varies between 4 and 5 over the region of interest. where ω1 is the radiator plasma frequency. providing another reason for active layers with high Z. see Cherry and M¨ uller papers in Ref. carbon. & Phys. a detector module might consist of low-Z foils followed by a high-Z active layer made of proportional counters ﬁlled with a Xe-rich gas mixture. Recent TRDs for particle astrophysics are designed to directly measure the Lorentz factor of high-energy nuclei by using the quadratic dependence of the TR yield on nuclear charge. Transition radiation detectors (TRD’s) : Written August 2007 by P. The discrimination between electrons and pions can be based on the charge deposition measured in each detection module. Gas ampliﬁcation of 103 –104 at the readout endplate is usually required in order to provide signals with suﬃcient amplitude for conventional electronics to sense the drifted ionization. but for multiple boundary crossings interference leads to saturation √ near a Lorentz factor γ sat = 0. In most of the detectors used in particle physics the radiator parameters are chosen to provide γ sat ≈ 2000. Detectors at accelerators measurements can be combined to identify the types of particles observed in the TPC. These drop a little faster than Z/A with increasing Z. Since the TR yield is about 1% per boundary crossing. the eﬀect can be alleviated by the choice of a gas with low intrinsic diﬀusion or by operating in a strong magnetic ﬁeld parallel to the drift ﬁeld with a gas which exhibits a signiﬁcant reduction in transverse diﬀusion with magnetic ﬁeld. Until recently. ranging from a few keV to a few dozen keV. or on more sophisticated methods analyzing the pulse shape as a function of time. materials such as polypropylene. which absorb most of the TR radiation and where the ionization loss ﬂuctuations are small.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 28.6 ω1 1 2 /c [101]. ensuring the best electron/pion separation in the momentum range 1 GeV/c < ∼p< ∼ 150 GeV/c. radiation from multiple surface crossings is used in practical detectors. For a gaseous TPC.) Transition radiation (TR) x rays are produced when a highly relativistic 3 particle (γ > ∼ 10 ) crosses a refractive index interface. Diﬀusion degrades the position information of ionization that drifts a long distance. on the number of clusters—energy depositions observed above an optimal threshold (usually in the 5 to 7 keV region). The atomic number considerations follow from the dominant photoelectric absorption cross section per atom going roughly as Z n /Ex3 . where the ﬂuctuations of the ionization losses are big.

a highly doped p electrode and a lightly doped n region. strip or pixel structures—can provide better performance. whereas for energy spectroscopy the stopping power should be maximized.96 eV in Ge. Semiconductor detectors Updated September 2009 by H. Other typical ionization energies are 2.e.5 V for resistivities typically used in Si detectors) N = doping concentration e = electronic charge = dielectric constant = 11. which under an applied electric ﬁeld move towards their respective collection electrodes. Detector Configurations : A p-n junction operated at reverse bias forms a sensitive region depleted of mobile charge and sets up an electric ﬁeld that sweeps charge liberated by radiation to the electrodes. Since for holes μτ is typically an order of magnitude smaller than for electrons. 4. so that the depletion region extends predominantly into the lightly doped volume. For minimum-ionizing particles. In Si and Ge μτ > 1 cm2 V−1 for both electrons and holes. 28. (28. The mean energy Ei required to produce an e-h pair peaks at 4.7. negative and positive charge carriers... The energy required to form an electron-hole pair is proportional to the bandgap. i.9 0 ≈ 1 pF/cm in Si ρ = resistivity (typically 1–10 kΩ cm in Si) μ = charge carrier mobility = 1350 cm2 V−1 s−1 for electrons in Si *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.67 eV at room temperature. Since both electronic and lattice excitations are involved. so for gamma rays high-Z materials are desirable.7. Above ∼1. where they induce a signal current.1) where V = external bias voltage Vbi = “built-in” voltage (≈ 0. 28.5 fC (22000 electrons). Thus. σN = F N and the energy resolution σE /E = F Ei /E. Materials Requirements : Semiconductor detectors are essentially solid state ionization chambers. Detectors at accelerators 12:56 251 28. 3. the measured signal ﬂuctuations are usually dominated by electronic noise or energy loss ﬂuctuations in the detector.5 keV it assumes a constant value. In tracking detectors the energy loss in the detector should be minimal.7. can allow this. the variance in the number of charge carriers N = E/Ei produced by an absorbed energy√E is reduced by the Fano factor F (about 0. A major eﬀort is to ﬁnd high-Z materials with a bandgap that is suﬃciently high to allow room-temperature operation while still providing good energy resolution. and 4. e. CdZnTe. Measurements on silicon photodiodes [112] show that for photon energies below 4 eV one electron-hole (e-h) pair is formed per incident photon.g..g.g. Absorbed energy forms electron-hole pairs. e. It is larger than the bandgap energy because momentum conservation requires excitation of lattice vibrations (phonons). whereas in compound semiconductors it is in the range 10−3 –10−8 .1. In a planar device the thickness of the depleted region is W = 2 (V + Vbi )/N e = 2ρμ (V + Vbi ) . 2010 28. the most probable charge deposition in a 300 μm thick silicon detector is about 3. but typically suﬀer from charge collection problems..43 eV in CdTe. Compund semiconductors. 2010 12:56 .2 eV in GaAs. detector conﬁgurations where the electron contribution to the charge signal dominates—e.4 eV for a photon energy around 6 eV. However.1 in Si and Ge).*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.2. Detectors typically use an asymmetric structure. Spieler (LBNL). characterized by the product μτ of mobility and carrier lifetime.

at an average ﬁeld of 104 V/cm the collection time is about 15 ps/μm for electrons and 30 ps/μm for holes.3 [μm/ Ω-cm · V] × ρ(V + Vbi ) for p-type Si. 111.” i. strips. and build-up of space charge that changes the required operating voltage.5 [μm/ Ω-cm · V] × ρ(V + Vbi ) for n-type Si.3. it is critical to consider both particle type and energy.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. For an overview and further discussion see Ref. DEPFETs. 71–83). and hybrid pixel devices that utilize separate sensors and readout ICs connected by two-dimensional arrays of solder bumps... Resolutions of 2–4 μm (rms) have been obtained in beam tests. or μm-scale pixels.e. monolithic pixel devices that integrate sensor and electronics (MAPS).7. charge loss due to recombination and trapping becomes signiﬁcant and the high signal-to-noise ratio obtainable with low-capacitance pixel structures *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and holes within about 25 ns. 28. Large volume (∼ 102 –103 cm3 ) Ge detectors are commonly conﬁgured as coaxial detectors. which leads to increased surface leakage currents. At this damage level. pp. CCDs. 109 –1010 cm−3 (HPGe). The collection time is limited by velocity saturation at high ﬁelds (in Si approaching 107 cm/s at E > 104 V/cm). Hence. which can initiate a chain of subsequent displacements. Ge can be grown with very low impurity levels. Bulk damage due to displacement of atoms from their lattice sites.e. 2010 12:56 . Detectors at accelerators =√450 cm2 V−1s−1 for holes in Si In Si W = 0.. and √ W = 0. so these large volumes can be depleted with several kV. Surface damage due to charge build-up in surface layers.. 2010 252 12:56 28.g. This leads to increased leakage current. i. a bias voltage exceeding the value required to fully deplete the device. The eﬀects of charge build-up are strongly dependent on the device structure and on fabrication details. Since the damage is proportional to the absorbed energy (when ionization dominates). Electrodes can be in the form of cm-scale pads. 2. In typical fully-depleted detectors 300 μm thick. 111.g. the Lorentz drift deﬂects the electron and hole trajectories and the detector must be tilted to reduce spatial spreading (see “Hall eﬀect” in semiconductor textbooks). a cylindrical n-type crystal with 5–10 cm diameter and 10 cm length with an inner 5–10 mm diameter n+ electrode and an outer p+ layer forming the diode junction. Position resolution is limited by transverse diﬀusion during charge collection (typically 5 μm for 300 μm thickness) and by knock-on electrons. Strip and pixel detectors have remained functional at ﬂuences beyond 1015 cm−2 for minimum ionizing protons.4.. Signal Formation : The signal pulse shape depends on the instantaneous carrier velocity v(x) = μE(x) and the electrode geometry. which determines the distribution of induced charge (e. the dose can be speciﬁed in rad (or Gray) independent of particle type. Displacement damage depends on the nonionizing energy loss and the energy imparted to the recoil atoms. 28. In magnetic ﬁelds.g. and can be reduced further by operating the detector with “overbias. In strip detectors the inter-strip isolation is aﬀected. e. Various readout structures have been developed for pixels.7. electrons are collected within about 10 ns. Radiation Damage : Radiation damage occurs through two basic mechanisms: 1. damage clusters. Charge collection time decreases with increasing bias voltage. e. carrier trapping. see Ref.

For a more detailed summary see Ref. 2010 12:56 .8 g cm−2 in iron to 6.gov/AtomicNuclearProperties for actual values.312 to within 0. Detectors at accelerators 50 253 5 40 4 Ru Pd W Au Pb U ΛI/ρ (cm) 30 3 ΛI 20 2 X0 10 30 40 50 60 X0/ρ (cm) Fe Cu 0 20 12:56 1 70 80 90 100 0 Z Figure 28. 2010 28.g. can improve certain aspects and is under investigation. 117 and and the web-sites of the ROSE and RD50 collaborations at http://RD48. so detector conﬁgurations that emphasize the electron contribution to the charge signal are advantageous. e.web.* Similarly. competing processes can increase or decrease the required operating voltage.9.8 g cm−2 A0. At high ﬂuences diamond is an alternative. cost. n+ strips or pixels on a p-substrate. EM calorimeters tend to be 15–30 X0 deep.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. introducing oxygen interstitials. It is critical to choose the operating temperature judiciously (−10 to 0◦ C in typical collider detectors) and limit warm-up periods during maintenance.cern.21: Nuclear interaction length λI /ρ (circles) and radiation length X0 /ρ (+’s) in cm for the chemical elements with Z > 20 and λI < 50 cm. I See pdg. The occupancy of the defect charge states is strongly temperature dependent. while hadronic calorimeters are usually compromised at 5–8 λI . which ranges from 13.0 g cm−2 in uranium.lbl. and other factors.. so the hadronic cascade occurs in a succession of diﬀerent structures. but operates as an insulator rather than a reverse-biased diode. * X0 = 120 g cm−2 Z −2/3 to better than 5% for Z > 23. e.1 g cm−2 (Fe) to 209 g cm−2 (U). The characteristic interaction distance for an electromagnetic interaction is the radiation length X0 . where “many” is determined by physical size.g. the characteristic nuclear interaction length λI varies from 132.cern. Calorimeters A calorimeter is designed to measure the energy deposition and its direction for a contained electromagnetic (EM) or hadronic shower. a calorimeter must be many interaction lengths deep. The higher mobility of electrons makes them less sensitive to carrier lifetime than holes. which in turn has less sampling density in the back. † λ = 37. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.ch/rd50.web. In real experiments there is likely to be an EM calorimeter in front of the hadronic section.ch/rd48 and http://RD50. 28.. extends detector lifetime. Materials engineering.† In either case.8% for Z > 15.

the basic structure is plates of absorber (Fe. These quantities are shown for Z > 20 for the chemical elements in Fig. Electromagnetic calorimeters : Revised October 2009 by R.-Y. non-compensation also contributes to the constant term. operated in a high-beam intensity environment. or via scintillation light observed by photodetectors (usually PMT’s). is radiation damage of the active medium. . There are also homogeneous calorimeters.124] Written April 2008 by D. 27 of this Review). Detectors at accelerators In all cases there is a premium on small λI /ρ and X0 /ρ (both with units of length). Waveshifting ﬁbers are often used to solve diﬃcult problems of geometry and light collection uniformity. The active medium may be a scintillator. a gas chamber. the stochastic term a for a sampling calorimeter is expected to be proportional to t/f .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Scintillation light and/or ionization in noble liquids can be detected.. evaporation neutrons. 28. . The charged collision products produce detectable ionization. Nuclear interaction lengths in inorganic crystals range from 17. 28. term b are detector non-uniformity and calibration uncertainty. In the case of the hadronic cascades discussed below. an ionizing noble liquid. whose decay photons generate high-energy electromagnetic (EM) cascades. The recoiling nuclei generate little *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. or constant. where t is plate thickness and f is sampling fraction [123. where ⊕ represents addition in quadrature and E is in GeV.e. in this case e-h pairs are collected. Silicon sensors are being studied for ILC detectors.21. Homogeneous calorimeters (so far usually electromagnetic) may be built with inorganic heavy (high density. contributes signal. it is typically 10% for sampling calorimeters. For a ﬁxed number of radiation lengths.2.124]. The ionization is measured directly. The energy resolution σE /E of a calorimeter can be parametrized as √ a/ E ⊕ b ⊕ c/E.1. producing spallation protons and neutrons. in which the entire volume is sensitive. This can be minimized by developing radiation-hard active media [47] and by frequent in situ calibration and monitoring [46. E.9. or non-scintillating Cherenkov radiators such as lead glass and lead ﬂuoride. liquid argon (LAr). 28. One additional contribution to the constant term for calorimeters built for modern high-energy physics experiments. tiles. but also interact with nuclei. p. 2010 254 12:56 28. These considerations are for sampling calorimeters consisting of metallic absorber sandwiched or (threaded) with an active material which generates signal. of Technology). Typically. Charged secondaries (π ± . The main contributions to the systematic. dead material at the front of the calorimeter. The stochastic term a represents statistics-related ﬂuctuations such as intrinsic shower ﬂuctuations. Most large hadron calorimeters are sampling calorimeters which are parts of complicated 4π detectors at colliding beam facilities. . Groom (LBNL). as in LAr calorimeters. ) deposit energy via ionization and excitation.124]. The development of electromagnetic showers is discussed in the section on “Passage of Particles Through Matter” (Sec. and sampling ﬂuctuations. Cu. photoelectron statistics. as do the showering γ-rays from the prompt de-excitation of highly excited nuclei. Hadronic calorimeters : [1–5. and recoiling nuclei in highly excited states. In an inelastic hadronic collision a signiﬁcant fraction fem of the energy is removed from further hadronic interaction by the production of secondary π 0 ’s and η’s. a semiconductor.9. or gaseous detectors. While a is at a few percent level for a homogeneous calorimeter. or a Cherenkov radiator. high Z) scintillating crystals. or occasionally U or W) alternating with plastic scintillators (plates. i. 2010 12:56 . Zhu (California Inst.2 cm (NaI). Pb.8 cm (LuAlO3 ) to 42. bars).

a neutron can at most lose 4/(1 + A)2 of its kinetic energy. Between endothermic spallation losses. depending on the absorber and energy of the incident particle) is invisible. Gabriel. Br¨ uckmann. Increase the hadronic sensitivity. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. relative to minimum ionization. a signiﬁcant fraction of the hadronic energy (20%–35%. 2010 28. ﬂuctuations in fem signiﬁcantly contribute to the resolution. is greater than this ratio in the sensor. where several variables can be chosen or tuned: 1. It has been found that a gamma distribution fairly well describes the longitudinal development of an EM shower. After several interaction lengths its fall is reasonably exponential.5. increasing slowly with energy but about one nuclear interaction length (λI ) into the calorimeter. nuclear recoils. with the production of more γ-rays—usually outside the acceptance gate of the electronics. and late neutron capture. as discussed in Sec. the calorimeter response is non-Gaussian with a high-energy tail if h/e < 1. in particular contributing a larger fraction of the variance at high energies. when h and e are the hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeter responses. 2. i.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. to design the calorimeter such that h/e = 1. Since the fem distribution has a tail on the high side. and Wigmans [134]. 27. The neutrons lose kinetic energy in elastic collisions over hundreds of ns. This is possible only in a sampling calorimeter. the EM energy deposit rate. Noncompensation (h/e = 1) thus seriously degrades resolution as well as producing a nonlinear response. and so could be somewhat tuned. Decrease the EM sensitivity. several groups built calorimeters which were very nearly compensating. The degree of compensation was sensitive to the acceptance gate width. with the production of low-energy scattered protons in hydrogenous sampling materials such as butaneﬁlled proportional counters or plastic scintillator.e.) Motivated very much by the work of Brau. For h/e = 1. It is clearly desirable to compensate the response. (When scattering oﬀ a nucleus with mass number A. Detectors at accelerators 12:56 255 or no detectable signal.. The abundant neutrons have a large n-p scattering cross section. 2010 12:56 . gradually thermalize and are captured.The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The average longitudinal distribution rises to a smooth peak. together with a wide “skirt” produced by wide-angle hadronic interactions [139]. The transverse energy deposit is characterized by a central core dominated by EM cascades. The absorber usually has higher Z than does the sensor. respectively.

a close-packed “camera” of PMTs near the focal plane. TRD’s. P. And. some more important detectors special to terrestrial non-accelerator experiments are discussed. dX dX *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. In this section.1. and searches for double-beta decay.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. some of which have been modiﬁed to accommodate the non-accelerator nuances. Examples are atmospheric scintillation detectors (Fly’s Eye). Cosmic-ray ﬂuorescence detectors (FD) use the atmosphere as a giant calorimeter to measure isotropic scintillation light that traces the development proﬁles of extensive air showers (EAS). PARTICLE DETECTORS FOR NON-ACCELERATOR PHYSICS Written 2009 (see the various sections for authors). High-energy cosmic-ray hadron and gamma-ray detectors 29. These include classical cosmic ray experiments. 2010 256 16:41 29.1) Y (λ. Simple reﬂector optics (12◦ × 16◦ degree ﬁeld of view (FOV) on 256 PMTs) and Schmidt optics (30◦ × 30◦ on 440 PMTs). etc. The number of photons (Nγ ) as a function of atmospheric depth (X) can be expressed as [6] tot dEdep dNγ = (29. including a correcting element. ultracold solid state detectors (CDMS). X) · εFD (λ)dλ .1. IceCube). Atmospheric fluorescence detectors : Written September 2009 by L. dark matter candidates.5–13 m2 and less than astronomical quality).2. there is a demand for radiologically ultra-pure materials. Particle Detectors at Accelerators. but these are beyond the present scope of RPP. except for the cosmic ray detectors. massive Cherenkov detectors (Super-Kamiokande. 29. The EASs observed are produced by the interactions of high-energy (E > 1017 eV) subatomic particles in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An FD element (telescope) consists of a non-tracking spherical mirror (3. Space-based detectors also use some unique methods. and ﬂash ADC readout system with a pulse and track-ﬁnding trigger scheme [7]. 28. u) · τatm (λ.R. and magnetic monopoles.2. resulting in transitions of the 1P and 2P systems. Techniques used in both accelerator and non-accelerator experiments are described in Sec. neutrino oscillation measurements. 29. The scintillation light is emitted between 290 and 430 nm. Wiencke (Colorado School of Mines). have been used.) but there is also instrumentation either not found at accelerators or applied in a radically diﬀerent way. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 29. The experimental methods are sometimes those familiar at accelerators (plastic scintillators. Introduction Non-accelerator experiments have become increasingly important in particle physics. 2010 16:41 . primarily electrons and positrons. The EAS generates a track consistent with a light source moving at v = c across the FOV. T. when relativistic charged particles. excite nitrogen molecules in air. drift chambers. The amount of scintillation light generated is proportional to energy deposited in the atmosphere and nearly independent of the primary species.

