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© Robert Leggat, 1995 Visits since 1st December '95

A History of Photography
from its beginnings till the 1920s

Dr. Robert Leggat MA M.Ed Ph.D. FRPS FRSA

Awards/recommendations E-mails to the author

A History of Photography From its beginnings till the 1920s Introductory remarks
This is not designed to be a course on the history of photography such as a resource to dip into. In addition to pen-portraits of many of the most important photographers of the period, it contains information on some of the most significant processes used during the early days of photography. The project was confined to the first eighty years or so, as this is often a convenient cutoff point in books and when dividing courses into a syllabus. To some extent this has been a frustration, in that there have been many important developments and many interesting photographers who practised during and subsequent to that date. It is hoped that a sequel will be forthcoming in due course. This work is intended to be of general interest, but it may also be a useful starting-off point for students preparing for courses which include brief study of the history of photography. The site will be revised regularly in the light of feedback and further study.

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Many people have freely given of their advice in the making of this resource. In particular I would wish to thank the following: * Kenneth Warr, Hon.FRPS, former Secretary of the Royal Photographic Society. No single person within the Society has ever provided me with the same measure of support and encouragement as he has, over very many years. It was he who first gave me the opportunity to come on to the Society's Council and ultimately become its Education Officer, and I owe him a deep debt of gratitude for his help in so many areas. * Professor Margaret Harker, Hon.FRPS, and the late Arthur Gill Hon.FRPS, both experts in this area, whose enthusiasm and expertise made the history of photography come alive to the author. Other people to whom I am indebted include Pam Roberts, Curator of the Royal Photographic Society, Tirath Bhavra, Colin Harding, Michael Harvey, Richard Morris FRPS, Dr. Amanda Nevill, FRPS, Colin Osman, Hon.FRPS, Valerie Lloyd, FRPS, Michael Langford, Hon. FRPS, Frank Hawkins, HMI, FRPS, Michael Pritchard, FRPS and Dr. Larry Schaaf. Matt Skipp also deserves a mention; I used to work in his photographic shop in the holidays, learned a great deal, and developed a fascination for the art. Much of the detail about the early history of the Society comes from the painstaking work of the late J. Dudley Johnston Hon. FRPS. All inaccuracies and omissions, of course, are solely mine! Readers are invited to write to me in relation to any amendments and/or additions to be taken into consideration in future revisions. Robert Leggat can be contacted at photohistory@rleggat.com Back to the top page

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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b. 1868; d. 1955 Dudley Johnston was a man of many parts. A student of music, at one point he became director of the Liverpool Philharmonic Society. He became a member of the Linked Ring in 1907. Twice President of the Royal Photographic Society, he was instrumental in creating the Permanent Collection of photographs and equipment, and he later became Curator of the Royal Photographic Society's print collection. He was later awarded the OBE for his services to photography. He was a pictorialist, specialising in landscapes, and originally worked on gum-bichromate, and platinum prints.

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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Emails to the author
Since I placed this work on the Internet back in December 1995 I responded to all requests for additional help. However, earlier this year I began to realise that I was receiving, at times, as many as thirty emails a day, and the pressure has begun to take its toll! There are several reasons why I reluctantly came to the conclusion that I would be unable to continue. First, though I had made it clear that I was not qualified to value or comment upon collections others may have, these queries kept on coming relentlessly. Secondly, it was becoming all too easy for school students to expect me to do their research for them, or to complete sometimes quite meaningless questionnaires, and when a particularly abusive e-mail was received from a pupil in California I decided that this was enough! Finally, it seems to make sense for me to spend what time I have revising and adding to the work. Most questions, for what it is worth, are already answered in the body of the work, and of the remainder, most answers are readily obtainable from standard books or from libraries. I say this because I have received several emails saying something like this: "I'm 14 years old and am very interested in photography. I have not yet read anything about it, and would be very grateful for any info. anyone may have that will help me." This work can most certainly be used as a reference, but not as a substitute for work! The guestbook remains open for general comments but for the time being I regret that I am unable to attend to any requests for additional information. I do hope that readers will understand! info@rleggat.com
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1. Gay. Beaumont. Jean-Luc. 1856. Cecil. Brian. Newhall. Secker and Warburg. Helmut. From Delacroix to Warhol. BATH. Brian. its history. A concise and interestingly written book. Further advice could be sought from The Royal Photographic Society. The Painter and the Photographer. 1989 Gernsheim. Van Deren. Crown Publishers 1978 Coe. London: Ash and Grant Coke. The Concise History of Photography: Thames & Hudson. The Birth of Photography. New York Graphic Society Coe. A select Bibliographies can often be daunting! This is a very brief selection of books which may be useful for those studying the history of photography. England. Gail. This Society also has a thriving Historical Group to which most of the leading photographic historians belong. facsimile published by Morgan and Morgan Buckland. New York: Rizzoli International Publications Eder. one does not need to be an expert to belong to this group. Dover Publications. 1986 2. Josf Maria. Michael. Avon. Long out of print. To get one started: For those studying photography for GCSE. 1980. the following are particularly recommended: Beaton. University of New Mexico Press Daval. The Magic Image: The genius of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day. and will find that there are many who are only too willing to share their knowledge and expertise. theory and construction: John Murray. The Story of Photography. Reality Recorded: Early Documentary Photography. London: Pavilion Books.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Cameras: From Daguerreotypes to Instant Pictures. The Octagon. this is a fascinating and comprehensive account of the technical . and Buckland. For more detailed study: Brewster. The Stereoscope. History of Photography. Focal Press. GCE "A" levels or the City & Guilds 9231 examination. 1945. Photography: History of an Art. David. 1986 Langford. The History of Photography from 1839 to the Present.

Tom.G. New York: Harry Abrams Riis. Father of Art Photography. Peter Henry: Naturalistic Photography for Students of the Art (1899) Reprinted Arno Press Fabian. The History of Photography. L et al. Beaumont. Victorian Cameraman: Francis Frith's views of rural England. David & Charles Jones. Photography: Essays and Images. Doubleday Newhall. New York: Alfred Knopf Gernsheim. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York . Robert: Seizing the Light . New York: McGraw Hill Gernsheim. Emerson. New York Graphic Society Lloyd.1875. Valerie. Picture History of Photography. Ranier et al. Bill. and Jones. Focal Press Jay. Boston: David Godine Hannavy. John : Fox Talbot. Elizabeth.Y. The Face of China as Seen by Photographers and Travellers. 2000. Aperture Goodridge. R. Edgar. Photography: the first eighty years: Colnaghi. Helmut. Colin (ed) An Early Victorian Album: The Photographic Masterpieces (1843-47) of David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson. Peter. 1850-1898. Robert Demachy. 1839-1919. N. Collins Newhall. Roger Fenton of Crimble Hall. USA Pollack.developments of photography up to 1900. McGraw-Hill. Academy Edition. Beaumont (ed). O. 18601912. Latent Image: The Discovery of Photography. G: Silver by the Ton: A History of Ilford Limited 1879-1979. Bill. Margaret. John. ISBN 0697-14361-9 Hopkinson. Shire Publications Harker. The Linked Ring: The Secession Movement in Photography in Britain. Wellingborough Jay. Jay. Treasures of the Royal Photographic Society.a History of photography. Museum of Modern Art. McGraw-Hill Hirsch. London Martin.: Aperture Hannavy. Bill. Millerton. Julia Margaret Cameron: Pioneer of Photography. 1859-1936: Photographs and Essays. Bernard Shaw on Photography: Equation. Helmut and Alison. Heineman Hercock. Jacob. Collecting and Preserving old photographs. Vendome Press Ford. Masters of Early Travel Photography.Rejlander 1813.

(1890). Art and Photography. A World History of Photography (1997) Third Edition. Aaron. Reprinted New York: Dover Publications Rosenblum. London: HMSO. The First Negatives. Aberville Press Sharf. Pioneers of Photography. Allen Lane Sharf. Harry Abrams Thomas. David B. Aaron. Last updated undefined . Naomi. 1964 Back to the top page © Robert Leggat. 2003.

the Royal Photographic Society has passed on the contents of its vast treasure to the National Museum of Photography. Film and Television in Bradford. it will at long last mean that the many items donated to the Society over many years will become unlocked.MUSEUMS of photographic interest There is nothing quite like seeing the real thing! The following are a few of the major museums which display equipment and/or images relating to the history of photography. Avon: The Fox Talbot Museum Edinburgh: The Royal Scottish Museum . In the hands of an organisation better equipped to display and store the equipment and works of art. and more generally available to people who are interested in the history of photography. Bath. Birmingham: The Reference Library Bradford. Film and Television This Museum also incoprporates the vast collection of the Royal Photographic Society. Surrey: The Guildford Museum (pictures by Lewis Carroll) London: The Victoria and Albert Museum London: The Science Museum London: MOMI (The Museum of the Moving Image) London: The Imperial War Museum London: Kingston-on-Thames Public Library Manchester: The Northwest Museum of Science and Technology Oxford: Museum of the History of Science Lacock. Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery Edinburgh: Public Library Guildford. Avon: The Royal Photographic Society Museum Since writing this work. Yorkshire: National Museum of Photography.

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Other sites
Since this site came on to the Net there have been many excellent sites put up - too many to list! The best search engine at the moment, in my view, is "Google", hence it is the first item listed here. Others are cited either because they came up during surfing, or because they have been recommended. Search for History of Photography on "Google" Photography in Edinburgh American Museum of Photography Magic lanterns Stereo views of 19c.


Hints on various aspects of photography

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The Royal Photographic Society today
The Photographic Society was founded very soon after photography was discovered, and amongst its membership can boast the names of several of the pioneers in the craft. (See The Photographic Society) Its patron is HM The Queen. The RPS currently has over ten thousand members all over the world, and continues to enjoy prestige as the world's leading photographic Society. With such a diverse membership controversy and hotly argued opposing opinions remain a sign of a healthy, democratic body, and meetings of Council can still have the heated debate that was characteristic a hundred years ago. Indeed, just occasionally even the same issues and party fragmentation can rear their ugly heads! But it is a very different Society even from from what it was even as recently as the early seventies, when members of Council attended meetings in "proper dress". In the mid seventies the author was invited, along with some others, to join the membership of Council, and remembers being advised by the then President that it was not quite the done thing to speak at Council meetings until one had been there some time! Now, Council meetings are a very different matter! The Society occupied premises in various parts of London until 1980, when it moved to its new headquarters in Bath. Since then its activities have expanded enormously, as has its influence. It has regular exhibitions at Bath, and a full programme of events all over the United Kingdom. The Society's Photographic Journal has been published regularly since the earliest days of photography. Though the Society owns many priceless treasures relating to the history of photography, this aspect has always been a drain on its resources. The entire collection in in the process of being moved to the National Museum of Photography Film and Television in Bradford. This positive move will enable the Museum to do what it does best, and also allow the Society to concentrate upon its educational activities. As part of its strategy to encourage high standards, the Society awards distinctions to members who are able to produce evidence of outstanding ability in any major branch of photography. These distinctions are the Licentiateship (LRPS), Associateship (ARPS) and Fellow (FRPS), the latter being the highest. These distinctions are much valued throughout the world, and though members are encouraged to work towards these distinctions, they are not awarded lightly. The Society (or RPS as it is more generally known) has fifteen groups catering for specialised interests, which any member may join. Of particular interest to users of these pages may be the Society's Historical Group, which has amongst its membership distinguished photographic historians. For anyone who has an interest in photography, membership is highly recommended. One does not have to be an expert; in fact, we have a large number for whom photography is still very much a new avenue to explore. Nor does one need to be resident in England - a great number of members are overseas. The RPS is on the web. See The RPS page or e-mail the Secretary General: RPS Centre for further details.

© Robert Leggat, 2003.

Du Camp (View. and the Queen is the current patron. This. transparencies and equipment a collection which is priceless. and The Times for 22 March 1842 describes a visit paid by Prince Albert to Beard's institution. and by this time Fox Talbot had agreed to give a free licence to every member of the Society to practise." Fox Talbot had been asked to become its first President. Herein lay the tension ... one of the largest in the world. One of the obstacles to the development of photography had been Fox Talbot's patent enforcements. four thousand copies being printed each month. Dudley Johnston. as indeed does any organisation whose membership is so diverse.." Six months later Sir Charles Eastlake announced that Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert had graciously consented to be the Society's first patrons. negatives. Sir Frederick Pollock." He was succeeded by a photographic chemist and the next President Sir William Abney who at his inaugural address had said quite unequivocally: "One of the main objects. and if photography was to flourish in the future. it was not until the Great Exhibition of 1851 that the idea began to catch on. by the interchange of thought and experience among Photographers. stick to science though the art critics denounce. a public meeting was held at the Royal Society of Arts. but were very real issues at the time. clearly had other priorities. (See Talbot and patents. commenting that "he . the "Fading Committee". Both had a keen interest in photography from the start. in the 1880s the feeling was growing that it had become too much centred round scientific . on 20 January. Sir Charles Eastlake. it was inevitable that the scientific aspects would be very much in the forefront of one's thinking. the aim of the Society was to be "the promotion of the Art and Science of Photography. chaired by Fenton. then President of the Royal Academy.. and the Society's first secretary was Roger Fenton. and Fox Talbot (The Haystack)." However. and it was agreed to form a "Photographic Society. be effected by the periodical meetings of the Society. The following year. The Society's aims were spelled out in the first edition of its Journal. and it is hoped that this object may. A major development occurred during the presidency of J. at which some seven hundred or so photographs were displayed. and later its "Collodion Committee") may seem quaint. Nubia). Striking a balance is almost impossible. I should say the main object of the Society. published 3 March 1853: The object of the Photographic Society is the promotion of the Art and Science of Photography.) The following month. one of the first Presidents. including pictures by Roger Fenton (Highgate Cemetery). The Society has ever since been encouraged by the Royal Family. on the clear condition that they did not trade in the art.one that has never been totally resolved." By the end of the first year. The RPS has always been the butt of criticism. for even now an innocent question as to whether photography is an art or a science can almost be guaranteed to evoke some very heated and passionate debate! However.. The RPS over its long history has had to adapt to changing times. expressed himself much gratified with what he saw. and which straddles both the scientific and the artistic dimensions of its sphere of activities. but when he declined. must be to encourage the scientific aspect of photography. In 1894 the Queen granted the title of "Royal" to the Society. accepted the invitation..The origins of the Royal Photographic Society Though there had been previous attempts to form a society bringing photographers together.. the chemicals used were often dangerous. and the Journal was proving an outstanding success. London. It was on this occasion that Fenton proposed the foundation of a photographic Society. to some considerable extent. who created and developed the Society's Permanent Collection of equipment and photographs. on 22 December. the Society's membership totaled 370.. a souree was held at the Royal Society of Arts. Some of its earliest concerns (for example. Delamotte (The Great Exhibition)." One needs to take into account the fact that photography was very much at its infancy. Strictly speaking. at the AGM in 1856 he questioned whether it ought to be an art: ". includes many of the original prints.the real name of photography is that it is a practical science.. Negotiations had been taking place behind the scenes. as the first edition of the Journal shows. the process was by no means easy.

.. As it happens. 1903. has been so effectually laughed out of its old notion that photographs are to be esteemed according to certain technical conditions in the negative. both groups proclaiming their own virtues and making side-swipes at the "opposition". But attitudes were beginning to change.P. To add to the muddle. Thurston Thompson. immediately seconded the proposition and a doubtless exhausted audience were allowed to return to their homes! The Royal Photographic Society today.." In the somewhat verbose style of the day it continued: "One point appears to have been generally overlooked. a Journal that has been printed continuously up to the present day and copies of which are in the Society's Library. The meeting is reported in over four columns of very small type. Thus. and puts it in the "professional" section. a course which we venture to think is not quite fair play. in a way that occasionally upsets the critical indigestion." (Article in Amateur Photographer. and fierce argument. and out of this grew the Linked Ring.As this is an interesting discussion and it is getting late. in an article entitled "The Photographic Salon of 1903" suggested that this "was calculated to injure the Salon and rob it os its distinguishing characteristics. a record of a fairly long meeting in December 1858. and would gather the public shillings at the turnstile by exhibiting the pick of the very work which before they ridiculed and condemned. Last updated undefined . seeing that the tide of public opinion is largely with the newer movement for which the Salon stands. which were openly offered by those who rightly or wrongly posed as the responsible representatives of the opinions of the Royal Photographic Society members: these same "representatives. whenever the poor Society happens to be right.. And sometimes the fuzzygraph which the Society puts in the pictorial section because it privately thinks it very bad is very bad. Only a few years later. trade and science. Maloney. was suggesting that the Society was now becoming slightly paranoiac: "the Royal Photographic Society mixes up optics and fine art. Pouncey was about to proceed when Mr.. Pouncey was earnestly arguing in favour of his carbon process. the R.. describing a heated exchange between Mr. Pouncey and a Mr. In its exhibition of 1903 the RPS included an "Invitation Loan Section". now conceive the not very sportsmanlike idea of profiting by all that they before repudiated." or some of them and their friends. for example. © Robert Leggat.S. when a Mr.exactly what it outrages its conscience to avoid.. just newly elected to the Council. and my not be appreciated by those of our readers who do not remember the beginning of the Salon and the early years of its existence. Those seen by the author reflect the preoccupation with the scientific processes in the early days.. that still exists today! There is. lest it be ridiculed for Philistinism... Mr. it makes the judicious laugh . it is afraid to give a medal to any picture that does not look more or less mildewed. at the end of which it reads "Mr. Consequently. the object of this guilty admiration sometimes is very good." The Society's deliberations are faithfully reported in the Journal of the Photographic Society. And whenever it gets a photograph which in its secret soul it thinks very good. and perhaps the RPS was beginning to have second thoughts. Bedford said .. and in some cases the jockeying for position within the Society. October 16.. 1902) During this period there was a (sometimes not so friendly) rivalry between the Linked Ring and the Society. The Amateur Photographer for September 17. it is ashamed to say so. when it struggled against the antagonism and contempt . 1996. that it has now arrived at the conclusion that a pictorial photograph is one in which the focusing and the exposure are put wrong on purpose.aspects. George Bernard Shaw. I propose that it be adjourned to another evening. in a playful mood.

and inspired him to become involved in examinations in photography. M. and he has since spent many hours browsing through the extensive collection held by the Royal Photographic Society. and served on the moderating committees of the Associated Examining Board (AEB).only two out of twelve . then the only organisation offering examinations in photography for school pupils. That was. FRPS. Kenneth Warr. He was Hon. 2000 Last updated undefined . He admits that at first he had little interest in the history of photography. Oxford. He was also former Chairman of the Society's Committee which receives and evaluates applications for Associateship and Fellowship in the Photography in Education category. 1999 Back to the top page © Robert Leggat. He was an examiner for "O" and "A" level photography for a number of years.. A long-serving supporter of the Royal Photographic Society. In 1969 he moved into higher education. training and providing inservice provision for teachers.Ed. "Loads of boring equipment and faded pictures" he concluded. His book "Photography in school: a guide for teachers". he would encourage anyone with an interest in photography to become a member. until 1975. In 1992 he left his post as Head of Educational Technology to become involved in CD-ROMs and in work connected with the Internet. served on the Society's Council for some fifteen. Leggat has always had a commitment to encouraging photography amongst young people. where he received much encouragement and support from the then Secretary of the Society. Hon. Education Officer of the Royal Photographic Society for ten years. Dr. FRSA Robert Leggat first began photography at the age of eight. when he attended a lecture given by Professor Margaret Harker..A History of Photography From its beginnings till the 1920s by Robert Leggat MA. More recently he was intimately involved in setting up the City & Guilds "9231" photography scheme. He joined the Royal Photographic Society in the early seventies.D. T.and still finds it exciting when a print begins to appear in the developing dish! He trained as a teacher at Westminster College. He still remembers the excitement when his first pictures emerged . This kindled his enthusiasm. and it was there that he became increasingly interested in the potential of photography in education. both as a subject in its own right. Ph. FRPS. published by Argus Press. was well received in the teaching profession. and as a tool for teachers and pupils.B. and on its Executive for four. intended specifically for non-professional photographers who wish to improve their technique.

Before mentioning the stages that led to the development of photography. people had been aware. but would remain on it.1774) in a work called Giphantie. the year the photographic process became public. the name. It is somewhat surprising that photography was not invented earlier than the 1830s. there is one amazing. The second process was chemical. but his silhouettes could not survive. On 4 January 1829 Niépce agreed to go into partnership with Louis Daguerre . and Daguerre named it the Daguerreotype. so the tale goes. Angelo Sala. The announcement that the Daguerreotype "requires no knowledge of drawing. only a few decades after his death. but Daguerre continued to experiment. After it had been dried in the dark the image would remain permanent. on a canvas which had been coated with a sticky substance. In this imaginary tale. We owe the name "Photography" to Sir John Herschel ." and that "anyone . The first successful picture was produced in June/July 1827 by Niépce. quite uncanny prediction made by a man called de la Roche (1729. about this same period its use as an aid to drawing was being advocated. This surface. There is a drawing. he had successfully captured images. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Thomas Wedgwood was conducting experiments. a founder of the Royal Society. using material that hardened on exposure to light. air and light. in the early seventeenth century. because these processes had been known for quite some time. dated 1519. who first used the term in 1839. as there was no known method of making the image permanent.. a process which greatly reduced the exposure time from eight hours down to half an hour. He also discovered that an image could be made permanent by immersing it in salt. it was possible to capture images from nature. Details of the process were made public on 19 August 1839. had reported that silver chloride turned dark under exposure. It was not until the two distinct scientific processes had been put together that photography came into being. but he appeared to believe that it was caused by exposure to the air. There are two distinct scientific processes that combine to make photography possible. Niépce died only four years later. would not only provide a mirror image on the sticky canvas. that some colours are bleached in the sun. Following a report on this invention by Paul Delaroche . ● ● ● ● In the sixteen hundreds Robert Boyle.BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. For hundreds of years before photography was invented. but they had made little distinction between heat. The author would not have known how prophetic this tale would be. noticed that powdered nitrate of silver is blackened by the sun. Soon he had discovered a way of developing photographic plates. of a Camera Obscura by Leonardo da Vinci. The First. the French government bought the rights to it in July 1839. The first of these processes was optical. The Camera Obscura (dark room) had been in existence for at least four hundred years. a leading scholar of the day.. In 1727 Johann Heinrich Schulze discovered that certain liquids change colour when exposed to light.. for example. (*1) The word is derived from the Greek words for light and writing. This picture required an exposure of eight hours. rather than to light.

" (See note HERE). or the process by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the artist's pencil." He wrote: "How charming it would be if it were possible to cause these natural images to imprint themselves durably and remain fixed on the paper!" The earliest paper negative we know of was produced in August 1835. By 1840. The mushrooming of photographic establishments reflects photography's growing popularity. dated 31 January 1839. whereas by comparison the Daguerreotype. In fact. however. it meant that the owner of the portrait could be certain that he had a piece of art that could not be duplicated. today's photography is based on the same principle. If however two copies were required.. Different. An interesting account of these days is given by a writer called Gaudin . That. some pundits viewed in quite sinister terms.. who was present the day that the announcement was made. but the mere desire alone. God created man in His own image.. A newspaper report in the Leipzig City Advertiser stated: "The wish to capture evanescent reflections is not only impossible. Talbot had made some significant improvements. His paper to the Royal Society of London. therefore. and perform as well as the author of the invention" was greeted with enormous interest.. to many. The negative is small (1" square). and no man. and to 147 two years later. In London.made machine may fix the image of God. a well known poet of the period and a critic of the medium. actually precedes the paper by Daguerre. it was entitled "Some account of the Art of Photogenic drawing. was the Calotype invented by William Henry Fox Talbot . However. is blasphemy.. to give to the world an invention of the Devil?" At that time some artists saw in photography a threat to their livelihood (see Artists and Photography ). compared with the striking images produced by the Daguerreotype process. and poor in quality. was a blind alley.may succeed. from a mere handful in the mid 1840s the number had grown to 66 in 1855. though good. commented: . the only way of coping with this was to use two cameras side by side. not all people welcomed this exciting invention.. The demand for photographs was such that Charles Baudelaire (1826-1867). was expensive. and allowed a Frenchman. (See comments on Claudet). and "Daguerreomania" became a craze overnight. Is it possible that God should have abandoned His eternal principles. and in a sense a rival to the Daguerreotype. would not have been regarded as a disadvantage. a growing need for a means of copying pictures which daguerreotypes could never satisfy. the will to do so. the great advantage of Talbot's method was that an unlimited number of positive prints could be made (see also Brewster ). and by 1844 he was able to bring out a photographically illustrated book entitled "The Pencil of nature. The Daguerreotype process. and some even prophesied that painting would cease to exist. for all its quality. and each picture was a once-only affair. it depicts the now famous window at Lacock Abbey. However. his home. in the peak in the mid 'sixties there were no less than forty-two photographic establishments! In America the growth was just as dramatic: in 1850 there were 77 photographic galleries in New York alone. There was. a favourite venue was Regent Street where. which was to provide the answer to that problem.. Compared with Daguerreotypes the quality of the early Calotypes was somewhat inferior.