29. The detectors may also serve as targets for long-baseline neutrino beams for neutrino *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.2. The Cherenkov light at ground level peaks at a wavelength. Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for high-energy γray astronomy : Written August 2009 by J. and εFD (λ) is FD eﬃciency. and other throughput factors. and exposure time. quantum eﬃciency of the PMTs. 29. of Delaware). and neutrino and cosmic ray astrophysics in diﬀerent energy regimes. The shape and orientation of the Cherenkov images are used to discriminate γ-ray photon events from this cosmic-ray background. X) is atmospheric transmission. The typical systematic uncertainties.0◦ in diameter. supernova and atmospheric neutrinos.1. source strength. Holder (Bartol Research Inst.W. reactor. Univ. λ ≈ 300–350 nm. Images are recorded at a rate of a few hundred Hz. is typically 15–20 at energies above a few hundred GeV. The photon density is typically ∼ 100 photons/m2 at 1 TeV. Large neutrino detectors 29. Maximum emission occurs when the number of particles in the cascade is largest. potentially from ∼ 50 GeV to ∼ 100 TeV.. Scholberg & C. The total Cherenkov yield from the air shower is proportional to the energy of the primary particle. or air shower. currently dominate the total reconstructed EAS energy uncertainty. εFD (λ) includes geometric factors and collection eﬃciency of the optics. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 16:41 257 where τatm (λ.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. Y (10–15%). 2010 16:41 . but also searches for baryon number violation. provided the geometric ﬁt of the EAS axis is constrained by multi-eye stereo projection.2. τatm (10%) and εFD (photometric calibration 10%). is placed at the mirror focus and used to record a Cherenkov image of each air shower. resulting in a light pool on the ground with a radius of ∼ 130 m. Energy spectra of γ-ray sources can be measured over a wide range. and to reconstruct the photon energy and arrival direction. The energy resolution of this technique. including wavelength (λ) dependence. depending upon the instrument characteristics. the vast majority of which are due to showers with hadronic cosmic-ray primaries. which is emitted along the shower direction. 2010 29.3. Atmospheric Cherenkov detectors achieve eﬀective collection areas of ∼ 105 m2 by employing the Earth’s atmosphere as an intrinsic part of the detection technique. A camera. arriving in a brief ﬂash of a few nanoseconds duration. or by timing from a colocated sparse array of surface detectors.3. ΔE/E of 20–25% is possible. searches for exotic particles such as magnetic monopoles. Modern atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes consist of large (> 100 m2 ) segmented mirrors on steerable altitude-azimuth mounts. A hadronic cosmic ray or high energy γ-ray incident on the Earth’s atmosphere triggers a particle cascade. Deep liquid detectors for rare processes : Written September 2009 by K. made from an array of up to 1000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) covering a ﬁeld-of-view of up to 5. large detectors for rare processes tend to be multi-purpose with physics reach that includes not only solar. Walter (Duke University) Deep. also energy-dependent. Relativistic charged particles in the cascade produce Cherenkov radiation.

However. Liquid scintillator detectors: Past and current large underground detectors based on hydrocarbon scintillators include LVD. 29. MACRO. A common conﬁguration is to have at least one concentric outer layer of liquid material separated from the inner part of the detector to serve as shielding against ambient background. and the number of Cherenkov photons produced by an e/γ is nearly proportional to its kinetic energy. an outer layer may also serve as an active veto against entering cosmic rays and other background Because in most cases one is searching for rare events. The number of collected photoelectrons depends on the scattering and attenuation in the water along with the photocathode coverage.3. good stability. The ﬁrst such large detectors were IMB and Kamiokande. The low-energy regime (a few tens of MeV or less) is relevant for supernova. appropriate density for mechanical stability. reactor and geological neutrinos. Daya Bay. atmospheric neutrinos and high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. and as the particles leave the nucleus must be considered when reconstructing the interaction.3. and RENO. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. The minimum depth required varies according to the physics goals [22]. large detectors are usually sited underground to reduce cosmic-ray related background (see Chapter 24). Because photosensors lining an inner surface represent a driving cost that scales as surface area. solar. Water Cherenkov detectors: Very large-imaging water detectors reconstruct ten-meter-scale Cherenkov rings produced by charged particles (see Sec. detector design considerations can be divided into high-and low-energy regimes. high ﬂash point. 28. compatibility with other detector materials. KamLAND and SNO+.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. 2010 16:41 . quantum eﬃciency and the optical parameters of any external light collection systems or protective material surrounding them. Detectors for non-accelerator physics oscillation physics studies.1) usually consist of a volume of transparent liquid viewed by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). from about 100 MeV to a few hundred GeV. very large volumes can be used for comparatively reasonable cost. and low cost. Event-by-event corrections are made for geometry and attenuation. High-energy (∼100 MeV or more) neutrinos from the atmosphere or beams interact with nucleons.5.2. 2010 258 16:41 29. 29. If optically separated and instrumented with PMTs. The only currently existing instance of this class is Super-Kamiokande (Super-K). Various event topologies can be distinguished by their timing and ﬁt patterns. Baksan. scintillation light emission is nearly isotropic. Borexino. Double Chooz. is relevant for proton decay searches. for which background and event reconstruction issues diﬀer.1.1. In general. for the nucleons bound inside the 16 O nucleus. The high-energy regime.1. the nuclear eﬀects both at the interaction. Large water Cherenkov and scintillator detectors (see Table 29.0). and therefore directional capabilities are relatively weak. Scintillation detectors have an advantage over water Cherenkov detectors in the lack of Cherenkov threshold and the high light yield. low toxicity. Experiments at nuclear reactors include Chooz. Organic liquid scintillators for large detectors are chosen for high light yield and attenuation length. Cherenkov detectors are excellent electromagnetic calorimeters. and by presence or absence of light in a veto.

7◦ (Eν /TeV)−0. forms an air shower array with 320 standard photomultipliers deployed in 160 IceTop tanks on the ice surface directly above the strings. At solar neutrino energies. and charged current (νe + d → p + p + e− ) deuteron breakup reactions. Karle (University of Wisconsin). The IceCube Neutrino Observatory [37] is a km-scale detector which will be completed in 2011. SNO contained 1 kton of D2 O. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector [27] is the only instance of a large heavy water detector and deserves mention here. 2010 16:41 . A signiﬁcant fraction of the neutrino energy Eν will be carried away by the produced lepton. The detector is constructed by drilling holes in the ice with a hot-water drill. 2010 29. and thus to maximize the number of well reconstructed events while keeping the density of PMTs (and thus the cost of the experiment) low. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. The goal is to maximize the number of detected Cherenkov photons produced by energetic charged particles. For the important case of a lepton being a muon. Figure 29. and can travel vast distances without being absorbed like high-energy photons. In addition to an outer 1. radioactive backgrounds become a dominant issue.2. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 16:41 259 Low-energy neutrino interactions of solar neutrinos in water are predominantly elastic scattering oﬀ atomic electrons. The small cross sections combined with small expected ﬂuxes of high-energy cosmic neutrinos necessitate very large. Neutrino telescopes detect neutrinos via the process νl (ν¯l )+N → l± +X of primarily upward-going or horizontal neutrinos interacting with a nucleon N of the matter comprising or surrounding the detector volume. the visible energy resolution (∼ 30%/ ξ Evis (MeV)) is about 20% worse than photoelectron counting statistics would imply. 29. The sensors are deployed at depths of one to several km to reduce backgrounds from the cosmic-ray-generated muon ﬂux. At these energies.3.7 kton of light water. The primary physics goal is the detection of high-energy extra-terrestrial neutrinos. The optical sensors are located at depths between 1450 m and 2450 m. Neutrinos oﬀer a unique view of the high-energy Universe because they are not deﬂected by magnetic ﬁelds like charged cosmic rays. IceTop.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. Neutrino telescopes : Written November 2009 by A. km-scale detection volumes. A surface detector component.7 [28]. Neutrino telescopes make use of large natural transparent target media such as deep sea water or the deep glacial ice in Antarctica. The target volume is instrumented with large photomultipliers (PMTs). the angle Δψ between the parent neutrino and the muon is ≈ 0.3 contains three diﬀerent predictions for the ﬂux of neutrinos associated with the still-enigmatic sources of the highest energy cosmic rays. IceCube will consist of 5160 optical sensors deployed on 86 strings covering a volume of 1 km3 . Kilometer-scale neutrino detectors have the sensitivity to reveal generic cosmic-ray sources with an energy density in neutrinos comparable to their energy density in cosmic rays and in TeV γ rays. single electron events are then reconstructed. Neutrino telescopes are large water or ice Cherenkov detectors designed to do neutrino astronomy in the energy range 1011 –1018 eV. giving it unique sensitivity to neutrino neutral current (νx +d → νx +p+n).

the other is a limit based on all ﬂavor analysis of non-contained events in the PeV to EeV energy region [49] 10−3 Atmospheric neutrino model Gamma-ray bursts Waxman-Bahcall bound Cosmogenic neutrino flux AMANDA-II unfolded νμ AMANDA II νμ × 3 AMANDA II cascades prelim..4.g. Heﬀner (LLNL). Other special design issues include eﬃcient light collection. The large mass complicates particle tracking of short and sometimes very low-energy particles. Large time-projection chambers for rare event detection Written August 2009 by M. Detectors for non-accelerator physics No detection of astrophysical neutrinos has been made yet. neutrino and dark matter experiments) and the physics of these experiments can place dramatically diﬀerent constraints on the TPC design (only extensions of the traditional TPCs are discussed here). TPCs in non-accelerator particle physics experiments are principally focused on rare event detection (e. The drift gas or liquid is usually the target or matter under observation and due to very low signal rates a TPC with the largest possible active mass is desired.g. 29. 2010 16:41 .3: Measured atmospheric neutrino ﬂuxes above 100 GeV are shown together with a few generic models for astrophysical neutrinos and some limits. xenon) and limited charge readout options. but a large heavy-pressure vessel is required. and optimal energy resolution. Slower charge drift requires long electron lifetimes. internal triggering. A high-pressure gas phase TPC has no cryogenics and density is easily optimized for the signal.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12.. lower-energy resolution (e. See full-color version on color pages at end of book. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. tracks shorter than typical electron diﬀusion distances. background rejection. IceCube projected 1 year νμ × 3 Eν2 dNν/dEν [GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1] 10−4 10−5 10−6 10−7 10−8 10−9 10−10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 Eν [GeV] Figure 29. slower charge drift. Two limits from AMANDA to such E neutrino ﬂuxes are shown: one is a diﬀuse muon neutrino ﬂux limit [48]. 2010 260 16:41 29. The down sides are the need for cryogenics. placing strict limits on the oxygen and other impurities with high electron aﬃnity. The liquid-phase TPC can have a high density at low pressure that results in very good self-shielding and compact installation with lightweight containment.

k is Boltzmann’s constant. the sub-Kelvin mode is combined with conventional (eV quanta) ionization or scintillation measurements to provide discrimination of nuclear recoils from electron recoils. In the case of an electroluminescence readout. 2010 16:41 . 2010 16:41 261 29.5) where C is the heat capacity of the detector. Thermal Phonons : The most basic kind of low-temperature detector employs a dielectric absorber coupled to a thermal bath via a weak link.1. this is 3–6 kV cm−1 bar−1 for good energy resolution.5. The energy resolution typically acquires an additional energy dependence due to deviations from an ideal calorimetric model that cause position and/or energy dependence in the signal shape. A signiﬁcant feature of high pressure xenon gas is the energy resolution. Diﬀerentiation of nuclear and electron recoils at low-energy deposition is important as a means of background rejection. and it does not suﬀer the ﬂuctuations of an avalanche or the small signals of direct collection. Such resolution can provide unique advantages to applications reliant on energy resolution. Electroluminescence can be used to proportionally amplify the drifted ionization. In addition. The fundamental sensitivity is 2 = ξ 2 kT [T C(T ) + βE] . Rare-event TPCs can be designed to detect scintillation light as well as charge to exploit the anti-correlation to improve energy resolution and/or signal to noise [63]. The rise time of response is limited by the internal thermal conductivity of the absorber. The nuclear recoil deposits a higher density of ionization than an electron recoil and this results in a higher geminate recombination resulting in a higher output of primary scintillation and lower charge. The ratio of scintillation to charge can be used to distinguish the two. 29. superconducting quasiparticles) to provide better energy resolution than is typically available from conventional technologies.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. Golwala (Caltech). such as beta-decay experiments seeking to measure the νe mass or searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay. but less than the ﬁeld needed for avalanche. It works by setting up at the positive end of the drift volume parallel meshes or wire arrays with an electric ﬁeld larger than the drift ﬁeld.5. σE (29. it can in some cases approach that of the liquid phase. 29. and ξ is a dimensionless factor of order unity that is precisely calculable from the nature of the thermal link and the non-thermodynamic noises (e. Detectors operating below 1 K. also known as “low-temperature” or “cryogenic” detectors..g. Sub-Kelvin detectors Written September 2009 by S. in xenon at 50 atm the density is about half that of water or about 1/6 of liquid xenon. T is the temperature of operation. The energy E deposited by a particle interaction causes a calorimetric temperature change by increasing the population of thermal phonons. this is done simply with the ratio of primary light to secondary light. A thermistor monitors the temperature of the absorber. Detectors for non-accelerator physics Although self shielding is reduced. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. use < ∼meV quanta (phonons. In xenon. critical for searches for WIMP dark matter and for coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. Johnson and/or readout noise).

sources of background may be categorized into the following classes: 1. With ionization. Another mode is detection of superconducting quasiparticles in superconducting crystals. (α. n) reactions and from cosmic-ray muon spallation and capture. Following the classiﬁcation of [64]. There are three steps in the development of the phonon signal. electron-like excitations that can diﬀuse through the material and that recombine after the quasiparticle lifetime. with the majority going directly into phonons.0) yields a similar prediction. The recoiling particle deposits energy along its track. 29. with phase space favoring the most energetic phonons. Its reduction is thus essential for realizing the full physics potential of the experiment. or by reducing the radiation background by appropriate shielding and material selection.5. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. all at energies up to about 10 MeV. 5. neutrino oscillations. This motivates the use of athermal phonons.3. which is critical for WIMP searches and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. 2010 262 16:41 29. 2. cosmic rays.g. utilizing some unique event feature. or cosmogenic radioactivity. 4.The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version. neutrons from natural ﬁssion. which predicts substantially reduced ionization yield for nuclear recoils relative to electron recoils. and eV. ionization and scintillation can be measured at low temperature and can be combined with a “sub-Kelvin” technique to discriminate nuclear recoils from background interactions producing electron recoils. In both cases. Piepke (University of Alabama). for dark matter. anthropogenic. application of Birks’ law Sec. the background rate is proportional to the ﬂux of background-creating radiation. the separation of the physics signal from this unwanted interference can be achieved on an event-by-event basis by active event tagging. “low energy” may be deﬁned as the regime of natural. Ionization and Scintillation : While ionization and scintillation detectors usually operate at much higher temperatures. Low-radioactivity background techniques Written August 2009 by A. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 29. or double beta decay is often limited by background caused by radioactivity. so the full energy spectrum of phonons is populated. For scintillation.5.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. environmental radioactivity.2. 3. 29. Depending on the chosen detector design. In this context.6. radioimpurities in detector or shielding components. 28. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 12. The physics reach of low-energy rare event searches e.3. Energy absorption breaks superconducting Cooper pairs and yields quasiparticles. 2010 16:41 . The recoil and bandgap energy scales (keV and higher. Athermal Phonons and Superconducting Quasiparticles : The advantage of thermal phonons is also a disadvantage: energy √ resolution degrades as M where M is the detector mass. radon and its progeny. such techniques are based on Lindhard theory [55]. respectively) are much larger than phonon energies (meV).

2010 12:56 . where they diﬀer.R in the organ or tissue caused by diﬀerent radiation types R weighted with so-called radiation weighting factors wR : HT = wR × DT. 2007 by S.5 + 3. in terms of ion charge of either sign produced by secondary electrons in a small volume of air about the point.R .5 + 18. Radioactivity and radiation protection 12:56 263 30. wR Radiation type Photons Electrons and muons Neutrons.2 × exp[−(ln En )2 /6] 5.1) R † This unit is somewhat historical. heavy ions 1 1 2. followed by cgs (or other common) units in parentheses.0 × exp[−(ln(2En ))2 /6] 2.C. 30. Implicit in the deﬁnition is the assumption that the small test volume is embedded in a suﬃciently large uniformly irradiated volume that the number of secondary electrons entering the volume equals the number leaving (so-called charged particle equilibrium). Roesler (CERN) and J. • Absorbed dose (unit: Gray): The absorbed dose is the energy imparted by ionizing radiation in a volume element of a speciﬁed material divided by the mass of this volume element.0 + 17. Definitions The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends the use of SI units. • Kerma (unit: Gray): Kerma is the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all charged particles liberated by indirectly ionizing particles in a volume element of the speciﬁed material divided by the mass of this volume element. • Activity (unit: Becquerel): 1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second (= 27 pCi). One R is the amount of radiation required to liberate positive and negative charges of one electrostatic unit of charge in 1 cm3 of air at standard temperature and pressure (STP) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. wR .24 × 1012 MeV/kg deposited energy. but appears on some measuring instruments. Therefore we list SI units ﬁrst. Liu (SLAC). (30.25 × exp[−(ln(0. 2010 30.04En ))2 /6] 2 20 • Equivalent dose (unit: Sievert [= 100 rem (roentgen equivalent in man)]): The equivalent dose HT in an organ or tissue T is equal to the sum of the absorbed doses DT.1: Radiation weighting factors. Table 30. ﬁssion fragments.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised Sept.1. • Exposure (unit: C/kg of air [= 3880 Roentgen† ]): The exposure is a measure of photon ﬂuence at a certain point in space integrated over time. 1 Gy = 1 J/kg (= 104 erg/g = 100 rad) = 6. En < 1 MeV 1 MeV ≤ En ≤ 50 MeV En > 50 MeV Protons and charged pions Alpha particles.

as measured internally on body longitudinal center line. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. see the Cosmic Rays section (Sec. weighted by the tissue weighting factors wT ( T wT = 1) of several organs and tissues T of the body that are considered to be most sensitive [2].S.2 and 27.4–4) mSv (40–400 mrem). Radiation levels [3] • Natural annual background. (Average is for a typical house and varies by more than an order of magnitude. attenuation length (g cm−2 ). average ≈ 3.1–0. • Cancer induction by low LET radiation: The cancer induction probability is about 5% per Sv on average for the entire population [2]. The values for wR recommended recently by ICRP [1] are given in Table 29.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.S. • Recommended limits of eﬀective dose to radiation workers (whole-body dose):∗ EU/Switzerland: 20 mSv yr−1 U. all sources: Most world areas. Footnotes: ∗ † The ICRP recommendation [2] is 20 mSv yr−1 averaged over 5 years. For more accurate estimates and details.5 × 109 cm−2 minimum-ionizing singly-charged particles in carbon.gov/AtomicNuclear Properties. 27 of the Review. ≈ 2 × 1011 photons cm−2 for 1 MeV photons on carbon (f ≈ 1/2). Radioactivity and radiation protection It expresses long-term risks (primarily cancer and leukemia) from low-level chronic exposure.) • Cosmic ray background (sea level. Can range up to 50 mSv (5 rem) in certain areas.2. the energy loss per unit length.: 50 mSv yr−1 (5 rem yr−1 )† • Lethal dose: The whole-body dose from penetrating ionizing radiation resulting in 50% mortality in 30 days (assuming no medical treatment) is 2.5 Gy (250–450 rad). with the dose in any one year ≤ 50 mSv. See full Review for references and further details. and fraction f 1 expressing the fraction of the photon’s energy deposited in a small volume of thickness but large enough to contain the secondary electrons.24×109/[Ef /]. 24 of this Review). 27. Surface dose varies due to variable body attenuation and may be a strong function of energy. is called “eﬀective dose” E: wT × HT . U. mostly radon and radon daughters.2) E= T 30. 0. (30. Many laboratories in the U. It can be more than two orders of magnitude higher in poorly ventilated mines.2 mSv in open areas. for photons of energy E (MeV). • Fluence (per cm2 ) to deposit one Gy. assuming uniform irradiation: ≈ (charged particles) 6. ≈ (photons) 6. and pdg. 2010 264 12:56 30. wholebody equivalent dose rate ≈ (0. where dE/dx (MeV g−1 cm2 ). including ≈ 2 mSv (≈ 200 mrem) from inhaled natural radioactivity.lbl.S.6 mSv.24×109/(dE/dx). mostly muons): ∼ 1 min−1 cm−2 sr−1 . and elsewhere set lower limits.1. may be obtained from Figs.5–4. 2010 12:56 . ≈ 3. • Eﬀective dose (unit: Sievert): The sum of the equivalent doses.4 in Sec.

00590 24.283 100% 39 Y 106 Ru 44 1.173 1.603 y β + . EC 1.541 79% 0. EC 0.514 1.511 Annih.5 y β− 0.087 e− e− e− 41% 45% 9% 0.176 94% 6% 0. 2010 12:56 31.744 y EC 0.063 0.392 65% In K x rays 97% 137 Cs 55 30.4% 0.316 100% 1. Revised November 1993 by E. 2.084 0.622 10% 109 Cd 48 1. COMMONLY USED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES Table 31.1.315 y EC 0.511 Annih.545 90% Energy Emission (MeV) prob. 1.742 y EC Ga K x rays 44% -------------------------------------------------------→ 68 β + . Commonly used radioactive sources 265 31. 0.275 100% 0.271 y β− 0.73 y EC Mn K x rays: 0.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.333 100% 100% 68 Ge 32 0.2 y β− 0.899 90% 0.855 y EC 0.077 3% 90 Sr 38 28.546 100% -------------------------------------------------------→ 90 β− 2.267 y EC 0.136 11% Fe K x rays 58% 60 Co 27 5. Browne (LBNL).039 100% -------------------------------------------------------β− 3.86% 57 Co 27 0.088 3.6% Ag K x rays 100% 113 Sn 50 0.512 21% → 106 45 Rh 0.122 86% 0.388 e− 29% 6% 0.020 y β− 0.00649 2. 31 Ga 1.835 100% Cr K x rays 26% 55 Fe 26 2.364 e− 0.014 9% 0. 2010 12:56 . Particle Nuclide 22 Na 11 54 Mn 25 Photon Type of Energy Emission Half-life decay (MeV) prob.662 85% *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

43 MeV) per Am decay α 5.239 44% 0.047 e− e− e− 2% 7% 2% 0. because of cascades these may total more than 100%.341 to 8.805 24% 76% Pu L x rays ∼ 9% 2. Half-lives. 80% < 1 MeV ≈ 4 neutrons/fission.118 82% Fission (3.569 98% 1.8 y EC 0. and X-ray and Gamma-ray Standards for Detector Calibration.912 y 6α: 3β − : 228 Th 90 5.645 y α (97%) 6.060 36% Np L x rays 38% 6 × 10−5 neutrons (4–8 MeV) and 4 × 10−5 γ’s (4. energies. 2010 266 31. New York. Firestone. Commonly used radioactive sources 133 Ba 56 10.583 31% 2.356 62% Cs K x rays 121% 207 Bi 83 31. Radiation from short-lived daughter isotopes is included where relevant.763 5. 1986). The intensity of 0.076 15% 6. Browne and R. IAEA-TECDOC-619 (1991).7 y α 241 Am/Be 95 432.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. the γ-ray values are approximate weighted averages.54 y EC 0. Table of Radioactive Isotopes (John Wiley & Sons.14 MeV “Emission probability” is the probability per decay of a given emission.045 e− 0.081 34% 0.785 0. Neutron data are from Neutron Sources for Basic Physics and Applications (Pergamon Press. Only principal emissions are listed.486 → 212 82 Pb 0.770 7% Pb K x rays 78% 1. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. EC means electron capture.443 5. Endpoint β ± energies are listed.511 MeV e+ e− annihilation photons depends upon the number of stopped positrons. En = 2.334 to 2.2 y 244 Cm 96 18.075 e− 50% 6% 0.1%) ≈ 20 γ’s/fission.B. 2010 12:56 . recent Nuclear Data Sheets.246 (→224 88 Ra 241 Am 95 → 220 86 Rn → 216 84 Po 432.11 y 252 Cf 98 12:56 5. and e− means monoenergetic internal conversion (Auger) electron.975 1.481 0. 1983). In some cases when energies are closely spaced. and intensities are from E.063 75% 1.614 36% → 212 → 212 83 Bi 84 Po) 13% 85% 0.

Mean: Variance: 2 (32.f. y) dx dy . (32. ∞ ∞ f1 (x) = f (x. y) dx . y)/f2 (y) .6) −∞ Here and below.: f4 (x|y) = f (x. The following is a much-shortened version of Sec. • Bayes’ theorem: f4 (x|y) = f3 (y|x)f1 (x) f3 (y|x)f1 (x) = .8b) μ ≡ α1 . −∞ −∞ (32. 2010 12:56 .d. (32.d. f (x. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The endpoint a is induced in the integral or sum. y).8a) nth central moment: mn = E[(x − α1 )n ] . θ) = probability of x given θ. f3 (y|x) = f (x. Median: F (xmed ) = 1/2. section. • Marginal p.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. if x is discrete-valued.9b) /σ 3 . Coeﬃcient of skewness: γ1 ≡ m3 Kurtosis: γ2 = m4 /σ 4 − 3 . Probability 32. Random variables • Probability density function (p. (32.y be two random variables with joint p. 32. y) dy .f.f.d. • Expectation values: Given a function u: ∞ E [u(x)] = u(x) f (x) dx . Equation. (32.): x is a random variable. Discrete: f (x. y)/f1 (x) .2. f2 (y) = f (x. (32. y]/σx σy . 2010 12:56 267 32. f2 (y) f3 (y|x )f1 (x ) dx • Correlation coeﬃcient and covariance: ∞ ∞ μx = xf (x.11) (32. Continuous: f (x.d. θ)dx = probability x is between x to x + dx. the integral is replaced by a sum.f. Cowan (RHUL). given parameter(s) θ.10) −∞ −∞ • Conditional p. PROBABILITY Revised September 2009 by G. and ﬁgure numbers follow the Review. 31 of the full Review.: Let x.7) −∞ • Moments: nth moment of a random variable: αn = E[xn ] .9a) 2 σ ≡ V [x] ≡ m2 = α2 − μ . • Cumulative distribution function: a F (a) = f (x) dx .12) ρxy = E (x − μx )(y − μy ) /σx σy ≡ cov[x. (32.

The variance σ 2 equals ν. σx = −∞ −∞ • Independence: x. .. 0. .4. . then the characteristic function of the weighted sum ax + by is φ1 (au)φ2 (bu). and thus the number of decays in the time interval is well modeled as a Poisson variable. It is the limiting case p → 0. E[u(x) v(y)] = E[u(x)] E[v(y)] and V [x+ y] = V [x]+ V [y]. • Change of variables: From x = (x1 .3. E[|x − μ|] = 2/πσ = 0.2.3. 32.f. space or time) when the events occur independently of one another and of x at an average rate of ν per the given interval. that the sum of two Gaussian distributed variables also follows a Gaussian distribution) easily follow from this observation. Normal or Gaussian distribution : Its cumulative distribution. ∞ eiux f (x) dx . 2010 12:56 . .. y) = f1 (x) · f2 (y). For example. . 2010 268 12:56 32. then the probability for a given nucleus to decay is small. If this interval is small compared to the mean lifetime.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.7).g.18) If the p. The additional rules for several important distributions (e. √ half-width at half maximum = 2 ln 2 · σ = 1. for mean 0 and variance 1. (32. 2 For mean μ and variance σ 2 . yn ): g(y) = f (x(y)) · |J| where |J| is the absolute value of the determinant of the Jacobian Jij = ∂xi /∂yj .7979σ. For discrete variables. 32. y) dx dy . Some probability distributions See Table 32. The Poisson distribution approaches the Gaussian distribution for large ν. replace x by (x − μ)/σ. 32. The error function is acessible in libraries of computer routines such as CERNLIB. . ν) gives the probability of ﬁnding exactly n events in a given interval of x (e. then ρxy = 0.1. Characteristic functions Given a pdf f (x) for a continuous random variable x. Poisson distribution : The Poisson distribution f (n.4.24) F (x. P (x in range μ ± σ) = 0. P (x in range μ ± 0. use |J| = 1.y are independent if and only if f (x.6827.g.s f1 (x) and f2 (y) for independent random variables x and y have characteristic functions φ1 (u) and φ2 (u). *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 1) = 1 1 + erf(x/ 2) .177σ. Note ρ2xy ≤ 1. is usually tabulated as the error function √ (32.6). Probability ∞ ∞ (x − μx )2 f (x.5. Its derivatives are related to the algebraic moments of x by (31.d. a large number of radioactive nuclei of a given type will result in a certain number of decays in a ﬁxed time interval. N p = ν of the binomial distribution. .4. the characteristic function φ(u) is given by (31. xn ) to y = (y1 . i−n dun u=0 −∞ (32. 32. N → ∞.6745σ) = 0.17) φ(u) = E eiux = −∞ ∞ dn φ = xn f (x) dx = αn . .

z n/2−1 e−z/2 . z≥0 f (z. n) = n/2 2 Γ(n/2) .Gamma Student’s t χ2 Multivariate Gaussian Normal (Gaussian) Poisson Binomial Uniform Distribution × exp 1 (2π)n/2 |V | − ∞ < μj < ∞.

parameters) 1/(b − a) a≤x≤b f (x. n not required to be integer xk−1 λk e−λx . N . . μ. V ) = Probability density function f (variable. . . . Γ(k) is the gamma function. k) = Γ(k) k not required to be integer |V | > 0 − 12 (x − μ)T V −1 (x − μ) −∞ < xj < ∞. equal to (k − 1)! when k is an integer. f (x. with corresponding characteristic functions and means and variances. N. f (x. 1. . 2. 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 . p) = pr q N −r r!(N − r)! r = 0. μ. 2010 32. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 269 12:56 . n = 0. −∞ < μ < ∞ . 1. ν > 0 f (n. Some common probability density functions. a. q =1−p ν n e−ν . . . In the Table. σ > 0 Np ν μ (q + peiu )N exp[ν(eiu − 1)] exp(iμu − 12 σ 2 u2 ) 0 for n ≥ 2 k/λ (1 − iu/λ)−k n — (1 − 2iu)−n/2 μ a+b 2 eibu − eiau (b − a)iu exp iμ · u − 12 uT V u Mean Characteristic function φ(u) k/λ2 n/(n − 2) for n ≥ 3 2n Vjk σ2 ν N pq (b − a)2 12 Variance σ 2 Table 32. λ. Probability *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.−(n+1)/2 t2 1 Γ[(n + 1)/2] 1+ f (t. ν) = n! 1 f (x. . b) = 0 otherwise N! f (r. 0<x<∞. 2. σ 2 ) = √ exp(−(x − μ)2 /2σ 2 ) σ 2π −∞ < x < ∞ . n) = √ nπ Γ(n/2) n −∞ < t < ∞ .1.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. as in the previous z = X T V −1 X follows χ2 (n) section.f.4. f (x.. Probability For n Gaussian random variables xi . The special case k = 1 (i. For λ = 1/2 and k = n/2.. More generally. |V | is the determinant of V . the gamma distribution reduces to the χ2 (n) distribution. 1) = λe−λx ) is called the exponential distribution. . zi follows χ2 ( ni ).4. ρ) = × exp 2 2(1 − ρ2 ) 2πσ1 σ2 1 − ρ 2ρ(x1 − μ1 )(x2 − μ2 ) (x2 − μ2 )2 (x1 − μ1 )2 . n). σ1 .3.27) V is the n × n covariance matrix. 33. for n correlated Gaussian variables as components of a vector X with covariance matrix V . f (x. k). For the two-variable case (n = 2). the quadratic form X T V −1 X = C. where C is any positive number. (32.4. The parameter k is not required to be an integer. then C is a random variable obeying the χ2 distribution with n degrees of freedom. Gamma distribution : For a process that generates events as a function of x (e. the joint p. If Xi = xi − μi . Vij ≡ E[(xi − μi )(xj − μj )] ≡ ρij σi σj .d. The probability that X corresponding to a set of Gaussian random variables xi lies outside the ellipsoid characterized by a given value of C (= χ2 ) is given by 1 − Fχ2 (C. A sum of k exponential random variables xi is distributed as f ( xi . 2010 270 12:56 32. traces an n-dimensional ellipsoid as X varies.d. 32. the sum If x1 2 2 2 z = n i=1 (xi − μi ) /σi follows the χ p. V ) = exp − 12 (x − μ)T V −1 (x − μ) . approaches a Gaussian with mean μ = n and variance σ 2 = 2n. . is the multivariate Gaussian: 1 f (x. space or time) according to a Poisson distribution.1. Therefore for any vector X. the point X lies outside the one-standard-deviation ellipsoid with 61% probability. μ.f. discussed in the following section. . χ2 distribution : . with n degrees of freedom. .d.e. the validity of those indicators assumes that μ and V are correct.f. and positive deﬁnite.28) − + 2 2 σ1 σ2 σ1 σ2 The marginal distribution of any xi is a Gaussian with mean μi and variance Vii . where Fχ2 is the cumulative χ2 distribution. k ). This is discussed further in Sec. n/2 (2π) |V | (32.6. μ2 . For example. The χ2 p. See the full Review for further discussion and all references.g. xn are independent Gaussian random variables. the distance in x from an arbitrary starting point (which may be some particular event) to the k th event follows a gamma distribution. The use of these ellipsoids as indicators of probable error is described in Sec.d.d. and Vii = V [xi ].2. V ) is −1 1 f (x1 . σ2 .f.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. μ1 . μ.2. which we denote by χ2 (n).f.2 on tests of goodness-of-ﬁt. λ.4. λ. 32. λ. 2010 12:56 . V is n × n. that the data might follow. For large n. This may be read from Fig. 33. the χ2 p. |V | > 0 . is often used in evaluating the level of compatibility between observed data and a hypothesis for the p. x2 . For n = 2. each of which follows χ2 (ni ). The Poisson parameter μ is λ per unit x. the “s-standard-deviation ellipsoid” occurs at C = s2 . f (x. 33. symmetric. For a set of zi .

1.2. but unknown. if the xi are 2 Gaussian. and the estimators μ and σ are uncorrelated. and statistical tests. are treated in Section 33. 2010 12:56 . Bayesian methods for interval estimation are discussed in Sections 33. The most important tools in this framework are parameter estimation. is intended as a meaningful guess for the value of the parameter θ. the prior degree of belief is updated by the data from the experiment. variance and median : Suppose we have a set of N independent measurements. Otherwise the arithmetic mean (33. In frequentist statistics.” More speciﬁcally it can indicate the size of an interval as in “the standard error” or “error propagation. the standard deviation of σ (the “error of the error”) is σ/ 2N .4).1. Frequentist conﬁdence intervals. covered in Section 33. Note that in frequentist statistics one does not deﬁne a probability for a hypothesis or for a parameter. Statistics 33. Again.5) i=1 are unbiased estimators of μ and σ 2 . assumed to be unbiased measurements of the same unknown quantity μ with a common.3. V σ (33. For Gaussian distributed xi . the word “error” is often used in this chapter to mean “uncertainty. Cowan (RHUL).6) 4 N N −1 where m4 is the 4th central moment of x. which we may call frequentist and Bayesian. Using Bayes’ theorem Eq. There are two main approaches to statistical inference. 2010 12:56 271 33. and√for large N .1.2. known variances σi2 .1.4) is not necessarily the most eﬃcient estimator. this becomes 2σ 4 /(N − 1) for any N ≥ 2. μ is an eﬃcient estimator for μ. Then N 1 μ = xi (33. xi . 33. An estimator θ (written with a hat) is a function of the data whose value.3. which are constructed so as to cover the true value of a parameter with a speciﬁed probability. STATISTICS Revised September 2009 by G.2.3.) for a parameter. Parameter estimation Here we review the frequentist approach to point estimationof parameters. probability is interpreted as the frequency of the outcome of a repeatable experiment.6 Following common usage in physics. which expresses one’s state of knowledge about where its true value lies. then the weighted average N 1 wi xi (33. One can then speak of a probability density function (p. discussed in Section 33.7) μ = w i=1 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.” where the term refers to the standard deviation of an estimator. the interpretation of probability is more general and includes degree of belief (called subjective probability). In Bayesian statistics. the estimate. The variance of μ is σ 2 /N and the 2 variance of σ is 2 = 1 m − N − 3 σ 4 .f.d.1 and 33. 33. If the xi have diﬀerent.4) N i=1 N 2 = 1 σ (xi − μ )2 N −1 (33. (32.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Estimators for mean. variance σ 2 .