Initially it was very insensitive compared with existing processes. it was very slow. This led to the development of the dry plate process. but these preservatives lessened the sensitivity of the material. and inevitably the imperfections of the paper were printed alongside with the image. hence the fact that photographs produced on this substance were architecture and landscapes. The collodion process. Progress in this new art was slow in England. though it was relatively short-lived. Narcissus to a man. for development at a more convenient time and place. Prices for daguerreotypes varied. This process was much faster than conventional methods. no longer was a darkroom tent needed. though in its time a great step forward. This new ( albumen ) process made for very fine detail and much higher quality. was much cheaper. but it was refined to the extent that the idea of factory-made photographic material was now becoming possible.05). The wet collodion process. which would be the weekly wage for many workers. portraiture was simply not possible. It was clear. in a pamphlet. to gloat at its trivial image on a scrap of metal. However.'" The next major step forward came in 1871. when a positive was made. exposure and development of the image should be done whilst the plate was still wet. when Dr. that a dry method was required. compared with other countries. but in general would cost about a guinea (£1."our squalid society has rushed. A further impetus was given to photography for the masses by the introduction of carte-de-visite photographs by Andre Disdéri . One was very near the day that . There were various attempts to preserve exposed plates in wet collodion. Another process developed by Archer was named the Ambrotype . This developed into a mania. aptly commented (1860): "Speaking in general. and washed with an acid solution of silver nitrate. In 1851 a new era in photography was introduced by Frederick Scott Archer . instantaneous photography is as elastic a term as the expression 'long and short. who introduced the Collodion process. Both Daguerre and Fox Talbot were partly responsible. The introduction of the dry-plate process marked a turning point. required a considerable amount of equipment on location. thus opening up new horizons in photography. prints could be made for as little as one shilling (5p). Richard Maddox discovered a way of using Gelatin (which had been discovered only a few years before) instead of glass as a basis for the photographic plate. but the problem was to make the silver solution stick to the shiny surface of the glass. which was a direct positive. Skaife. Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor. the latter for his law-suits in connection with his patents. Several experimented with glass as a basis for negatives." Talbot's photography was on paper. The collodion process required that the coating. Dry plates could be developed much more quickly than with any previous technique. reducing exposure times to two or three seconds. the former for having rather slyly placed a patent on his invention whilst the French government had made it freely available to the world. perfected a process of coating a glass plate with white of egg sensitised with potassium iodide. however. In 1848 a cousin of Nicephore Niépce. then. No longer did one need the cumbersome wet-plates. It is likely that the difficulties of the process hastened the search for instantaneous photography.

with his fame and position. © Robert Leggat.pictures could be taken without the photographer needing any specialised knowledge.M. 2000 . who was an astronomer in Berlin. Four years later he introduced the box camera. 1839. not quite.as it does now . who developed a means whereby film could become sensitive to green light.reaching its heights in the mid-Victorian era. Popular in the Victorian times was stereoscopic photography . Hershel was undoubtedly the person who. George Eastman is particularly remembered for introducing flexible film in 1884. and Eadweard Muybridge who paved the way for motion picture photography. which reproduced images in three dimensions. Other topics: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Architectural photography The Linked Ring Lighting Photo Secessionist movement Social record Travel photography Unusual ventures War photography (*1) Well. and John Carbutt persuaded a manufacturer to produce very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material. on February 25. he was in fact beaten to the post by an anonymous writer with the initials "J. actually. It is a process whose popularity waxed and waned . Celluloid had been invented in the early eighteen-sixties." a few weeks earlier. Other names of significance include Herman Vogel . made the word "photography" known to the world. However. Whilst Herschel used the term first in a lecture before the Royal Society on March 14. and photography could now reach a much greater number of people. Eventually a scholar was able to determine that this anonymous writer was in fact Johann von Maedler (1794-1874).

near London. 11 May 1871 The only son of the book on the subject. In fact it was he who had discovered twenty years previously that hypo could dissolve silver salts. .. as he was already upset that Daguerre had pipped him to the post in announcing his discovery! It is also to Herschel that we also owe the word "photography"... The picture of Heschel. and in 1839 had managed to fix pictures using hyposulphite of soda.. London). and also the "snap-shot".. (Science Museum. and published an influential He became interested in capturing and retaining images.HERSCHEL. of course. for his part. d. It was taken by Sir John Herschel in 1839. a term which he used in a paper entitled "Note on the art of Photography. and shows his father's telescope in Slough. 7 March 1792. distinguished British astronomer William Herschel. had the fortune to be around just at the time both Daguerre and Fox Talbot were announcing their discoveries. If you have a few days at your disposition. He also coined the terms "negative" and positive" in this context.. was taken by J M Cameron. Certainly they surpass anything I could have conceived as within the bounds of reasonable expectation. and conveyed the following news to Fox Talbot: "It is hardly too much to call them miraculous.. Sir John himself also became a wellknown astronomer. He was evidently very smitten by the Daguerreotype. Sir John Frederick William b. Every gradation of light and shade is given with a softness and fidelity which sets all painting at an immeasurable distance. or The Application of the Chemical Rays of Light to the Purpose of Pictorial Representation.. Herschel. and on the right is the very first photograph to be taken on glass. would not have been very happy about this news.. on the left.come and see!" Fox Talbot." presented to the Royal Society on 14 March 1839.

© Robert Leggat. 2000 Last updated undefined .

the water twinkling.1768). manuscripts of his observations are to be found in the India Office Library in London. having arranged for a group of actors to perform outside so that the visitors could observe the images on the wall. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen. If the hole was small enough. unless it is total. It is said that he made a huge "camera" in which he seated his guests. demonstrates that when its light passes through a narrow. an inverted image would be seen on the opposite wall. or because they felt that in some way their artistry was lessened. more plausible is the claim that he used one to observe solar eclipses. round hole and is cast on a plane opposite to the hole it takes on the form of a moon-sickle. When the hole is enlarged. including Joshua Reynolds. the picture changes. warned against the indiscriminate use of the camera obscura. shade it and delicately colour it from nature. recommended the camera as an aid to drawing and perspective. the Arabian scholar Hassan ibn Hassan (also known as Ibn al Haitam). therefore. but this has never been accepted by scholars. which you move forward and backward until the scene appears in the sharpest detail. it is likely that from that time onwards many artists will have used a camera obscura to aid them in drawing. with its distances. a writer on art and science and a highly influential man amongst artists.. Let the young painter.. a founding member of the Royal Academy... the birds flying. and Paul Sandby (1725-1809). Though some. The image of the sun shows this peculiarity only when the hole is very small. notably Algarotti. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is. 300 BC). others. described what can be called a camera obscura in his writings. nor is it possible that they should have otherwise represented things so much to the life." In the mid sixteenth century Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615) published what is believed to be the first account of the possibilities as an aid to drawing. The story goes. though either because of the association with the occult.. He wrote: "Close all shutters and doors until no light enters the camera except through the lens. begin as early as possible to study these divine pictures. At about the same period Daniel Barbaro. they panicked and fled. that the sight of up-side down performing images was too much for the visitors. the clouds. Vermeer (1632-1675). Several are said to have used them. these include Giovanni Canale better known as Canaletto (1697. in the 10th century. . its colours and shadows and motion. however. Such a principle was known by thinkers as early as Aristotle (c.. .CAMERA OBSCURA The Camera Obscura (Latin for Dark room) was a dark box or room with a hole in one end." The earliest record of the uses of a camera obscura can be found in the writings of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792). a Venetian. and Battista was later brought to court on a charge of sorcery! Though Battista's account is wrapped up in a study of the occult. In his essay "On the form of the Eclipse" he wrote: "The image of the sun at the time of the eclipse. strongly advocated its use in his Essays on Painting (1764): "the best modern painters among the Italians have availed themselves of this contrivance. few would admit to using one. In fact. and opposite hold a piece of paper. It is said that Roger Bacon invented the camera obscura just before the year 1300.

The first cameras were enormous. and represent Nature. Gerolomo Cardano (15011576). see HERE. as it came to be known. Last updated undefined .75). At that time the typical servant's wage would have averaged between ten and twenty pounds per year. and an inner shell containing transparent paper for drawing. Thus the camera obscura. and there are several in this country. Sedan chairs were converted. Then smaller. designed in 1807. Another aid to drawing." About the same time. but which worked in a different way. Why the name lens? It is claimed that because Italian lenses were by-convex. they seemed to resemble the brown lentils they used to make soup . Once again Roger Bacon's name is associated with this. portable ones were made. it is known that in 1839 Fox Talbot bought several instruments including a camera obscura for seven pounds fifteen shillings (£7. and tent-type cameras were also in use even up the beginning of the nineteen hundreds. which Naturalists and Astronomers make of the microscope and telescope. the lens was being developed. became a popular aid to sketching. Other versions also appeared. 2001. described one which consisted of an outer shell with lenses in the centre of each wall. the artist needed to enter by a trapdoor. © Robert Leggat. was the Camera Lucida.so the lens came from the Latin for lentil. introduced a glass disc in place of a pinhole in his camera. Camera obscuras still have a fascination for many. and Barbaro also used a convex lens. Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) in a book written in 1646. To give some idea of costs in the earliest days of photography. some have claimed that it was he who invented spectacles. an Italian mathematician. For an account of a visit to some of them.Painters should make the same use of the Camera Obscura. for all these instruments equally contribute to make known.

that facing the window. He published details of his investigations.1744 Schulze was a German Professor at the University of Altdorf. 1684. I struck the paper thus perforated on the glass wikth wax. Thus I often wrote names and whole sentences on paper and carefully cut away the inked parts with a sharp knife. 2002. Though it was known that certain chemicals darken when exposed to the sun. he applied paper stencils to a bottle containing silver nitrate and chalk. where they hit the glass through the cut-out parts of the paper. It was not long before the sun's rays. but these did not become popular until after he had died. Last updated undefined . Johann Heinrich b. and discovering that it did not darken was able to eliminate heat as the darkening agent. Having noticed that a glass jar containing a particular chemical mixture changed colour on one side . He described his experiments thus: I covered the glass with dark material. it was not clear whether it was the action of light or heat which had this effect. discovering that where the substance was not exposed to light it remained white. exposing a little part for the free entry of light. In 1727 Schulze heated some silver nitrate in an oven." © Robert Leggat.SCHULZE. d. wrote each word or sentence on the chalk precipitate so exactly and distinctly that many who were curious about the experiment but ignorant of its nature took occasion to attribute the thing to some sort of trick. whose experiments paved the way towards photography.

It way indeed be examined in the shade. 14 May 1771. What neither he nor Davey could find was discovered in 1819 by Sir John Herschel. or the profile. June 1802. the exposure should be only for a few minutes. d. it is not sensibly affected. aged 34. and their work was very nearly a breakthrough. and the story is told that Wedgwood was reduced to examining his pictures furtively by the light of a candle. but the chemicals being used at the time were not sufficiently sensitive. Davy wrote: "The copy of a painting. as commonly employed." Wedgwood died three years later. 1999. they were unable to fix the images.WEDGWOOD. © Robert Leggat. They also tried using a camera obscura. by the light of candles or lamps. immediately after being taken. 11 July 1805 In 1802 Thomas Wedgwood (son of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood) together with Sir Humphrey Davy presented a paper entitled "An account of a method of copying paintings upon glass and of making profiles by the agency of light upon nitrate of silver. In the report to the Royal Society. Last updated undefined . Thomas b." He had worked closely with Davey. in this case. must be kept in an obscure place. but. However. for they had made what one can best describe as photograms.

This is the first known photograph. ** I have been taken to task by some who point to the picture in the Turin Shroud as being the first photograph. at the age of 69.** There is little merit in this picture other than that fact. who had began his researches in 1814. For further information on Niepce. appearing to shine on both sides of the building. see here. he was left having to look for another way of obtaining images. so the sun had time to move from east to west. Eventually he succeeded. However. and worked on this process. The exposure lasted eight hours. Lady Elizabeth Eastlake. writing in 1857. so Niépce met with total failure. Whether this was produced intentionally though is more unlikely. for the purposes of photography as we know it today. It is difficult to decipher: the building is on the left. The picture shown here is generally acknowledged to be the first image produced intentionally. 7 March 1765. informs us that he was a man of private means. he came over to England later that year and sought to promote his invention via the Royal Society (then as now regarded as the leading learned body concerned with science). 5 July 1833 Niépce (pronounced Nee-ps) is universally credited with producing the first successful photograph in June/July 1827. Last updated undefined .NIÉPCE. He was fascinated with lithography. However. or whether it dates from around 1000AD. d. he needed the help of his artist son to make the images. which are now in the Royal Photographic Society's collection. he teamed up with Louis Daguerre in 1829. when in 1814 his son was drafted into the army to fight at Waterloo. Joseph Nicephore b. a partnership which lasted until his death only four years later. calling his product Heliographs (after the Greek "of the sun"). He left behind him some examples of his heliographs. which most scholars discount. Returning to France. it does certainly show an image of a dead person. 1999. © Robert Leggat. a tree a third in from the left. Whether the shroud dates back to the time of Jesus Christ. When he eventually succeeded. Though Niépce's contribution is interesting. the Royal Society had a rule that it would not publicise a discovery that contained an undivulged secret. it is irrelevant. Unable to draw. and a barn immediately in front.

.DAGUERRE. Daguerre eventually concluded that this was due to the presence of mercury vapour from a broken thermometer. the French government having bought the rights to the process from him. However. of famous places.. and on 4 January 1829 signed up a partnership with him. The partnership was a short one. Louis Jacques Mande b. Though he now knew how to produce an image. Niépce dying in 1833. and this had led him to seek to freeze the image. it was not until 1837 that he was able to fix them. and at the age of sixteen was an assistant stage designer in a Paris theatre. so the story goes. In 1835. He began work as an apprentice architect. He regularly used a camera obscura as an aid to painting in perspective.by some chicanery a patent for the daguerreotype was actually taken out in England.. He developed an impressive illusions theatre. and some days later found. As Lady Eastlake pointed out: ". his elaborate stage designs winning him considerable acclaim. and given it free to the world. took his case up.... and the French government commissioned a report on the process. and perform as well as the author of the invention. it was a picture show with changing light effects and huge paintings measuring 22 by 14 metres. which he termed Diorama.only five days previously. who immediately saw the implications of this process. He made an important discovery by accident. the process came to be used widely. to his surprise. Daguerre advertised his process and sought sponsorship. a politician." From the day the announcement was made of this new discovery. and he supplied the scenic and lighting effects for a number of operas in theatres in Paris. 10 July 1851 Daguerre (pronounced Dagair) was perhaps the most famous of several people who invented photography.. d. He had an astonishing ingenuity in the handling of light and lighting effects. to be chaired by Paul Delaroche. but few seemed interested. This became the rage in the early twenties. this process had also been patented in England and Wales on 14 August . The claim was made that the daguerreotype "requires no knowledge of drawing. In 1826 he learned of the work of Nicephore Niépce. 18 November 1787." and that "anyone may succeed. He then turned to Francois Arago. The early history of photography is not so generous in character as that of its maturity. On 7 January 1839 an announcement was made of the discovery. but details were not divulged until 19 August when the process was announced publicly. This new process he called a Daguerreotype. which for a time rendered this the only country which did not profit by the liberality of the French government. but Daguerre continued to experiment. that the latent image had developed." . This important discovery that a latent image could be developed made it possible to reduce the exposure time from some eight hours to thirty minutes. he put an exposed plate in his chemical cupboard.

We have much pleasure in announcing an important discovery made by M. Initially this will not have bothered people.. or at least can do so only with great difficulty. Many of the portraits reveal this from the way the coat was buttoned. also showed one of the limitations of the process: "Nature in motion cannot reproduce itself. of the same date. what was needed was a means whereby copies of a photograph might easily be made. by the technique in question. who were used only to seeing their mirror image in any case. Daguerre. promises to make a revolution in the arts of design. so that these images are not the temporary reflection of the object. if borne out. perhaps most limiting of all. it happened that all which moved or walked did not appear in the drawing. if one required a picture the right way round. Taken in 1839. Daguerre has discovered a method to fix the images which are represented at the back of a camera obscura. it was a "once only" system.. the image was laterally reversed (as one sees oneself in a mirror). (However. it was very fragile. ● the length of the exposure necessary all but ruled out portraiture. because with long exposures moving objects would not register. In one of the boulevard views. the camera would be pointed at a mirror reflecting the sitter's image. It disconcerts all the theories of science in light and optics and. This discovery seems like a prodigy. the celebrated painter of the Diorama.The Literary Gazette for 7 January 1839 read: "Paris." The early daguerreotypes had several drawbacks. ● ● ● .. see Wolcott). M. 6th January 1839.... which may be removed from the presence of those objects like a picture or an engraving." An article in La Gazette de France. but their fixed and durable impress. this picture of a boulevard gives the impression of empty streets.

In a sense this symbolically ended an era. There is considerable material to be found in the Daguerrian Society's web-site. for that very same year a new technique was invented. they may have the distinction of being the first people ever to have been photographed. there was an exception when a man stopped to have his shoes shined. A postscript © Robert Leggat. (see bottom left of the larger picture) and though he and the person shining the shoes remain anonymous. Do have a look. 2000 Last updated undefined .However. which was another milestone in photography . In 1851 Daguerre died.the wet collodion process by Frederick Scott Archer.

one of the foremost history painters of his time. © Robert Leggat. the admirable discovery of M. show: "Daguerre's process completely satisfies all the demands of art. The idea that a picture could be captured without the need for an artist was mind-blowing at the time. for whilst photography had taken over as a means of recording objectively. no matter how talented he might be. carrying essential principles of art to such perfection that it must become a subject of observation and study even to the most accomplished painters. he had students at his studio. as the following observations. a leading advocate of photography. 1797." "The painter will discover in this process an easy means of collecting studies which he could otherwise only have obtained over a long period of time. painting is dead!" Though it makes an interesting story. 1999. in fact. laboriously and in a much less perfect way. His most well-known work is "Children of Edward" (1830) depicting Edward IVth sons imprisoned in the Tower of London. some of which come from his report to the French government. At a time when photography is taken totally for granted. and many artists who made a living out of miniature portraits saw their means of livelihood coming to an end. one needs to appreciate the sensation caused by the announcement of the Daguerreotype. was not. Last updated undefined ." Like many good artists of the day. but he was influential in promoting the Daguerreotype. and Gustave Le Gray. that "from today. Delaroche is particularly remembered for his much-quoted remark. amongst whom were Roger Fenton. it forced artists into a new form of expression. Paul b. d. Time has proved this to be wrong. as far as it is known. In June 1839 he was asked to head a committee to present a report on Daguerre's invention to the French government.DELAROCHE. on seeing the Daguerreotype. the first Secretary of the Royal Photographic Society." "To sum up. 1859 Paul Delaroche. the author has yet to find any evidence that Delaroche actually said this! He was. Daguerre has rendered an immense service to the arts. a photographer.

makes an interesting comment on the way Daguerreotypes were viewed: "People were afraid at first to look for any length of time at the pictures he produced. a photographer who became the first professional daguerreotype photographer in St. which is why they are often found housed under glass in a case. the image was reversed laterally. that we ever beheld. This caused the mercury to amalgamate with the silver. The process consisted of ● ● ● ● ● exposing copper plates to iodine. the process had its weaknesses: ● ● ● ● ● the pictures could not be reproduced and were therefore unique. the Spectator (2 February 1839) called daguerreotypes the "self operating process of Fine Art. His first plates were 8 1/2" by 6 1/2". Daguerre's rival. the fumes forming light-sensitive silver iodide. The plate would have to be used within an hour. (Sometimes the camera lens was equipped with a mirror to correct this). it is interestting to note that this still remains the standard "whole-plate" today. observed: . However. the images were difficult to view from certain angles.between 10 and 20 minutes. Indeed.The DAGUERREOTYPE This was a positive image on a metal support. fixing the image in a warm solution of common salt (later sodium sulphite was used. Fox Talbot. exposing to light . developing the plate over mercury heated to 75 degrees Centigrade. tiny faces of the people in the pictures could see out at them. Many of the daguerreotypes that remain are noticeable for their detail. so amazing did the unaccustomed detail and the unaccustomed truth to nature of the first daguerreotypes appear to everyone" Sometimes the details might reveal something that the photographer had not intended. depending upon the light available. that they are the most remarkable objects of curiosity and admiration. The quality of the photographs was stunning. Carl Dauthendey. They were embarrassed by the clarity of these figures and believed that the little." The reaction in America was also one of amazement.' and have no hesitation in avowing. the sitter seeing himself as he did when looking at a mirror.) rinsing the plate in hot distilled water. the discovery being announced on 7 January 1839. the surfaces were extremely delicate. The Daguerreotype was the first successful photographic process. The Journal "The Knickerbocker" for December that year quoted: We have seen the views taken in Paris by the 'Daguerreotype. Their exquisite perfection almost transcends the bounds of sober belief. in the arts. the chemicals used (bromine and chlorine fumes and hot mercury) were highly toxic. Daguerre's choice of chemicals was such that the action of light left a milky white image or mercury amalgam. and this caused quite a sensation at the time. Petersburg.

Trafalgar Square. thus making portraiture more of a practical proposition. The colours would be applied very carefully with a fine brush. and many daguerreotypists began to open for business. a daguerreotype in the International Museum in Rochester. However. states that the picture was taken between 4:40pm and 5:30pm on 19 April 1840."It frequently happens. ● Taken together. In fact. and sitters had often to cope with brilliant sunlight. that he has depicted many things that he had no notion of at the time.and this is one of the charms of photography . J. which were almost invariably presented in ornate cases.10 to 15 minutes in bright sunlight." This capacity to record minute detail was put to good use by Jean Baptiste Louis Gros. an amateur who made the first images of the Parthenon whilst on a mission in Greece. and one cannot but marvel at the intricacy of the detail. in order to reduce exposure time! There was clearly a need to find some more effective ways of reducing the exposure time: ● On the chemistry side. rests were used to keep the head still. these improvements enabled photographers to use exposures of between ten and thirty seconds.) Petzval's lens was still being widely used almost a century later.G. J. was an amazing development. while Antoine Claudet experimented using chlorine.6 (as opposed to f14. it was a blind alley as far as photography was concerned. One photographer even used to run flour on the sitter's face. bearing his signature. In 1853 Daguerre's patent expired. and upon it . and then fixed simply by breathing on the plate itself. or printed placards most irrelevant. depicting a chapel. By March 1841 Beard had opened a studio at the Royal Polytechnic Institution. are discovered upon their walls: sometimes a distant dial-plate is seen. including the minutest sculptural elements. perhaps long afterwards. but Fox Talbot appears to have removed this! One problem with early daguerreotypes was the length of exposure required . The daguerreotype. so many artists turned to hand-colouring the photographs. . all photographs were monochrome (it was not until after the time of Maxwell that colour photography became a possibility). In the museum at the Royal Photographic Society one of Daguerre's cameras is displayed." To make photography possible. which was currently being used. with thirty-six colours. However. while Claudet opened one three months later. It was used by Talbot for his own process.unconsciously recorded . Goddard started using bromide as well as iodine to sensitise plates. there is an interesting omission: Daguerre's cameras always had a label on the side. aptly called a "mirror with a memory". Petzval invented a portrait lens with an aperture of f3. On his return to Paris he discovered that on close inspection details which he had not observed could be examined. Fox Talbot noted in a letter dated 21 May 1852: "Ld Brougham assured me once that he sat for his Dabguerreotype portrait half an hour in the sun and never suffered so much in his life. Colouring was a skilled and delicate affair.that the operator himself discovers on examination. of course. On the optical side. behind St. dated 1850.the hour of the day at which the view was taken. At that time. Typical of the kits was the Newman kit. Martin's church. M. Sometimes inscriptions and dates are found upon the buildings. moreover . Such lengths were hardly suitable for portraiture.

Typical prices of a Daguerreotype would be: 2.55) To see a short video clip showing how a daguerreotype is made. Some additional trivia Do have a look at the site dedicated exclusively to Daguerre.(£1.daguerre.org © Robert Leggat. The address is http://www. 2000 Last updated undefined .05) 2.5" x 2" (1840) .21/.10/6 (£0.5" x 2" (1850) . see HERE.

GAUDIN. He tells us with no further comment that it is iodine and mercury.. that bitumen of Judea and lavender oil is the secret." © Robert Leggat... At one moment an excited man comes out.. Soon a crowd surrounds a newcomer. the technique was so new that even the poorest plate gave him unspeakable joy. the secret divulged.. Although I came two hours beforehand. where the process was at long last divulged. he is surrounded. like many others I was barred from the hall (and) was. and he answers with a know-it-all air. we are reduced to talking about bitumen of Judea and lavender oil.with the crowd for everything that happened outside. he is questioned. Everyone wanted to record the view from his window. and everywhere cameras were trained on buildings. Marc Antoine In a book written in 1844 Marc Gaudin gives us an eyewitness account of the excitement with which the announcement of the Daguerreotype process five years earlier had been greeted: "The Palace.in a word.. opticians' shops were crowded with amateurs panting for daguerreotype apparatus. A few days later.was stormed by a swarm of the curious at the memorable sitting on 19 August... more startled than the last. Last updated undefined . 1999. counted over and over roof tiles and chimney bricks .. and he was lucky who at first trial formed a silhouette of roof tops against the sky. the sitting is over. Questions are multiplied but as he knows nothing more.. 1839. Finally. He went into ecstasies over chimneys...

which have neither created nor supplemented literature. looking at an early daguerreotype. one of the last miniaturists. wife of the Director of the National Gallery (who also was the first President of the Photographic Society) also had her reservations. it will soon have supplanted or corrupted it altogether. who saw their means of livelihood coming to an end. prints and manuscripts which time is devouring.. Whilst reviewing a photographic exhibition in 1859.. Delaroche is credited with claiming that painting was now dead. turned to photography for their livelihood. However. like printing or shorthand.. "Let it rescue from oblivion those tumbling ruins. then it will be so much the worse for us. it had also become less true. and that in portraiture the broad suggestion of form had been replaced by a fussy accumulation of irrelevant detail: "Every button is seen .." Certainly those artists who specialised in miniature portraits suffered. but thirty years later only sixty-four were exhibited. whilst it is said that Sir William Ross. but it is true that a number turned to this new medium for their livelihood. on his death-bed in 1860. A number of artists. claiming that whilst photography was more exact. upon anything whose value depends solely upon the addition of something of a man's soul. his paintings seem to illustrate. imaginary. absolute likeness was not always what the sitter wanted. By 1860 Claudet was able to claim that miniature portraits were no longer painted without the assistance of photography. clearly saw the need to put photography firmly in its place: "If photography is allowed to supplement art in some of its functions.ARTISTS and Photography The invention of the Daguerreotype caused considerable concern to many artists.piles of stratified flounces in most accurate drawing are there but the likeness to Rembrandt and Reynolds is gone!" . replied "No Madam ." Some painters dubbed the new invention "the foe-to-graphic art.. He felt it provided an impression of reality that did not have the 'spiritual momentum' which came from the imagination. commented sadly that "it was all up with future miniature painting." It is also claimed. Baudelaire's assertion that photography had become "the refuge of failed painters with too little talent" was rather unfair. those books. But if it is allowed to encroach upon the domain of the. that he saw photography as consisting merely of a copy of reality. but with scanty evidence. and began colouring them in. that Turner. seeing the writing on the wall.its true duty.but the very humble servant. and that painting went much further. in 1810 over 200 miniatures were exhibited at the Royal Academy.it will be thanked and applauded. Alfred Chalon. whilst others cashed in on the fact that the images were in monochrome.. precious things whose form is dissolving and which demand a place in the archives of our memory . Gustave Courbet. commented that he was glad he had had his day! Charles Baudelaire despised photography as being a product of industry..photography can't flatter!" Lady Eastlake. and in 1870 only thirty-three. when asked by Queen Victoria whether photography was a threat to miniature painting. the painter.. In any case.is to be the servant of the sciences and arts . recognised photography as a useful aid in depicting motifs. On the other hand. this rose to 300 in 1830.. by the thickness of colour.

it gives perfectly exact resemblances that at least please the heart and satisfy the memory. because it also proved to be an aid to their work. Portrait photographers found that by employing photography the number of sittings required could be reduced or even eliminated. by Sir John Watson Gordon (1837). this is a one-sided view. with photographers touting for custom (much as artists do today at the Montmartre. almost as though this were a form of cheating! David Octavius Hill used photography to make a record of people to be painted. made a comeback at the turn of the century. Cèzanne. Joshua Reynolds sometimes needed up to fifty sittings for portraits. Royal Academy. came to the defence of photography. © Robert Leggat. 2000. thirty years later. Delacroix and Degas." This however did not stop William Powell Frith from observing. Last updated undefined ." In 1865 Claudet. Man Ray. See also Muybridge. whose work led to a change in the way artists painted horses on the move. (See here). Others who used photography to assist them in painting included Negre. by then a respected photographer. following a blistering article in a French journal: "One cannot but acknowledge that there are arts which are on their way out and that it is photography which has given them the death-blow! Why are there no longer any miniaturists? For the very simple reason that those who want miniatures find that photography does the job better and instead of portraits more or less accurate where form and expression are concerned. these photographs later being used as group studies in William Powell Frith's painting "Derby Day. In that same journal Francis Frith claimed that photography "has already almost entirely superseded the craft of the miniature painter. and is on the point of touching. in fact. that in his opinion photography had not benefited art at all. a further blow to miniature portraiture was to come when the Carte-de-Visite craze began to develop. in Paris). several other branches of skilled art. made an interesting observation on this apparent controversy. whilst in the 1860s Robert Howlett was employed to take photographs of groups of people attending the Derby from the top of a cab. born later than this period.Clearly she did not share the dread that painting was an art of the past. it is said that his painting of Sir George Beaumont had required twelve sittings for the painting of the cravat alone! A problem is that few painters would readily admit to using photography as an aid. with an irresistible hand. An example of photography being used for this purpose can be seen in a portrait of Sir William Allen. this clearly comes from an 1843 Calotype. Lautrec. Tissot. Though photography was seen by some as the invention that was killing art. However. By 1857 an Art Journal was reporting that portrait photography was becoming a public nuisance. "It has really now become a matter for Police interference both on the grounds of propriety and public comfort!" the writer thundered." Miniature painting. Gaugin.

CALOTYPE process, The
The Calotype was a positive/negative process introduced in 1841 by Fox Talbot, and popular for the next ten years or so. Strictly speaking the term refers only to the negative image, but it is commonly taken to mean both. A piece of paper was brushed with weak salt solution, dried, then brushed with a weak silver nitrate solution, dried, making silver chloride in the paper. This made it sensitive to light, and the paper was now ready for exposure. This might take half an hour, giving a print-out image. It was fixed in strong salt solution - potassium iodide of hypo. Fox Talbot, who devised the process, showed his results at the Royal Institution on 25 January 1839, delivering a paper on the last day of that month. The following year Fox Talbot succeeded in improving the "photogenic drawing" process, renaming it the calotype. He discovered that if he added gallic acid, the paper became more sensitive to light, and it was no longer necessary to expose until the image became visible. With further treatment of gallic acid and silver nitrate, the latent image would be developed. In 1844 Fox Talbot opened a photography establishment in Reading in order to mass produce prints. To make a print, the negative was placed on top of more photo paper, laid flat in a glass frame, and allowed to develop in sunlight. The Calotype process was not as popular as its rival one, the Daguerreotype. There were various reasons for this:
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its popularity was to a great extent arrested by patent restrictions; the materials were less sensitive to light, therefore requiring longer exposures; the imperfections of the paper reduced the quality of the final print; Calotypes did not have the sharp definition of daguerreotypes. the process itself took longer, as it required two stages (making the negative and then the positive); the prints tended to fade.

One might also suggest that the fact paper was used as a negative lessened the detail of the picture, though from an artistic point of view some would regard this as a desirable feature. However, the calotype also had its advantages compared with the daguerreotype:
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it provided the means of making an unlimited number of prints from one negative; retouching could be done on either negative or print; prints on paper were easier to examine, and far less delicate; the calotype had warmer tones.

When the Collodion process was introduced in 1851, the calotype became obsolete. However, the negativepositive process was one day to become the standard photographic one, which is still used today.
© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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TALBOT, William Henry Fox
b. 11 February 1800; d. 17 September 1877 His signature is Henry Talbot, and though he is said to have disliked being called Fox Talbot, that name has stuck. Though Fox Talbot was not the first to produce photographs, he made a major contribution to the photographic process as we know it today. Talbot studied the classics and mathematics at Cambridge, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1822, and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1832. He was also an MP, Biblical scholar, a Botanist and Assyriologist, making a contribution to the deciphering of cuneiform inscriptions brought to England from Nineveh. Though some of his pictures show a measure of artistic taste, it was his inability to draw which caused him to experiment with a mechanical method of capturing and retaining an image. Talbot attempted to draw with the aid of both a camera obscura and a camera lucida when producing his sketches, one of which was Villa Melzi. Later he wrote: "(In) October, 1833, I was amusing myself on the lovely shores of the Lake of Como in Italy, taking sketches with a Camera Lucida, or rather, I should say, attempting to make them; but with the smallest possible amount of success... After various fruitless attempts I laid aside the instrument and came to the conclusion that its use required a previous knowledge of drawing which unfortunately I did not possess. I then thought of trying again a method which I had tried many years before. This method was to take a Camera Obscura and to throw the image of the objects on a piece of paper in its focus - fairy pictures, creations of a moment, and destined as rapidly to fade away... It was during these thoughts that the idea occurred to me... how charming it would be if it were possible to cause these natural images to imprint themselves durably and remain fixed on the paper!" The earliest surviving paper negative is of the now famous Oriel window in the South Gallery at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, where he lived. It is dated August 1835. Talbot's comments read "When first made, the squares of glass about 200 in number could be counted, with help of a lens." Talbot described how he took his pictures: "Not having with me... a camera obscura of any considerable size, I constructed one out of a large box, the image being thrown upon one end of it by a good object-glass fixed at the opposite end. The apparatus being armed with a sensitive paper, was taken out in a summar afternoon, and placed about one hundred yards from a building favourably illuminated by the sun. An or so afterwards I opened the box and I found depicted upon the paper a very distinct representation of the building, with the exception of those parts of it which lay in the shade. A little experience in this branch of the art showed me that with a smaller camera obscura the effect would be produced in a smaller time. Accordingly I had

several small boxes made, in which I fixed lenses of shorter focus, and with these I obtained very perfect, but extremely small pictures..." These "little boxes", measuring two or three inches, were named "mousetraps" by the family at Lacock, because of the various places they were to be found.

January 1839 was a busy month as far as announcements of discoveries were concerned. On 7 January Daguerre announced the development of his process. A few days later Talbot wrote to Arago, who had promoted Daguerre's invention, suggesting that it was he, not Daguerre, who had invented the photographic process. (At that time he was unaware that the process was entirely different). One of Arago's fellow-scientists replied that Daguerre had, in fact, devised a number of processes over fourteen years. Doubtless annoyed that Daguerre had been put in the lime-light he felt he himself deserved, Talbot began to publicise his own process. On 25 January 1839 he announced the discovery at the Royal Institution of a method of "photogenic drawing." At the time the sensitivity of the process was extremely poor. Then, in September 1840 Fox Talbot discovered the phenomenon of the latent image. It is said that this was a chance discovery, when he attempted to re-sensitise some paper which had failed to work in previous experiments; as the chemical was applied, an image, previously invisible, began to appear. This was a major breakthrough which led to drastically lowered exposure times from one hour or so to 1-3 minutes. Talbot he called the improved version the calotype (from the Greek "Kalos", meaning beautiful) and on 31 January he gave a paper to the Royal Society of London. The paper was entitled "Some account of the Art of Photogenic drawing, or the process by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the artist's pencil." Talbot patented his invention on 8 February 1841, an act which considerably arrested the development of photography at the time. The patent (a separate one being taken out for France) applied to England and Wales. Talbot chose not to extend his patent to Scotland, and this paved the way for some outstanding photographs to be produced in Edinburgh by Hill and Adamson. In 1844 Talbot began issuing a book entitled "The Pencil of Nature", the first commercial book to be illustrated with actual photographs.* In order to produce these prints, he helped his former valet, Nicolaas Henneman to set up the Reading Establishment, a photographic processing studio within relatively easy reach of both London and Lacock. This however lasted only four years, as it was not a financial success. Talbot's process in general never reached the popularity of the daguerreotype process, partly because the latter produced such amazing detail, but partly because Talbot asked so much for the rights to use his process. A writer of the time, Henry Snelling, commented: "He is a man of some wealth, I believe, but he demands so high a price for a single

right.... that none can be found who have the temerity to purchase." Consequently calotypes never flourished as they might have, and the fault must lie largely with him. The newly formed Calotype club sought unsuccessfully to persuade Talbot to relax his restrictions in order to encourage the growth of photography. It is claimed that Talbot, somewhat put out by the fact that Daguerre had received many honours whilst he had been given none, was reacting accordingly. Sadly Talbot's name was somewhat tarnished by his series of attempts to enforce his patent. A claim in 1854 that the Collodion process was also covered by his calotype patent. was lost in court, and from then onwards, knowing that the faster and better collodion process was free for all to use, there were no further restrictions and photography began to take off in a big way. Having said this, there exists some evidence that there had been a concerted attempt to discredit Talbot in order to overturn the patent. Talbot increasingly viewed the defence of his calotype patent as a defence of Henneman, who had invested heavily in setting up the Reading Establishment . Talbot was enormously loyal to Henneman, and concerned about profit being made at his expense It is possible, therefore, that history has been a little too harsh on Fox Talbot. He too had spent a considerable amount of money developing his invention, and it has been suggested that his enforcement of patents was more due to his careful upbringing as far as finances were concerned than his desire to make a fortune. Other documents, particularly relating to the early days of the Photographic Society, reveal him to be far more magnanimous and generous than is commonly supposed. (See Talbot and patents.) Talbot summarised his achievement thus: "I do not profess to have perfected an art but to have commenced one, the limits of which it is not possible at present exactly to ascertain. I only claim to have based this art on a secure foundation." The Royal Photographic Society has two complete sets of the limited edition of "Pencil of Nature", together with many of Fox Talbot's letters, books and documents. August 1999: A new web-site led by Professor Larry J. Schaaf is the definitive site on this remarkable inventor. It is part of a three year project, and is a must for any student of Talbot. It is located at http://www.foxtalbot.arts.gla.ac.uk/ PS On a lighter note, in a discussion on Talbots' name, someone came up with what must be the definitive answer: "He was called Fox because he was a particularly cunning animal, and finally outran the Dag-hare!" * However, see also Atkins.
© Robert Leggat, 2006

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We see a picture of the boulevards in Paris. a personal family record . photographs were a form of record. The: Note on The Pencil of Nature Few original copies of "The Pencil of Nature" remain. and one of a part of Queens College. just a collection of pictures. Atkin's book had a clear purpose. with a strange justification for them in the script! The book is a mix of technical information. Photographs were "taken" or "obtained" as if they were natural specimens. It was regarded as a superb mechanical process. No clear theme. yes.BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. but purely mechanical. There's a copy of a drawing. Looking at Talbot's book.probably a nightmare for librarians whose task it is to catalogue books according to subject! Perhaps this highlights a problem that the earliest photographers had. 2000 . and several pictures of Lacock Abbey. almost the first. because there does not seem to be a theme running though the book. except that her pictures were photograms rather than photographs. Well. Oxford. or "sun pictures". guide book. a shot of Queens College. Oxford. but the book is significant inasmuch as it was the first ever to be published with photographs. they were "impressed by nature's hand". one cannot help but feel that it is an odd collection of pictures. a facinating collection of irrelevant details. that distinction is owned by Anna Atkins. a picture of Westminster Abbey. where Fox Talbot worked. But pictures taken at this time seem to show that one is playing around with the medium to find out what its possibilities are (and that's a perfectly legitimate act) without being quite sure where they were going. It is a somewhat motley collection. Back to the section in "Beginnings of photography" © Robert Leggat. Indeed. Whereas one "made" art.

.." Independently. d.. A French glass merchant living in High Holborn. in the full blazing sunshine and after about an exposure of a minute the plate was developed. Until we can operate with the Talbotype in several seconds and as rapidly as with the Daguerreotype so that one can get more pleasing poses.. Martins in the Fields church.CLAUDET. In 1841 he set up a studio on the roof of the Adelaide Gallery (now the Nuffield Centre). and finally that one can obtain an unlimited number of copies. etc. My eyes were made to stare until the tears streamed from them and the portrait was of course a caricature. and sitters were often instructed to "sit there. and later on in two other sites in London. Beard even took out a court injunction against Claudet in an effort to close his business. using chlorine instead of bromine to reduce exposures. J. where he established what he called a "Temple to Photography. and bought from him a licence to operate in England. But I also say that the Talbotype has beauty which the other has not. but as his letter to Talbot indicates. Jean Francois Antoine b.." In 1851 he moved his business to 107 Regent Street. Thomas Sutton." One disgruntled sitter. Exposures. and there was considerable competition between the two." . 12 August 1797. so that he was able to obtain a portrait by the oxyhydrogen light in fifteen seconds and an image of the moon in four seconds. were still long. I paid a guinea for it.. that the impressions are more portable and circulate more easily.. he learned details of the daguerreotype process from its inventor. finer and of greater perfection than the Talbotype. The idea of using painted backdrops is also attributed to him. Another daguerreotype practitioner at the time was Richard Beard. described his ordeal: "I was seated." In 1842 FoxTalbot sought to persuade Claudet to practise the Calotype (also known as the Talbotype) at his studio. at this time. It was sixteen times faster than the ones currently in use. as still as death. not with total success: "Until we have a paper with a surface as uniform and perfect as a silver plate I say the Daguerreotype gives images more delicate. but also increase their size.. 27 December 1867 Claudet was one of the first commercial photographers. It has since faded. that it is possible so send them through the post. Claudet did some work with the Calotype.. the Adelaide Gallery.. Dudley Johnston. but the court found in Claudet's favour. In 1845 Claudet bought a lens designed by Joseph Petzval. behind St.. London. stick them in albums. a distinguished member of the Society early this century. He also invented the red (safe) dark-room light. Claudet discovered an accelerating process. and enabled him not only to take pictures with shorter exposures. writes "He discovered a method of increasing greatly the rapidity of the Daguerreotype by means of bromide. and it was he who suggested the idea of using a series of photographs to create the illusion of movement. then I say that the advantage is on the side of the Daguerreotype..

and the award. of all that exists in the various countries of the globe. Postscript: A contemporary comparison of Claudet and Beard's work © Robert Leggat. Sadly." Claudet received many honours. It brings in the cheapest and most portable form. 1997. among which was the appointment. less than a month after his death. not only the picture but the model. and most of his most valuable photographic treasures were lost. ten years later. in a tangible shape. his "temple to photography" was burnt down. of an honour from the Emperor of France. Last updated undefined . in 1853. He invented a folding stereoscope and an endless belt stereoscopic viewer which enabled one to view up to a hundred pictures in succession. He wrote: "The stereoscope is the general panorama of the world.In the late eighteen fifties Claudet became fascinated by stereoscopic photography. as "Photographer-inordinary" to Queen Victoria.

its history.BREWSTER. the latter possesses the advantage of giving a greater breadth and massiveness to its landscapes and portraits. 10 February 1868 Sir David Brewster was an outstanding scholar who had the distinction of going to Edinburgh University at the age of eleven. One Daguerreotype cannot be copied from another. Last updated undefined . and a whole circle of friends can procure.. The Daguerreotype may be considered as having nearly attained perfection.. a copy of a successful and pleasing portrait. a viewer for stereoscopic prints. He did early work on the properties of light. and the kaleidoscope. These became popular items in Victorian drawing-rooms. Sir David b. 11 December 1781.. and the person whose portrait is desired must sit for every copy that he wishes. 1999. we can take any number of pictures. "The great and unquestioned superiority of the calotype pictures is their power of multiplication. In point of expense. on the contrary. whereas in the Calotype the drawing is exactly conformable to nature. who had actually invented stereoscopy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1815. as an aid to his painting. from a negatives.. while a Calotype one will cost as many pence. within reasonable limits. for a mere trifle.. He was in touch with Fox Talbot and it was he who suggested the use of the photographic process to David Hill. He clearly favoured Talbot's Calotype process over the Daguerreotype. In the Daguerreotype the landscapes are all reverted.... theory and construction) is still a good introduction to stereoscopic photography. was a founder of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.." In 1849 Brewster invented the Stereoscope. another of the same character cannot be reproduced. "While a Daguerreotype picture is much more sharp and accurate in its details than a Calotype.. though the author rather spoilt it by his unpleasantries concerning Wheatstone. d.. © Robert Leggat. a quarto plate must cost five or six shillings. With its silver plate and glass covering. and was responsible for numerous inventions. When a pleasing picture is obtained. In the Calotype. a Daguerreotype picture vastly exceeds a Calotype one of the same size. whereas the Calotype is yet in its infancy. His book (The Stereoscope.

two years later." whilst Sutton wrote: "As a matter of taste. In 1848 a cousin of Nicephore Niépce. and they consequently never find a place in my portfolio. (One source.nothing proved reliable. brought to this country by John Mayall and made known in England by Hugh Welch Diamond. for example. perfected a process which consisted of coating a glass plate with salted white of egg containing some potassium iodide. The plate was then left to dry. initially the albumen process was not seen as the ideal answer." Here the chemicals would be on the paper rather than in it. and the more perfectly is the detail. and I see no reason why all the delicacy of albumenized proofs should not be retained by adopting other means to this end. and evidently had little time for "those who prefer that peculiar kind of vigour and brilliancy which is exhibited by a . this was introduced in France by Blanquart-Evrard. continued: "the offensive and vulgar glare which it possesses sometimes is more detrimental to pictorial effect than is counter.The ALBUMEN process In the late 1840s albumen came to be used in the preparation of both negatives and printing paper. the imperfections of the paper were printed along with the image. and yet be free from so unpleasant a defect as the glare alluded to. However. After exposure it was then developed in gallic acid. as in the case of the salted-paper process. suggests that this process was first described at the Photographic Society by Henry Pollock. so it was used for architectural or still life work. with exposure times ranging between five and fifteen minutes. Shadbolt. after which it was sensitised with an acid solution of silver nitrate. it was very slow. This new process made for very fine detail and much higher quality. in order to increase the definition.... however.) Until then. I extremely dislike prints on albumenized paper. The first development was at the negative stage. Abel Niépce. Talbot's negatives were on paper. the more brilliant is the effect.. had been used. met with much greater success. The answer would be to use glass negatives rather than paper. The development of albumen printing paper.balanced by other advantages. when a positive was made. especially that of the half tones brought out.".even the slime left by snails . not for portraiture. An article by Shadbolt in The Journal of the Photographic Society (1855) states the problem: "The more the picture is kept upon the surface of the paper. and that anything like soaking the solutions into the paper produces a flat and unsatisfying effect. salted paper. Though several substances had been thought of . However. It was a glossy printing paper which produced a very smooth surface and therefore permitted reproduction in much greater detail. and inevitably. with its limitations of definition. but the chemicals would not adhere to the glass without a suitable binder.

when gelatine paper began to replace it. 1997. Nevertheless the process began to catch on.. or a well-polished Wellington boot. and continued to be so until the turn of the century.piece of black sticking plaster. Further information about this process is available in detail HERE. It was said that one supplier of albumen paper alone was using sixty thousands eggs a day! Albumen printing paper continued to be in general use until the turn of the century. and by the sixties it was in general use. Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. Its success may be judged by the fact that one of the photographic journals printed recipes for using the egg yolks left over after the whites had been used for photographic purposes." To reduce the glaze.. some diluted the albumen.

Unlike Fox Talbot. it was also expensive. with flying clouds. Together with Peter Fry. would have failed to register. sculptor) before he turned to photography. This new process was an important one. but none of these methods proved successful.. enabling the making of finely detailed negatives. and enthusiastic review wrote: "Mr.. who was involved in a number of law-suits in order to protect his patent." Three years earlier Archer had come across this substance." Within a very short period the collodion process had replaced the calotype.. ohers used wax.. 1813. He sometimes succeeds in one second. such as rippling water. In a review of an exhibition in London in 1854. In March 1851 the "Chemist" printed an article entitled "On the use of Collodion in photography. smoke. Llwelyn tried to tackle photographs of waves. and then immerse this in a solution of silver nitrate. Both the exposure and the development had to be made in the camera whilst the plate was still wet. both of which had limitations: ● ● Daguerreotypes. as one had to print through paper. d.has sent four instantaneous pictures.ARCHER. were not as sharp. Another picture represents the sea beating itself into foam against a rock. though they had very clear images. Some experimenters useed albumen (egg white). 2 May 1857 Scott Archer's development of the wet collodion process changed the face of photography. Waves are caught with foam on them.. Writing to Llewelyn on 31 May 1852 Fox Talbot said: "Pray accept the enclosed specimen which was taken the other day in 3 seconds by Henneman or his assistant. not only for its clarity (using glass as a base) but also because it reduced the exposure times to a matter of seconds. Archer also devised the Ambrotype process. in one of which the seashore has been taken. Archer had a variety of jobs (silver-smith's apprentice. Scott . with carts and persons moving upon it. blown clouds. and which was being used to dress wounds." Up till this time more transient events. though capable of unlimited reproduction. required lengthy exposures and it was a "once-only" process. He too experimented with albumen. coin valuer. Something that combined the best of both processes was needed. Frederick Scott b. which produced a transparent waterproof film. Until then the two processes in existence were the daguerreotype and the calotype.and the feintest (sic) trace of indecision in some walking figures shows that could scarcely have completed one footstep before the picture was complete. Another represents a steamboat at a pier. Llwelyn. Archer's procedure was to mix collodion with potassium iodide. Calotypes. There were several attempts to find a medium that combined the advantages but eliminated their drawbacks. amd has fixed instantaneously the floating smoke and steam. and actually succeeded.

The RPS has some thirty or so albumen pictures. he could undoubtedly have made a fortune. was free. It follows. Archer's process. 2003. including an album of views of Kenilworth Castle. © Robert Leggat. never receiving during his lifetime the appreciation due to someone who had made such an advance in photography. a fund for the benefit of his widow and children was opened. raising £747. which was better in any case. that at this period a photographer had to carry his darkroom on his travels. and this the processing solutions can not penetrate. In the wake of this court ruling Talbot did not renew his calotype patent. Collodion dries quickly. in 1871. Talbot even went as far as to claim that the Collodion process was covered by his Calotype patent. It hardens. in December 1854 he began a lawsuit against Martin Laroche on this very issue. Had Scott Archer patented his Wet Collodion process. though a considerable step forward. by Richard Maddox. but he lost. After his death. given that the collodion process. in penury. and though he lived just a few years to see others making a huge fortune from it. and a small civil list pension was obtained for the the three children who by this time had been left orphans. he died at just 44 years. Consequently the Collodion process became free to the world.Archer did not seek to make money out of his discovery. The next major step would be the invention. therefore. Last updated undefined . had one particular disadvantage.

which had only been invented in 1846.guncotton dissolved in ether and alcohol . but which quickly found a use during the Crimean war. The This process was introduced in 1851 and marks a watershed in photography. for painting over a cut). exposed and developed whilst the plate was still wet. ● ● ● ● being more sensitive to light than the calotype process. himself a photographer who used collodion. Collodion was a viscous liquid . which was ideal for dressing and protecting wounds. Up till then the two processes in use were the daguerreotype and the calotype. when it dried it formed a very thin clear film. because the process was never patented. but could not be reproduced. described the process in a poem he called "Hiawatha's Photography. At first. because a glass base was used. photography became far more widely used.." "First a piece of glass he coated With Collodion. Finally he fixed each picture With a saturate solution Of a certain salt of Soda. The search began. First the collodion had to be spread carefully over the entire plate. but suffered from the fact that any print would also show the imperfections of the paper. Daguerreotypes were better than calotypes in terms of detail and quality. and plunged it In a bath of Lunar Caustic Carefully dissolved in water. The ideal would have been to coat light sensitive material on to glass. Collodion was just the answer as far as photography was concerned..COLLODION process." This "soda" was. Albumen (the white of an egg) was used. Lewis Carroll. the advantage of this being that the solutions could be washed out by rinsing under a tap for a minute or so. hypo. who up till then had generally to portray very still scenes or people. There was however one main disadvantage: the process was by no means an easy one. Then in 1851 Frederick Scott Archer came across collodion. This opened up a new dimension for photographers. the images were sharper than with a calotype. (One can still obtain this today. The plate then had to be sensitised. whereas hypo would need much more washing time. but the chemicals would not adhere without a suitable binder which obviously had to be clear.the ability to reproduce fine detail and the capacity to make multiple prints. The collodion process had several advantages. for it would provide the binding which was so badly needed. Sometimes potassium cyanide was used. of course. the sensitivity dropped once the collodion had dried. Secondly my Hiawatha Made with cunning hand a mixture Of the acid Pyro-gallic. for a process which would combine the best of both processes .. There he left it certain minutes. And the Glacial Acetic. calotypes were reproducible.to as little as two or three seconds. it reduced the exposure times drastically . then. the price of a paper print was about a tenth of that of a daguerreotype. . It is often known as the wet plate collodion process for this reason. And of alcohol and water: This developed all the picture.

As mentioned above. All sorts of liquids were tried. these plates had to be dipped into a nitrate of silver bath and exposed whilst still wet. especially for travel photographers. the analysis of movement (see Muybridge) became possible. stereoscopic photography began to flourish. A writer in the Journal of the Photographic Society (December 1856) wrote: "for subjects where texture. and it is no mere coincidence that many photographs taken in this period happened to be near rivers or streams! Moreover. and then developed upon one's return. some even losing their lives. as a result of careless handling of the photographic chemicals. but quite a feat if one wanted to do some photography on location. The former was a positive on glass. Nevertheless the invention of this process turned out to be a watershed as far as photography was concerned: ● ● ● ● cheaper alternatives. © Robert Leggat. The records of the Photographic Society give an interesting account of the efforts to ensure even sensitivity of the Collodion plates. there was no alternative but to carry very large cameras. Exposure would have to be almost immediate as otherwise the top of the plate would lose its moisture and the sensitivity would become uneven. Fenton. Despite the advantages the collodion process offered. It is reported that several photographers demolished their darkrooms and homes. and within a few years few people used either the Daguerreotype or Calotype process. though he used collodion for portraiture and for his medical photography. there were still many who stoutly defended the calotype. The collodion mixture was not only inflammable but highly explosive. so if one wanted large prints. exposed on location." Moreover. One might also mention the safety factor. (It is such limitations of the process that make the work of people like the Bisson brothers. Hence Diamond used the calotype process for some of his travel photographs. paper negatives could be prepared at home. To see a short video clip showing a collodion plate being made. beer.. gradations of tint and distance are required. the calotype process was less of an ordeal. the latter a positive on metal. and even rasperry syrup! A variation on this was the Oxymel process. to compare with a good picture from calotype or waxed paper negative.. including honey. because of the faster speed of the process.The process was labour-intensive enough in a studio's darkroom. The use of collodion caught on very quickly indeed. and others so remarkable). see HERE. there is nothing. 2001 Last updated undefined . Fenton took a caravan.. Some took complete darkroom tents. such as Ambrotypes and Tintypes were developed. at this time there were no enlargements. the carte-de-visite craze started.