Statistics is an unbiased estimator for μ with a smaller variance than an unweighted average. where θ = (θ1 . i.f.3. (33. In the large sample limit (or in a linear model with Gaussian errors).1. Note that the likelihood function is not a p. .2.d. (33.d. θj ] for a set of ML estimators can be estimated by using ∂ 2 ln L (V −1 )ij = − . . evaluated with the data x. . (33.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.8) i=1 The method of maximum likelihood takes the estimators θ to be those values of θ that maximize L(θ). for x factorizes and the likelihood function is N L(θ) = f (xi . . and since both are maximized for the same parameter values θ.d. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.d. that involve θ be included. The standard deviation of μ is √ 1/ w.d.f.f. (see Sec. 33. θ))2 χ2 (θ) = −2 ln L(θ) + constant = .d. xN ) described by a joint p. θ). 33. 2010 272 12:56 33. .13) σi2 i=1 The set of parameters θ which maximize L is the same as those which minimize χ2 . . f (x. but this requires multiplying by a prior p.10) ∂θ ∂θ i j θ For ﬁnite samples. (33. it is important that any normalization factors in the p. i = 1. θ) . The method of least squares : The method of least squares (LS) coincides with the method of maximum likelihood in the following special case. for the parameters θ.3.10) can result in an underestimate of the variances..d. .f.1. L(θ) = f (x. f (x. .e.f. (33. but viewed as a function of the parameters.4). . it can be seen that a numerically equivalent way of determining s-standard-deviation errors is from the contour given by the θ such that (33. θ). The inverse V −1 of the covariance matrix Vij = cov[θi . one can obtain from the likelihood the posterior p.56)). The likelihood function is given by the p.9) ∂θi In evaluating the likelihood function. The likelihood function contains the sum of squares N (yi − F (xi . 33. where ln Lmax is the value of ln L at the solution point (compare with Eq. then the joint p. θ). in frequentist statistics this is not deﬁned. If the measurements xi are statistically independent and each follow the p.f.f. It is usually easier to work with ln L. Consider a set of N independent measurements yi at known points xi . however.3.1). In this case. here wi = 1/σi2 and w = i wi . θn ) is set of n parameters whose values are unknown. the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators can be found by solving the likelihood equations. The method of maximum likelihood : Suppose we have a set of N measured quantities x = (x1 . .d. ∂ ln L =0. (33. n . The goal is to construct estimators for the unknown parameters θ. In Bayesian statistics. for θ. .f. Eq.11) ln L(θ ) = ln Lmax − s2 /2 . 2010 12:56 .2. The extreme limits of this contour on the θi axis give an approximate s-standard-deviation conﬁdence interval for θi (see Section 33. L has a Gaussian form and ln L is (hyper)parabolic. . θ) and known variance σi2 . The measurement yi is assumed to be Gaussian distributed with mean F (xi .

The new covariance matrix can be found by expanding the functions η(θ) about the estimates θ to ﬁrst order in a Taylor series. . where determine the covariance matrix for the functions. + 1 = χ2 + 1 χ2 (θ) = χ2 (θ) min (33. If they are not independent but rather have a covariance matrix Vij = cov[yi . xm−1 . maximumlikelihood or least-squares. i. Uij = cov[ ηi ] give the η = η(θ ). say.. . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. . . . In particular. Suppose we have estimated θ = (θ1 .13) deﬁnes the least-squares estimators θ for the more general case where the yi are not Gaussian distributed as long as they are independent.g.17) U = DV DT = (H T V −1 H)−1 . θn ) and a set of m functions η(θ) = (η1 (θ).16) The covariance matrix for the estimators Uij = cov[θi . The approximation is exact if η(θ) is linear.l This can be written in matrix notation as U ≈ AV AT where the matrix of derivatives A is ∂ηi Aij = .14) where y = (y1 . and the superscript T denotes transposed (i. (33. one further restricts the problem to the situation where F (xi .1. yN ) is the vector of measurements. 2010 12:56 . θn ). (33. this is discussed further in Section 33. . 2010 33. . the diagonal elements Uii = V [ variances.. one ﬁnds that the contour in parameter space about θ. x. . it can be used for assessing the goodness-of-ﬁt. θ) is a linear function of the parameters. .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Deﬁning Hij = hj (xi ) and minimizing χ2 by setting its derivatives with respect to the θi equal to zero gives the LS estimators. In many practical cases.5. Using this one ﬁnds ∂ηi ∂ηj V . . e. F (θ) is the corresponding vector of predicted values (understood as a column vector in (33. Statistics 12:56 273 The minimum of Equation (33. θj ] is given by Expanding deﬁned by χ2 (θ) (33. .2. . yj ]. ηm (θ)). then the LS estimators are determined by the minimum of χ2 (θ) = (y − F (θ))T V −1 (y − F (θ)) . θ) = j=1 Here the hj (x) are m linearly independent functions. .2. . Uij ≈ (33. .e. Propagation of errors : Consider a set of n quantities θ = (θ1 .23) has tangent planes located at approximately plus-or-minus-one standard deviation σθ from the LS estimates θ. As the minimum value of the χ2 represents the level of agreement between the measurements and the ﬁtted function. and we also know or have estimated the covariance matrix Vij = cov[θi . .30) ∂θj θ and AT is its transpose. m θj hj (xi ) . ηj ]. (33. 1.. row) vector. using. Minimizing χ2 in this case with m parameters reduces to solving a system of m linear equations. . (33.15) F (xi . x2 . . 33. The goal of error propagation is to ηi . θ = (H T V −1 H)−1 H T V −1 y ≡ Dy . We require m < N and at least m of the xi must be distinct.14)). θj ].e. or Legendre polynomials. . .29) ∂θk ∂θl θ kl k.

for the data (a simple hypothesis). The Neyman–Pearson lemma states that this is done by deﬁning the acceptance region such that. H0 ) should be rejected in favor of its alternative H1 .f. In the usual case where the likelihood ratio (33. to maximize the signal eﬃciency for a given signiﬁcance level.s f (x|H0 ) and f (x|H1 ).31) represents the test statistic with which one may obtain the highest signal eﬃciency for a given purity for the selected sample. It can also happen that H0 is false and the true hypothesis is the alternative. the ratio of p.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. It can be diﬃcult in practice.d. f (x|H1 ) .2.f. further classiﬁcation methods from machine-learning have been applied in HEP analyses.. deﬁne completely the p. This can be done by deﬁning a statistic t. Rejecting H0 if it is true is called an error of the ﬁrst kind. H1 . It could.f. say. The lemma is equivalent to the statement that (33. the value of which is chosen to give the desired signal eﬃciency.d.d. Significance tests : Often one wants to quantify the level of agreement between the data and a hypothesis without explicit reference to alternative hypotheses. however.f. which will have some probability β.d. i.. these include probability density estimation (PDE) techniques. The probability for this to occur is called the size or signiﬁcance level of the test. deﬁned as the probability to ﬁnd t in the region of equal or lesser compatibility with H0 than the level of compatibility observed with the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. i. H0 is rejected. This is done by deﬁning a region of x-space called the critical region.2.e. Statistics 33. A statistical test is a rule that states for which values of x a given hypothesis (often called the null hypothesis. to determine λ(x). 2010 274 12:56 33. which is a function of the data whose value reﬂects in some way the level of agreement between the data and the hypothesis.d. with the values of one or more parameters left open (a composite hypothesis).e. The signiﬁcance of a discrepancy between the data and what one expects under the assumption of H0 is quantiﬁed by giving the p-value. g(t|H0 ) for the statistic. The quantity 1 − β is called the power of the test relative to H1 .2. Statistical tests 33. Hypothesis tests : Consider an experiment whose outcome is characterized by a vector of data x. which is chosen to be equal to some pre-speciﬁed value. otherwise it is accepted.1.2.s for the hypotheses H1 (signal) and H0 (background). will determine the p. 33. for x in that region.31) cannot be used explicitly.. and decision trees.f. (33. Here H0 and H1 must be simple hypotheses. for example. If H0 is accepted in such a case. or it could specify only the functional form of the p. there exist a variety of other multivariate classiﬁers that eﬀectively separate diﬀerent types of events. since this requires knowledge of the joint p. this is called an error of the second kind. if the outcome of the experiment lands in this region. they should not contain undetermined parameters. α. Techniques such as “boosting” and “bagging” can be applied to combine a number of classiﬁers into a stronger one with greater stability with respect to ﬂuctuations in the training data. Methods often used in HEP include neural networks or Fisher discriminants (see [10]). Often one tries to construct a test to maximize power for a given signiﬁcance level. kernel-based PDE (KDE or Parzen window). H0 . The hypothesis in question. A hypothesis is a statement about the distribution of x.31) λ(x) = f (x|H0 ) is greater than a given constant. support vector machines. 2010 12:56 . Recently.

For example. 2010 33.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. if t is deﬁned such that large values correspond to poor agreement with the hypothesis. Statistics 12:56 275 actual data. then the p-value would be .

d.f.g. Note that the p-value is not the probability for the hypothesis. with a hypothesis for their expectation values νi = E[ni ]. Assuming the goodness-of-ﬁt statistic follows a χ2 p. this is not deﬁned. the χ2 (33. and is therefore itself a random variable. The p-value is a function of the data. p will be uniformly distributed between zero and one. but that one simply wants to compare a histogram. of obtaining data at least as incompatible with H0 as the data actually observed. then for continuous data. . and if the expected values νi in (33. both of which are pre-speciﬁed constants.. the p-value is the probability. i.13). The minimized χ2 from Eq. in frequentist statistics.. It may also happen that no parameters are estimated from the data. When estimating parameters using the method of least squares. Rather.34) χ2 = νi i=1 If the hypothesis ν = (ν1 . (33. . . As the distribution is Poisson with variances σi2 = νi . . p= ∞ tobs g(t|H0 ) dt . N (ni − νi )2 .34) are suﬃciently large (in practice. The p-value should not be confused with the size (signiﬁcance level) of a test. one obtains the minimum value of the quantity χ2 (33. .13) also has this property if the measurements yi are Gaussian. nN ). this will be a good approximation if all νi > 5).f. e.3). If the hypothesis used to compute the p-value is true. .. under the assumption of a hypothesis H0 . the test provides a measure of the signiﬁcance of a discrepancy between the data and the hypothesized functional form used in the ﬁt. then the χ2 statistic will follow the χ2 p. (33. (33. or the conﬁdence level of a conﬁdence interval (Section 33. . νN ) is correct. a vector of Poisson distributed numbers n = (n1 .d.e. This statistic can be used to test the goodness-of-ﬁt.32) where tobs is the value of the statistic obtained in the actual experiment.13) becomes Pearson’s χ2 statistic. . the p-value for the hypothesis is then . with the number of degrees of freedom equal to the number of measurements N minus the number of ﬁtted parameters.

1 or from the CERNLIB routine PROB or the ROOT function TMath::Prob. nd ) is the p.f.3. 33. and nd is the appropriate number of degrees of freedom. Bayesian model selection : In Bayesian statistics. Hence the quantity χ2 /nd is sometimes reported. all of one’s knowledge about a model is contained in its posterior probability. which one obtains using Bayes’ theorem.35) χ2 χ2 where f (z.d. however.2.d. one expects in a “reasonable” experiment to obtain χ2 ≈ nd . The p-values obtained for diﬀerent values of χ2 /nd are shown in Fig. (33. ∞ p= f (z. Thus one could reject a hypothesis H if its posterior probability P (H|x) is suﬃciently small. Values can be obtained from Fig. and there *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 33. of χ2 /nd depends on nd . Since the mean of the χ2 distribution is equal to nd . one must report nd as well if one wishes to determine the p-value. Since the p. The diﬃculty here is that P (H|x) is proportional to the prior probability P (H). 2010 12:56 . 33. nd ) dz .2.f.

2: The ‘reduced’ χ2 .1: One minus the χ2 cumulative distribution.005 0. which can be used to quantify the degree to which the data prefer one hypothesis over another. This gives the p-value for the χ2 goodnessof-ﬁt test as well as one minus the coverage probability for conﬁdence regions (see Sec.0 50% 0.5 90% 99% 0. for n degrees of freedom.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.5 2.010 0. 2010 276 12:56 33. Consider two models (hypotheses).002 0.3.5 10% χ2/n 1. The curves show as a function of n the χ2 /n that corresponds to a given p-value. equal to χ2 /n. Statistics 1.2. 1−F (χ2 .001 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 χ2 20 30 40 50 70 100 Figure 33. Nevertheless one can construct a quantity called the Bayes factor (described below).020 0.200 n=1 2 3 4 6 8 15 25 40 0.100 10 0. 2010 12:56 . and is independent of their prior probabilities.4). n).500 0. for n degrees of freedom. described by vectors *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 33. 2.050 20 30 50 0.000 p-value for test α for confidence intervals 0.0 5% 0 10 32% 20 30 Degrees of freedom n 68% 95% 40 50 Figure 33. will not be a consensus about the prior probabilities for the existence of new phenomena. Hi and Hj .0 1% 1.

In a Bayesian analysis where one is only interested in the posterior p.39) L(x|θj . and π(θ i |Hi ) is the normalized p. all internal parameters must be described by normalized priors that represent meaningful probabilities over the entire range where they are deﬁned. Hi )P (Hi )π(θ i |Hi ) dθ i P (Hi |x) = . The full prior probability for each model can be written in the form π(Hi .e.37) P (x) where the integration is carried out over the internal parameters θi of the model.38) P (Hj |x) L(x|θj . Statistics 12:56 277 of parameters θi and θ j . Some of the components will be common to both models and others may be distinct. however. Both integrals.d. L(x|θi .. For each model. 2010 33. respectively. Hj )π(θ j |Hj ) dθ j P (Hj ) The Bayes factor is deﬁned as L(x|θ i . the posterior probability is found using Bayes’ theorem. (33. as parameters with the same name and physical meaning may still play diﬀerent roles in the two models.36) Here P (Hi ) is the overall prior probability for Hi . it may be acceptable to take an unnormalizable function for the prior (an improper prior) as long as the product of likelihood and prior can be normalized. which does not cancel in the ratio (33. Hi )π(θ i |Hi ) dθi Bij = . of its parameters.e.d. i. The Bayes factor therefore shows by how much the probability ratio of model i to model j changes in the light of the data.39). Although the Bayes factor is by construction independent of the overall prior probabilities P (Hi ) and P (Hj ).. Hj )π(θ j |Hj ) dθ j This gives what the ratio of posterior probabilities for models i and j would be if the overall prior probabilities for the two models were equal. The ratio of posterior probabilities for the models is therefore L(x|θi . (33. (33. of a parameter. In this case one can argue that the arbitrary constants would cancel.f. If the models have no nuisance parameters i. one needs the functions π(θ i |Hi ) and π(θ j |Hj ). One must exercise some caution. θi ) = P (Hi )π(θ i |Hi ) . it does require priors for all internal parameters of a model.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Furthermore. But improper priors are only deﬁned up to an arbitrary multiplicative constant. (33. So to compute a Bayes factor. then the Bayes factor is simply the likelihood ratio. Hi )π(θ i |Hi ) dθ i P (Hi ) P (Hi |x) = . no internal parameters described by priors. although the range of a constant normalized prior is unimportant for parameter determination (provided it is wider than the likelihood). this is not so for the Bayes factor when such a prior is used for only one of the hypotheses. and thus can be viewed as a numerical measure of evidence supplied by the data in favour of one hypothesis over the other.f. An exception to this rule may be considered when the identical parameter appears in the models for both numerator and denominator of the Bayes factor.

the result is usually expressed by quoting. [26].40) which is called the marginal likelihood (or in some ﬁelds called the evidence). Intervals and limits When the goal of an experiment is to determine a parameter θ. in addition to the point estimate. some sort of interval which reﬂects the statistical precision of the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 33. (33.in equation (33. 2010 12:56 . A review of Bayes factors including a discussion of computational issues is Ref.3.39) are of the form m= L(x|θ)π(θ) dθ .

In the single parameter case. a Bayesian posterior probability may be used to determine regions that will have a given probability of containing the true value of a parameter. this can be given by the parameter’s estimated value θ plus or minus an estimate of the standard deviation of σ . θ are physical boundaries on the possible values of the parameter.3. Statistics measurement.1.d. In the simplest case. of the estimator is not Gaussian or if there θ. however. 33. If. 2010 278 12:56 33.. i. then one usually quotes instead an interval according to one of the procedures described below. θup ] can be determined which contains a given fraction 1 − α of the posterior probability. an interval (called a Bayesian or credible interval) [θlo .f.e.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1. the p. Bayesian intervals : As described in Sec. for example.4. . 33.

these are called highest posterior density (HPD) intervals.24) gives the posterior density for s. 33.f.6 on “ﬂip-ﬂopping” concerning frequentist coverage). (33. An important example is the case of a Poisson variable n. (s + b)n −(s+b) L(n|s) = e .42) 1 s≥0 In the absence of a clear discovery. i. if n = 0 or if in any case n is compatible with the expected background). then the prior p. (e. assumed known. Note that HPD intervals are not invariant under a nonlinear transformation of the parameter. one usually wishes to place an upper limit on s (see. one often uses the prior 0 s<0 π(s) = .42) in (33. (33.43) n! along with the prior (33.. can simply be set to zero for negative values. In other cases. (33. which counts signal events with unknown mean s.2. Using the likelihood function for Poisson distributed n.g. one might choose θlo and θup such that p(θ|x) is higher everywhere inside the interval than outside. θlo can be set to zero or θup to inﬁnity.d. For the signal mean s.. however. If a parameter is constrained to be non-negative. An upper limit sup at conﬁdence level (or here. credibility level) 1 − α can be obtained by requiring sup . Sec. rather. as well as background with mean b. θup 1−α= p(θ|x) dθ .e.3.41) θlo Sometimes an upper or lower limit is desired.

or the ROOT function TMath::ChisquareQuantile. nd ) . By relating the integrals in Eq.45) m=0 b /m! This must be solved numerically for the limit sup . the sums can be related to the quantile Fχ−1 2 of the χ distribution (inverse of the cumulative distribution) to give sup = 12 Fχ−1 (33. the equation reduces to n (s + b)m /m! −sup m=0 n up m α=e . (33. (33.46) coincide numerically *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.46) 2 (1 − α. It so happens that for the case of b = 0.44) ∞ −∞ −∞ L(n|s) π(s) ds where the lower limit of integration is eﬀectively zero because of the cut-oﬀ in π(s). (33. where the number of degrees of freedom is nd = 2(n + 1). sup L(n|s) π(s) ds 1−α= p(s|n)ds = −∞ . the upper limits from Eq. (33. For the special case of 2 b = 0. The quantile of the χ2 distribution can be obtained using the CERNLIB routine CHISIN. 2010 12:56 .44) to incomplete gamma functions.

33. θ) where x represents the outcome of the experiment and θ is the unknown parameter for which we want to construct a conﬁdence interval.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 33. Using f (x. and for every value of θ.2. As in any Bayesian analysis. For example. α) and.1.2. As with the constant prior. Values for 1 − α = 0.3. Rather it is used with Bayes’ theorem to produce an interval whose frequentist properties can be studied.4. Frequentist confidence intervals : 33.3.1. we can ﬁnd for a pre-speciﬁed probability 1 − α. it is important to show how the result would change if one uses diﬀerent prior probabilities. θ).9 and 0.95 are given by the values νup in Table 33. one would not regard this as representing one’s prior beliefs about s.3. both because it is improper and also as it depends on b.f. For this problem one ﬁnds the Jeﬀreys prior π(s) ∝ 1/ s + b for s ≥ 0 and zero otherwise. a set of values x1 (θ. The variable x could (and often does) represent an estimator for θ. one could consider the Jeﬀreys prior as described√in Sec.5.2. 2010 33. The Neyman construction for conﬁdence intervals: Consider a p.3. Statistics 12:56 279 with the values of the frequentist upper limits discussed in Section 33.d. f (x.

α). indicated in the ﬁgure. α)] is drawn for representative values of θ. θ) dx . designated in the ﬁgure as D(α).. The conﬁdence interval for θ is the set of all values of θ for which the corresponding line segment [x1 (θ. .. α)] is intercepted by this vertical line. Upon performing an experiment to measure x and obtaining a value x0 . θ) = 1 − α = x1 f (x. The union of such intervals for all values of θ. 2010 12:56 . θ2(x) θ0 x1(θ). is known as the conﬁdence belt.. We see from the ﬁgure that θ0 lies between θ1 (x) and θ2 (x) if and only *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. P (x1 < x < x2 . α) are monotonic functions of θ. α) such that x2 . Such conﬁdence intervals are said to have a conﬁdence level (CL) equal to 1 − α.x2 (θ. x2 (θ... Now suppose that the true value of θ is θ0 ... α). ... which we assume for this discussion. .3: Construction of the conﬁdence belt (see text).. 33. parameter θ D(α) x2(θ).47) This is illustrated in Fig. (33.3: a horizontal line segment [x1 (θ. Typically the curves x1 (θ.. x2 (θ. one draws a vertical line through x0 . α) and x2 (θ.. θ1(x) x1(θ0) x2(θ0) Possible experimental values x Figure 33.

The condition of coverage in Eq. (33. the interval [θ1 . Statistics if x lies between x1 (θ0 ) and x2 (θ0 ). By convention.3.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The two events thus have the same probability.2. θ1 (x) and θ2 (x). covering the ﬁxed value θ in a fraction 1 − α of the experiments. (33. however. this is often the case when x represents an estimator for a parameter and one has a suﬃciently large data sample. This gives conﬁdence intervals that include the true parameter with a probability greater than or equal to 1 − α. Gaussian distributed measurements: An important example of constructing a conﬁdence interval is when the data consists of a single random variable x that follows a Gaussian distribution. 33. x2 (θ. one constructs the conﬁdence belt requiring the probability P (x1 < x < x2 ) to be greater than or equal to 1 − α.47) does not determine x1 and x2 uniquely. are the random variables and θ is an unknown constant.48) In this probability statement.3.2. the coverage probability obtained with the Neyman construction is 1 − α. it is not possible to ﬁnd segments [x1 (θ. the multivariate Gaussian is used. one may want to report only an upper or lower limit. i.. α).4. (33. and since this is true for any value θ0 . α)] that satisfy Eq. the endpoints of the interval. 2010 280 12:56 33.e. . If there is more than one parameter being estimated.47) exactly for all values of θ. In other cases.2 When the observed random variable x is continuous. regardless of the true value of the parameter. If the experiment were to be repeated a large number of times. Another principle based on likelihood ratio ordering for determining which values of x should be included in the conﬁdence belt is discussed in Sec. 33. we can drop the subscript 0 and obtain 1 − α = P (x1 (θ) < x < x2 (θ)) = P (θ2 (x) < θ < θ1 (x)) . If x is discrete. and additional criteria are needed. in which case the probability excluded below x1 or above x2 can be set to zero. For the univariate case with known σ. The most common criterion is to choose central intervals such that the probabilities excluded below x1 and above x2 are each α/2. θ2 ] would vary.

Fig. μ+δ 2 2 1 δ 1−α= √ e−(x−μ) /2σ dx = erf √ (33.64σ conﬁdence interval unshaded. α 0.1 0. this is also the probability for the interval x ± δ to include μ.01 0.58σ 3.1: Area of the Gaussian distribution.3×10−5 5.1.55 ×10−2 2.89σ *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Values of α for other frequently used choices of δ are given in Table 33. From the symmetry of the Gaussian with respect to x and μ.05 0.27% if σ is known. The choice δ = σ gives an interval called the standard error which has 1 − α = 68.64σ 1.28σ 1.7 ×10−3 6.7×10−7 2.29σ 3.96σ 2.3173 4.53) 2πσ μ−δ 2σ is the probability that the measured value x will fall within ±δ of the true value μ.0×10−9 tails α outside ±δ from the mean of a δ 1σ 2σ 3σ 4σ 5σ 6σ α 0. 33.001 10−4 δ 1. 2010 12:56 .4 shows a δ = 1.2 0. Table 33.

corresponding to a contour χ2 = χ2min + 1 or ln L = ln Lmax − 1/2. are as shown.1.. the ellipse thins to a diagonal line. the estimators will be distributed according to a multivariate Gaussian centered about the true (unknown) values θ. θj ]/σi σj is the correlation coeﬃcient. The and the tangents to the ellipse is centered about the estimated values θ.5. θn ).2 and 33. The relation (33. 33. . As ρij goes to +1 or −1. n) . which can be estimated as described in Sections 33. one requires the full covariance matrix Vij = cov[θi . the *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. As in the single-variable case. i. and furthermore. 2010 12:56 .54) for χ2 = (δ/σ)2 and n = 1 degree of freedom. This can be obtained from Fig. . θj ) is shown in Fig. Integrated probabilities. The standard error ellipse for the pair (θi . n parameter estimates θ = (θ1 . 2010 33.1. deﬁned by α. .σ) 1− α α /2 −3 α /2 −2 −1 0 1 (x−μ) /σ 2 3 Figure 33. say. ﬁxed probability. The angle of the major axis of the ellipse is given by 2ρij σi σj . the likelihood function itself takes on a Gaussian shape.4: Illustration of a symmetric 90% conﬁdence interval (unshaded) for a measurement of a single quantity with Gaussian errors. (33. . because of the symmetry of the Gaussian one ﬁnds that contours of constant ln L or function between θ and θ.e. For multivariate measurements of. That is. at the distance ρij σi below the centerline as shown. θj ]. μ. (33. Statistics 12:56 281 f (x.53) can be re-expressed using the cumulative distribution function for the χ2 distribution as α = 1 − F (χ2 .3. σi and σj .1. Under fairly general conditions with the methods of maximum-likelihood or least-squares in the large sample limit.55) tan 2φ = 2 σj − σi2 where ρij = cov[θi .1 on the n = 1 curve or by using the CERNLIB routine PROB or the ROOT function TMath::Prob.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. ellipse give the standard deviations of the estimators. The values of α for such limits are half the values in Table 33. The correlation coeﬃcient can be visualized as the fraction of the distance σi from the ellipse’s horizontal centerline at which the ellipse becomes tangent to vertical. 33. χ2 cover the true values with a certain. We can set a one-sided (upper or lower) limit by excluding above x + δ (or below x − δ).

(33.25 7. 2n) . 2010 12:56 . the probability for the regions determined by equations (33.18 9. Statistics θi σi σ inner θ^i ρijσi σi σj φ σj θj θ^j Figure 33. For the case of Poisson distributed n.57) Values of Δχ2 or 2Δ ln L are given in Table 33.53 6. for estimates of branching ratios or selection eﬃciencies based on a given total number of events. 2010 282 12:56 33. 95. If.00 6.45 99. one has selected a larger sample of N events and found n of them to have a particular property. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.71 3.56) or (33. This is appropriate.59a) 2 (αlo ..73 m=1 1. Poisson or binomial data: Another important class of measurements consists of counting a certain number of events.27 90. i. χ2 (θ) ≤ χ2min + Δχ2 .g.. say.83 m=3 3.63 9. In this section.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Table 33.16 conﬁdence region is determined by ln L(θ) ≥ ln Lmax − Δ ln L .2: Δχ2 or 2Δ ln L corresponding to a coverage probability 1 − α in the large data sample limit. on the other hand.57) to cover the true value of θ will depend on θ. In this case the correlation is negative. there is no background.34 14. then n follows a binomial distribution where the parameter p gives the probability for the event to possess the property in question.00 m=2 2.3.99 6.30 4.e. in a ﬁxed integrated luminosity L. 95.84 4.2.5. n.00 2. If n represents the number of events produced in a reaction with cross section σ. 99. so these are not exact conﬁdence regions according to our previous deﬁnition. we will assume these are all events of the desired type. for joint estimation of m parameters. 33.56) or where a χ2 has been deﬁned for use with the method of least-squares. (33.82 8. e.5: Standard error ellipse for the estimators θi and θj . (1 − α) (%) 68.03 11.21 11. the upper and lower limits on the mean value ν can be found from the Neyman procedure to be νlo = 12 Fχ−1 (33.61 5.2 for several values of the coverage probability and number of ﬁtted parameters. then it follows a Poisson distribution with mean ν = σL. For ﬁnite data samples.

For central conﬁdence intervals at conﬁdence level 1 − α. the upper and lower limits on p are found to be nFF−1 [αlo . Application of some standard recipes can lead to intervals that are partially or entirely in the unphysical region. (33.53 11. 2(N − n + 1)] plo = . for ν.105 0.70 5.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.77 12.15 3.96 It happens that the upper limit from Eq. (33. 12:56 283 (33.71 16.59a) coincides numerically with the Bayesian upper limit for a Poisson parameter. 1 − α =90% 1 − α =95% n νlo νup νlo νup 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – 0. The quantiles Fχ−1 2 can be obtained from standard tables or from the CERNLIB routine CHISIN.22 2. Table 33.32 6.66 5. (33.or two-sided interval *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 33.97 2. 2n.75 9. which includes both signal and background.41 – 0.818 1.30 7. For the case of binomially distributed n successes out of N trials with probability of success p.3: Lower and upper (one-sided) limits for the mean ν of a Poisson variable given n observed events in the absence of background.29 3.00 4.99 14.6. 33.30 3. 2(N − n)] . 2(N − n + 1)] pup = (n + 1)FF−1 [1 − αup . respectively. see [4]).3.355 0. 2010 12:56 .15 14.89 4. Statistics νup = 12 Fχ−1 2 (1 − αup .43 15.15 10.61 3. using a uniform prior p. Furthermore. 2(n + 1)) . and Fχ−1 2 is the quantile of the χ distribution (inverse of the cumulative distribution).532 1.2.84 13. Values for conﬁdence levels of 90% and 95% are shown in Table 33. for conﬁdence levels of 90% and 95%.60a) N − n + 1 + nFF−1 [αlo .51 11.74 6.89 5.f.59b) where the upper and lower limits are at conﬁdence levels of 1 − αlo and 2 1 − αup .99 9. Important examples are where the mean of a Gaussian variable is constrained on physical grounds to be non-negative and where the experiment ﬁnds a Poisson-distributed number of events. n. set αlo = αup = α/2. 2(n + 1).43 3.43 6.68 7.74 2.21 15.60b) Here FF−1 is the quantile of the F distribution (also called the Fisher– Snedecor distribution.37 1. 2(N − n)] (N − n) + (n + 1)FF−1 [1 − αup .43 3.051 0. 2(n + 1). if the decision whether to report a one.10 1.98 4.27 10.3. 2n. Diﬃculties with intervals near a boundary: A number of issues arise in the construction and interpretation of conﬁdence intervals when the parameter can only take on values in a restricted range.d.

these intervals can for some parameter values undercover.4 gives the uniﬁed conﬁdence intervals [ν1 . 2010 12:56 . Another alternative is presented by the intervals found from the likelihood function or χ2 using the prescription of Equations (33. however. As in the case of the Bayesian intervals.36 5.30 16.37 1. ν2 ] for the mean of a Poisson variable given n observed events in the absence of background.50 0.81 15. Advantages and pitfalls of this approach are discussed further in the Review. 2010 284 12:56 33. for conﬁdence levels of 90% and 95%.3.82 1. Although this by itself is not suﬃcient to construct a frequentist conﬁdence interval.75 13. the equation and reference numbering corresponds to that version. even if the estimated value is in the unphysical region.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. In Table 33.11 0.60 9.47 1.10 1.29 16. the coverage probability is not.91 7. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.75 3.42 8. Table 33. ν2 ]. In any case it is important to report suﬃcient information so that the result can be combined with other measurements.47 12.53 13.99 15.4: Uniﬁed conﬁdence intervals [ν1 . 1 − α =90% 1 − α =95% n ν1 ν2 ν1 ν2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.72 8.99 11. 1 − α referred to the probability to have individually νup ≥ ν or νlo ≤ ν.36 4. for conﬁdence levels of 90% and 95%.77 17. Properties of these intervals are described further in the Review. The presence of the boundary can be incorporated simply by setting the prior density to zero in the unphysical region.36 5.58 2.00 0. The values of 1 − α given here refer to the coverage of the true parameter by the whole interval [ν1 .76 11.26 12.57).d.53 1. Furthermore. in general.00 0.94 4.3 for the one-sided upper and lower limits.21 3. It is also useful to report the likelihood function or an appropriate summary of it.56) or (33.05 0.25 9.36 0.50 2. Often this means giving an unbiased estimator and its standard deviation. ν2 ] for a the mean of a Poisson variable given n observed events in the absence of background.44 4. independent of the true parameter.96 4. Several problems with such intervals are overcome by using the uniﬁed approach of Feldman and Cousins [27].82 Another possibility is to construct a Bayesian interval as described in Section 33.1.f.14 6.84 2.84 2. then the resulting intervals will not in general cover the parameter with the stated probability 1 − α. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics. Statistics is based on the data.56 3. Table 33. it can be used to ﬁnd the Bayesian posterior probability density for any desired prior p.21 2.09 5.

CLEBSCH-GORDAN COEFFICIENTS. 2010 12:56 285 36. AND d FUNCTIONS 12:56 ... SPHERICAL HARMONICS. 5/2 3/2 1/5 4/5 + 2 − 1/2 8π + 1 + 1/2 4/5 − 1/5 + 1/2 + 1/2 − 1/2 − 1/2 1 3 5 1 + 1 − 1/2 2/5 3/5 5/2 3/2 cos2 θ − Y20 = 0 + 1/2 3/5 − 2/5 − 1/2 − 1/2 4π 2 2 1× 1/2 + 3/2 0 − 1/2 3/5 2/5 5/2 3/2 3/2 3/2 1/2 15 1 iφ − 1 + 1/2 2/5 − 3/5 − 3/2 − 3/2 sin θ cos θ e Y2 = − 1 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1 + 1/2 8π 2 − 1 − 1/2 4/5 1/5 5/2 + 1 − 1/2 1/3 2/3 3/2 1/2 3/2×1/2 + 2 2 1 − 2 + 1/2 1/5 − 4/5 − 5/2 1 15 0 + 1/2 2/3 − 1/3 − 1/2 − 1/2 + 3/2 +1/2 1 + 1 + 1 sin2 θ e2iφ Y22 = − 2 − 1/2 1 0 − 1/2 2/3 1/3 3/2 4 2π 1 + 3/2 − 1/2 1/4 3/4 2 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.g. Clebsch-Gordan coeﬃcients *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. m1 m2 3 1/2×1/2 + 11 1 0 cos θ Y10 = 5/2 m 1 m 2 Coefficients 2×1/2 4π 5/2 + 5/2 3/2 0 0 + 1/2 + 1/2 1 . e. 1 iφ sin θ e Y1 = − − 1/2 + 1/2 1/2 − 1/2 − 1 .. .− 1 + 1/2 3 2 +3 3 +2 +1 1 +2 +2 − 1 − 1/2 1 1/3 − 2/3 − 3/2 5/2 + 5/2 + 3/2 + 1 1 + 3/2 0 + 1/2 + 1 3/2×1 Y−m = (−1)m Ym∗ 1 −1 0 − 1 1/2 1/2 2 − 1 0 1/2 − 1/2 − 2 −1 −1 1 + 1 − 1 1/6 1/2 1/3 0 0 2/3 0 − 1/3 2 − 1 + 1 1/6 − 1/2 1/3 − 1 0 0 2 −1 1 −1 − 1/2 − 1/2 3/4 1/4 2 − 3/2 + 1/2 1/4 − 3/4 − 2 + 1/2 − 1/2 1/2 1/2 − 1/2 + 1/2 1/2 − 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 3/4 − 1/4 5/2 3/2 + 3/2 + 3/2 3/2 1/2 2/5 3/5 5/2 3/5 − 2/5 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 − 1 − 1 2/3 1/3 3 − 2 0 1/3 − 2/3 − 3 −2 −1 1 j1 j2 m1 m2 |j1 j2 JM = (−1)J−j1 −j2 j2 j1 m2 m1 |j2 j1 JM − 3/2 − 1/2 1 2/5 1/2 + 3/2 − 1 1/10 + 1/2 0 3/5 1/15 − 1/3 5/2 3/2 1/2 − 1/2 + 1 3/10 − 8/15 1/6 − 1/2 − 1/2 − 1/2 + 1/2 − 1 3/10 8/15 1/6 1 2 3 − 1/2 0 3/5 − 1/15 − 1/3 5/2 3/2 −1 −1 −1 − 3/2 + 1 1/10 − 2/5 1/2 − 3/2 − 3/2 − 1/2 − 1 3/5 2/5 5/2 0 − 1 2/5 1/2 1/10 − 3/2 0 2/5 − 3/5 − 5/2 − 1 0 8/15 − 1/6 − 3/10 2 3 − 2 + 1 1/15 − 1/3 3/5 − 2 − 2 − 3/2 − 1 1 2 3 + 2 0 1/3 2/3 1 + 1 + 1 2/3 −1/3 +1 +1 +1 + 2 −1 1/15 1/3 3/5 1/6 − 3/10 3 2 1 1×1 + 22 2 1 + 10 + 01 8/15 2/5 − 1/2 1/10 0 0 0 +1 +1 1 +1 +1 + 1 − 1 1/5 1/2 3/10 1 + 1 0 1/2 1/2 2 0 0 − 2/5 0 0 3/5 0 0 + 1 1/2 − 1/2 0 0 − 1 + 1 1/5 − 1/2 3/10 2×1 J J . Notation: M M . Note: A square-root sign is to be understood over every coeﬃcient.. . 2010 36.. for −8/15 read − 8/15. + 2 + 1/2 1 + 3/2 + 3/2 + 1/2 − 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 3 . .