(He was not actually the first to produce them.. several negatives were taken at a sitting: the Photographic News for 24 September 1858 reported that no fewer than four dozen negatives were taken of Lord Olverston at one sitting! During the 1860s the craze for these cards became immense. As might be expected. The carte-de-visite did not catch on until one day in May 1859 Napoleon III. or having one's own carte-de-visite made. some firms copied the photograph of a famous person and made quite a healthy living! The reasons for the success of these cards were ● ● their cheapness. halted his troops and went into Disdéri's studio in Paris. was said to be earning more then ten thousand pounds a year . Some had a mechanism which rotated the photographic plate. on his way to Italy with his army. light and easy to collect. others had multiple lenses which could be uncovered singly or all together. and this signalled the way for a boom in collecting pictures of the famous.a fortune last century. One firm paid a small fortune for exclusive rights to photograph the Royal Family. from Marseilles). a small fortune would go to the photographer! To print quickly.. who in late 1854 patented a way of taking a number of photographs on one plate (usually eight). Helmut Gernsheim.. comments that they were called "sure cards" because one could be sure that each time a famous person consented to sit..CARTE-DE-VISITE photography Cartes-de-visite were small visiting card portraits (usually measuring 4 1/2 x 2 1/2") introduced by a Parisian photographer. From this welcome publicity Disdéri's fame began." Sometimes the profits could be huge. and two years later he was said to be earning nearly £50. there are not less than thirtyfive in Regent Street alone. Other public figures were often persuaded to sit.. ** In England carte-de-visite portraits were taken of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. It is said that the portraits of Queen Victoria and the Royal Family taken by John Mayall sold over one hundred thousand copies. Different types of cameras were devised. mass produced ones could be bought for 25p a dozen they were small. Andre Disdéri. who was based in Yorkshire. No greater tribute to the memory of His late Royal Highness the Prince Consort would have been paid than the fact that within one week of his decease no less than 70. to have his photograph taken. reports: "The public are little aware of the sale of the cartes de visite of celebrated persons. Our great thoroughfares are filled with photographers.000 of his cartes de visite were ordered.000 a year from one studio alone. thus greatly reducing production costs. this honour belongs to an otherwise obscure photographer called Dodero. pirating of someone else's work is not new. The average price for a card was a shilling (5p). An article in the Photographic Journal. A Frenchman by the name of Oliver Sarony. Little wonder that there was speculation that Gladstone might introduce a tax on the trade! By the way. the chief demand is for members of the Royal Fanily. and many people began to place these in photographic albums . a writer on the history of photography.

" ** This story about Napoleon stopping for a portrait has subsequently shown to be untrue. 1999. hammocks. and the larger Cabinet photographs remained in vogue until the postcard was introduced at the turn of the century. of course. By 1860 the carte de visite craze had reached its climax. Last updated undefined . announced that it had published a series of Cabinet views. and it is on record that in Britain half a million eggs were being delivered yearly to one photographic studio alone! The props used in cartes-de-visite seemed to follow certain fashions. could not be reproduced on these small cards. starting off with balustrades and curtains. In his autobiography H. they moved to columns (sometimes resting on the carpet!) bridges and stiles. whose popularity had temporarily declined. though there are some striking exceptions. 6. but that this innovation had saved it. for twenty prints at one pound. also began to experience a revival. in those days!) Cartes-de-visite were Albumen prints. Marion & Co.● collections of pictures. By the end of 1860 he had not only paid off old debts and made additions to his premises. To some extent the carte-de-visite craze also put paid to photography in which detail was a distinctive feature. the work of Gustave Le Gray and of the Bisson brothers. but had invested a considerable sum of money. became highly treasured (there was no television. two years later being able to sell his business and retire to live in London.75 x 4. Sadly. quantity rather than quality was the order of the day. Robinson states that in 1859 his photographic business had been about to collapse. particularly of royalty. Some on current display are accompanied by an advertisement by the London Stereoscopic Society. P.5 inches. for example. In May 1862. but it makes a good story and may have been put about purely for publicity purposes! © Robert Leggat. Stereoscopic cards. photographed by George Washington Wilson. There are many examples of these photographs in the Royal Photographic Society's collection. "Detention 3 minutes. and thus their businesses began to fall off. palm-trees and bicycles.

he was famous for developing the technique of making very small (101mm x 63mm) portraits. his photographic sense was not matched by his business one. 1999. Disdéri is also credited with the invention of the twin-lens reflex camera. when Napoleon stopped his troops outside his studio and went in to have his photograph taken. 1819. which came to be known as Carte-de-visite photographs. Enterprising photographers began to take photographs of famous personalities. In May 1859 he had an extraordinarily lucky break. Sadly. © Robert Leggat. At the height of his fame he was said to be one of the richest photographers in Europe. for he ended his career as a beach photographer in Monaco. dying virtually penniless. and copies were avidly collected by the people. and people flocked to his studio. d.DISDÉRI. 1889 or 1890 A French photographer. He patented this on 27 November 1854. largely replacing the daguerreotype. making him a very rich man. Andre Adolphe Eugene b. Last updated undefined . however. The process was so cheap that carte-de-visites became enormously popular. Disdéri became instantly famous.

The If a very thin under-exposed negative is placed in front of a dark background. a colleague. unlike Daguerreotypes. It became popular for a number of reasons: ● ● ● ● less exposure time was needed production was cheaper and quicker. there was no lateral reversal. occasionally varnish .usually black velvet. The process is also called "Melainotype" in the European continent. the process having been invented by Frederick Scott Archer in collaboration with Peter Fry. This is because the silver reflects some light whilst the areas with no silver at all will appear black. as there was in most Daguerreotypes. Another variant of this was the Tintype process. Ambrotypes were direct positives. 1999. and then placing a black background . the image appears like a positive. by placing the collodion side on top of the backing material. made by under-exposing collodion on glass negative. © Robert Leggat.AMBROTYPE process. the pictures being more correctly known as Collodion positives. bleaching it. This is the principle behind the Ambrotype process.behind it. particularly in America. Last updated undefined . the method of production was very different. Ambrotypes were made from the 1850s and up to the late eighties. as no printing was required as the negative could be mounted the other way. The Ambrotype process was yet another method of reducing the cost of photography. they could be viewed from any angle Ambrotypes became very popular. Though Ambrotypes slightly resemble Daguerreotypes. and Ambrotypes were much cheaper.

11 May 1902 Dr. © Robert Leggat. 4 August 1816. By the end of that decade the dry plate process had superseded the wet plate one entirely. and within a further ten years the emulsion would be coated on celluloid roll film. Last updated undefined . Richard Maddox. an English physician. 1999. In 1901 Maddox received the Royal Photographic Society's Progress Medal for inventions that led to the foundation of the dry plate and film industry. a revolutionary advance in the science of photography. Richard Leach b. wet collodion plates were being used. d. Maddox. Probably he had no idea at the time of the significance his discovery would have on the future of photography.MADDOX. and never patented the process. a photography enthusiast. Up to his time. In an article in the British Journal of Photography for 8 September 1871 he suggested a process whereby the sensitising chemicals could be coated on a glass plate in a Gelatin emulsion. instead of wet collodion. worked on photo-micrography and wrote on various photographic topics. sadly he ended his days in poverty. Some years later Charles Bennett and others made the first gelatin dry plates for sale on the open market. but it was not until 1871 that his greatest contribution to the science of photography was made. These required that coating. and soon the need for pre-prepared plates became evident. He had freely made his ideas known. exposure and development be done whilst the solution was still wet. first started looking around for a substitute to collodion when he found his health being affected by the ether vapour of the collodion process.

GELATIN. Maddox's process. one being that it was necessary to keep the collodion moist. beer and raspberry syrup! Some success was achieved by using a mixture of bromide in collodion. it also let to a greater degree of standardisation. though revolutionary. Last updated undefined . presumably because of the announcement of the collodion process the following year. and used in a number of food processes. this wet-plate process had limitations. The introduction of The development of the Collodion process marked a watershed in the development of photography. In fact. when Maddox suggested that the sensitising chemicals could be coated on to a glass plate in a gelatin rather than a collodion emulsion. 1999. particularly since Bennett's process also considerably enhanced the sensitivity of the emulsion. The ideal binder would be one which enabled the plates to be used only when dry. the science of sensitometry was introduced at around this period. The first account of its use in photography is in the British Journal of Photography for 8 September 1871. was far slower than collodion. For a number of years several attempts were made to discover ways of keeping the collodion moist for long periods. The materials tried included unusual ones like licorice. who in 1878 announced a new gelatin dry plate process. but this idea had not been taken up at the time. and a more scientific approach to photography. and within a further ten years the emulsion could be coated on celluloid roll film. when he began using gelatin. and exposure calculators now began to appear. as far back as 1850 Robert Bingham had suggested the use of gelatin. Gelatin is a protein obtained from animals. development being left until much later. exposure could now be made on location. It was not until 1871 that the next breakthrough was achieved by Dr Richard Leach Maddox. By the end of that decade the dry plate had superseded the Wet Plate entirely. This was a major breakthrough. the most successful being Charles Bennett. However. which is transparent and odourless. Several manufacturers experimented with it. reducing the exposure time to one tenth of that required for the collodion one. © Robert Leggat. This dry process ● ● ● ● relieved photographers of the need to carry about their own darkroom and chemicals.

coming soon after Dr. The This was invented by Charles Bennett in 1878. and therefore relatively fast shutter speeds were possible. ● ● ● ● © Robert Leggat. Richard Leach Maddox had suggested the use of Gelatin as a binder. began to appear. This new process was revolutionary: from now on portable darkrooms would no longer be necessary. such as used for example by Paul Martin). it led to a greater degree of standardisation and quality a new range of cameras (including novel ones. 1999. the process was much more sensitive to light.DRY-PLATE process. Last updated undefined .

my work is done . a cathedral or mountain. The photographs were of about 65mm diameter. though already popular. . To have pictures accepted.2s (£2. Eventually. One roll of film took a hundred images. 14 March 1932 Up to the time of Eastman photography. but also resulted in a gradual change in what constituted acceptable photography. It houses a huge collection of interesting images and objets connected with popular photography. Eastman was becoming increasingly ill. one would need to take ". He is particularly remembered for introducing flexible film in 1884. and with his slogan "You press the button. d. was still considered too complicated for ordinary users.EASTMAN... had found it difficult to get his informal pictures accepted at exhibitions." From the age of 76 onwards. George b. who worked with a large portable camera. the charge for this being £2. he complained. Paul Martin. Eastman started off as a bank clerk. we do the rest" he brought photography to the masses." and that "few envisaged the popular snapshot until the coming of the hand camera and the Kodak.. Next to his body was a note which said simply "To my friends. do visit the Kodak Museum at the National Museum of Photography. 12 July 1854. having settled his affairs. all circular in shape. Four years later he introduced the box camera incorporating roll film. Film and Television in Bradford.why wait?" If you have the opportunity. and George Eastman is remembered for having made photography accessible to all. Eastman's contribution not only made photography available to all. he took his own life.. The entire camera would be posted to the factory where the film was processed and the camera re-loaded and returned to the user. The box camera had a simple lens focusing on 8 feet and beyond. and then became interested in photography. and opened up a new world for popular photography.10). a noble and dignified subject.

Last updated undefined . 1999.© Robert Leggat.

Hannibal Goodwin. Keep a bucket of damp sand close by the projector. no great harm will accrue beyond the destruction of the film. The early films were highly inflammable. Even more interesting is the story of Revd. 2 January 1926 is anything to go by: "Choose a room with more than one exit door if possible.FILM The first photographic film is credited to John Corbutt †.. © Robert Leggat. which clearly suggests that Eastman Kodak had made a claim to inventing film that was unjustified. The following year George Eastman produced roll film. 1999. an Englishman working in Philadelphia. Cine projection seemed to be a pretty hazardous business. and if the people are at once got out of the room and the windows opened.. and gradually became replaced by non inflammable cellulose acetate in the 1930s.. If this is done smartly without fuss. Last updated undefined . and make sure that the windows can be easily opened in the event of the film charring and beginning to emit smoke. it depends where you look! One book states that the idea of a paper roll film was first conceived by Arthur James Melhuish in 1854. Daylight loading film was produced by Eastman Kodak in 1894. who in 1888 coated sheets of celluloid with photographic emulsion. after exposure the film would be returned still in the camera for processing. if the advice to users printed in New Photographer.. and at the first sign of a flare-up throw the machine on the bare floor and tip the sand all over it." † Well. as this smoke is poisonous. designed for a new camera called the Kodak.

made a major contribution to the development of colour photography when. giving incorrect tonal values. This led to the manufacture of "orthochromatic" plates (sensitive to all the visible spectrum except red and deep orange). 1999. with red and green objects appearing very dark. photographic emulsions were sensitive only to blue and white light. for landscape photography). 1834. Vogel. in 1873.VOGEL. a German chemist. obviously. the plates would respond to green light (essential. began to be produced. d. he discovered that if he added appropriate dyes when making a solution. © Robert Leggat. Herman b. sensitive to all visible colours in the spectrum. 1898 In the earliest days of photography. Just after the turn of the century "panchromatic" films. Last updated undefined .

He not only proved Leland right. as all three processes of sensitisation. and in time invented the zoopraxiscope. d. contrary to what painters had depicted. he took on a name closely resembling (as he saw it) the Anglo Saxon equivalent. jumping. Muybridge experimented further. Though he is not given due acclaim. . running. and include some detailed studies of men and women walking. By the 1870s lengthy exposures had been reduced to a minimum. a horse's feet are not. whilst in England a demonstration at the Royal Institution in 1882 attracted such people as the Prince of Wales. This invention was greeted with enormous enthusiasm both in America. In true Wild West style he shot the soldier dead. One of the people who became aware of this research was Leland Stanford. To prove his case he hired Muybridge to investigate whether the claim was true. During the late sixties and early seventies he made some two thousand pictures. and it was on his return from one of these. and others. Whilst working on this project Muybridge also undertook other assignments. 9 April 1830. for Muybridge to perfect a way of photographing which would supply the answer. the Prime Minister (Gladstone). but eventually became more generally accepted. Eadweard b. presumably partly because of his connections. as if like a rocking. but bunched together under the belly. each triggered off by the breaking of a trip-wire on the course. many his landscape studies rank with the best. Intrigued by this. gaining a reputation for his landscape photographs of the American West. for the Collodion process was rather slow. and it is said that because this area is associated with the coronation of Saxon kings. and so on. In 1878 an article in Scientific American published some of Muybridge's sequences. Muybridge's studies are very comprehensive. that he became aware that his wife was having an affair with another soldier. he was acquitted a little later. like other travel photographers he would have needed to take with him all the sensitising and processing equipment. However. and was asked to photograph the Panama railroad. at a particular point all four feet are off the ground simultaneously. It is said that he bet a friend that when a horse gallops.horse. Returning to his movement experiments. a former governor of California. and was duly imprisoned for murder. In his early twenties he went to live in America. It took a little time. and suggested that readers might like to cut the pictures out and place them in a "zoetrope" so that the illusion of movement might be re-created. as hitherto believed. however. a few years later Muybridge was able to photograph a horse galloping. Stanford was determined to find the truth about this. but also showed that. and thus it became possible for photography to begin to extend one's vision of reality. exposing negatives size 20x24 inch. outstretched. an instrument which in turn paved the way for cine photography. 8 May 1904 Edward James Muggeridge was born in Kingston on Thames. some distance away from the scene of the crime.MUYBRIDGE. Tennyson. who owned a number of race horses. we are told. As he used the collodion process. however. Just about this same time the French physiologist Etienne Marey was studying animal movement. exposure and processing needed to be done while the plate was still wet. and his studies began to suggest that a horse's movements were very different from what one had imagined. using twenty four cameras. Muybridge's main claim to fame (apart from being tried and acquitted for the murder of his wife's lover!) was his exhaustive study of movement. This discovery caused considerable controversy.

where he died a few years later. where they are on display. but at the time of writing. Sites come and go. "Animal Locomotion" was published three years later and still ranks as the most detailed study in this area. together with many of his plates. 2001. It contains more than twenty thousand images. The report. .In 1884 the University of Pennsylvania commissioned Muybridge to make a further study of animal and human locomotion. there's one that shows people how to make a toy zoetrope. His zoopraxiscope. Other plates are in the Royal Photographic Society's collection. See HERE. were bequeathed to the Kingston-upon-Thames Museum. In 1900 Muybridge returned to Kingston. © Robert Leggat.

A variety of viewers became available. An article in Amateur Photographer. who made stereoscopes and stereoscopic daguerreotypes. in June 1838. they listed over a hundred thousand stereo photographs in their 1858 catalogue. if one is photographing a still object a single camera is all that is needed. It comes as a surprise to many to learn that the idea of stereoscopy actually preceded photography. he said: "I. One of the most successful salesmen of stereoscopic cards was George Nottage. In describing the equipment." Wheatstone's actual stereoscope is preserved at the Science Museum in London. to cabinet-type viewers which could store fifty or so positives. together with examples of the picture produced.propose that it be called a Stereoscope. which was developed by Ducos Du Hauron. Human eyes are set about two-and-a-half inches apart. The stereoscope took off in a big way when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert observed one at the exhibition at the Crystal Palace. whilst about the same period Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli (1554-1640) produced drawings side by side which clearly indicated his understanding of binocular vision. coined the word "stéréoscopique" The first practical steps to demonstrate the theory by constructing equipment for the purpose did not take place until the 1800s. and was a method of printing two images on to one sheet. Those able to uncross their eyes so that the two pictures fuse can see the stereo effect. Though most associate Brewster with the invention.. or 3D photography. The process is still quite popular today. and the first stereoscopic photographs began to be produced. Duboscq in turn caused Antoine Claudet to become interested in stereoscopy. and Jules Duboscq. Early workers in this field include Fenton. It is still in existence. shown here. If one takes two separate photographs that same distance apart. had a lengthy article. The most common process for making stereoscopic cards was the Albumen one. later Lord Mayor of London. works because it is able to recreate the illusion of depth. and is one of two societies operating in Britain which continue to promote this form of photography. who took photographs in Russia.. from the simple Holmes viewer. Eleven years were to elapse before Sir David Brewster described a binocular camera. 1902. it was Sir Charles Wheatstone who. This signalled the beginning of a huge trade in stereoscopes and images. . In general they tended to be views. with a suitable viewer it is possible to recreate that illusion of depth. Binocular drawings were made by Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615). Though there exist (quite expensive) stereo cameras in the second-hand market. and Brewster presented her with a stereoscope made by Duboscq. his catalogues listing over one hundred thousand views. The London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company came into being in 1850 and continued for some seventy years. indeed. In 1613 the Jesuit Francois d'Aguillion (1567-1617). gave an address to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts on the phenomena of binocular vision. and details can be found here. The Stereoscopic Society was founded in 1893. it was Claudet who patented stereoscopes in 1853. plus some portraits of comic scenes. it is estimated that by the mid eighteen-fifties over a million homes owned one. when he visited there in 1852.STEREOSCOPIC photography Stereoscopic. A different way to view images is the anaglyph process. so each eye sees an image slightly differently. dated November 27. Their output was collossal. to indicate its property of representing solid figures. daguerreotype images being very rare. in his treatise.

2003 Last updated undefined .© Robert Leggat.

Francis Bedford produced a number of photographs.ARCHITECTURAL photography Many photographs defy classification. many for use with the Stereoscope. © Robert Leggat. Some of Fox Talbot's photographs. where much of the early work may come under general interest. 1999. taken in various Scottish cities. One of the earliest of photographers of architecture per se was Philip Delamotte. for example. Among the most well-known photographers are Fenton. Valentine Blanchard. and this is particularly so in the case of architectural photography. Other significant names are Robert McPherson. or landscape. an artist. travel. and Bourne and Frith. though that may not have been their primary objective. of abbeys and castles. Hill and Adamson. Last updated undefined . have architectural interest. who documented the re-building of the Crystal Palace in 1853-54. Frederick Evans and Carlo Ponti. James Anderson.

and to "encourage that class of photographic work where there is distinct evidence of artistic feeling and execution" remains the same. considering the movement to have become somewhat pretentious. Many of the more influential members of the Photo-Secession also became members of the Linked Ring.. "a means of bringing together those who are interested in the development of the highest form of Art of which Photography is capable"." A few years after the formation of this brotherhood. and had been a member for many years. brought about by the introduction of simple cameras. being in the majority." The circumstances which led to the final breakup between Robinson and the Photographic Society were relatively trivial. It was not so much their quantity as their style which angered many British members of the Link. in order to associate itself with painting exhibitions. and Henry Peach Robinson was becoming increasingly frustrated by the failure of the Photographic Society to recognise that there was an artistic dimension as well as a scientific one to photography.J. and Alfred Stieglitz. their first exhibition being held in 1910. led to the Linked Ring being dissolved. where the Photo-Secession was formed. In May 1892. In its place came the London Salon. At the 1908 exhibition of the Salon. The Photographic News for 19 August 1892 pinpointed the problem: "If photography is ever to take up its proper position as an art it must detach itself from science and live a separate existence. and his resignation was followed by that of several other distinguished photographers of the time. at the time Editor of the influential magazine "Amateur Photographer". As time went on differences between the photographic scientists and photographic artists became greater and more acrimonious. and this exclusivity has resulted in many exceptional photographers who would sympathise with the aim of the organization ignoring it. pledged to enhance photography as a fine art. but they were the last straw. and was known as the Photographic Salon. At that time Robinson was a much respected Vice-President of the Society. . F. a similar reaction to the photographic establishment was emerging in America. Frederick Evans. membership is by invitation only. The exhibition was very well received. as their publicity indicated. including work by non-members." Commenting upon the proceedings of the Photographic Society. The Link's annual. The feeling that art had nothing to do with the Society became so pronounced two or three years ago that one of the officials expressed his opinion that papers on art may be tolerated if they could be got and there was nothing better to be had. it was an important annual event for photographers both in England and abroad.Mortimer. the exhibitions mounted by the Photographic Society were regarded as the premier event. and its original interest. changed the rules for the following year's exhibition.LINKED RING. The brotherhood put on a number of exhibitions and sought to encourage the work of innovative photographers. a few months after the disastrous Council meeting which had culminated in these resignations. Famous members of this brotherhood (which was by invitation only . this leading to the resignation from the Brotherhood of several influential Americans including Stieglitz and Clarence White. together with internal strife within the Brotherhood after these Americans had resigned. several of its members were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the Society's emphasis on scientific as opposed to aesthetic matters. a brotherhood consisting of a group of photographers based in London. "Photograms of the year". and led to the resignation of Robinson and George Davidson from the Society. So too with photographers. with photography as art. Paul Martin. The success of Mortimer's exhibition. The Salon continues to this day.. However. and discontent began to arise because of their domination of the Ring. photographers discovered that many of the exhibits (over 60%) were by Americans.. Meanwhile the British members of the Link. By 1901 some of its members were boldly stating that the Linked Ring had demonstrated that "pictorial photography is able to stand alone and that it has a future entirely apart from that which is purely mechanical. However. and for a number of years . Robinson wrote "For years art has scarcely been mentioned. organised at its offices a "Salon des Refusés" of pictures not admitted to the Salon.up to the group's demise. The Many artists regard the hanging of their work at the Royal Academy almost as an accolade. Though the formation of this group was.. Robinson founded the Linked Ring.. The idea that anyone could press a button and take a photograph caused the more dedicated to look for new techniques which the "snap photographers" would never aspire to. it is also very likely that serious photographers were now trying to distance themselves from the growth of photography for all. In the 1880s. a title chosen deliberately. where the same term was used.one could not apply for it) included Frank Sutcliffe. became world famous. Its first major exhibition took place in November 1893.

(The picture. 2002. shows the Salon's exhibition hall in 1902) © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . reproduced from Amateur Photographer.

" That same year Professor Robert Bunsen (of Bunsen burner fame) was also advocating the use of magnesium. some of the results of his experiments may be found in the Manchester Museum of Science and Technology. The first portrait using magnesium was taken by Alfred Brothers of Manchester (22 February 1864). This. for example. the sun. Writing about this the following year Fox Talbot stated: "From this experiment the conclusion.. A few years later William Crookes. Soon a number of studios started using arc lighting.LIGHTING In the early days of photography the only source of light was. Powered by a gasdriven dynamo.. A piece of magnesium wire held by one end in the hand... probably using static electricity stored in Leyden jars.can be obtained by burning. as the first chemical emulsions were very insensitive. which then revolved rapidly. It also produced much smoke and ash! . Ibbetson used oxy-hydrogen light (also known as limelight) when photographing microscopic objects. The first artificial light photography dates back as far as 1839.. he claimed. a pyrotechnic powder which gives off poisonos fumes.." More from Arthur Langton's advertisement: CAUTION "Many photographers advertise 'portrits taken by electric light' but 9 out of 10 do not possess an electric light." (His spelling. photographed the sewers in Paris. but it was not until 1877 that the first studio lit by electric light was opened by Van der Weyde. through a spirit flame..is that it is within our power to obtain pictures of all moving objects. London). producing a bright flash lasting about 1/15s.. he judged by looking at its eyes whether it was worth taking any photographs or whether his sitter should go home and wait for better times! The nearer to the birth of photography.. was conducted at the Royal Society: a page of The Times was fastened on to a wheel. the light was sufficient to permit exposures of some 2 to 3 seconds for a carte-devisite. would have taken twenty-five minutes in normal daylight. using batteryoperated lighting... using a small rubber pump. coupled with the introduction of dry plates in the 80s soon led to the introduction of magnesium flashlamps. Pictures can now be taken in any weather and at any time. It then burns away of its own accord evolving a light insupportably brilliant to the unprotected eye. boldly proclaims: "My electric light installation is perhaps the more powerful in London.. Other possibilities were explored.magnesium in oxygen. It is said that Rejlander used a cat as a primitive exposure meter: placing the cat where the sitter should be. the greater the amount of lighting needed. They all used the same principle: a small amount of this powder would be blown..brilliant light. may be lighted at the other extremity by holding it to a candle.... owing to its costlinss they use an inferior and nasty substitute... when L. so most photography depended upon long days and good weather.. Nadar. One advert (by Arthur Langton. he made a daguerreotype in five minutes which." The object then had been to arrest fast action. working in Belgravia. by the way!) In June 1850 an experiment conducted by Fox Talbot. Later arc-lamps were introduced. of course. who had a studio in Regent Street. Photographs superior to daylight. editor of the Photographic News (October 1859) was responding to a query put to him on how to light some caves: "A.providing we have the means of sufficiently illuminating them with a sudden electric flash. It was however very expensive at that time and did not come into general use until there was a dramatic fall in the cost of magnesium a decade later.