0 = − √ 7/2 2×3/2 + 7/2 7/2 5/2 3 2 1 + 3/2 + 1/2 1/2 1/2 2 2 + 1/2 + 3/2 1/2 − 1/2 + 1 + 1 +1 1 − cos θ + 2 + 3/2 1 + 5/2 + 5/2 d 11.1 = 2 2 +3 3 2 θ sin θ + 3/2 + 3/2 1 +2 +2 1/2 d 1/2.m d m.−3/2 = − − 2 0 3/14 − 1/2 2/7 − 3 − 3 2 2 2 4 − 1 − 2 1/2 1/2 4 3 θ 3 cos θ − 1 1 − cos θ 3/2 sin θ cos θ d 21.1/2 = cos d 11.0 = cos θ d 1/2.1 = sin sin2 θ d 22.0 = cos θ − d 1/2.−2 = d 1.−1 = + 3/2 − 1/2 1/5 1/2 3/10 + 2 + 1/2 3/7 4/7 7/2 5/2 3/2 2 2 1 0 3 0 − 2/5 + 1/2 + 1/2 3/5 + 1 + 3/2 4/7 − 3/7 + 3/2 + 3/2 + 3/2 0 0 − 1/2 + 3/2 1/5 − 1/2 3/10 0 0 + 2 − 1/2 1/7 16/35 2/5 + 3/2 − 3/2 1/20 1/4 9/20 1/4 + 1 +1/2 4/7 1/35 − 2/5 7/2 5/2 3/2 1/2 + 1/2 − 1/2 9/20 1/4 − 1/20 − 1/4 0 +3/2 2/7 − 18/35 1/5 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 + 1/2 3 2 1 2× 2 + 44 4 3 − 1/2 + 1/2 9/20 − 1/4 − 1/20 1/4 −1 − 3/2 + 3/2 1/20 − 1/4 9/20 − 1/4 − 1 − 1 6/35 2/5 2/5 + 2 − 3/2 1/35 +2 +2 1 +3 +3 0 − 3/10 + 1 − 1/2 12/35 5/14 1/5 1/2 3/10 + 1/2 − 3/2 3 2 4 + 2 + 1 1/2 1/2 7/2 1/5 0 +1/2 18/35 − 3/35 − 1/5 5/2 3/2 1/2 0 − 2/5 − 1/2 − 1/2 3/5 3 2 + 1 + 2 1/2 − 1/2 + 2 +2 +2 − 1 +3/2 4/35− 27/70 2/5 − 1/10 − 1/2 − 1/2 − 1/2 − 1/2 − 3/2 + 1/2 1/5 − 1/2 3/10 − 2 − 2 + 2 0 3/14 1/2 2/7 + 1 − 3/2 4/35 27/70 2/5 1/10 3 1/2 − 1/2 − 3/2 1/2 4 0 − 3/7 3 2 1 + 1 +1 4/7 0 − 1/2 18/35 3/35 − 1/5 − 1/5 − 3/2 − 1/2 1/2 − 1/2 − 3 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 +2 3/14 − 1/2 2/7 − 1 +1/2 12/35 − 5/14 5/2 3/2 0 3/10 7/2 − 3/2 − 3/2 1 − 2 +3/2 1/35 − 6/35 2/5 − 2/5 − 3/2 − 3/2 − 3/2 + 2 − 1 1/14 3/10 3/7 1/5 + 1 0 3/7 1/5 − 1/14 − 3/10 0 − 3/2 2/7 18/35 1/5 4 3 2 1 0 0 +1 3/7 − 1/5 − 1/14 3/10 − 1 − 1/2 4/7 − 1/35 − 2/5 7/2 5/2 0 − 1 +2 1/14 − 3/10 3/7 − 1/5 0 0 0 0 − 2 + 1/2 1/7− 16/35 2/5 − 5/2 − 5/2 + 2 − 2 1/70 1/10 2/7 2/5 1/5 − 1 − 3/2 4/7 3/7 7/2 + 1 − 1 8/35 2/5 1/14 − 1/10 − 1/5 − 2 − 1/2 3/7 − 4/7 − 7/2 0 − 2/7 0 1/5 0 0 18/35 θ 1 + cos θ − 2 − 3/2 1 2 1 − 1 +1 8/35 − 2/5 1/14 1/10 − 1/5 4 3 3/2 cos d 3/2.= j (−1)m−m d m. 2010 286 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 36.1/2 = 2 2 2 2 −2 −2 1 θ 3 cos θ + 1 1 − cos θ 2 1 − cos θ 3 1 3/2 2 2 2 2 sin (2 cos θ + 1) d 0.−1 = − cos sin θ d 1/2.0 = *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.−m 4π Y m e−imφ 2 + 1 3/2× 3/2 θ 1 + cos θ 1/2 3 d 10.0 = − − 2 − 1 1/2 − 1/2 − 4 d 22. Clebsch-Gordan coeﬃcients 12:56 .−1/2 = − sin d 11.1/2 = − 3 0 − 1 3/7 1/5 − 1/14 − 3/10 2 2 2 4 3 − 1 0 3/7 − 1/5 − 1/14 3/10 2 1 + cos θ √ 1 − cos θ θ 3/2 − 2 +1 1/14 − 3/10 3/7 − 1/5 −2 −2 −2 sin θ d 22.−1 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 j d m .3/2 = − 2 +2 1/70 − 1/10 2/7 − 2/5 1/5 −1 −1 −1 −1 2 2 1 + cos θ 2 √ 1/5 + 1 − 2 3/7 1/14 3/10 θ 1 + cos θ 3/2 d 22.−1/2 = − d 2.2 = sin d 3/2.0 = d 3/2.1 = − cos d 3/2.−1/2 = 3 2 2 2 0 − 2 3/14 1/2 2/7 √ 1 + cos θ θ 6 1 − cos θ 0 − 3/7 4 3 − 1 − 1 4/7 3/2 (2 cos θ − 1) d 21.m = j d −m.

Lorentz transformations The energy E and 3-momentum p of a particle of mass m form a 4-vector p = (E. The following conversions are useful: c = 197. Jackson (LBNL) and June 2008 by D.699 GeV and the center of mass momentum of either particle is 0.D.2. 40. Ecm = (m21 + m22 + 2E1 lab m2 )1/2 . In the frame where one particle (of mass m2 ) is at rest (lab frame).80 GeV/c kaon beam is incident on a proton target. KINEMATICS Revised January 2000 by J.4) where plab ≡ p1 lab and γcm = (E1 lab + m2 )/Ecm . the S-matrix for 2 → 2 scattering is related to M by p1 p2 |S| p1 p2 = I − i(2π)4 δ 4 (p1 + p2 − p1 − p2 ) M (p1 . As an example. of course transform in the same way. The energy and momentum (E ∗ . p∗T = pT . (40. It is also useful to note that Ecm dEcm = m2 dE1 lab = m2 β1 lab dplab .6) Ecm For example. momenta of particles 1 and 2 are of magnitude m2 pcm = plab . Ecm = (E1 + E2 )2 − (p1 + p2 )2 1/2 = m21 + m22 + 2E1 E2 (1 − β1 β2 cos θ) . 2010 12:56 287 40. ∗ p p −γf βf γf where γf = (1−βf2 )−1/2 and pT (p ) are the components of p perpendicular (parallel) to β f .2) where θ is the angle between the particles. The velocity of the particle is β = p/E. (40. such as the space-time coordinates of events. if a 0. 40. Lorentz-invariant amplitudes The matrix elements for a scattering or decay process are written in terms of an invariant amplitude −iM .3) The velocity of the center-of-mass in the lab frame is βcm = plab /(E1 lab + m2 ) .1) = . p∗ ) viewed from a frame moving with velocity βf are given by ∗ E E γf −γf βf (40. Center-of-mass energy and momentum In the collision of two particles of masses m1 and m2 the total center-of-mass energy can be expressed in the Lorentz-invariant form 1/2 . Throughout this section units are used in which = c = 1. (40. the center of mass energy is 1. The scalar product of two 4-momenta p1 · p2 = E1 E2 − p1 · p2 is invariant (frame independent).3. (40.1.3894 (GeV)2 mb. (c)2 = 0.7) 40. (40. p2 . (40.m. Other 4-vectors.3 MeV fm.R. 2010 12:56 .442 GeV/c. p) whose square p2 ≡ E 2 − |p|2 = m2 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.8) 1/2 (2E1 ) (2E2 )1/2 (2E1 )1/2 (2E2 )1/2 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (40. p1 . p2 ) × .5) The c. Kinematics 40. Tovey (Sheﬃeld).

In the rest frame of a particle of mass M .13) and the probability that it travels a distance x0 or greater is P (x0 ) = e−M x0 Γ/|p| . This form is particularly useful in the case where a particle decays into another particle that subsequently decays. q. . (40. pj ) × dΦn−j+1 (P . . Kinematics The state normalization is such that p |p = (2π)3 δ 3 (p − p ) . 2010 288 12:56 40. p1 .1: Deﬁnitions of variables for two-body decays.2. . p1 . m2 Figure 40. dΓ = (40. p).11) (2π)3 2Ei i=1 i=1 This phase space can be generated recursively. 40. pn ). viz. dΦn (P . . pn ) = dΦj (q. (40. then the probability that it lives for a time t0 or greater before decaying is given by P (t0 ) = e−t0 Γ/γ = e−M t0 Γ/E . (40.12) 2 j j where q 2 = ( i=1 Ei )2 − i=1 pi . (40. . .4. Survival probability : If a particle of mass M has mean proper lifetime τ (= 1/Γ) and has momentum (E. . .10) 2M where dΦn is an element of n-body phase space given by n n d3 pi dΦn (P . p1 . .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. . pn ) = δ 4 (P − pi ) .4.9) 40. pi+1 .1. Two-body decays : p1.4. decaying into 2 particles labeled 1 and 2. (40. M 2 − m22 + m21 E1 = . Particle decays The partial decay rate of a particle of mass M into n bodies in its rest frame is given in terms of the Lorentz-invariant matrix element M by (2π)4 |M |2 dΦn (P . . m1 P. pn )(2π)3 dq 2 . .15) 2M = |p1 | = |p2 | . . . . . p1 . . . .14) 40. . M p2. (40.

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16) (40. 2010 12:56 .17) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2M and dΓ = |p | 1 |M |2 12 dΩ . 1/2 M 2 − (m1 + m2 )2 M 2 − (m1 − m2 )2 . 32π 2 M (40.

Kinematics 12:56 289 where dΩ = dφ1 d(cos θ1 ) is the solid angle of particle 1. 2010 40. (40.19) where (|p∗1 |. Three-body decays : p1. β. where E3 is the energy of particle 3 in the rest frame of M .2) with M = Ecm . m2 p3. and Ω3 is the angle of particle 3 in the rest frame of the decaying particle. the momenta of the three decay particles lie in a plane. γ) that specify the orientation of the ﬁnal system relative to the initial particle [1]. Then 1 1 |M |2 dE1 dE2 dα d(cos β) dγ . 40. (2π)5 16M 2 (40. then m212 + m223 + m213 = + m21 + m22 + m23 and m212 = (P − p3 )2 = M 2 + m23 − 2M E3 . Ω∗1 ) is the momentum of particle 1 in the rest frame of 1 and 2.18) dΓ = (2π)5 16M M2 Alternatively dΓ = 1 1 |M |2 |p∗1 | |p3 | dm12 dΩ∗1 dΩ3 . The relative orientation of these three momenta is ﬁxed if their energies are known. The invariant mass M can be determined from the energies and momenta using Eq. |p∗1 | and |p3 | are given by .3. M p2. m3 Figure 40. In that frame. m1 P. (40. Deﬁning pij = pi + pj and m2ij = p2ij .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The momenta can therefore be speciﬁed in space by giving three Euler angles (α.2: Deﬁnitions of variables for three-body decays.4.

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20a) |p∗1 | = 2m12 and . (40. 1/2 2 m12 − (m1 + m2 )2 m212 − (m1 − m2 )2 .

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] If the decaying particle is a scalar or we average over its spin states. (40. 2010 12:56 . then integration over the angles in Eq. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (40.20b) 2M [Compare with Eq.16). (40. (40. 1/2 2 M − (m12 + m3 )2 M 2 − (m12 − m3 )2 |p3 | = .21) (2π)3 32M 3 This is the standard form for the Dalitz plot.18) gives 1 1 dΓ = |M |2 dE1 dE2 (2π)3 8M 1 1 = |M |2 dm212 dm223 .

Kinematic limits : 40.22a) (m223 )min = 2 (E2∗ + E3∗ )2 − E2∗2 − m22 + E3∗2 − m23 . For example. in the case of D → Kππ. 10 (m1+m2) 2 (M−m1) 2 8 2 m23 (GeV 2) (m223)max 6 (M−m3) 2 4 2 ) (m23 min (m2+m3) 2 2 0 0 1 2 3 2 (GeV 2) m12 4 5 Figure 40. reﬂecting the appearance of the decay chain D → K ∗ (892)π → Kππ. m3 > m1 . then |p3 |max > |p1 |max . bands appear when m(Kπ) = mK ∗ (892) . This can be used to constrain the mass diﬀerence of a parent particle and one invisible decay product. |p2 |max .20)].4.4. In this example. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Three-body decays: In a three-body decay (Fig.4. The scatter plot in m212 and m223 is called a Dalitz plot. (E2∗ + E3∗ )2 − (40. in addition. the state is π + K 0 p at 3 GeV. 2010 290 12:56 40. i. the allowed region of the plot will be uniformly populated with events [see Eq. m2 . (40. A nonuniformity in the plot gives immediate information on |M |2 . the range of m223 is determined by its values when p2 is parallel or antiparallel to p3 : (m223 )max = 2 E2∗2 − m22 − E3∗2 − m23 . If |M |2 is constant. 40.21)].4.4. 2010 12:56 . (40. [given by Eq. is achieved when m12 = m1 + m2 . If. Four-momentum conservation restricts events to the shaded region. (40. The distribution of m12 values possesses an end-point or maximum value at m12 = M − m3 .3.1.2) the maximum of |p3 |. Dalitz plot: For a given value of m212 .3: Dalitz plot for a three-body ﬁnal state..22b) Here E2∗ = (m212 − m21 + m22 )/2m12 and E3∗ = (M 2 − m212 − m23 )/2m12 are the energies of particles 2 and 3 in the m12 rest frame.1. Kinematics 40. 40. particles 1 and 2 have the same vector velocity in the rest frame of the decaying particle.e.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

40. = pi + pj + pk + .. and mijk. pn+2 ) . the Lorentz-invariant Mandelstam variables are deﬁned by s = (p1 + p2 )2 = (p3 + p4 )2 = m21 + 2E1 E2 − 2p1 · p2 + m22 . ..5.g... m4 Figure 40. m3 p1... Two particles of momenta p1 and p2 and masses m1 and m2 scatter to particles of momenta p3 and p4 and masses m3 and m4 ..*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11... p2. Thus. 40.5. then (40. m3 p2.29) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.25) mijk.4. .27a) while in the center-of-mass frame √ (p1 · p2 )2 − m21 m22 = p1cm s . Kinematics 12:56 291 40.4.] In the rest frame of m2 (lab). (40.26) [See Eq.4. m2 p4. 2010 40. (p1 · p2 )2 − m21 m22 = m2 p1 lab .5. .28) (40.3 or Sec. (40. if pijk.5: Deﬁnitions of variables for production of an n-body ﬁnal state. 2010 12:56 . p3 . (40. (40.27b) 40. . t = (p1 − p3 )2 = (p2 − p4 )2 = m21 − 2E1 E3 + 2p1 · p3 + m23 . . .6: Deﬁnitions of variables for a two-body ﬁnal state.11). . m12 in the relations in Sec. (40. Cross sections p3. Two-body reactions : p1. m2 pn+2. mn+2 Figure 40. The diﬀerential cross section is given by (2π)4 |M |2 dσ = 4 (p1 · p2 )2 − m21 m22 × dΦn (p1 + p2 . . = p2 ijk. m1 . 40. m1 p3.1. . may be used in place of e.4 above.. Multibody decays : The above results may be generalized to ﬁnal states containing any number of particles by combining some of the particles into “eﬀective particles” and treating the ﬁnal states as 2 or 3 “eﬀective particle” states.

38) = tanh−1 p z E . Kinematics u = (p1 − p4 )2 = (p2 − p3 )2 = m21 − 2E1 E4 + 2p1 · p4 + m24 .] 40. The limiting values t0 (θcm = 0) and t1 (θcm = π) for 2 → 2 scattering are 2 2 m1 − m23 − m22 + m24 √ t0 (t1 ) = − (p1 cm ∓ p3 cm )2 . Inclusive reactions : Choose some direction (usually the beam direction) for the z-axis. pi cm = Ei2cm − m2i and p1cm = 1 lab s (40. px .31) and they satisfy The two-body cross section may be written as dσ 1 1 = |M |2 . then the energy and momentum of a particle can be written as (40.5. pz = mT sinh y . (40.1 below).4). (40. where mT . change m1 to m3 and m2 to m4 . conventionally called the ‘transverse mass’.34) 2 s In the literature the notation tmin (tmax ) for t0 (t1 ) is sometimes used. (40. which should be discouraged since t0 > t1 . Hence the shape of the rapidity distribution dN/dy is invariant.38) diﬀers from that used by experimentalists at hadron colliders (see Sec. 40. Then m p √ 2 .6.30) s + t + u = m21 + m22 + m23 + m24 . (40.35) 2 s 2 s For E3cm and E4cm . (40. E2cm = . (40. is given by m2T = m2 + p2x + p2y .2)–(40. 2010 292 12:56 40. y → y − tanh−1 β.2. dt 64πs |p1cm |2 (40. and the rapidity y is deﬁned by y= = ln 1 ln 2 E + pz mT E + pz E − pz (40.32) In the center-of-mass frame t = (E1cm − E3cm )2 − (p1cm − p3cm )2 − 4p1cm p3cm sin2 (θcm /2) = t0 − 4p1cm p3cm sin2 (θcm /2) . Under a boost in the z-direction to a frame with velocity β. (40. [For other relations see Eqs. The invariant cross section may *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (40.33) where θcm is the angle between particle 1 and 3.39) Note that the deﬁnition of the transverse mass in Eq.36) Here the subscript lab refers to the frame where particle 2 is at rest. 2010 12:56 .37) E = mT cosh y .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The center-of-mass energies and momenta of the incoming particles are s + m21 − m22 s + m22 − m21 √ √ E1cm = . py . as are diﬀerences in rapidity.

Feynman’s x variable is given by E + pz pz ≈ (pT |pz |) .3.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. and the third form represents the average over φ.2 can be written in terms of these variables as (40.44) M 2 = m21 + m22 + 2[ET (1)ET (2) cosh Δy − pT (1) · pT (2)] . (40.40) The second form is obtained using the identity dy/dpz = 1/E. (40.41) x= pz max (E + pz )max In the c. the rapidity [Eq. tanh η = cos θ .45) and pT (i) denotes the transverse momentum vector of particle i. . Kinematics 12:56 293 also be rewritten d3 σ d3 σ d2 σ E 3 = .5. 40. The pseudorapidity η deﬁned by the second line is approximately equal to the rapidity y for p m and θ 1/γ. (40.43) The invariant mass M of the two-particle system described in Sec. From the deﬁnition one can obtain the identities sinh η = cot θ . (40. .47) 40. (40. cosh η = 1/ sin θ .46) where cos θ = pz /p. frame.m. x≈ and 2mT sinh ycm 2pz cm √ √ = s s √ = (ycm )max = ln( s/m) .39)] may be expanded to obtain y= cos2 (θ/2) + m2 /4p2 + . ≈ − ln tan(θ/2) ≡ η (40. 2010 40. . =⇒ d p dφ dy pT dpT π dy d(p2T ) (40. Partial waves : The amplitude in the center of mass for elastic scattering of spinless particles may be expanded in Legendre polynomials 1 (2.42) (40.4. and in any case can be measured when the mass and momentum of the particle are unknown. . For p m. 1 ln 2 sin2 (θ/2) + m2 /4p2 + . where ET (i) = |pT (i)|2 + m2i .

0 ≤ η ≤ 1. + 1)a P (cos θ) . scattering angle. θ) = k where k is the c. momentum. and δ is the phase shift of the . a = (η e2iδ − 1)/2i.m. (40.48) f (k. θ is the c.m.

θ)|2 .th partial wave.50) k and the cross section in the .49) dΩ The optical theorem states that 4π σtot = Im f (k. The diﬀerential cross section is dσ = |f (k. η = 1. For purely elastic scattering. (40. (40. 0) .

th partial wave is therefore bounded: 4π 4π(2.

51) σ = 2 (2. + 1) . (40.

+ 1)|a |2 ≤ k k2 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 .

For the Z this is done by calculating the radiative corrections in the Standard Model.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. momentum. and are replaced by 2 for photons. Resonances: The Breit-Wigner (nonrelativistic) form for an elastic amplitude a with a resonance at c. Consequently if invisible particles are created in the ﬁnal state. E is the c. their net momentum can only be constrained in the plane transverse to the beam direction.56) s − m2 + imΓtot A better√form incorporates the known kinematic dependences. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. The relativistic Breit-Wigner form corresponding to Eq. and correspondingly mΓel by s Γ√el (s) where Γel (s) is the partial width in the incident channel for a mass s: √ − s Γel (s) √ . If the width is not small. all of which are equivalent to the one given here in the narrow-width case. (40. energy ER . Kinematics 40. a signiﬁcant and unknown proportion of the energy of the incoming hadrons in each event escapes down the beam-pipe.m. so on dimensional grounds Γtot (s) = s Γ0 /mZ .54) a = ER − E − iΓtot /2 where E is the c.55) σBW (E) = (2S1 + 1)(2S2 + 1) k 2 (E − ER )2 + Γ2tot /4 where k is the c. and B in and B out are the branching fractions of the resonance into the entrance and exit channels.3.1.m.6. Deﬁning the z-axis as the beam direction. replacing Γtot (s) is the width the resonance√particle mΓtot by s Γtot (s). This expression is valid only for an isolated state. There are many other forms for σBW . (40. (40. this net momentum is equal to the missing transverse energy vector pT (i) .54) is: −mΓel a = . Γtot cannot be treated as a constant independent of E. (40. energy.m. where Γ0 deﬁnes the width of the Z. The spin-averaged Breit-Wigner cross section for a spin-J resonance produced in the collision of particles of spin S1 and S2 is (2J + 1) Bin Bout Γ2tot π . and Γel (s)/Γtot (s) is constant. Transverse variables At hadron colliders.5. and total width Γtot is Γel /2 .58) ETmiss = − i where the sum runs over the transverse momenta of all visible ﬁnal state particles. A full treatment of the line shape requires consideration of dynamics. all the decays are to particles whose masses √ are small enough to be ignored. Some of these forms may be more appropriate if the resonance is broad. 2010 12:56 . The 2S + 1 factors are the multiplicities of the incident spin states. not just kinematics.m. elastic width Γel . 40. 2010 294 12:56 40. (40. energy. (40. where √ would have if its mass were s.57) a = s − m2 + i s Γtot (s) For the Z boson.

38)]. Pair production with semi-invisible final states : p1 .9: Deﬁnitions of variables for pair production of semiinvisible ﬁnal states. Kinematics 12:56 295 40. of which one (labeled particle 1) is invisible. 2010 40.1 to two particles.59) pT (1) = ETmiss . [4] and [5]. Each particle decays to a ﬁnal state consisting of an invisible particle of ﬁxed mass m1 together with an additional visible particle. m1 M p2 .2. m4 Figure 40. The mass of the parent particle can be constrained with the quantity MT deﬁned by MT2 ≡ [ET (1) + ET (2)]2 − [pT (1) + pT (2)]2 = m21 + m22 + 2[ET (1)ET (2) − pT (1) · pT (2)] .61) where φij is deﬁned as the angle between particles i and j in the transverse plane.9). 40. m1 p3 . *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (40. 40. The numbering of references and equations used here corresponds to that version.1. (40. Particles 1 and 3 are invisible while particles 2 and 4 are visible. 2010 12:56 . where (40. M and m1 can be constrained with the variables MT 2 and MCT which are deﬁned in Refs. Consider two identical heavy particles of mass M produced such that their combined center-of-mass is at rest in the transverse plane (Fig. Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review of Particle Physics.60) This quantity is called the ‘transverse mass’ by hadron collider experimentalists but it should be noted that it is quite diﬀerent from that used in the description of inclusive reactions [Eq. 40. If m1 = m2 = 0 then MT2 = 2|pT (1)||pT (2)|(1 − cos φ12 ) . Single production with semi-invisible final state : Consider a single heavy particle of mass M produced in association with visible particles which decays as in Fig. The distribution of event MT values possesses an end-point at MTmax = M . m2 M p4 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.6. (40.6.

and the number of polarization states of the two incident particles are 2S1 + 1 and 2S2 + 1. (41. θ is the c. PART I: STANDARD MODEL PROCESSES Setting aside leptoproduction (for which. qq. energy squared s is dσ α2 = Nc β[1 + cos2 θ + (1 − β 2 ) sin2 θ]Q2f . (41.. The branching fraction for the resonance into the initial-state channel is Bin and into the ﬁnal-state channel is Bout . Resonance Formation Resonant cross sections are generally described by the Breit-Wigner formula (Sec.3) 3s s (GeV2 ) The cross section for the annihilation of a qq pair into a distinct pair q q through a gluon is completely analogous up to color factors. J is the spin of the resonance.m. e+ e− → γ ∗ → f f . γγ.m. the cross sections of primary interest are those with light incident particles. 16 of this Review). The produced particles include both light particles and heavy ones .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 296 12:56 41. energy at the resonance. dΩ 9s s2 Crossing symmetry gives α2 s2 + u2 dσ (qq → qq ) = s . 2J + 1 Γ2 /4 4π σ(E) = (41. e+ e− . etc. and the Higgs boson H.m. dΩ 9s t2 If the quarks q and q are identical.N. averaging over the colors of the initial quarks and deﬁning t = −s sin2 (θ/2). 41. with the replacement α → αs .8 nb σ = Nc Q2f = Nc Q2f .5) (41. see Sec.t.6) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. β → 1. scattering angle. For a narrow resonance. where g and q represent gluons and light quarks. The c. at c. and Qf is the charge of the fermion. Baer (Florida State University) and R..2) dΩ 4s where β is v/c for the produced fermions in the c. W . We provide the production cross sections calculated within the Standard Model for several such processes. In the ultrarelativistic limit.1) Bin Bout . 16 of this Review). dΩ 9s s2 t2 3st (41. 41. 4πα2 86. spin-1/2 fermions in e+ e− annihilation through a virtual photon. Cahn (LBNL). momentum in the initial state is k. one ﬁnds dσ α2 t2 + u2 (qq → q q ) = s . the factor in square brackets may be replaced by πΓδ(E − E0 )/2. energy. Treating all quarks as massless. 2010 12:56 .m. u = −s cos2 (θ/2). Cross-section formulae for specific processes 41. gq . Z. and Γ is the full width at half maximum height of the resonance.m.2.m. (2S1 + 1)(2S2 + 1) k 2 (E − E0 )2 + Γ2 /4 where E is the c. E0 is the c.1. CROSS-SECTION FORMULAE FOR SPECIFIC PROCESSES Revised October 2009 by H. Production of light particles The production of point-like.4) (41. gg. The factor Nc is 1 for charged leptons and 3 for quarks. we have dσ α2 t2 + u2 s2 + u 2 2u2 (qq → qq) = s + − .

. . (41. dΩcm → 4πfi (x)dx dy .18) dx dy π G2F xs dσ + (νN → X) = [(d(x) + . dΩ 9s su 4t2 (41. .9) The crossed reactions are dσ α2 9 1 (qg → qg) = s (s2 + u2 )(− + ).13) dΩ 2s q t2 eq is the quark charge.) (41. dΩ 9s 3ut u2 t2 (41.)] . ν µ p → μ+ n) is directly related to the crossed reaction. dΩ 24s tu 4s (41. 2010 12:56 . . . fi (x). *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.8) dΩ 2s tu The related QCD process also has a triple-gluon coupling. .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. (41. . . .7) Annihilation of e+ e− into γγ has the cross section dσ + − α2 u2 + t2 (e e → γγ) = .14) dΩ 4π where the Cabibbo angle suppression is ignored. The cross section is dσ 9 8α2s 2 1 (qq → gg) = (t + u2 )( − 2 ) .11) dσ 9α2s ut su st (gg → gg) = (3 − 2 − 2 − 2 ) .15) dΩ 4π 4 For deep inelastic scattering (presented in more detail in Section 16) we consider quarks of type i carrying a fraction x = Q2 /(2M ν) of the nucleon’s energy.12) Lepton-quark scattering is analogous (neglecting Z exchange) α2 2 s2 + u2 dσ (eq → eq) = e . .16) where the latter incorporates the quark distribution. (41. Similarly G2 s (1 + cos θ)2 dσ (νu → + d) = F2 . Cross-section formulae for specific processes and by crossing α2 t2 + s2 dσ s2 + u 2 2s2 (qq → qq) = s + − . dΩ 8s s t u (41. With y = ν/E we have the correspondences 1 + cos θ → 2(1 − y) . 2010 12:56 297 41. (41. (41. dΩ 27s tu 4s (41. (41. (41. . . G2 xs dσ (νN → − X) = F [(d(x) + . Similarly.19) dx dy π Quasi-elastic neutrino scattering (νµ n → μ− p. where ν = E − E is the energy lost by the lepton in the nucleon rest frame. For ν-scattering with the four-Fermi interaction G2 s dσ (νd → − u) = F2 .17) × 9 9 where now s = 2M E is the cm energy squared for the electron-nucleon collision and we have suppressed contributions from higher mass quarks. We ﬁnd dσ 4πα2 xs 1 (eN → eX) = 1 + (1 − y)2 4 dx dy Q 2 4 1 (u(x) + u(x) + .10) dσ 9 α2 1 (gg → qq) = s (t2 + u2 )( − 2 ) .) + (1 − y)2 (u(x) + . neutron decay.) + (1 − y)2 (u(x) + .)] .)+ (d(x) + d(x) + .

W and Z resonant production : Resonant production of a single W or Z is governed by the partial widths √ 2GF m3W Γ(W → i ν i ) = (41.1 to gain the total W or Z production cross section.1. t. where T3 is the third component of weak isospin for the left-handed f . Q is its electric charge (in units of the proton charge).4. These widths along with associated branching fractions may be applied to the resonance production formula of Sec.4. For q q¯ → QQ. 2010 298 12:56 41. = 2(T3 − QxW ). 2 α dσ ¯ = s (m2 − t)2 + (m2 − u)2 + 2m2 s .23) √ 12π 3 2GF mZ Γ(Z → f f ) = Nc 6π × (T3 − Qf sin2 θW )2 + (Qf sin θW )2 . Production of Weak Gauge Bosons 41. 41. (q q¯ → QQ) (41.24) The weak mixing angle is θW .3. Production of pairs of weak gauge bosons : The cross section for f f → W + W − is given in term of the couplings of the left-handed and right-handed fermion f . Cross-section formulae for specific processes 41. and xW = sin2 θW : ⎡ . The CKM matrix elements are Vij . 41.4.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.21) 41. (41. (41. Hadroproduction of heavy quarks For hadroproduction of heavy quarks Q = c.22) √ 12π 2 3 2GF |Vij | mW Γ(W → qi q j ) = 3 (41. Nc is 3 for qq and 1 for leptonic ﬁnal states. b. r = −2QxW .2.20) Q Q Q 3 dΩ 9s ¯ one has while for gg → QQ 2 dσ ¯ = αs 6 (m2 − t)(m2 − u) (gg → QQ) Q dΩ 32s s2 Q 2 2 2 2 2 2 mQ (s − 4mQ ) 4 (mQ − t)(mQ − u) − 2mQ (mQ + t) − + 3(m2Q − t)(m2Q − u) 3 (m2Q − t)2 + − 3 2 2 2 2 4 (mQ − t)(mQ − u) − 2mQ (mQ + u) 3 (m2Q − u)2 (m2Q − t)(m2Q − u) + m2Q (u − t) s(m2Q − t) −3 (m2Q − t)(m2Q − u) + m2Q (t − u) s(m2Q − u) . it is important to ¯ one has include mass eﬀects in the formulae.

2 .

2 ⎤ 2 2πα ⎣ s s −r dσ +r ⎦ A(s. t. u) = + Q+ dt 4xW s − m2Z 4xW s − m2Z N c s2 .

and where *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. u. (41. 2010 12:56 .26) 8xW where Θ(x) is 1 for x > 0 and 0 for x < 0. u. t)) 2xW 2xW s − m2Z 1 + 2 (Θ(−Q)E(s. u) − Θ(Q)I(s. t)) . t. 1 s + Q+ (Θ(−Q)I(s. u) + Θ(Q)E(s. t.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. t. u) = I(s. 2010 41. t. u) = E(s. u) = tu m4W 299 . Cross-section formulae for specific processes A(s. t.

.

m4 1 m2W s − +3 W + 2 − 4. 4 s s2 mW .

.

m4 m2 1 m2W s − − W + 2 −2+2 W. −1 4 2s st t mW .

.

t = (pf − pW − )2 .27) 4 t mW tu −1 m4W tu m4W 12:56 and s. t. −1 (41. s 1 m4W + 2 + 2 . u are the usual Mandelstam variables with s = (pf + pf )2 . The factor Nc is 3 for quarks and 1 for leptons. u = (pf − pW + )2 . The analogous cross-section for qi q j → W ± Z 0 is .

(41. or photons. 2010 12:56 . Production of Higgs Bosons 41. The production cross section is thus controlled by the partial width of the Higgs boson into the entrance channel and its total width. with the t quark dominating. leptons.5. dt 96 x2W (1 − x2W )2 s2 u t tu t u (41. The CKM matrix element between qi and qj is Vij . W or Z bosons. 32π 2 GF m3H βZ √ Γ(H → ZZ) = (41.31) Γ(H → W + W − ) = 4 − 4aW + 3a2W . Explicitly. Γ(H → f f ) = *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.2 πα2 |Vij |2 9 − 8xW dσ 1 = ut − m2W m2Z 2 2 2 dt 4 6s xW s − mW 2 2 + (8xW − 6) s mW + mZ ut − m2W m2Z − s(m2W + m2Z ) j i − + t u s − m2W 2 s(m2W + m2Z ) i j ut − m2W m2Z j 2i . The cross section for qi q i → Z 0 Z 0 is 4i + ri4 1 πα2 u 4m2Z s dσ t 1 4 = + + − mZ 2 + 2 .28) + 2 + + 4(1 − xW ) 2(1 − xW ) tu t2 u where i and j are the couplings of the left-handed qi and qj as deﬁned above. (41.30) 4π 2 GF m3H βW √ (41.29) 41. The decay to two gluons 4m2W /m2H and aZ = 1 − βZ Z H proceeds through quark loops.1.5. Resonant Production : The Higgs boson of the Standard Model can be produced resonantly in the collisions of quarks. gluons. The partial widths are given by the relations 3/2 GF m2f mH Nc √ 1 − 4m2f /m2H . 64π 2 2 = where Nc is 3 for quarks and 1 for leptons and where aW = 1 − βW 2 = 4m2 /m2 .32) 4 − 4aZ + 3a2Z .