This was not really superseded until the invention of the flashbulb in the late 1920s. and close the shutter again . would ignite with very little persuasion. for example.0 grammes would permit an exposure 30 feet away. To set the flash off. that Riis. trigger the flash. with someone operating the shutter for multiple exposures. By varying the amount of grammes of flash-powder.a technique known as open flash. It consisted of a two pint stoppered bottle which had white paper stuck on it to act as a reflector. a large building was being photographed. using a panchromatic film of about 25ASA and open flash technique. whilst 2. FRPS. and 1931 when Harold Egerton produced the first electronic flash tube. electrical fuse or just by applying a taper. Last updated undefined . to provide more even illumination. The earliest known flash bulb was described in 1883. a leading member of the Royal Photographic Society's Historical Group. working during this period. twice managed to set the places he was photographing on fire! In fact. the "open flash" technique. To give some idea. This led to the introduction of flash powder. However the explosive flashpowder could be quite dangerous if misused. for example. © Robert Leggat.Then in the late 1880s it was discovered that magnesium powder. It is said. with flash powder. the distance covered could also be varied.1 grammes of flash would permit the flash-subject idstance to be about 8 feet. it was possible to use the flash at different places. at f8. It would be spread on a metal dish the flash powder would be set of by percussion sparks from a flint wheel. Early flash photography was not synchronised. a measure of 0. I am indebted to the late Arthur Gill. if mixed with an oxidising agent such as potassium chlorate. Certainly early flash photography could be a hazardous business. for much of this information. This meant that one had to put a camera on a tripod. It was not to be until 1927 that the simple flash-bulb was to appear. was still being used by some photographers until the 1950s. a spiral of ten or so inches of magnesium on a wire skewer was prelighted and plunged into the oxygen. This was particularly so when. 1999. open the shutter.

and the formation of a group known as the Linked Ring. patiently wait until the scene or object of your pictured vision reveals itself in its supremest moment of beauty. New York. which came to be known simply as "291. In England this led to a mass of resignations from the Photographic Society. an avant-garde group of photographers. consisting as it does of “ picked ” prints only." From November 1905 the group laid on exhibitions of work at "The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession" at 291 Fifth Avenue. and from what they considered was the stale work of fellow. Pictures. and at the invitation of the National Arts Club of New York... The Exhibition is in many respects unique. comparable in some respects with the Link Ring movement in this country of ten years or more ago. compose the picture which you intend to take so well that the negative will be absolutely perfect and in need of no.. an Exhibition of Photography is being held by contributors who now for the first time come before the public as an organised body. Last updated undefined . but with facts. it does. and Alvin Langdon Coburn. in short.. does it give you anything of the pleasurable feeling that you experience before a picture in some other medium? If not." The group lasted about ten years. colour quality. ‘ Here is a print. that's easy enough. Rely on your camera." "Amateur Photographer". study lines and values and space division. How far the camera is responsible for the result or how far our own modification of its record. also sought to break away from the orthodox approach to photography. on your eye. and decried those who strove hard to make their pictures seem as if they were not photographs at all. 1997. light and shade. and of artwork which lessened the detail on the finished print. In American Amateur Photographer (1904) he wrote: "We expect an etching to look like an etching. © Robert Leggat." Characteristic of the photography of this new movement was the employment of special printing processes (for example gum bichromate). nor are they engaged in scholastic discussions as to whether photography can be reckoned among the fine arts. the name Secession coming from groups of artists in Austria and Germany who had broken away from the academic establishment. the main idea of which is to bring together in America sympathetic spirits. that one would apply to a picture in any other medium. April 10. on your good taste and your knowledge of composition. pray acknowledge that there may be possibility of artistic expression in a pictorial photograph. we venture to say is not the question. under the name of the Photo-Secessionists. for they leave such theorising to the choppers of academic logic. that is to say. which shall stand the test of criticism. why should not then a photographic print look like a photographic print?" It was not that he objected to retouching or "dodging": "'And what do I call straight photography. The photographers who profess these high artistic aims and scrupulously live up to their principles and have the ability to practise them. and a lithograph to look like a lithograph. published an acount of this movement as follows: Amongst the more advanced pictorial workers in America a definite movement has now taken place. ‘ has it any of the qualities that you find in a black and white. then at least to the extent in which this print has affected you.photographers. that shall be satisfactory in composition. manipulation.an attempt. 1902.. but if. on the other hand. Gertrude Kasebier. we try again. to produce pictures by means of photography. 'can you define it?' Well. though steadily increasing. led by Stieglitz. The American group came to be known as the Photo-Secession. consider every fluctuation of color. that shall have esthetic charm and shall involve some expression of the personal feeling of the photographer.PHOTO-SECESSION movement Towards the end of the century there was a growing dissatisfaction with the photographic establishment in England and in America. are necessarily few in number. the sole point. being whether our prints have aesthetic qualities and will stand the test of the kind of criticism that you apply to other pictures.. in 1902. Their rejection of establishment photography was aptly summarised in "Photograms of the year" for 1900: "That wealth of trivial detail which was admired in photography's early days and which is still loved by the great general public. The movement was not without its critics. has gone out of fashion with advanced workers on both sides of the Atlantic.' (one might) say. Clarence White. though their influential and luxuriously printed journal called Camera Work continued publication for some years after. It is not with phraseology they are concerned. whilst in America. whether active photographers or simply those interested in the movement. tone and lighting.. Notable members included Edward Steichen..’ they say in effect. as between you and ourselves. and representing only the very best work ever done in America.. This American movement is. Sadakihi Hartmann reacted strongly to the idea of manipulating photographs.


who portrayed the slums of Glasgow. Jacob Riis. Photography for Very early in the days of photography this medium began to be used as a means of promoting social reform.SOCIAL REFORM. other pioneers were Thomas Annan. © Robert Leggat. was involved in a campaign to change child-labour laws in the USA. a journalist. a Scot. 1999. In a similar vein John Thomson illustrated "Street Life in London" (1877). Richard Beard photographed street scenes to illustrate a major project on the poor in London. whilst Lewis Hine. photographed the awful conditions in the slums of New York. unfortunately these are no longer in existence. Last updated undefined . towards the end of the century. and Paul Martin.

photographers on location needed to take away with them an enormous amount of equipment . but it was nothing to the chemical and plate. These were the days before enlargers had been introduced. crossed rivers and valleys. some producing plates size 12" by 16" (30cm by 40cm) had to be transported . and Francis Bedford.boxes of plates.and risks of the daring and enterprising artists who." Some did the journey. George Bridges. The following.holder box. bottles galore. The invention of photography also coincided with the development of steam boats and the railways. because they were less . but on his first attempt in 1842 he failed to get any photographic results. A Baltimore daguerreotypist." One needs perhaps to appreciate how hard life as a travel photographer could be. In America John C. Francis Frith. Because the processing had to be done quickly after exposure.. returning without any pictures at all. it is worth seeing what Roger Fenton had to cope with when he worked at his photographs on location. gives us a flavour: "The camera in its strong box was a heavy load to carry up the rocks.and they were pretty heavy. Claudet waxed lyrical on the new horizons opened up as a result of the work of travel photographers: "By our fireside we have the advantage of examining (the pictures) without being exposed to the fatigue. which in turn was a featherweight compared with the imitation hand organ which served for a darkroom. "The silver bath had got out of order. Consequently. One of the very earliest pioneers was the Rev. it also gave them an opportunity to realise how incorrect some reports had been. was also a pioneer. for our gratification and instruction. who had been taught photography by one of Fox Talbot's assistants. so large cameras. ascended rocks and mountains with their heavy photographic baggage. The major pioneers in travel photography include Maxime Du Camp.. until photography was used. have traversed lands and seas...500 paper negatives of scenes in the Mediterranean and Egypt. though he was a war photographer rather than a travel one. Fremont was the first explorer to attempt to make a photographic document of his travels.... all of whom took photographs in the Middle East... and by 1852 he had produced some 1.. calotypes continued to be used by some travel photographers. and the horse bearing the camera fell off a cliff and landed on top of the camera.TRAVEL photography To appreciate the impact that photography made upon Victorian life one needs to remind oneself what little opportunity there was for any but the rich to visit other lands. and of course the camera. Interestingly. Photography at last made it possible for a much larger proportion of people to see for themselves pictures of exotic lands afar and thus at least enjoy a vicarious experience." In this connection. Solomon Nunes Carvalho. a report on the exploration of the Grand Canyon in 1871. the majority of people would have needed to rely on the accuracy and integrity of explorers..

whilst Charles Clifford took some excellent pictures of Spanish architecture. Also worthy of mention are William Young who photographed in East Africa. © Robert Leggat. 1999. and then develop upon returning home. Another photographer who. who made many interesting photographs of Burma. calotypes. expose on location. Other travel photographers include Samuel Bourne.of an ordeal than collodion. for all their imperfections. Last updated undefined . though once at home he reverted to collodion for portraiture and for his medical photography. often under very trying conditions. for example. used the calotype process for some of his travel photographs. is Linnaeus Tripe. is almost unknown. After all. though sporting an unforgettable name. who photographed the tomb of Tutankhamen. who took particularly striking pictures of Indian architecture. permitted the photographer to prepare paper negatives at home. Herbert Ponting who covered Captain Scott's expedition. and Lord Carnarvon. Diamond.

the right the viewfinder. On show in the RPS Museum is Nicour's Photobinocular. there were some which were. the Ben Akiba) had small cameras inserted into their handles. shaped like an attache case. used a large camera to photograph close-ups of the Acropolis in Athens. this was operated using a pneumatic bulb in the hand. The largest camera in the world. dated 1867. The left-hand side contained the camera. Whether the prints still exist.g. In 1900 the Mammoth camera was used to photograph trains in America. or how the development took place. it took fifteen men to operate the brute..Unusual Equipment. George R Lawrence set it up and pointed at a brand-new train standing in the distance. designed a Photo-Cravate in 1890.a huge sum in the 1900s. in 1913. The Alton Limited was the pride of the Chicago & Alton Railway Lawrence had been asked to make the largest photograph possible of it. to say the least. Samuel McKellen patented a detective camera. from Paris. I have as yet been unable to ascertain! Edmond Bloch. applications and stories. It reputedly cost five thousand dollars to build this camera . Cameras disguised as binoculars were also produced. The picture size was 4. Weighing 600 Kg. novel: Frederick Boissonas. a German. sparing no expense. Several walking canes (e. .5 x 8 feet. In addition to the conventional cameras which began to be produced from the 1860s.

This being all gelatin. whilst a Dr. The Taschenbuck. was shaped like a large pocket watch There were even cameras designed to look like a pistol. exposure and development had to be carried out whilst the plate was still wet. Photographers using the Collodion process had a particular difficulty when on location. Another example was Skaife's "Pistolgraph. or books. Ontario. Neubronner perfected a camera to be mounted on a homing pigeon. but a more up-market darkroom was a converted hansom cab. dated 1862. his "ten by eights" finishing up as twelve by tens! In 1856 the King of Naples forbade the practice of photography in his dominions. This was worn under a waistcoat. in use at the turn of the century. One camera was mounted on a kite. Nineteenth-century photographers used many devices to try to get the attention of their subjects. with the lens protruding through a button-hole. made from 1906." . last Saturday. There were other unusual applications. The Ticka camera. An example of a converted perambulator is described in the "Photographic News" for 29 April 1859. selling for £7 10s (£7. which permitetd instantaneous explosures in good light. to an artist to take a dagguerreotype (sic) of his dead child. and taking the coffin up into the daguerrean gallery. The following appeared in the St Catherine's Journal. as the sensitising. It was fitted with an f2 Petzval design. The phrase 'watch the birdie' originated with this item. It was done.50) Famous was Stirn's Detective camera." (1) (1) I am grateful to Claudio Simone. and he was forced to open the pistol to satisfy the police that this was not an assassination attempt. and costing less than two pounds." He once aimed this at Queen Victoria. was the Thompson Revolver. and was immediately surrounded by the police. unsuccessfully. became quite popular. shaped like a book. This birdie not only tweeted. but also fluttered its tail when the photographer squeezed the air bulb attached to the slender pipe. another on a rocket. One. but it is possible that he or his subjects associated it with the evil eye! "Watch the birdie!" The Museum at George Eastman House displays a little brass bird over a camera. of George Eastman House. 10/9/1859: "An Irishman in Oswego [New York] who had been two or three times. and the procession moved on.Cameras were disguised as parcels. such as one used by Thomas Annan. 1870s. The reasons are not given. The legend reads: "Birdie. Some used tents as makeshift darkrooms. insisted that the likeness should be taken. Perhaps the most unusual method of enlargement was the use of Cristoid film. it swelled when it was developed. for this information. after standing some time in the street. It is claimed that Alvin Langdon Coburn experimented with this film. actually stopped the funeral procession. and therefore produced a larger photograph without the need for enlargement. made from 1886.

known as a Daguerreotype after the inventor. The image.000 but attracted rival telephone bids that pushed the price up during the auction at Christie's in London. The photograph of the Temple of Jupiter at the Acropolis in Athens was taken in 1842 by the French artist and historian. The record sale was among 86 photographs taken by Girault de Prangey. Story filed: 16:49 Thursday 22nd May 2003 © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey.A photograph taken in 1842 has sold for a world record £565.250 at auction. They featured some of the earliest surviving photographs of Greece and the Middle East. was taken using an early photographic process with the image made on a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate. which raised £3.7 million. 2003. which the artist photographed on his travels. It was expected to fetch up to £120.

indeed to some extent we have become almost immune to it.that all the emotions excited by the actual sight. photographs told the truth (Well. it was being seen as a means of depicting war scenes.. In 1855 a telling cartoon in Punch. with its successive phases. with a large team of photographers.WAR. who covered the Crimean war. To many people of the time. The American poet Oliver Wendell Holmes. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac argued. The caption underneath the cartoon reads: "Well Jack! Here's good news from Home. Oliver Wendell Holmes showed how photography injected a feeling of grim reality into the situation. a British journal. this dashing together of two frantic mobs to which we give the name of armies. Even as far back as 1839 the use of photography in this area was being talked about.. Amongst the many uses of the Daguerreotype. brutal. though the latter is more adequately described as a public relations exercise for the government of the day. photography of An early example of documentary photography is the record of war. would lock it up. and Roger Fenton.. It was so nearly like visiting the battlefield..that it might not thrill or revolt those whose souls sickens at such sights.. So from the beginning of photography. which brought home to people some grim realities which shattered their fantasies.. One of the great names is that of Mathew Brady who. sickening.. having seen it and dreamed of its horrors. and therefore would conjure up pictures of heroism and romanticism. as he surveyed pictures taken by Brady's team: "Let him who wishes to know what war is look at this series of illustrations. can be drawn with a degree of perfection that could be obtained by no other means. a field of battle.came back to us.. hideous thing it is.. as three or four minutes are sufficient for execution. was its capacity to render a landscape precisely.. writing in 1863 stated: `It is well enough for some Baron Gros or Horace Vernet to please an imperial master with fanciful portraits. He cited one particular kind of landscape to make his point: . covered the American Civil War. Maybe one of these days we'll have a coat to stick it on?" . depicted two soldiers in rags. and photography would be more suitable for this." What effect might this have upon those who saw the photographs? Artists could romanticise the event.. Photographers of note include James Robertson. These wrecks of manhood thrown together in careless heaps or ranged in ghastly rows for burial were alive but yesterday. war would be something that was conducted in far-off lands. To some extent it is difficult to avoid seeing pictures showing the ravages of war. taken at Gettysburg on 4th July 1863 ranks amongst the most famous of early historical photographs.. however. and his plight. One member of his team was Timothy O'Sullivan. did they?! Not necessarily!) One beneficial effect might have been to become more aware of the ordinary soldier.. (It) gives us.some conception of what a repulsive.whose picture "Harvest of Death". (but) war and battles should have truth for their delineator'. Many people would not look through this series. who covered the siege of Sebastopol." That's very kind. Writing in the Atlanta Monthly magazine.. We're to have a Medal. Many...

whose "Crimean Braves" photographs were finished before the troops set sail! There was also a certain amount of embellishment that seems to have been readily accepted in those days. These include Nadar in France. I crept after him. Shelley suggests "You have to find out your general before beginning operations.. An unusual application of photography in war was the use of carrier pigeons during the siege of Paris. turning round. whilst stationed in the Himalayas. Virginia: on 1st June 1862 the balloonists climbed to 1. Cundall and Howlett. 2005. and in a flash the exposure was made.the general went up to the captain's bridge to watch the oncoming boat. But he heard the click of the shutter and. Last updated undefined ." And referring to his attempts to photograph Sir Redvers Buller: ". and grasping the situation at a glance. See Gardner Relatively unknown is John Maccosh.. and with the aid of telegraphy were able to report the exact position and movement of the enemy. and took photographs during a Sikh War (1848) and the second Burma war (1852) In the American Civil War a balloon was used to find the enemy's positions. He began to take photographs in 1844. C.300 feet. camera in hand.) Even at the turn of the century the forces were ambivalent about war photography. (See Micro photography. London. when minute photographed messages were attached to their tails." Many war photographs are held in the National Army Museum in Chelsea.Whilst touching upon "true" photographs. there were many "war" photographs whose takers never went near any scene of conflict. notably for reconnaissance during the siege of Richmond. he grimly threatened to have me placed in irons if I repeated the operation. IN an article in Amateur Photographer (Jan 4 1901) H. an army surgeon who may have the distinction of being Britain's first war photographer. © Robert Leggat.

Francois ● Archer. Lord ● Carroll. Lewis ● Claudet. Valentine ● Blanquart-Evrard.Significant PEOPLE in the early history of Photography (A-D) ● Adamson. Henry Hamilton Bisson. Felice ● ● ● Bedford. Samuel ● Brady. Eugene ● Atkins. Julia Margaret ● Carnarvon. Richard ● Beato. Antoine . Anna ● Barnack. Francis Bennett. Oskar ● Barnardo. Frederick Scott ● Atget. Louis and Auguste ● Blanchard. Thomas ● Bayard. Hippolyte ● Beard. Robert ● Annan. David ● Cameron. Mathew ● Brewster. Tempest ● Arago. James Craig ● Annan. Thomas ● Anderson. Louis Desiree ● Bourne.

Charles Lutwidge ● Draper. Henry ● Dodgson. Alvin Langdon ● Cundall. Hugh Welch ● Disdéri. Paul ● De la Rue. Warren ● De Meyer. Andre Adolphe ● Dixon. John Benjamin ● Davidson. Humphry ● Day. Philip Henry ● Delaroche. Fred Holland ● Delamotte. Louis ● Dancer. Joseph ● Daguerre. George ● Davy. Charles ● Coburn. Leon Robert ● Diamond. John William ● Duboscq. Louis Ducas .Clifford. Maxime ● Du Hauron. Louis Jules ● Du Camp. Baron Gayne ● Demachy.

His re-photographing of Hill and Adamson's pictures revived interest in the latter. He was made a member of the Linked Ring in 1894. 1999." The Royal Photographic Society has some sixty photographs. mostly photogravures. 8 March 1864. he is particularly remembered as an expert in photogravure. and his work was published in a number of editions of Camera Work. which describes him as "one of the foremost artists in photography.ANNAN. which were acquired from the photographer and others from the 1920s. James Craig b. d. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . 5 June 1946 The son of the Scottish photographer Thomas Annan.

they are not purely record photographs but portray vividly the people in those areas. When he died.ANNAN.1887 Annan was a Scottish portrait photographer who started practising in 1857. 1999. © Robert Leggat. Annan also took some fine pictures of the slum areas of Glasgow for the Glasgow Improvement Trust. Thomas b. Last updated undefined . his sons James Craig Annan and John ran the business. He bought a hansom cab. d. What is noticeable is the absence of "props" and stereotyped poses which were in vogue at the time.1829. He is remembered for his photographs of the explorer Sir David Livingstone (1864) and other contemporaries. converting it into a darkroom so that he would go on location photographing buildings and art treasures.

Tempest b. One of his concerns. and enthusiastically promoted the use of photography in geology. d. 26 Aug 1913 Anderson was an Opthalmic surgeon whose spare time interests included photography. Some of his work is stored in the Yorkshire Museum. Whilst working as a lecturer on volcanoes. some of which gained awards. He made his own camera equipment. 1999.ANDERSON. 1846. evident in his work. was for human suffering arising from volcanic and other disasters. © Robert Leggat. he took many photographs of glaciers and mountains. Last updated undefined .

d. four thousand going to the son of Niépce. Last updated undefined . he also unfairly persuaded Hippolyte Bayard. and therefore robbed him of the accolade he so deserved. He was secretary of the Academy of Sciences. 1999.ARAGO. However. and it was he who was instrumental in ensuring publicity and funding for Daguerre in 1839. would require scores of years and legions of artists. © Robert Leggat. Pleading on Daguerre's behalf. who invented a number of optical instruments. and was also an influential politician. he pointed out the advantages of photography overseas: "To copy the millions and millions of hieroglyhics which entirely cover the great monuments at Thebes. who had invented a process before Daguerre." The result was that ten thousand francs were awarded for the discovery. 2 October 1853 Arago was a French physicist and Director of the Paris Observatory. Memphis and Carnac. whereas with the daguerreotype a single man would suffice to bring this vast labour to a happy conclusion. etc. in promoting Daguerre's work. Francois b. 16 February 1786. to keep quiet about his discovery.

ATGET. 1999. His street photographs were not very different from that of his contemporary Paul Martin. If he was not a surrealist himself. and his legacy amounts to several thousand images. but he also revealed a remarkable capacity for "seeing" pictures. Eugene b. demonstrating that two pictures of one subject can have very different meanings and appeal. one could picture Atget's attention being drawn by what they would regard as mundane situations. 12 February 1857." He produced a documentary of the architecture and people of Paris. or a naive photographer who did not understand how much his work would command. He was certainly a very much underrated photographer. He would photograph the same subject from different viewpoints and at different times. he never described himself as a photographer. developed an extensive filing system for his many negatives and prints. © Robert Leggat. but now acknowledged as one of the most outstanding of artists. dying in total obscurity. but had to abandon this in 1887 because of a recurrent throat infection. Eugene Atget was a largely unknown character round which a number of myths have emerged: he is pictured as a tramp-like character wandering around with his camera. he certainly influenced this movement. Whereas lesser mortals might take very similar photographs of well-known landmarks. d. During the thirty years he worked. Last updated undefined . many of his pictures having been taken in areas shortly to be demolished. Though he earned his living by taking photographs. unknown during his lifetime. 4 August 1927 Eugene Atget studied acting and played with a theatre group in the suburbs of Paris. The following year he began to take photographs. preferring "author-producer.

this book which was issued in several parts over a period of ten years. 1999. and its only disadvantage. was far more permanent than other processes. d. In 1841 she came into contact with Fox Talbot. even precedes Fox Talbot's "Pencil of Nature. and much of her work still survives now. Her book. many of Anna's scientifically accurate drawings are in the British Museum. was immaterial. she relied entirely on photograms (known. Anna b. a blue image. she quickly saw the potential of using photography to record specimens.an appropriate choice. 9 Jun 1871 Anna Atkins was a botanist. Her father was an eminent scientist who had various senior posts at the newly created British Museum. therefore. as Shadowgraphs). and one of the earliest woman photographers. Botany. because it was comparatively inexpensive and easy to work with. one of her father's friends. Called "British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions". at the time." Though she had a camera. Anna lived in a time when women were not encouraged to become involved in science. This process. As a botanist. In October 1843 Anna Atkins became the first person to print and publish a book.ATKINS. © Robert Leggat. A discovery of one of the very few copies of her book attracted considerable interest in June 1996. was a more acceptable area. Last updated undefined . however. She chose the Cyanotype process for her work . photographically illustrated with 424 pictures.16 Mar 1799. though she was not to know it at the time. when it was put up for auction.

d. it permitted one to take exposures indoors by available light.BARNACK. Barnack was also partly responsible for the development of the Leitz Elmar lens. and the standard 24 x 36mm format was created by simply doubling the size of the negative and holding it sideways relative to movie cameras. He joined the Leitz optical company in 1911. The development of the Leica camera was that it enabled pictorial journalism to develop. One of those who took advantage of this versatility was Erich Salomon. Barnack was the designer of the first 35mm. and had actually developed a prototype of the Leica two years later. With wide aperture lenses. 16 Jan. but development was seriously arrested by the first World War and its aftermath. 1999. 1 Nov. Oscar b. famous for his candid pictures of celebrities. 1879. miniature camera available commercially. Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. 1936 Born in Germany. often taken in situations where cameras were not permitted. and its size enabled one to take candid portraits. The 35mm film was used (and is still laregly used) for movie film.

Then a rival accused him of deception: "Barnardo's method is to take the children as they are supposed to enter the Home. He. of the boys at the homes. but might... In addition. straight "mug-shots". The evidence would suggest that Barnardo. in our opinion. but he was ruled guilty of "artistic fiction" in respect of one photograph.. Thomas b. 19 September 1905 Thomas Barnardo's name does not often feature amongst the names of early photographers. Last updated undefined . most of the pictures were kept for internal use. He then developed an interesting collection of "then and now" pictures." Barnardo sued. 4 July 1845. The arbitrators. 1999. but that was the way that it was read..tears their clothes so as to make them appear worse than they really are. not only morally wrong as thus employed. There are over fifty thousand of these... that in one or two cases it has been applied to an extent that we. these then went on sale to raise money. The photographs were kept in albums and case-history sheets. Barnardo's Homes. printed on a carte-de-visite.. Subsequent photographs which were taken. d. and then after they have been in the Home for some time. tell their story in just as dramatic a manner as did the contrived pictures. in the absence of a very strict control grow into a system of deception dangerous to the cause on behalf of which it is practised. a man of impeccable integrity. which somewhat damaged his reputation.BARNARDO. only a few being used for publicity and fund-raising. stated: "This use of artistic fiction to represent actual facts is.. but rather a class of children of whom many had been rescued. The founder of the famous Dr." Barnardo conceded that the photographs might appear false. but strongly defended this on the grounds that the pictures which caused the problem were not intended to represent the actual boy or girl in the picture.they are also taken in purely fictional poses. but perhaps deserves to. pronouncing their verdict (1877). in 1870 he employed a photographer to make a photographic record of every child admitted. and also proved to be effective publicity.strongly reprobate.. Nor has evidence been wanting in this inquiry. © Robert Leggat. was not deliberately trying to fake a situation.

. and also of a faked picture! The comment reads: "The corpse which you see here is that of M." He continues: "Ladies and gentlemen. a Civil Servant. As some recompense he was given some money to buy better equipment. for on 24 June 1839 he displayed some thirty of his photographs. and no-one has recognized or claimed him. has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard. He has been at the morgue for several days. As a photographer his work actually shows more sensitivity and accomplishment than either Fox Talbot or Daguerre. he had lost the opportunity to be regarded as the inventor of photography. and thus at least goes into the record books as being the first person to hold a photographic exhibition." (Obviously sun-tan.. but in no way did this atone for the injustice caused him. for as you can observe. inventor of the process that has just been shown to you. Bayard's somewhat surreal self-portrait (October 1840). depicting him as a drowned man. Hippolyte b... was one of the earliest of photographers. It is in fact the first known example of the use of photography for propaganda purposes.. and the poor wretch has drowned himself. you'd better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell. d. When Bayard eventually gave details of the process to the French Academy of Sciences on 24 February 1840. However Francois Arago (a friend of Daguerre and who was seeking to promote his invention) persuaded him to postpone publishing details of his work. . and continued to take photographs. Bayard. His invention of photography actually preceded that of Daguerre. As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery. and thus paved the way for a new technique to become known as Combination Printing.1887 Bayard. 20 January 1807.!" . Oh the vagaries of human life. The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre. but it contributed to this bizarre photograph! Fortunately he did not end his own life.BAYARD. He was the first to suggest that separate negatives of clouds be used to print in the skies. the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay. is by way of protest against this injustice of having been pipped at the post because he had kept quiet about his invention.

© Robert Leggat. of which he was a founder member.Most of Bayard's works are at the Societe Francaise de Photographie. 2002. Last updated undefined .

which is constructed of blue glass of about a quarter of an inch thick. the best kind of dress to wear on such occasions is. it was his rival Claudet who gained Royal .05) for a "bust". An entrepreneur rather than a photographer. and at one stage he was reputed to be earning £125 a day. the relinquishment of the Talboy type patents and the unpatented Scott Archer process virtually sounded the death knell of the daguerreotype. and in a few minutes afterwards a faithful likeness is presented to him. two years later he discarded this and was using the fast Petzval lens. he became interested in photography from the moment it was announced. This studio was on the roof of the Polytechnic Institution in Regent Street. A coal merchant for a number of years. a very powerful light is obtained... on which the party whose likeness is to be taken sits with his head reclining backwards. in which is placed the metallic plate to be impressed with the portrait.70) Beard used to advise those who sat for portraits to "avoid white as much as possible. (now the University of Westminster) and John Goddard. and that seven years later he handed his business on to his son Richard Beard Junior." And in his studio it was not "say cheese" but "say prunes"! Beard's business was very successful. Though in his time Beard was making huge profits.. Richard b. London. any material. a science lecturer. Having done so for a few seconds. 1801. This led to a number of lengthy lawsuits (one lasting over five years) and in June 1850 Beard became bankrupt. The Times (24 March 1841) reporting on the event... about five feet from him.10) for a full-length portrait. However. beauties and deformities being alike exhibited.BEARD. nearly in the centre. In a portion of the room. At that time the portrait measuring 1 1/2" x 2" (this size was determined by the Wolcott camera) would cost the sitter between one and four guineas.. records seem to indicate that he continued to trade.. he purchased the patent from Daguerre for £150 a year in 1841. However. two guineas (£2. he descends. As his income became common knowledge many people began to use the daguerreotype process without paying any licence fee.on the highest story (sic) of the institution. and it is so ingeniously contrived as to revolve with the sun. However. exposure would be from three seconds to as much as five minutes depending upon the weather. and on 23 March that year the first professional portrait studio in England was officially opened. gave a description of the studio: "The appartment (sic) appropriated for the magical process .. yielding a profit of 18 shillings (90 pence). an elevated seat is placed. There was much money to be made from portraits. From the roof.. and the premises were vacated in 1854. was his operator. profit 34 shillings (£1. and closely true to nature. In this position the sitter is told to look into a glass box.for so it may be termed is. he hired the right people. which helped to increase the light on the plate. 1885 Richard Beard was Britain's first portrait photographer. and having concluded that there might be considerable potential in daguerreotypes." Beard imported and secured the rights to a camera designed in America by Alexander Wolcott which had a concave mirror in place of a lens.upon which there is a play of light and shade. Beard's price list in 1845 quotes one guinea (£1.. in an opposite direction. The likenesses which we saw were admirable. d.

Last updated undefined . 2002.recognition. Postscript: Beard and Claudet compared © Robert Leggat.

Last updated undefined . 1907 Beato was a Venetian photographer who teamed up with James Robertson and photographed scenes from the Middle East. 1825. Felice b. He covered the Opium War (1870). as well as some stunning landscape pictures. 1999. and additional loose prints. as well as the some war photographs. The RPS has about 120 albumen pictures in two albums. © Robert Leggat. d. and later he went to Japan and built up a fine collection of records of Japanese customs and people.BEATO.

15 May 1894 Francis Bedford is known for some outstanding architectural photographs. of the Photographic Society. 1864. after which over one hundred and seventy of his photographs were published. 1999. for two years. d. He also produced some stereoscopes and appears to have been commissioned to produce photographs for the company established by Francis Frith. Bedford was one of the founders and a Vice-President. 1816.BEDFORD. taken in Exmouth. which came into being in 1853. In 1862 Queen Victoria appointed Bedford to tour the Middle East with the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). © Robert Leggat. some of which were for use with a stereoscope. Francis b. Last updated undefined . Picture.

© Robert Leggat. A carpenter by trade. and made the Winsconsin Dells a famous tourist area. He developed a considerable interest in stereo photography. born in Canada. he turned his hand towards photography. It is a pity that Bennett's work does not feature much in histories of photography. More about this outstanding photographer can be found at the H. The picture shows part of one of his famous shots: "Leaping the Chasm at Stand Rock" . d. . in particular an instantaneous shutter which enabled him to freeze action. His "Story of Raftsmen's Life on the Wisconsin River" was published in 1886. 1908 Bennett was a noted landscape photographer.H. Henry Hamilton b. He deserved better. 2004.BENNETT. Bennett was also an inventor of several items that enhanced photography.Bennett Studio and History Centre. In 1865. this activity was cut short following a serious accidental discharge of his own gun during the Civil War. buying a tintype portait studio. producing a stereo catalogue in the early eighties. Jan 1. Jan 15.a quite remarkable photograph for the times. 1843.

d. made almost entirely using the Collodion process. 1826. the following year Auguste ascended Mount Blanc. Encouraged by the response to his work. and soon after. 1814. 1900 Louis Bisson opened up a photographic studio in the early 1841. 1876 Auguste-Rosalie: b. d.BISSON Louis and Auguste Louis-Auguste: b. Last updated undefined . their business folded. Their studio was in the Madeleine in Paris. Consequently. In 1860 they were invited to accompany Napoleon as he visited the province of Savoy. and the brothers saw little point in reducing the finely detailed images to such a small size. The quality of the pictures. and they became famous as the Bisson Brothers. was remarkable. © Robert Leggat. as was the size of the negatives . 1999.sometimes up to 30cm x 40cm! The Bisson brothers only practised for some four years. his brother Auguste entered into partnership with him. These two brothers produced some superb images of the scenery. By this time the Carte-de-visite era was in full swing. taking with him twenty-five porters to carry his equipment.

with little blur. far from spoiling a picture. Last updated undefined . A genial and enthusiastic teacher. exhibiting at the Salon until the last few years of his life. © Robert Leggat. d. Some of his pictures were taken from the roof of a cab. one gains a general impression of the bustle of life. 1901 Blanchard made numerous photographs of Paris and London. Valentine b. He used the slowness of the wet collodion process to good advantage. he joined the Secession and joined the Linked Ring. can add to the sense of movement. 1999. being the first to recognise that a blur. 4 Nov.BLANCHARD. 1831. and because the subjects were some distant away.

d. In 1851 he opened an establishment for the mass production of photographic prints.BLANQUART-EVRARD. Charles Negre. At this time the conventional method of printing was to use printing-out paper in the sun . Blanquart. in 1856 he founded the magazine "Photographic Notes. when Gelatin-based papers superseded it. © Robert Leggat. and from then onwards this became the main printing medium until the end of the century. April 1872 In 1850 Blanquart-Evrard introduced the Albumen paper print process. Together with Thomas Sutton. 1999. and Maxime Du Camp amongst others." a journal which continued for eleven years.a very slow process. 1802. producing photographs by Henri Le Secq. Last updated undefined . Louis Desiree b.Evrard's technique of developing prints instead of the conventional printing out process led to a much faster output of prints.

" In a later article he writes of the power of photography to change the way we look at things: "..... and the glory and power of a precious landscape has often passed before me and left but a feeble impression on my untutored mind. For my own part. liquids and personal effects for the tour. I walked in. cries and lamentations..and soon discovered my firneds hiding beneath a charpoy or bed. and great personal fatigue under a scorching sun. 1834. Tking a stout stick in my hand I set out in search of them.." Bourne made well over three thousand negatives during his travels in the East. (one of the houses) .it teaches the mind to see the beauty and power of such scenes as these.. a professional photographer from Nottingham." He must have been a pretty hard task-master! In the British Journal of Photography (October 1866) he describes his reaction on discovering that there had been several loads abandoned by coolies: "This was getting serious. and put myself and my instruments innthe greatest danger by attempting an abrupt descent to some spot below. followed by other much longer ones.BOURNE. His work may be seen at the India Record Office. He also made a number of expeditions. amid . Though this was only accomplished with immense difficulty. was an outstanding landscape worker of his time.. © Robert Leggat. starting with a ten-week tour in the Himalayas... Samuel b. Last updated undefined . 24 Apr 1912 Samuel Bourne. and dragging them forth made them feel the "quality" of my stock." "My anxiety to get views of some of these fine combinations of rocks and water often induced me to leave he regular track. London.to command a fine picture.. 1997 .... it at the time greatly outweighed the pleasure. d.. he recorded the pain and pleasure of his work: "With scenery like this it is very difficult to deal with the camera: it is altogether too gigantic and stupendous to be brought within the limits imposed on photography. It is said that on one of his journeys he employed as many as fifty servants to carry the vast array of equipment. and at the Royal Photographic Society. I may say that before I commenced photography I did not see half the beauties in nature that I do now. Writing in the British Journal of Photography... sundry bruises. always returning with pictures which the more sontented gazer from above would scarcely believe obtainable.. Bath England. 1864. He used the collodion process.. But this toiling is almost too much for me. and... but it will never be so again.. and I viewed vengeance against the rascals who had placed me in this difficulty... I must confess. I was in every instance rewarded.

was probably one of the greatest of photographic documentary photographers. in one of the best buildings on Broadway. . Brady himself did not take many of the photographs which bear his name.BRADY. who worked for him until 1863. and partook of Mr. finished and furnished in the most costly manner. and the company's success became even more marked. has lately opened a new saloon for the purposes of his art. joined him. On the occasion of the first opening. 1823. Jan 15. Esq. who documented the American Civil War (1861-1865). a large number of ladies and gentlemen. it is said) with what were to become known as "What-is-it?" darkroom wagons to cover the War. Brady is one of the oldest daguerreotype artists in the country. That same year he met Louis Daguerre and went back to the United States to capitalise upon the invention of the Daguerreotype. Mathew b. Mr. and one of the most successful. would appear on the photographs themselves. In 1839 Brady met. as employer. d. too.B." In 1856 William Gardner . He is the author of many valuable improvements connected with the art. 1896 Though Roger Fenton was the first to document war in photographs. were invited. Brady's hospitality at a splendid dinner. and became a student to Samuel Morse. a Scot. he had set himself up as a portrait photographer.. The New York Illustrated News for 26 March 1851 reads: "M. the eminent daguerreotypist. Another photographer in Brady's team was Timothy O'Sullivan. his pictures having a world-wide fame for fidelity and elegance. establishing what proved to be a highly successful Gallery. with the ruling that his name. comprising many distinguished persons. BRADY. The saloon is one hundred and fifty feet long. rather than the names of the photographers themselves. and had equipped a number of photographers (twenty. Mathew Brady. New York.

The process Brady's team used was the collodion one. 20 October 1862 commented on the display of pictures taken at Antietam: "Mr. His work represents the first instance of what one may call documentary photography. or a brother in the still. In 1875 Congress purchased his archive of photographs for $2. By the aid of the magnifying-glass. Brady had invested a fortune into this business. The New York Times. that lie ready for the gaping trenches. It changed the whole course of my life. but this was not enough to cover his debts." Though financially his enterprise failed. and penniless.000. invented by Frederick Scott Archer. and granted him $25. tired of this long war. Perhaps the most famous of these is "Harvest of Death" photographed by O'Sullivan. and people no longer wanted his pictures. "No one" he said " will ever know what I went through to secure those negatives.sometimes brutally so. son." Though Brady's work was much admired at the time." Perhaps they were too real and detailed." He clearly saw his mission as that of a photographic historian.. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. but such people brought back some seven thousand pictures which well portrayed the realities of war. but faced bankruptcy. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along the streets. he gained little in financial terms. and our knowledge of this important era of American history is the better for it.. when one of the women bending over them should recognise a husband. We would scarcely choose to be in the gallery. Brady's were honest . The world can never appreciate it. Mathew Brady had a significant effect on the art of photography. he has done something very like it. lifeless lines of bodies. The limitations of equipment and materials prevented any action shots. demonstrating that war photographs need not necessarily be purely posed ones.. people did not want reminders of it and whereas Fenton had clearly taken his pictures with an eye to selling them. and he died alone. an alcoholic.840 at public auction. A comment attributed to Brady is "The camera is the eye of history. . the very features of the slain may be distinguished. The editorial continued: "These pictures have a terrible distinctness.

Among his portraits was one of Abraham Lincoln. and in 1850 published "A Gallery of Illustrious Americans. © Robert Leggat. Lincoln himself was to declare later: "Make no mistake. 1999. gentlemen.From 1845 Brady had embarked upon an ambitious project to photograph many famous people of the time. Brady made me President!" The majority of Brady's vast collection may be seen in the House of Congress in Washington. which was reproduced and circulated during Lincoln's first Presidential campaign. Last updated undefined .

. Julia Margaret. stand the test of time. and her husband was often abroad on business. Its difficulty enhanced the value of the pursuit.. by this time was aged forty-nine... 26 January 1879 Julia Margaret Cameron was an English photographer known for her portraits of eminent people of the day.CAMERON. I did not know where to place my dark box." .. and a glazed fowl-house I had given to my children became my glass house! The hens were liberated. I hope and believe not eaten.. The comments in her book give a delightful glimpse of this lady: "I longed to arrest all beauty that came before me. bought her a camera.. Cameron's chemicals and strength if she moved.. and for her romantic pictures which. The profit of my boys upon new laid eggs was stopped. which was to turn into an obsession. I began with no knowledge of the art. and my first picture I effaced to my consternation by rubbing my hand over the filmy side of the glass. despite their technical imperfections... her children had grown up. to make her life more fulfilling. d. how to focus my sitter.. 11 June 1815." "I turned my coal-house into my dark room. appealing to her feelings and telling her of the waste of poor Mrs." As to the delight that her first successful portrait brought her. As a result she suffered from loneliness. The appeal had its effect. "I took one child.. Her involvement in photography came about as a result of the kindness of her eldest daughter. Julia Margaret b. and at length the longing has been satisfied. since the society of hens and chickens was soon changed for that of poets. From this simple beginning a new hobby began. and her daughter. painters and lovely maidens. and I now produced a picture which I called "My first success. prophets. and all hands and hearts sympathised in my new labour.

her work is still admired and greatly sought-after today. In her book "Annals of my Glass House". has a very poor attempt at a moon on the top left. Hers are all taken purposely out of focus . Exposures lasting between one minute and as many as seven. and won a number of major prizes.some merely hideous however. I throw myself at your feet". she wrote of the distinguished people who faced her camera: "When I have such men before my camera my whole soul has endeavoured to do its duty towards them. Benjamin Jowett wrote of her: "Perhaps she has a tendency to make the house shake the moment she enters. expressive and vigorous. "Idylls of the King" . sunny haired little Annie! No later prize has effaced the memory of this joy. whilst "The Passing of Arthur" almost verges on the ridiculous! Looking beyond the banal. I felt as if she entirely had made the picture. We tend to remember her best pictures. Some of her negatives show uneven coating of collodion. and above all. entitled "Alethea. were pretty awful. the fact that the pictures show such lack of self consciousness may be largely due to her overpowering personality. which sought to return to artistic practices of Europe in late Mediaeval times. Some. but dreadfully opposed to photographic conventions and proprieties" whilst The Photographic Journal for 15 February 1865 reads: . a critical entry in the Photographic Journal commented: "Mrs. Cameron had a tremendous capacity to visualise a picture. wrote "No one has ever captured the rays of the sun and used them as you have. toned. dust particles. I printed. No less a person than Victor Hugo. a classic example is the delightful portrait of Alice Liddell (on whom the story of Alice in Wonderland is based). and cheesecloth to represent water. She must also have been a tremendously magnetic personality."I was in a transport of delight. Many of her prints are faded." It has to be said that Julia Margaret Cameron was not the best of technicians. which was unfinished." Lewis Carroll's comments were in the same vein: "In the evening Mrs. Thomas Sutton wrote of her work: "Admirable.some are very picturesque ." Many of her photographs of women and children are undisguisedly sentimental. Among her most famous portraits are those of Herschel and Tennyson." Another is the "Kiss of Peace. I ran all over the house to search for gifts for the child. to put it mildly. Cameron will do better when she has learned the proper use of her apparatus. others are delightful and penetrating studies." Nevertheless. and presented it to her father that same day: size 11 by 9 inches. the poet. she talks of them as if they were triumphs of art." One of photography's eccentrics." "Sweet. She was greatly appreciated abroad. and her portraits show a measure of vitality which the work of many others of the time did not... Cameron and I had a mutual exhibition of photographs. but in this dull world that is a very excusable fault".. for example. in recording faithfully the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man" The photographic press spoke harshly of her technical mastery of photography. fixed and framed it. an example is "Venus Chiding Cupid and Removing His Wings.. Indeed. or rather the lack of it. She was also influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite school. some remain as rather lovely pictures.

especially in the light and shade. and are often noble in form and appearance. I shall return soon and see what is left of you.." Her force of personality made her a formidable photographer." The Photographic News. Henry Taylor. and to listen to his enthusiastic applause. Not even the distinguished character of some of the heads serve. warning him: "Longfellow. before any bench of magistrates in the kingdom. such as Sir John Herschel." Cameron received honours abroad. much evidence of art feeling. reads: "There is. I said. The subjects."Mrs. exposures could last several minutes. reporting upon one of her exhibitions in London..are full of interest in themselves. I am the martyr." Commenting about a portrait of Wilfred Ward.. that I should have been banished from any less indulgent household. Sitting for her could be quite an ordeal. She was clearly supported by a long-suffering family.. capable of bullying anyone. My husband from first to last has watched every picture with delight.. if he were ever charged as a rogue and vagabond.. into submission.. and it is my daily habit to run to him with every glass upon which a fresh glory is newly stamped.. however famous. Holman Hunt. 20 March 1868. you will have to do whatever she tells you. It was unsparing and too manifestly unjust for me to attend to it. Just try the taking instead of the sitting!" Because she believed in subdued lighting and had large photographic plates. she once wrote to a friend: "I counted four hundred and five hundred and got one good picture. often being awkward.. Cameron exhibits her series of out of focus portraits of celebrities.. to prepare another plate. her victims having been warned not to move a muscle. this is now in the National Portrait Gallery in London. Tennyson once brought Longfellow to her studio.. After each picture had been taken she would disappear into her coal-cellar cum darkroom. Poor Wilfrid said it was torture to sit so long. Julia died in Ceylon in January 1879.. She wrote: "The Photographic Society of London in their Journal would have dispirited me very much had I not valued that criticism at its worth. This habit of running into the dining-room with my wet pictures has stained such an immense quantity of table linen with nitrate of silver." She presented an album to Sir John Herschel.. Alfred Tennyson and others .. In her book she writes: "Personal sympathy has helped me on very much... but recognition did not come easily at home. and composition. that he was a martyr! I bid him be still and be thankful. however. indelible stains. In a lengthy obituary The Times gives a vivid picture of this remarkable lady: . to redeem the result of wilfully imperfect photography from being altogether repulsive: one portrait of the Poet Laureate presents him in a guise which would be sufficient to convict him. a circumstance which alone gives value to the exhibition. We must give this lady credit for daring originality but at the expense of all other photographic qualities. in many cases.

her rare forgetfulness of self and readiness to help others. Cameron appealed to a.she produced a series of heads and groups. Cameron's singular ardour of enthusiasm. . together with a handwritten manuscript of her autobiography."Mrs.uk © Robert Leggat.dimbola.. endeared her to a wide circle of friends.... so keen in her friendships. unique in their suggestiveness.. A Trust has been set up to ensure the preservation of Dimbola Lodge and Cameron House. forfeiting the sharpness of definition which ordinary photographers strive for.. after a daring fashion of her own. Details can be found at http://www.. and which is one of the things artists most dislike in photographic portraiture. so buoyant of spirits.wide.public by her pefectly original and unique photographic work and subject pictures in which. so vivid in her interests.." The Royal Photographic Society owns nearly 800 of her albumen and carbon prints and portraits. the energy with which she flung herself into whatever she undertook.co. 2000 Last updated undefined . Mrs.. so ripe with plans and projects..so full of life and energy. and so overflowing in her friendliness. and to provide historical information on Julia Margaret Cameron's life and works..

of King Tutankhamen's tomb. in 1922. which he photographed. Carnarvon also worked with the platinum process. 5 April 1923 The Earl of Carnarvon was a British egyptologist who was the patron and associate of the archaeologist Howard Carter in the discovery. Last updated undefined . 26 June 1866. George Edward Stanhope b. The Royal Photographic Society owns some 22 of these. A keen amateur photographer. d. 1999. © Robert Leggat.CARNARVON.

and it was she who became the model for Alice in Wonderland. In his diaries he records that he learned photography by following his uncle. an English writer and brilliant mathematician perhaps best known for "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".. To have one's portrait taken was often a pretty daunting business. doubtless he had a fund of stories which would enable them to relax. and among his subjects were some leading people of the day.40 seconds. Some of his prints are to be found in the Guildford Museum in Surrey. and "Through the looking glass". He also photographed children. His speciality became portraiture.. and Holman Hunt. This he perched upon a tripod And the family in order Sat before him for their picture Mystic. Lewis b. the painter. Carroll in fact had a Naturalistic approach to photography well ahead of his time. Till it looked all squared and oblongs.CARROLL. and with exposures still in the order of 30 . Lewis Carroll and relationships with children © Robert Leggat.. Alice Liddell.." Nevertheless. Lewis Carroll described it very aptly in a poem: "From his shoulder Hiawatha Took the camera of rosewood. d. Last updated undefined . The pictures of Alice Liddell are particularly delightful characterisations. Carroll's portraits of children do not show this tension. and a clergyman. 14 January 1898 Lewis Carroll was the pseudonym of the Rev. Neatly put it all together. on expeditions in the mid fifties.. a daughter of the Dean of his college. awful was the process. written seven years later. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. 27 January 1832. with lovely pensive moods. was one of his many subjects. Made of sliding folding rosewood. Pushed and pulled the joints and hinges.. including Tennyson. himself a photographer. 1999. He was a lecturer in Mathematics at Christ Church Oxford. he was remarkably successful. written in 1865. Christina Rossetti.

1999. some of the Palace at Guadalajara. which depicts the Queen wearing a diamond coronet. far from being court photographer to the Spanish Queen. Kurtz for additional information he has supplied about this remarkable photographer). (I am greatly indebted to Gerardo F. He was also an outstanding photographer of Spanish scenery and architecture. he was a photographer who worked for Queen Victoria. The Royal Palace has some. The vast bulk of his work can be found at the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid. near Madrid. and the Prado in Madrid has one. 1863) Clifford was born in Wales. and lived in Madrid from 1850. and that she sent Clifford to London to take a portrait of Queen Victoria. © Robert Leggat. has some fifty pictures. Jan 1. And at this point there appear to be two versions of his appointment.CLIFFORD. A popular view is that he was appointed Court Photographer to Queen Isabela II. Charles (b. was felt by many to be a welcome change from the many "homely" portraits which others had made.) However. there is evidence that suggests that. some from the palace at Canillejas. 1819 d. (Incidentally this picture. but worked mainly in Spain. His album "Vistas del Capricho" (1856). Last updated undefined .

He was born in Boston. which consisted of three mirrors arranged like a kaleidoscope. and his assertion that the creating of these "was the most thrilling experience he had ever had in all the realms of photography. living. and who also had developed an interest in photography.." Coburn passionately believed in liberating photography from the notion that it is only artistic if it depicted reality. the Society owns a considerable number of his fine works. "leaving the mind free to devote itself to the really important matter: direct contact with what we wish to express. and he is perhaps best known for producing Vortographs. through an arrangement of mirrors. Alvin Langdon b. For over a quarter of a century he had been using a camera in one way or another. Holland Day. Unfortunately Coburn lost himself in astrology and the occult. Last updated undefined . Curator of the Royal Photographic Society's Collection. resulting in multiple images. He was also an accomplished portrait photographer." Coburn made a number of urban landscape pictures. Thanks to the close friendship between Coburn and Dudley Johnston. The British Journal of Photography (16 February 1917) comments on Coburn's fascination for his vortographs. and in 1913 and 1922 produced a two-volume collection of photographs of celebrities. perhaps. 1997.COBURN. He began taking photographs at the age of eight (inspired by his cousin F. became a founder-member of PhotoSecession and in 1903 was elected to the Linked Ring." Between 1903-1909 his work appeared in three editions of Camera Work. 11 January 1882. © Robert Leggat. entitled "Men of Mark. d. described him as "one of the most accomplished and sensitive artist photographers. who sat for Coburn. and at the early age of twenty-five had exhibited a one-man show at the Royal Photographic Society. 23 November 1966 Coburn was another outstanding photographer who still. but never had he discovered a medium to compare with vortography for producing aesthetic excitement and enjoyment. though he again began taking photographs in the 1950s.. Coburn stressed the importance of learning the techniques of photography so that they became totally automatic. is not given the acclaim he deserves. with a definite mood. which enabled multiple-image photographs to be taken. and his enthusiasm for photography waned somewhat after the first world war." He has a characteristic style in his portraits. non-objective photographs of such items as a piece of wood or crystal. moving to England as a young man. In 1916 Coburn designed an item the poet Ezra Pound called a Vortoscope. The writer George Bernard Shaw.