41. σ(qi q j → W H) = πα2 |Vij |2 2k k 2 + 3m2W √ 36 sin4 θW s (s − m2W )2 2πα2 ( 2f + rf2 ) 2k k 2 + 3m2Z √ . if k is the c. at very high energies they are sources of virtual W and Z beams. σ(f f → ZH) = (41. (41.36) 41. the rate Γ(H → WL WL ) = (g 2 /64π)(m3H /m2W ) and in the equivalent W approximation f (y) = 3 α 1 σ(e+ e− → ν e νe H) = 16m2 sin2 θW W . z > 1/4 and 2 1 −1 √ . For Higgs boson production.m. Higgs Boson Production in W ∗ and Z ∗ decay : The Standard Model Higgs boson can be produced in the decay of a virtual W or Z (“Higgstrahlung”): In particular.33) q where I(z) is complex for z < 1/4. In the limit s mH mW .34) I(z) = 3 2z + 2z(1 − 4z) sin 2 z which has the limit I(z) → 1 as z → ∞. W and Z Fusion : Just as high-energy electrons can be regarded as sources of virtual photon beams. For mH < 2mt .35) (41. (41. momentum of the Higgs boson. |I(z)| is small so the light quarks contribute negligibly. it is the longitudinal components of the W s and Zs that are important. The distribution of longitudinal W s carrying a fraction y of the electron’s energy is g2 1 − y .3.5. 2010 300 12:56 41. (41.37) 16π 2 y where g = e/ sin θW . For z < 2 × 10−3 . 4 4 48Nc sin θW cos θW s (s − m2Z )2 where and r are deﬁned as above. Cross-section formulae for specific processes Γ(H → gg) = α2s GF m3H √ 36π 3 2 2 I(m2q /m2H ) .5.2.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

(41. 2010 12:56 . 32% too high at s = 2000 GeV.38) s s mH There are signiﬁcant corrections to this relation when mH is not large compared to mW . and 22% too high at s = 4000 GeV. say mW . Identical formulae apply for Higgs production in the collisions of quarks whose charges permit the emission of a W + and a W − . All quarks contribute to the ZZ fusion process. m2 m2 s × 1 + H log 2 − 2 + 2 H . Further discussion and all references may be found in the full Review. the equation and reference numbering corresponds to that version. Even in the absence of QCD corrections. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Fusion of ZZ to make a Higgs boson can be treated similarly. the ﬁne-structure constant ought to be evaluated at the scale of the collision. For mH = 150 GeV. √ √ the estimate is too high by 51% for √ s = 1000 GeV. except that QCD corrections and CKM matrix elements are required.

and ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the forward hadronic amplitudes.6 10 2 10 3 10 √ s GeV s GeV 10 4 1. and γγ total cross sections.2 1. August 2005) *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.6 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 √ 1. γp.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.0 ⇓ pp -0. 2010 12:56 42. Protvino.6 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 Figure 40. Plots of cross sections and related quantities 301 2 10 − p (p) p ⇓ Σ− p ➘ ➚ π∓p ∓ K p 10 Total cross section (mb) 1 γp ⇓ -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 γγ ⇓ √ s GeV -4 10 1 10 10 2 10 3 ⇓ ⇓ − pp 0. IHEP. Corresponding computer-readable data files may be found at http://pdg.lbl. (Courtesy of the COMPAS group. 2010 12:56 .gov/current/xsect/.1 π+p K+p √ s GeV -0.2 10 π−p 0.10: Summary of hadronic.1 4 K−p Re (T ) Im (T ) 0.

4098.28 23.42 1.6.84 12. 600.450 19. values 1 in brackets are for (n − 1) × 106 (gases). 3538.97 94.00794(7) 2.0 65.7 78.40108 0.8 85.64(1) 118.0067(2) 15.948(1) 47.99212 0.01410177803(8) 4.1 191.4 3695.2 108.2 97.7 70.0107(8) 14.09[67.3 59.39[701.53 24.00 (4.22[271.546(3) 72. E.002602(2) 6.03 27.81 1941.6 52.55 16. 165.451 1.3 51.0 71.48181 0.742 (1.4 112.49967 0.204(0.574(2.] 1.8 51.49955 0.9 98.2 112.103) (2.8 85. Nucl.845(2) 63.41129 0.1 137.2(1) [238.86 12.825) (1.477 1.1 61.012182(3) 12.937) 1.125(0.37 6.8 81.081 0.9815386(8) 28.8 89.4 99.24 32. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.] [195.2 86.519) 1.1 5828.874 8.39575 0.3 199.724) 1.520 2. 2042.1 87.630) (1. Boiling point (K) 20.255) 1.848 3.7 196. 2875.49848 0.220 1615.15 54.6 83. 2744.534 1.7 69. 3134.6 1560.] 1.32 82. Quantities in parentheses are for NTP (20◦ C and 1 atm). 1358.396(1.8 52. 171. 453.662) 4.403 1.320 11.49650 0.370 1.49555 0.70 37.0 71.2 nm).2 100. 1337.81 18.953(5.867(1) 55.43221 0.950 Nucl.210 0.3 143.7 84.960 5.8 110.2 61.07 2792. Abridged from pdg.36 53. 239.699 2. 1811.350 18. 2022.49955 0.300 21.20[298.50002 0.29 90.293(6) 183.9 195.coll. 505.145 1.0107(8) 12. 2010 12:56 6.166) 0.053) (1.839) 2.664 (1.7 Melting point (K) 1.1 118.len.801) (1.49976 0.540 7.725 1.38651 Z/A 42.70 42.168) 0.16 13.7 172.2 132.25 8.6 1408.84(1) 195. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS H2 D2 He Li Be C diamond C graphite N2 O2 F2 Ne Al Si Cl2 Ar Ti Fe Cu Ge Sn Xe W Pt Au Pb U 1 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 17 18 22 26 29 32 50 54 74 78 79 82 92 Z 1.9994(3) 18.45059 0.639 1.39983 0.02[35.26 3560.084(9) 196.inter.28 19.99 34.78 65.169(0. 2010 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.1 161. 3106.0 107.941(2) 9.45636 0.40252 0.263 (1. Refractive indices n are evaluated at the sodium D line blend (589.128 1.44053 0.20 85.7 90.93 28.2 59.48 6.453(2) 39. Groom (2007). 63.95 [773.6 209.071(0.1] 2.615 1.329 1.11[132. and square brackets indicate quantities evaluated at STP.46557 0.] 1.8 71.1.483) 19.76 6. 1211.507(1. 4404. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials 12:56 .47951 0.1797(6) 26.141(1.42119 0.11[138.580) 1.310 2.65 4.676) (1.02891(3)] A 0.82 8.332) 1.0] Refract.0 166.9984032(5) 20. 2835.lbl. Rad.5 114.gov/AtomicNuclearProperties by D.04 125.] 1.46 6.595 1.] 3.980) 1.01 21. 3129. dE/dx|min Density { MeV {g cm−3 } X0 length λT length λI {g cm−2 } {g cm−2 } {g cm−2 } g−1 cm2 } ({g−1 }) 77.134 1.44384 0.710(7) 131.2 55.165) 1.82 19.3 65.23[281.966569(4) 207. 13.807(1.4 115.93 24.7 119.0855(3) 35.19 42.] 1.084) 0.54 6. Boiling points are at 1 atm.2 73.45961 0.0 63. index (@ Na D) 302 Material Table 6.] 1.5 1687.47372 0.8 75.56 933.323 7.7 126.3 77.122 1.

1 58.49 36.47 45.59861 0.20 0.8 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages 12:56 303 12:56 .956 (1.305 1.18 1.20 1.635 0.55509 0.0 55.170 3.91 9.6 65.230 6. 965.03 (1.123 2.50274 0.088 1.7 60. 111.] 1.5 58.20 8.0. 1946.6 83.26 79. 1986.90 1.000(0.5 54.62334 0.49038 0.696 1.53768 0.90 36. Sublimes 894.84 43.740 1.9 88.42207 0.89 1.47 [449.41315 0.0 101.1 56.255 1. 1577.703 0.68 90.897 1.20 36.95 40.5 158.5 96.688 0.62 26.1 57.756) (0. 90.39 27.820 8.848 1.54 1.59497 0. 0.4 78. 2010 65.91 36.05 21.5 90.300 2.3 90.3 81.59 1.929 2. 373.1 77.] 3273.0 88.8 78.614 1.49707 0. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials 97.303 1.7 68. 1403.8 75. 1738.50 44.2 93.787 1.57034 0.847 1.9 171.52697 0.205) 2.77 1.8 60.36 134.97 SiO2 ) 1.3 73.2 71.819 1.1 168.699 1.06 2. 1075.7 K 1553.563 4.49919 0.667) (1.3 98.49989 0.55 44.1 58.41569 0.20 1.39 at 194.7 100. 1 atm) Shielding concrete Borosilicate glass (Pyrex) Lead glass Standard rock Methane (CH4 ) Ethane (C2 H6 ) Butane (C4 H10 ) Octane (C8 H18 ) Paraﬃn (CH3 (CH2 )n≈23 CH3 ) Nylon (type 6.9 214.57778 0.243 1.79 34.46262 0.200 2.03 H2 O.77 39.77 1.6 78.992 (2.77 43.936 1.3 56.3 97.40 1.5 84.54790 0.42697 0.49930 0. 2533.79 1.8 56.57 28.08 46.5 63.50093 Air (dry.278) 2.52037 0.300 2.2 273.6 83.53937 0.671 1.263) (2.1 64.49989 0.5 88.54141 0.25 27.00 44.973 1.3 61.85 41.7 94.55509 0.9 66.893 (1.220 2.417) (2.1 (0.1 1.57275 0.58 1.1 154.930 1.9 58.0 65. 933.647 1.6 95. 1641.667 1.304) (2.66 45. 2010 27.9 77.46 1.041 1.3 65. 6/6) Polycarbonate (Lexan) Polyethylene ([CH2 CH2 ]n ) Polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) Polymethylmethacrylate (acrylic) Polypropylene Polystyrene ([C6 H5 CHCH2 ]n ) Polytetraﬂuoroethylene (Teﬂon) Polyvinyltoluene Aluminum oxide (sapphire) Barium ﬂouride (BaF2 ) Carbon dioxide gas (CO2 ) Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) Cesium iodide (CsI) Lithium ﬂuoride (LiF) Lithium hydride (LiH) Lead tungstate (PbWO4 ) Silicon dioxide (SiO2 .9 82.92 41.50000 0.6 398.6 61.7 184.19 0.489) 0. fused quartz) Sodium chloride (NaCl) Sodium iodide (NaI) Water (H2 O) Silica aerogel *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.42101 0.17 7.23 45.5 81.4 149.4 81.8 2327.1 97.50321 0.5 57.0 57.229 1.3 August 11.5 55.711 1.94 9.47992 0.55998 0.842) 1.815) 1.0 50.886 2.970 4.8 100.5 272.200 3.8 110.0 55.80 6.49 [444.62 7.8 78.079 1.87 26.2 1121.650 2.33 3223.510 2.54 1.39 39.

*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 . 2010 304 12:56 NOTES *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

2010 12:56 .*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2010 12:56 305 NOTES *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

2010 12:56 . 2010 306 12:56 NOTES *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.*** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.

jsp.96 (97.973762 32.327 Fr 88 Ra Cesium 85. Eu 64 Samarium Europium Np 94 144.49 180.01758) Actinium Thorium Protactin. Ruthen.91275) Pa 92 140.64 74.03588 238.012182 11 Na 12 Mg Lithium Hydrogen 2 IIA 1.09510) (258.02541) (267.uk/iupac/AtWt/. “Atomic Weights of the Elements 2007.59 204.38 69.9054519 137. the atomic mass (in parentheses) of the most stable isotope currently known is given.chem.” http://www.92160 78. La 58 138.133) (270.02891 (237.94788 183. Tb 66 158. Atomic weights of stable elements are adapted from the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.25 Am 96 151.1797 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar Boron 13 IIIA 18 VIIIA He Calcium Magnesium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium German.1010) 89 Cerium 140.0830) (257.002602 F 10 Ne Fluorine O 9 Oxygen N 8 Nitrogen C 7 Carbon 14 IVA 10.904 83. Darmstadt. this is reflected in the number of significant figures given.122) (268. Dubnium Seaborg.4678 87. There are no other confirmed elements with Z > 112.546 65.1 IA H Beryllium Sodium 22. In this case the mass is from http://www.02775) 232.9668 No 103 173. which do have characteristic terrestrial compositions.98976928 B 6 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA Helium Neon 4.0855 30. and E.00794 3 Li 4 Be 1 Table 1. Sulfur Chlorine Argon VIII 24.723 72.gov/ensdf/za form.710 121. Groom (LBNL).92535 Cm 97 157. Previously confirmed element 112 was named Copernicium (Cp). Nobelium (227.90550 106. Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybd.9994 18.224 92.3050 26. The atomic mass (bottom) of a stable elements is weighted by isotopic abundances in the Earth’s surface. Fermium Mendelev.04817) (244.62 88.06420) (243. both in natural and commercial samples.90638 95. Atomic masses are relative to the mass of 12 C.811 12.955912 47.60 126. Technet.411 114. Relative isotopic abundances often vary considerably.084 196.242 (144.01974) (226.110) Lr 174. 2010 Actinide series Lanthanide series Thallium 178.798 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 Y 40 Zr 41 Nb 42 Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh 46 Pd 47 Ag 48 Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe Potassium 19 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 5 2 9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 Aluminum Silicon Phosph.065 35.134) (276.E.07959) (252.0107 14.933195 58.bnl.90722) 101.134) (269.qmul.1.259 Es 100 164.6934 63. Revised 2010 by D.07 102. Curium Berkelium Californ.98243) (209.217 195.162) (280.9984032 20.gov/amdc/masstables/Ame2003/mass. The discovery of element 114 was confirmed in 2009. Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Barium 89–103 Lanthanides Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. Roentgen.ac.116 Ce 59 Lanthan.500 (288) Ho 68 Holmium Dy 67 Dyspros.nndc.760 127. The exceptions are Th. 2010 Ac 90 Th 91 U 93 Sm 63 Terbium Bk 98 Fm 101 Yb 71 Md 102 Lu Lawrenc. If the element has no stable isotope.938045 55. Bergren.84 186.07035) (247.nndc. and U.207 190.9815386 28.9415 51.03806 231. Pr 60 Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon 208.90547 57 Lead August 11. defined to be exactly 12 unified atomic mass units (u) (approx. Bohrium Hassium Meitner.90447 131. g/mole).09843) (259.07031) (251. *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages 12:56 ****** INSIDE BACK COVER ****** 12:56 .966569 200.23 192. Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americ.818 118. Nd 61 Praseodym.bnl.98040 (208. (262.0983 40.3833 207.90765 Pm 62 Prometh.078 44.941 9.93032 Cf 99 162.964 Pu 95 150.0067 15.96 79.9961 54.90585 91. Einstein.06138) (247.98715) (222.867 50. Pa.948 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB IB IIB K 20 Ca 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 Cr 25 Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 30 Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 6.mas03 and the longest-lived isotope is from www.125) (271. Neodym.93421 Thulium Er 69 Erbium 167. Copernicium (223.2 104 Rf 105 Db 106 Sg 107 Bh 108 Hs 109 Mt 110 Ds 111 Rg 112 Cp 114 Francium Radium Actinides Rutherford.151) (281.054 Ytterbium Lutetium Tm 70 168.164) (277) 87 132. The atomic number (top left) is the number of protons in the nucleus.36 Gd 65 Gadolin.293 55 Cs 56 Ba 57–71 72 Hf 73 Ta 74 W 75 Re 76 Os 77 Ir 78 Pt 79 Au 80 Hg 81 Tl 82 Pb 83 Bi 84 Po 85 At 86 Rn Rubidium Strontium 39.8682 112.453 39.42 107.845 58.

S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 ****** OUTSIDE BACK COVER ****** 12:56 . 2012 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11.3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 31 APRIL S M T W T 2 9 16 23 30 S 1 8 15 22 29 7 14 21 28 F S 1 2 8 9 15 16 22 23 29 30 S 7 14 21 28 S S 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27 S 2 9 16 23 30 S 3 10 17 24 31 S 1 8 15 22 29 JANUARY S M T W T F 3 10 17 24 31 S 4 11 18 25 S JULY M T W T F 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER M T W T F 1 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 25 26 27 28 29 2010 S 6 13 20 27 S 7 14 21 28 M 2 9 16 23 30 MAY T W T 3 4 5 10 11 12 17 18 19 24 25 26 31 F S 6 7 13 14 20 21 27 28 FEBRUARY M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 2011 AUGUST M T W T F 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 30 31 NOVEMBER M T W T F 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 17 18 19 22 23 24 25 26 29 30 MARCH T W T 1 2 3 8 9 10 15 16 17 22 23 24 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 6 7 13 14 20 21 27 28 S M 5 12 19 26 S 5 12 19 26 S S 4 11 18 25 S 4 11 18 25 F S 3 4 10 11 17 18 24 25 F S 4 5 11 12 18 19 25 26 SEPTEMBER M T W T F 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER M T W T F 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 29 30 31 S 1 8 15 22 29 S 1 8 15 22 29 2 9 16 23 30 JANUARY M T W T F 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 30 31 APRIL M T W T F 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 30 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 31 OCTOBER S M T W T F 3 10 17 24 31 S S 7 14 21 28 S 7 14 21 28 S 1 8 15 22 29 JULY M T W T F S 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 6 13 20 27 S 5 12 19 26 S FEBRUARY M T W T F 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 23 24 27 28 29 MAY M T W T F 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 28 29 30 31 2012 S 5 12 19 26 S 4 11 18 25 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 S M 1 7 8 14 15 21 22 28 29 2011 AUGUST T W T F S 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 30 31 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T 1 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 20 21 22 25 26 27 28 29 JUNE S M T W T S 3 10 17 24 31 S 3 10 17 24 31 F S 1 2 8 9 15 16 22 23 29 30 F 2 9 16 23 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 *** NOTE TO PUBLISHER OF Particle Physics Booklet *** Please use crop marks to align pages August 11. 2012 12:56 Prepared for the U.

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