In 1852 he established a photographic business. He wrote several books of his own. including "The Photographic Primer" (1854). then as a publisher. Joseph b. He became associated with Philip Delamotte. He was also an active member of the Photographic Society of London. 1818. and published his books. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . 1875 Trained as a painter.CUNDALL. London. d. Joseph Cundall worked first as a bookseller. the "Photographic Institution" in Bond Street. 1999.

DANCER. His contribution to photography has not been sufficiently recognised (indeed. It is said that Dancer also made the first photographic lantern slides. by appointment to HRH the Prince of Wales" and as an instrument maker. Other inventions include an accurate thermometer and an apparatus for checking the accuracy of rifle barrels. and had wide angle lenses. Dancer was also an early secretary of the London Camera Club. His early inventions were concerned with light. produced two small negatives simultaneously. but whether in fact he was the first to do this has not been confirmed. Last updated undefined . moving the camera and exposing a second time . and used a solar one. does not even mention him) and it is only more recently that this omission has been rectified. and it was he who coined the term "lime-light". his contribution to photography lies in the fact that he saw new applications in existing techniques. and he also used a solar microscope. taking up an idea by David Brewster. © Robert Leggat. In 1853 Dancer constructed the first twin-lens stereoscopic camera. d. Beaumont Newhall. He also produced cheap microscopes. 24 November 1887 Dancer described himself as "Optician.5p)for a dozen. In July 1840 he made a daguerreotype photograph of a flea. using a gas-illuminated microscope. Certainly the introduction of the wet Collodion process would have prompted such an application. in his History of Photography.so inevitably these pictures had been of still life! Dancer's new camera. John Benjamin b. Up till that time any stereoscopic photography had been done by exposing. and this permitted virtually instantaneous photography and therefore the photographing of moving as opposed to static scenes.photographs were then sold at one shilling (5p) each. Micro. 1999. 8 October 1812. an improved version of which was made three years later. or ten shillings and six pence (52. of Manchester. His photo-micrography work still exists. In 1837 he applied the "Drummond light" to optical projectors. He was also reputed to be a first class conjuror and juggler! Though he never invented any new photographic process.

..a rather unkind response to someone who had been an enthusiastic follower of Emerson's ideas on Naturalistic photography! However. That same year he was invited by the Royal Society of Arts to lecture on Impressionist Photography. 1999. known as the Linked Ring. something that established him as a leading figure. He is. using differential focusing. Some of Davidson's prints. sometimes entirely soft focusing. when photographers were moving away from sharp images towards a more impressionistic type of photography. (See Impressionism. of which Davidson was an important founder-member.DAVIDSON. 1930 Davidson was active in photography at the turn of the century. including "The Onion Field" are to be found in the quarterly Camera Work.. 1854 or 1856. Davidson was evidently highly regarded by others. © Robert Leggat.) One of Davidson's main critics was Peter Henry Emerson. d. Last updated undefined . The Linked Ring was committed to promote photographic pictorialism. a brilliant but arrogant man who clearly had little regard for him. welcome to my cast-off clothes if he likes" . In 1891 Davidson and others left the Royal Photographic Society to set up their own organisation.. and his picture "The Onion Field" received much acclaim.. describing him as "an amateur without training and with superficial knowledge. George b.

June 1802. d. the exposure should be only for a few minutes. as commonly employed. In the report to the Royal Society. immediately after being taken. it is not sensibly affected. It may indeed be examined in the shade. 1829 Sir Humphrey Davy was an English chemist who worked closely with Thomas Wedgwood. or the profile. must be kept in an obscure place. 1778. but. for they had made what one can best describe as photograms but unfortunately they were unable to find a method of fixing them. 1997. by the light of candles or lamps." Davy also discovered the electric arc light. Davy wrote: "The copy of a painting. Their work was very nearly a breakthrough. Humphry b. Last updated undefined . in this case.DAVY. © Robert Leggat.

or made a chain of Linked Rings from the earth to the moon. Evans in the 1930s. White." whilst the "Photographic News" saw it as the product "of a diseased imagination. of which much has been fostered by the ravings of a few lunatics. 8 July 1864. Steichen. Alvin Langford Coburn. He deliberately used an uncorrected lens.and eccentric" In 1904 much of his collection of fine images were destroyed in a huge fire.DAY. Fred Holland b. One of Day's accomplishments was to organise a major exhibition of work by progressive American pictorialists such as Kasebier. Just before the turn of the century Day decided to portray the last seven days of the life of Christ. Becoming unhappy with any other existing process. He first dabbled in painting. but then took up photography. Eugene. This project he planned with meticulous care. over a hundred being by Day. 1997. though they were by no means tasteless. © Robert Leggat... 12 November 1933 Fred Holland Day was born in Massachusetts. In organising it the Royal Photographic Society has done more in the interests of pictorial photography than if it got up a hundred Salons. Day's images depicting frontal nudity met with considerable opposition. he spent much of his fortune on causes. This exhibition. the majority which remain were presented to the Royal Photographic Society by Frederick H. which recorded a halo round highlights of the images. Day lost interest in photography. Coburn and himself. was held at the Royal Photographic Society in 1900. One report stated that the exhibition "is not equalled by anything since the publication of 'Naturalistic Photography'. and dressed and acted in a manner which labelled him as an eccentric. Day was a prominent member amongst American photographers at the turn of the century. d. though he subsequently became somewhat eclipsed by the more outspoken Alfred Stieglitz who largely became the voice of American photography for the next couple of decades. and together they sought to promote photography as an art-form. which contained 375 photographs..unacademic.. It was controversial. a relative. One of the effects of the Russian Revolution and the first world war was that the production of platinum (which came from the Urals) virtually came to a stop. ascribed the beginning of his career as a photographer to Day. A wealthy man. Last updated undefined . and since he decided that he would play the part of Christ he grew his hair long and virtually starved himself before the photographs were taken.

1999. the main attraction. with some 350 photographs available for sale. and commissioned Delamotte. They also decided to hire a photographer to document the event. London. The publisher Delamotte used was Joseph Cundall. So successful was it that when it closed. 1889 Philip Delamotte was a calotype photographer. London. and it was at his house that one of the first commercial photographic exhibitions took place. Philip Henry b. and one of the first to use photography for documentary purposes. Delamotte also wrote a book entitled "The practice of photography: a manual for students" . d. near London. In 1851 the Great Exhibition took place in Hyde Park. to be dismantled and re-erected at this new site. and later he was appointed Professor of Drawing at King's College. Together with Roger Fenton he founded the Calotype Club in London.DELAMOTTE. some entrepreneurs bought a large site in Sydenham. who produced a painstaking and meticulous record of this interesting building.a work which went into its third edition. and arranged for the entire Crystal Palace. 1820. © Robert Leggat. Sydenham". containing 160 architectural photographs. The following year Delamotte published his two volume work entitled "Photographic Views of the Progress of the Crystal Palace. Last updated undefined . The Crystal Palace was opened on 10 June 1854. He taught drawing to members of the Royal Family.

Astronomers were among the earliest scientists attracted to photography. 1999. d. © Robert Leggat. Warren b.de la RUE. 1889 Warren de la Rue was an astronomer at the Kew Observatory. another was Herschel. 1815. Last updated undefined .

1999. Baron Gayne b. De Meyer was influenced by Stieglitz. a wealthy man who was created Baron de Meyer by the King of Saxony and who. Then his photography suddenly changed. having switched allegiance from one publisher to another. The obituary in the Los Angeles Times was a measly two inches in length. De Meyer is one who does not feature very often in the lists of pioneers. and he emigrated to California.De MEYER. d. but who in his time had significant influence on picture making. and did not even mention his photography. © Robert Leggat. His real name was Demeyer Watson. De Meyer's lighting techniques had an influence in the early days of cinema. However. as he began to experiment with soft-focus lenses and backlighting. 1868. His other most memorable photographs include a fine collection of the distinguished ballet dancer Nijinsky in his most famous roles. returning to the first (Vogue) he was rejected. producing some truly exquisite pictures. 1946 Sometimes photographers of note become forgotten. Some twenty of his photographs were reproduced in the influential quarterly Camera Work. Last updated undefined . where he died in poverty. settled in London. but it has to be aid that his earliest work was pretty banal. with his wife.

DEMACHY, Leon Robert

b. 1859; d. 1937 Demachy, a Frenchman, was a banker by profession, and an amateur artist, becoming a leading photographer in the 1890s. He was the founder of the Photo Club of Paris, a member of London's Linked Ring, and of the Photo-Secession. An influential photographer of the time was Dr. P. Emerson, who fostered a more subjective approach to photography than hitherto. As a result, there was an emphasis on minimum detail and soft focus. However, for some photographers this was as far as one should go; it was perfectly admissible to control one's photography at the camera stage, but one should not tamper with the photograph at the printing stage beyond employing very modest negative re-touching techniques. This was not sufficient for other photographers, and Robert Demachy, together with other photographers such as George Davidson and Alfred Maskell began to experiment at the printing stage as well. A familiar phrase attributed to Demachy is "The end justifies the means", which sums up his approach to picture making. His photographic work was quite diverse; he exhibited portraits, street scenes and figure studies, and wrote a a number of books and about a thousand articles on photography. He is an interesting photographer to study because his work epitomises the controversy which existed in the world of photography at the turn of the century. Demachy had little time for the "straight print" photographers, especially if they presumed to call themselves artists. No straight print, he declared, with "its false values, its lack of accents, its equal delineation of things important and useless" could really be called art. "A straight print may be beautiful, and it may prove.. that its author is an artist; but it cannot be a work of art... A work of art must be a transcription, not a copy, of nature...This special quality.." (which makes it a work of art) "is given in the artist's way of expressing himself... If a man slavishly copies nature, no matter if it is with hand and pencil or through a photographic lens, he may be a supreme artist all the while, but that particular work of his cannot be called a work of art..." However, perhaps to counter argument, he also made the observation that manipulation was not necessarily art: "Too many pictorialists will meddle with their prints in the fond belief that any

alteration, however bungling, is the touchstone of art...." In addition to deliberately using soft focus lenses to blur and soften the image, he also used printing processes which required manipulation. The final result was by no means pure photography, because the finished result in many of his pictures was achieved by using brushwork together with photography. An example of this technique is his Figure Study from an Etched Negative, a gum print produced in 1906. One can readily see the long diagonal lines etched over the body greatly reducing photographic detail. Among his favourite subjects was young ballet dancers, in a style very much reminiscent of Degas' work. He also made studies of people. A powerful image is En Bretagne, which must be a composite from a number of negatives.

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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DIAMOND, Dr Hugh Welch
b. 1809; d. 21 June 1886 Hugh Welch Diamond was one of the earliest photographers, and made a major contribution to its progress. A doctor by profession, he opened private practice in Soho, London, and then decided to specialise in the treatment of mental patients, being appointed to Bethlehem Hospital, the Surrey County Asylum. (Incidentally it is from this hospital's name that we have the word "bedlam", meaning a mad-house or scene of uproar). Diamond was one of the founders of the Photographic Society, was later its Secretary and also became the editor of the Photographic Journal. He used photography to treat mental disorders; some of his many calotypes depicting the expressions of people suffering from mental disorders are particularly moving. These were used not only for record purposes, but also, he claimed (though there is little evidence of success) in the treatment of patients. Perhaps it is for his attempts to popularise photography and to lessen its mystique that Diamond is best remembered. He wrote many articles and was a popular lecturer, and he also sought to encourage younger photographers. Amongst the latter was Henry Peach Robinson, who was later to refer to Diamond as a "father figure" of photography. Recognition for his encouragement and for his willingness to share his knowledge came in 1855 in the form of a testimonial amounting to £300 for services to photography; among those who subscribed were such people as Delamotte, Fenton and George Shadbolt. In 1867 the Photographic Society awarded its Medal in recognition of "his long and successful labours as one of the principal pioneers of the photographic art and of his continuing endeavours for its advancement." The following year, at his own initiative, he relinquished any further salary as Secretary of the Society, and became its Hon. Secretary. © Robert Leggat, 1999.

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DIXON, Henry
b. 1820; d. 1893 It can sometimes take many years before the significance of someone's work can be fully appreciated. Such a person is Henry Dixon, the first exhibition devoted solely to his work taking place in 1999. Dixon stands out not because of his discoveries, or because he introduced a new technique in photography, but simply because he made what must be the very first systematic photographic record of London. He did this for the "Society for the Photographing of Relics of Old London" A fuller record, complete with a large numbers of his prints, can be found HERE. See also HERE - the quality if quite remarkable. Most of his work is held by the Guildhall Library Print Room, which houses a huge collection of visuals relating to London and its history.
© Robert Leggat, 2003.

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DRAPER, John William
b. 5 May 1811; d. 4 January 1882 Dr. William Draper, an Englishman by birth, was a professor of chemistry at New York University. In 1837, two years in fact before the announcement of the daguerreotype, he had discovered photography. His early achievements include a photograph of the moon, and of objects through a microscope. He began to experiment with the process, making a camera out of a cigar box. One of his first successful portraits was that of his sister Catherine. Constrained by the considerable exposure times necessary, he first tried to overcome this by coating Catherine's face with flour, but this was not satisfactory. He then discovered that by increasing the aperture of the lens and reducing its focal length he could drastically reduce exposure time. In December 1840 he was using a lens with an f1.4 aperture. Draper set up a partnership with Samuel Morse, a colleague at New York University. "Dorothy Draper", taken June 1840, is perhaps his first successful portrait. Draper and Morse have also been credited with the discovery that since the exposures were long, there would be no harm in blinking, so the eyes could be kept open - something that other photographers of their time had not grasped.

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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and showed it to the Paris Photographic Society in 1861. Duboscq also made an apparatus for enlarging by electric light.DUBOSCQ. he devised arc lamps for projection. © Robert Leggat. In 1849. 2003. together with Foucault. Last updated undefined .Sept 24. He also manucactured the Brewster stereoscope in 1851. 1886 Duboscq was a French optical manufacturer who was instrumental in a number of innovations. Duboscq built what he called his Polyconograph camera for travellers. Louis Jules b. In order to make it possible whilst travelling to produce a number of small pictures on a single plate in a camera. This was an attachment that allowed for fifteen exposures on each plate. 1817 d.

1999. containing 220 calotypes. was one of the first to be illustrated with original photographs. "Le Nil. His book.DU CAMP. Egypte et Nubie".. Palestine and Syria. Travel photography then. Do Camp once commented: "Learning photography is an easy matter. He had a simple reason for taking up photography." Though he is perhaps the earliest of the travel photographers. Maxime b.. I felt I needed an instrument of precision to record my impressions. Last updated undefined . 8 February 1822. 9 February 1894 Du Camp was a French writer and journalist who travelled in Egypt.. du Camp's work is less striking than that of another contemporary. Transporting the equipment by mule.. d." He learned photography from Gustave Le Gray. Francis Frith. © Robert Leggat. one had to approach with something verging on missionary zeal. as he recalled later: "I had realised on my previous travels that I wasted much valuable time trying to draw buildings and scenery I did not care to forget. unlike today. and his calotypes started appearing from 1851. camel or human porters is a serious problem.

it is this principle which is used in present-day colour photography. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . Louis Ducas b.DU HAURON. October 1920 Du Hauron was a French scientist who made a major contribution to the development of colour photography. In 1900 Du Hauron was awarded the Progress Medal of the Royal Photographic Society for his work in colour photography. the anaglyph method of stereoscopic photography. He also patented. because of the lack of suitable materials. 1837. his theories could not be put to the test at the time. "Les Couleurs en Photographie" (1869) he proposed the subtractive methods of colour photography. Unfortunately. In his book. d. 1999. in 1891. However.

Lady Clementina Hawes. Josiah Herschel.Significant PEOPLE in the early history of Photography E-H ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Eastman. Robert . Alfred Hugh Hawarden. George Emerson. Frank Evans. Francis Gardner. John Frederick Harman. Frederick Henry Farmer. Ernest Fenton. John Frederick Hill and Adamson Hill. Peter Henry England. Alexander Goddard. David Octavius Hine. William Eugene. Armand Hippolyte Fox Talbot Frith. Lewis Hinton. Roger Fizeau. Robert Hunt. Horsley Howlett.

and its outlines fade gently into something else. and therefore suggested that one should make a photograph slightly out of focus in order to achieve that effect. this lost and found. An outstanding scholar. and Julia Margaret Cameron and saw this approach as arresting the development of photography as a medium in its own right.do not dress them up" was his main message: "The photographic technique is perfect and needs no.Robinson wrote: "Healthy human eyes never saw any part of a scene out of focus" . he remained essentially an amateur. making photography outdoors rather different from what it had been in earlier times.. and embarked upon a series of lectures to put forward his views. bad. his ideas did not go down well with other contemporaries. but that was their objective.a book which ran to several editions. Emerson condemned this book out of hand." In it he made the case for photography in which truth and realism would replace contrived photography. In 1886 he was elected to the Council of the Photographic Society. to take up photography. "Pictorial Effect in Photography" . At this period perhaps the leading photographer of the day was Henry Peach Robinson. Though some of his work was included in books (he was an authority on wild life in Norfolk). Dr. often so subtly that you cannot quite distinguish where one ends and the other begins. H. or indifferent photograph is converted into a bad drawing or painting". who had a studio at Whitby. lies all the charm and mystery of nature" This was a new departure.bungling" He also very firmly rejected the retouching of pictures.EMERSON. particularly disliking the contrived photography by Robinson. merely ensuring that the image in the centre is sharp. d. which he called "the process by which a good. with no need to emulate styles of painting. and not to seek to imitate other art forms. Rejlander. they may not always have succeeded. Another was Frank Sutcliff. and that the image is slightly blurred at the periphery. particularly George Davidson. new faster materials were appearing. In effect he was advocating that one should treat photography as a technique in its own right. 12 May 1936 Many photographic historians claim that Peter Henry Emerson made a greater impression on Victorian photography than any of his contemporaries. In his book he wrote: "Nothing in nature has a hard outline.P. "Photograph people as they really are . Up till then photographers had tried to get everything sharp. who had published an influential book. Peter Henry b. He claimed that one only sees sharpness in the centre. Now Emerson was advocation that photographers should not Some photographers greeted Emerson's ideas with enthusiasm. Photographic materials had evolved somewhat. However. Perhaps by then the time was right for a new approach. Emerson also argued that a photographer should imitate the eye. In this mingled decision and indecision. Three years later he published an influential (if controversial) book entitled "Naturalistic Photography for students of Art" which one writer described as "like dropping a bombshell at a tea-party. at the age of 26. he practised medicine before abandoning it. 13 May 1856. but everything is seen against something else..

His emphasis on technique is probably what led to his own undoing. H.P.. Until then he had denounced medals. © Robert Leggat. and an "unknown French photographer in Paris. and laying the groundwork for the Photo-Secession movement. in an uncompromising manner: "I have yet to learn that any one statement of photography of Mr.. It was rash and thoughtless. I throw my lot in with those who say that Photography is a very limited art. He wrote: "I have." and described Robinson's book (Pictorial Effect in Photography) as "the quintessence of literary fallacies and art anachronisms. for an unknown lady with a cigarette"! The reason for these awards never became clear.... Julia Margaret Cameron. compared photographs to great works of art. unsentimental type of work. 1999." Emerson was not the easiest of people to get on with." In 1895 Emerson was awarded the Royal Photographic Society's Progress Medal for work in the advancement of artistic photography.. Nadar. In short. some have suggested that this was yet another way of perpetuating his name.I regret it deeply.. Among the fifty-seven who gained his approval in this manner were Hill and Adamson.Robinson has ever had the slightest effect on me except as a warning of what not to do. and photographers to great artists. he became frustrated and finally (possibly angered by the success of the Impressionism movement) he renounced naturalistic photography in a blackbordered pamphlet entitled "The death of Naturalistic Photography" (1890).whilst Emerson retorted. his work succeeded in laying down the foundations of a new. some posthumously.. he had begun to believe that photography could be reduced to technical rules and principles. and my punishment is having to acknowledge it now. 1865. Finding that he could not achieve this. he then started awarding his own "Emerson" silver and bronze medals to others.. Despite his egotism and unforgiving nature to those who disagreed with him. but in 1925. Hippolyte Bayard. typical of his vanity. I deeply regret that I have come to this conclusion. Last updated undefined . and was inclined not only to make sarcastic and vitriolic remarks but also to erupt into a fiery temper.

© Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . specialising particularly in pictures of Switzerland. in the early 1860s. He was heavily involved in stereoscopic photography.ENGLAND. 1896) William England started as a portrait photographer. the focal-plane shutter. d. but then became involved in travel photography. however. William (date of birth unknown. for having invented. producing thousands of pictures. He is best remembered. 1999.

Born in New York. though he chose to discard the last. he went to live in Munich when in his twenties. Frank b.. 1936 His actual name was Frank Eugene Smith.EUGENE. d. He became a member of the Linked Ring in 1900. and while not all the results obtained may by some be considered "pure photography" they are all acknowledged to be of great beauty and merit. 1865. and his work was reproduced in various editions of Camera Work between 1904 and 1916. Last updated undefined . and just after the turn of the century he became a lecturer in photography in that city." © Robert Leggat. records "This talented worker .. and was a founder-member of the Photo-Secession. Coburn. 1999. and many of his pictures show the use of the etcher's needle. etches with a needle upon his negative. He was an expert etcher. writing of Eugene.

Unlike some of his contemporaries such as Demachy. beyond me. whereas Evans' work is very different indeed. writing the introduction to Evans' work. with no treatment of the print except ordinary spotting out of technical defects. at its best and easiest. pointing to the multitude of chairs that hid the . It is worth comparing this with the photography of another very accomplished photographer. but whereas it tended to be unimaginative and largely record photography. I have not worked carbon. I am more interested. In 1901 he became a member of the Linked Ring. a society which was opposed to the somewhat conservative approach of the Royal Photographic Society at that time. simple. Whilst many of his contemporaries were using the gum bichromate process. Bedford's photography was more concerned with factual rendering. preferring "pure" photography. in an outlandish silk collar. and who is not approached by ordinary men save in their Sunday-clothes . has accosted a Dean in his own cathedral and said. space.a dignitary compared to whom the President of the United States is the merest worm. Some of his work was reproduced in a number of editions of Camera Work. "The Sea of Steps" (1903) shows some of the excellence of his work. nevertheless his work was displayed at in the RPS twice during this period.. Francis Bedford. d. or the occasional lowering of an obtrusive white light. in making plain. but was so successful with his photography of Architecture and Landscape that just after the turn of the century he retired from bookselling and became a professional photographer. the effects of light and shade that so fascinate me. blue tie. he remained content with using the platinum one. Frederick Henry b. with a tripod under his arm. Evans looked for particular effects.... and one can immediately see his fascination for texture. George Bernard Shaw. straightforward photography render. He opposed the notion of manipulating the print." A man of immense patience. and crushed soft hat.. and the new gum print is.. light and shade. he refused to manipulate the negative or the print..Evans. 26 June 1852.EVANS. I am afraid. and with his his concern to show the effects of weight and balance. (October 1903) reveals both this sense of perfection and the way he managed to get things done: "He has been known to go up to the Dean of an English Cathedral . undodged negatives. it is said that he would sometimes wait for months to record the precise effect he was seeking. I say. and he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship of the Society in 1928. In a lecture to the Royal Photographic Society (25 April 1900) he said: "I have not been courageous enough as yet to try anything (if there is anything) beyond platinotype. "my prints are all from untouched. 24 June 1943 Evans became involved in photography as an amateur in 1882. for example depicting the strength of the stone. Architectural photography had been undertaken before.

Last updated undefined . when platinum was no longer generally available." Evans gave up photography after the first world war. only to be told then that he must have a certain door kept open during a two hours' exposure for the sake of completing his scale of light. "I should like all those cleared away.. 2002. © Robert Leggat..venerable flagged floor of the fane.." And the Dean has had it done.

Ernest Howard b.FARMER. This reducer. It consists of hypo with a small amount of ferricyanide of potash. 1860. Last updated undefined . which reduces the intensity of a negative. is still in use today. He invented a solution. d. invented in 1883. © Robert Leggat. 1944 Ernest Farmer was an English photographer who became the first Head of Photography at the Regent Street Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster). now known as Farmer's Reducer. 1997.

When Russell began to report the inadequacy of the medical facilities and the fact that British soldiers. and was impressed by the freedom that photographers in France had been granted as a result of the Daguerreotype process having been made available to all. in 1844 he returned to London and studied law. a sign. but this time involved the British and French. "I get no facilities for conveying my van from one locality to another. the majority of these were caused by disease and the freezing cold. progress in England was slow because of Talbot's claims arising from his patent." . (This is now the Royal Photographic Society). In January 1851 he visited Paris. Back in England. Though he is seen as a war photographer. Fenton studied art in London. perhaps. and his photographs were amongst the first ever to be seen in England. he wanted to sell his pictures. William Russell. and later in Paris under the painter Paul Delaroche. notably landscape photography. which is a pity. he was bound to show the well-being of the troops. and also somewhat obscures the major part he played in promoting photography in general. Fenton was commissioned to photograph it. By contrast. and produced over 350 pictures of the conflict. and he served as its Secretary for three years. and particularly the conditions under which the British forces were fighting. of his sound business sense! In fairness to him. and also became the official photographer to the British Museum. began to send a series of disturbing accounts of the conduct of this war. and on 10 January 1853 this came into being." he complained. a journalist working for The Times. his pictures showed a very one-sided cosmetic view: ● ● ● as it was largely a propaganda exercise. because it only formed a small proportion of his output in other areas. In 1852 he visited Russia. not having even been issued with winter uniforms. After studying at London University. d. Mar 1819. having had little success as a painter. guaranteeing him instant fame. feeling over the government's handling of the war began to mount. 8 Aug 1869 Roger Fenton is particularly known for his coverage of the Crimean War. In 1855. The Crimean War (1853-1956) was one of many between Russia and the Turks.FENTON. and gruesome realistic ones were probably not very marketable! many of his pictures were of the officers. and one of the first war correspondents. were dying with cold. he often felt obliged to photograph them: "If I refuse to take them. Fenton photographed Queen Victoria's family. in response to this continuous criticism of the government's handling of the war. However. Roger b. he proposed the formation of a Photographic Society. Less than 20% of the fatalities of the forces were due to war wounds.

it grew so hot towards noon as to burn the hand when touched. tend to portray war as a gorgeous pageant. Like all photographers of the time. For reasons that are not clear.. almost as if they were cricketers just about to go in to bat. he gave up . probably being mistaken for an ammunitions vehicle. as an agent of the government. To do this. Fenton took with him a converted wine-wagon as a caravan. for he chaired a Photographic Society "Fading Committee. was one disaster that was depicted as a glorious event. It is this bias which makes one question slightly whether he was a true war photographer in the same league as the Mathew Brady team." As the summer arrived. There are no action shots (this for technical reasons). He then produced a series of photographs of cathedrals." Fenton also produced a number of Stereoscopes of architecture. the door has to be rapidly closed for fear of a fresh invasion. there are no dead bodies." Fenton also had his own battles. many of his portraits having been taken before seven o'clock in the morning. had a tendency to fade. landscapes and still life subjects. perspiration started from every pore. therefore. Fenton found that the developing liquid became so hot that he could hardly put his hands in it! He also had to stop work earlier and earlier each day.. he found it necessary to take with him all the sensitising and processing equipment. Fenton himself was sufficiently concerned about the fading of pictures. and this occasionally became the target. for example. and then some time allowed for the dust thus raised to settle before coating a plate. Another reason for the lack of sales was that the prints. the moment the last one was out. The necessary buffeting with handkerchiefs and towels having taken place. As soon as the door was closed to commence the preparation of a plate.. the charge of the Light Brigade. still on salted paper. The picture shows an area of Balaklava. In a lecture to the Photographic Society he gave an account of the conditions: "Though (the van) was painted a light colour externally.. as people hardly wished to keep mementos of an event which most would wish to forget. his portrayals were somewhat slanted. and the sense of relief was great when it was possible to open the door and breathe even the hot air outside. Moreover. Before preparing a plate the first thing to be done was to battle with them for possession of the place. Upon returning from the Crimea (but not before he too had endured cholera) he had published bound volumes of his prints. but those of soldiers are carefully posed groups.. they did not sell too well. "It was at this time that the plague of flies commenced. and one might almost imagine that the Crimean war was almost like a picnic. and the intruders having being expelled. One has to bear in mind the considerable difficulties experienced at this time by photographers on location. However.Fenton's war pictures.

it has been suggested that this was because of his dislike for the increasing commercialisation of photography It was probably his bout of cholera which led to his early death at the age of forty-nine. 2006 Last updated undefined . It is worth noting that this prolific output and contribution to photography was confined to just eleven years or so.the most comprehensive archive of his work. Over six hundred of Fenton's prints are now preserved at the Photographic Museum in Bradford .taking photographs in 1861 and returned to the law. © Robert Leggat.

In 1845 Fizeau also took the first pictures of the sun. 18 September 1896 One of the disadvantages of the Daguerreotype was that it was extremely delicate. d. on daguerreotypes. 23 September 1819. This consisted of treating the finished image in a solution of sodium hyposulphite and gold chloride. a French physicist. Last updated undefined . Armand Hippolyte b. made the image stronger. 1999.mercury amalgam on the plate. © Robert Leggat. published a method of toning the daguerreotype. However in August 1840 Fizeau. consisting of small particles of soft silver. One solution was to frame the picture behind glass. which in addition to increasing the contrast.FIZEAU. which could be ruined simply by touching the surface.

commented that they "carry us far beyond anything that is in the power of the most accomplished artist to transfer to his canvas. which was a major achievement in such hot and dusty conditions. using the collodion process. © Robert Leggat. reporting on his pictures. he had to fight off a pack of hungry dogs "to the very point of exhaustion. and then embarked upon a colossal project .to photograph every town and village in the United Kingdom. Frith then set about establishing a postcard company. on the spot. When he had finished his travels in the Middle East in 1860 he married. settled in Reigate. Rather than providing a stark geographical description.FRITH. It is said that on one occasion he was sleeping in a tomb at the foot of the Great Pyramid. it is very likely that they will be by Francis Frith. On several occasions the collodion boiled on hitting the glass plates. Francis b. Last updated undefined . and this comes out in his photographs. 7 October 1822. he hired people to help him. a firm which became one of the largest photographic ones in the world. in particular notable historical or interesting sights. Frith started in the cutlery business. abandoning this in 1850 to becoming a travelling photographer. photographed in the 1870s. He faced considerable problems on his journeys in such a hot climate." The picture shown here shows part of the temple at Luxor." The Times. soon over two thousand shops throughout the land were selling his postcards. 25 February 1898 If. Surrey. one were to see photographs of towns and villages of long ago. This is why his photographs still remain popular. 1999. he sought to show what it was like to be there. He journeyed to the Middle East on three occasions. Frith's most famous work was yet to come. Initially he took the photographs himself. in a public house. bearing with him very large cameras (16" x 20"). I suppose it could be said that Frith was predominantly a traveller. but as success came. d.

however. the artist attended the consecration of the Gettysburg Cemetery. None of those who went up and down the fields to bury the fallen. he set about photographing "Home of a rebel sharpshooter. Gardner wrote: On the nineteenth of November. Alexander b. His book. as did the cold form of the dead four months before. Unlike the somewhat contrived war pictures taken by Fenton. and some mother may yet be patiently watching for the return of her boy. as digital photography grows apace. He also documented the execution of the conspirators against Lincoln. 1821." was all that could have been known of him at home. he embarked upon making a collection of photographs of convicted criminals. the person behind it can! For example. and again visited the "Sharpshooter's Home. But hardly creditable." The musket. still leaned against the rock. when Gardner arrived at the decisive scene of the war at Gettysburg two days after it had been fought. Fine words. "Gardner's two-volume Photographic Sketchbook of the War" (meaning the Civil War) was published in 1866. the weapon in the photograph was not used by sharpshooters. unrecognized and alone. for whom he photographed the American Civil War.GARDNER. turning the head towards the camera. October 17. Brady's practice of signing his employees' pictures did not meet with Gardner's approval. rusted by many storms. and the skeleton of the soldier lay undisturbed within the mouldering uniform. The following year he recorded the building of the Union Pacific Railroad. Souvenir hunters would have removed the rifle within days. The lens sees what it sees. that amongst the genuine pictures of the war there appear to be a few which are contrived. before taking the picture he had dragged the body of a Conferedate some thirty metres to where he lies in the picture." However. evoke a reaction. It may have been Gardner's prop. almost anything is achieveable! But what of the past? Like any artist. a photographer may want to portray some emotion. and Lincoln's funeral. In any case. had found him. However. indeed. between the rocks at Gettysburg. Gardner's are so factual as to be almost macabre. d. This faked photographed has been well researched by William Frassanito in his book "Gettysburg: A Journey in Time" (1975) So. 1882 Alexander Gardner was a Scot who emigrated to the United States and was hired by Mathew Brady. It should also be added. "Missing. whose bones lie bleaching. In addition. put out a thought of his own. but what appears . for the Washington police force. further proof that whilst the camera cannot lie. does the camera ever lie? Well. and after some years he left Brady's firm and opened his own gallery in Washington DC. adding to the drama.

Last updated undefined . 2001. not only the picture itsdelf but also the works may influence how we perceive things. © Robert Leggat. And as anyone reading Garner's notes that accompany his photography shows.is inevitably subjective. Many of Gardners pictures were Stereoscopic ones.

The Daguerreotype process initially was very slow. 1795. and his accelerator. Last updated undefined . His work was of considerable significance for daguerreotype photography. This was a breakthrough as far as portaiture was concerned. 1866 Goddard was a chemist and a lecturer in Science at the Polytechnic of Central London who later worked as an operator in Richard Beard's studio.6. with a maximum aperture of f/3. One method was by using a fast lens. and here is where Goddard comes in. which he called quickstuff could reduce a ten minute exposure to one minute. A second solution was to make the plate faster by double sensitizing. © Robert Leggat. and Josef Petzval first made one in 1841.GODDARD. Goddard refumed the iodized surface of the plate with bromide. Details of the improvement were published in December 1840. 1999. d. and attempts were made to shorten the long expsoure times. as it reduced the required exposure from some fifteen or even twenty minutes to as little as ten seconds. He used bromine vapour in addition to iodine to increase the sensitivity of the daguerreotype. John Frederick b.

having been the founder. of the photographic manufacturing business which eventually came to be known as Ilford Limited. in Peckham. d. Last updated undefined . One of Harman's employees was John Houson who was responsible for producing the "Ilford Manual of Photography" which continues to this day. 23 May 1913 Harman's name is relatively little known in history of photography circles. in 1879. employing thousands of people. 1841. © Robert Leggat.HARMAN. Alfred Hugh b. Four years later he was advertising a service providing enlargements using solar cameras and artificial light. originally known as the Britannia Works. which is perhaps unkind. for his contribution to photography was considerable. He chose Ilford. Essex for the setting up of a company. In 1879 he gave up this business to concentrate on the manufacture of dry plates. 1999. South London. He started up business at the age of 22. and this eventually became known as "Ilford".

Despite her relatively short life Lady Clementina took a large number of pictures widely differing variety. The story of Lady Clementina Hawarden is very similar. As one critic put it. London. Though she took landscapes and portraits. She was awarded a medal by the (then) Photographic Society. and art historians maintain she was influenced. 2000 Last updated undefined . using a mirror. for reasons outlined here. In London. and she could only see life indirectly. London. the Lady was imprisoned in a tower. There are relatively few early women photographers. These predate the work of Cameron. One of her strongest supporters was Charles Dodgson. by the portraiture by James Whistler. d. 1865 In the summer of 1999 the Victoria and Albert Museum in London put on an exhibition of Lady Clementine Hawarden's photography. though she died before receiving the award. her best work consisted of photographs which showed the Pre-Raphaelite influence in her kind of work. more commonly known as Lewis Carroll. © Robert Leggat. Unable to experience the real world. In 1845 she married Viscount Hawarden. In his poem. her photographic work flourished. and sought to express herself using photography.HAWARDEN. for she was a prisoner of Victorian conventions. Those wishing to read further would find an excellent account in "Lady Celementine Hawarden: studies of life 1857-1864" by Virginia Dodier (ISBN 0-89381-815-1). The majority of her photographs can be found in the Victoria and Albert Museum. it was difficult not to think of Tennyson's "Lady of Shalott" as one saw these pictures. in her photography. she had to recourse to weaving tapestries of the inverted image. leaving her a fortune. Lady Clementina b. and she was able (like Julia Margaret Cameron) to persuade many friends and relatives to pose for her photographs. except that her father died when she was seventeen. 1822. and left Scotland to live in South Kensington. Little is known about the early life of Clementina Hawarden.

"have never lowered the dignity of their Art or their profession by reducing their prices. graceful.com/sandh1. Last updated undefined . They went up for auction (read further here) . the review states. One of the leading experts on these two daguerreotypists is Ken Appollo. but their fixed aim and undeviating rule has been to produce the finest specimens. 1808. The partnership. mechanical. Josiah Johnson b. and Hawes continued to practise photography until his death in 1901. Early in 1999 there was intense interest following the discovery of some 240 daguerreotypes produced by these two photographers.HAWES. indeed. Collections of their work exist at the JFK Library. the total price exceeding two million pounds." They were noted for their portraits of brides and wedding parties. © Robert Leggat. and chemical. and giving depth and roundness together with a wonderful softness or mellowness. 2000. Boston. presenting beautiful effects of light and shade.--the finest in every respect. in Boston. Their style. pleasing in posture and arrangement.1901 Hawes was an American pioneer who went into partnership in 1843 with Albert Sands Southworth. d. and exact in portraiture.html. A contemporary review drew a sharp distinction between the "rats" who produced shoddy work and consequently causing the lowering of esteem of the art of "Heliography" and this paretnership who. is peculiar to themselves.photographymuseum. of which they were capable. Additional information can be seen at http:// www. lasted just under twenty years. artistic. They also patented (the review ssuggests "invented" but this is questionable) an instrument which which stereoscopic pictures may be viewed.

It has a number of reproductions of photographs relating to Hill and Adamson. and many of these are stored in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Do give it a visit. sunlight was necessary. 2000 Last updated undefined . he is only mentioned in passing. though it is likely that Adamson. Restrictions on the Calotype process imposed by Fox Talbot had arrested the development of photography in England. but since the patent did not apply to Scotland these two early photographers were able. and Hill for the direction.such devices were not uncommon then. Their Calotypes are now greatly treasured. too. had an artistic bent. posing and lighting. the girl to the right has her hand fixed on the shoulder of her companion. At this period. a very influential publication produced at the turn of the century. at least. of course. One problem that Hill and Adamson failed to resolve was the control of the eye.edinphoto. so even the interior photography will have been outside. © Robert Leggat. and her back is against the doorway.uk.org. is the way Hill saw it.HILL and ADAMSON Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson were partners in the earliest days of photography. Craig Annan. development and printing). Some of the Hill and Adamson pictures were to be reproduced many years later in Camera Work. However. That. it seems that Hill told the sitters to close their eyes rather than blink. and in a lengthy essay on the work of Hill by J. to produce a considerable number of pictures. their earliest known photograph being dated August 1843. Adamson is not credited. In "The Bird Cage" for example. the girl in the foreground has her hand firmly on the cage. in a very short partnership. In order to prevent movement on the part of the sitters all sorts of strategies were needed to keep them still. Photographers of the day were either artistically inclined or had a strong scientific background. So in several of their pictures eyes appear closed. A new web-site worth looking at is www. with suitable props. The little tell-tale shadows suggests that the girl at the back also had her head cradled . Because the exposures were so long. and this partnership was an ideal combination: Adamson was mainly responsible for the more mechanistic aspects of the process (exposure. London.

Hill and Adamson's pictures are all calotypes.) In 1847 Robert Adamson died. Edinburgh. He published the first lithographic view of Scotland in "Sketches of Scenery in Perthshire" (1821). and also produced lithographs for "The Works of Robert Burns. as there were four hundred and seventy people present. In 1843 a major upheaval in the Church of Scotland took place. go into partnership with a chemist. measuring 12ft x 4ft 8ins. 1802. saw in the newly invented calotype process the solution.HILL. whilst Hill's paintings are ignored and forgotten. The task was quite formidable." He was a portrait painter. and was considered sufficiently momentous to have the event commemorated in a painting. The Hill and Adamson photographs are much valued today. To this end Hill and Adamson took individual portraits of the clerics. on the reverse. Its first meeting took place in May that year. is in the Hall of the Presbytery. The short partnership is all the more remarkable for the large output. and suggested that Hill. in the four years more than 1500 calotypes had been produced. d. The painting is very large. Sir David Brewster. and Hill gave up photography and returned to painting. Robert Adamson. an Academy which he himself had established. Hill was paid £1500 for the task. aged only 27. The painting. A much respected scientist of the day. and once Secretary of the Scottish Academy of painting. © Robert Leggat. 2000 Last updated undefined . Sketching each person individually would have been a colossal task. 17 May 1870 David Octavius Hill devoted most of his life to improving the arts in Scotland. and it was intended that each of these people should be present in the painting. which took twentythree years to complete. David Octavius b. One of them has. but the photograph is the more remembered. who was secretary of the Scottish Academy. resulting in the formation of the Free Church of Scotland. "Sol fecit" (the sun made it.

Lewis Wickes b. to show the working class conditions of the poor immigrants from Europe. One reads "Sandie Fiefer." Owen Lovejoy. Bible salesman or insurance agent in order to gain access to the premises! Where he was banned from premises. Sometimes he was banned from the premises. and had first to learn how to get a presentable picture without using flash. who accused him of muck-raking. He produced several thousands of pictures. From 1911. but that is the value of the dates and the witnesses. Hine discovered and exposed some appalling conditions. 3 November 1940 Lewis Hine was an American sociologist who took up photography in 1905 and used it as a documentary tool. wrote: "The work that you did under my direction was more responsible than any or all other efforts to bring the facts or conditions of child labor employment to public attention. General Secretary of the NCLC and Hine's contracting supervisor. he even measured the children by the buttons on his jacket. picks 20 lbs. In 1910 he wrote saying: "I am sure I am right in my choice of work. On occasions Hine even posed as a fire inspector. cotton a day. 26 September 1874." "I wanted to show things that had to be corrected". In 1916-1917 he travelled some fifty thousand miles in his quest. He often hid his camera so that he could take authentic photographs. another "Mart Payne.HINE. where he depicted in a sensitive and heartrending manner the plight of children working in the mills. recording the circumstances. having measured their height. It was not until the 1930s that his work bore fruit. Some of his prints have comments on the back. Being anxious to provide evidence that could not be discredited. he would photograph the children arriving at or leaving the factory. such as children aged six or seven having to work as many as twelve hours a day. Hine declared.1916 he toured the US as official photographer for the National Labor Committee. and child labour became controlled. 10. South Carolina". d. My child labor photos have already set the authorities to work to see if such things can be possible. They try to get around the issue by crying forgery. Hine met with considerable opposition from the employers. on other occasions the children were hidden from view when he arrived." The picture shows a little girl having a glimpse outside. Some of Hine's most evocative pictures are to .

2004.html © Robert Leggat.be found at http://www.com/unitedstates/childlabor/index. Last updated undefined .historyplace.

” © Robert Leggat.” On February 6th he once again touched upon the poor Mr. Last updated undefined . Dudley Johnston said of him: "I think it was Horsley Hinton who has exercised the most profound influence on British landscape photography and raised it to a higher plane of imaginative vision. but just after the first world war J. 1908 Horsley Hinton's name does not feature in many books on the history of photography. we shall not give offence by calling them puerile. we hope. Henry Steven’s photographs which.p. comes from Camera Work. Steven’s prints are. 1905. and indeed their unique character. are neither scientific records nor pictorial interpretations. Horsley Hinton was a popular judge in pictorial photography at the turn of the century. shown here. Alfred Horsley b.. their attractiveness. (January 16. some with and some without bunches of carrots and other vegetables…. Fine photography they undoubtedly are. shows that he was prepared to speak his mind: “At the Royal Photographic Society there is just now on view a number of Mr. "Beyond". 2003. Referring to his exhibition he writes: “Whilst photographic prints of this class are not. and a small number of rabbits. gods.. 1863. and a leading member in the formation of the Linked Ring. as specimens of lens definition and what extraordinary care and patience can achieve. cannot be denied…. in our opinion. though wonderfully striking. if by that term we are to understand an exemplification of what a lens can do in highly skilled and patient hands. Some fine exhibition prints of his remain. Cats and kittens. What will probably strike the observer most forcibly is the pity that such consummate craftsmanship should be expended on subjects which. the kind to elevate photography to either a higher intellectual or s high artistic level. Stevens’ photographs. are probably unique. whilst this gentleman’s photographs of greenhouse blooms and ferns. and one can see where his preferences lay." Hinton was editor of the Amateur Photographer..HINTON.hardly seem worthy of being a theme of such a veritable tour de force as many a one of Mr. 1902) which is probably attributable to Hinton.During his brief career . An item in the A.he was the greatest force operating in the sphere of British photography.1889 to 1907 .. d.

1831. 1999. Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. with Suggestions for Their Preservation" (1856).HOWLETT. and particularly for his photograph of Bruner standing near this ship. and a booklet entitled "On the Various Methods of Printing Photographic Pictures upon Paper. 1858 Robert Howlett was one of the earliest professional photographers. Robert b. d. the cause of death being ascribed by some to the exposure to hazardous photographic chemicals. and came into partnership with Joseph Cundall in London. He died at the age of twenty-seven. He is perhaps best known for his coverage of the construction and launching of the ship "The Great Eastern". He designed and sold his own portable darkroom tent.

HUNT. He wrote books on photography. © Robert Leggat. He was also instrumental in persuading Fox Talbot to relinquish his patents on the Calotype process. 1999. proved to be extremely popular. d. his first. Last updated undefined . 1887 Robert Hunt was a geologist and an advocate of photography. and played a leading part in forming the Photographic Society. Robert b. which were serving to arrest the progress of photography. 1807. (See Tablot and Patents . like all his publications. This. "A Popular Treatise on the Art of Photography" (published in Glasgow in 1841) being intended for the lay person.

John Jabez McKellen.Significant PEOPLE in the early history of Photography J-M ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Jackson. Jacques-Henri Le Gray. Etienne Jules Martin. Gertrude Keighley. Samuel Finley Mortimer. Frances Benjamin Johnston. Richard Leach Marey. Henri Llewelyn. Dudley Kasebier. William Henry Johnston. Martin Lartigue. Francis Mudd. Samuel Dunseith Morse. James Mayall. Thomas Kircher. J. John Lumière brothers Maddox. Paul Maxwell. Alexander Keith. Athanasius Laroche. James Muybridge. Eadweard . Gustave Le Secq.

a veteran of the civil war. 1999. His work can be seen at the National Archives and the Library of Congress. and the Denver Library in Colorado. still being commissioned to take photographs whilst in his nineties. William Henry b. © Robert Leggat. d. both at Washington DC. 30 June 1942 Jackson was an American photographer. 4 April 1843. and who was probably one of the most colourful and energetic travel photographers of all time. and also produced a number of stereoscopic pictures." He used a variety of cameras.JACKSON. Last updated undefined . including one which produced negatives 20 by 24 inches in size. During his lifetime he was known as the "Grand old man of the National parks. who explored the "Wild West" in the 1870s.

writing and illustrating her articles.1952 Frances studied art in Paris and Washington. © Robert Leggat. d. 1999. and worked for periodicals. Frances Benjamin b. In 1900 she collected 148 works by 28 women photographers for exhibition in Russia and at the World Exhibition in Paris. and embarked on a campaign to promote greater recognition of women in photographic circles in America. Last updated undefined . evidence that there was a niche for women keen to take advantage of an opportunity for self-expression that the traditional male-dominated visual arts denied.JOHNSTON. 1854. and Frances Benjamin Johnston was a particularly noteworthy freelance photographer. She then began to take her own photographs. Women were among the early photo-journalists in the United States. Johnston was also a member of the Photo-Secession.

She was the first woman to be elected to the prestigious Linked Ring. She was keen on allegorical themes. to evoke an emotional response from the viewer. and one of her series was on motherhood. 18 May 1852. Last updated undefined . A contemporary critic praised her for haing done more for artistic portraiture than any other of her time (painter or photographer) by her sense of "what to leave out. d. but to share an experience. Gertrude b. and in 1897 opened her first portrait studio in New York City." Some of her fine platinum prints remain." Her work was featured in the first issue of Camera Work. © Robert Leggat.KASEBIER. 12 October 1934 Gertrude Kasebier was born in Iowa. and was also a founder-member of the Photo-Secession. 2000. her portraits standing out over the work of her contemporaries. It was said of her that her purpose in taking photographs was "not to inform. began taking photographs in the early nineties.

his carbon prints being very heavily retouched. his ambition was to be an artist. 2 August 1947 Alexander Keighley was born in Yorkshire. his work was widely acclaimed. 1861. son of a wealthy industrialist. some of his "camera paintings". Alexander b. Pressed into his father's business. 1999.KEIGHLEY. d. Last updated undefined . A founder-member of the Linked Ring. and he found in photography the outlet he so badly needed. © Robert Leggat. However. he subsequently changed his tune. At first Keighley took the view that photography should be a medium in its own right and not seek to emulate other forms of art. He was awarded an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Photographic Society in 1911. are still masterpieces. as he called them.

Thomas Keith was a gynaecologist in Edinburgh who took up amateur photography. Thomas b. 1999.KEITH. He worked in Scotland in the mid 'fifties. d. Last updated undefined . 1895 Dr. His pictures of architecture and landscape. on the waxed paper process. 1827. © Robert Leggat. are of a high artistic appeal.

he shows a picture of a camera obscura with an opening in the floor through which the artist entered. the illustrator got it wrong.. a wooden box and put on it a chimney. which would not have projected it. enlarged coloured image on the white wall opposite... 1601. © Robert Leggat. so that the smoke of the lamp in the box is on a level with the opening. and insert in the opening a pipe or tube. His major work was "Ars magna lucis et umbrae" published in Rome in 1646. Athanasius b. it is necessary to place a concave mirror behind . d. In his revised publication. 1688 Athanasius Kircher was a leading scholar in his time of natural sciences and mathematics. on which is painted an image in transparent water colours. 1999. upside down) will throw an upright. Kircher also gave a description of a magic lantern: "Make . the lamp.fasten the small glass plate. in that he placed the transparency in front of the lens... but at the end of the tube. penetrating through the lens and through the image on the glass (which is to be inserted. The tube must contain a very good lens. In order to increase the strength of the light. Last updated undefined .KIRCHER." Actually. printed twenty five years later. Then the light of the lamp...

LAROCHE. working with the collodion process. particularly as I know nothing about it. trusting to the judge" whilst the judge.. and made freely available by him. He is particularly remembered as the defendant. 1999. Fox Talbot wrote to his wife Constance: "The jury understood little of the subject..difficult to understand the subject..I am sorry to say the case kept me awake all last night. On 20 December the case was thrown out. Last updated undefined . from this time onwards another restriction to the development of photography had been removed. did not renew his patent for the calotype process. invented by Frederick Scott Archer. London.. for it meant that the process.. now recognising that the collodion process was not only free but faster. in a test case pressed by Fox Talbot. in 1854.. Later. had commented "It is. 1886 Laroche (his real name was William Henry Sylvester) was a Canadian photographer who opened up a studio in Oxford Street. who was claiming that the collodion process came under his own calotype one." The court's decision was significant.. 1809.. in summing up. © Robert Leggat. Martin b. was now available for all to use either in an amateur or commercial capacity. d. Fox Talbot decided not to appeal against the decision and.

in favour of painting. Last updated undefined . d.LARTIGUE. 1999. © Robert Leggat. He had obviously panned the camera to keep the vehicle sharp. In this picture he panned the camera so that the car is sharp." He started taking pictures at the age of six. 12 September 1986 Lartigue was a French photographer. largely unknown until he was in his seventies. when he was immediately dubbed the "discovery of the century. 13 June 1894. whether the effect caused by the focalplane shutter was intended or whether it was the result of a lucky accident we are not told! Lartigue's interest in photography waned after the first World War. and one of his most famous pictures was taken at Grand Prix in 1912 when he was aged eighteen. Jacques-Henri b. The elliptical shape of the wheel and the angle at which the spectators were standing are due to the fact that Lartigue used a focal-plane shutter.

d. Le Gray created a sensation in 1856 when his picture "Brig upon the Water" was exhibited at the Photographic Society of London's annual exhibition. landscape pictures tended to have over-exposed skies which appeared white. Some history books claim that this had been achieved on one negative because it so happened that the luminosity of the foreground was similar to that of the sky.1882 Le Grey was a French artist who began to take photographs towards the end of the 1840s. he is better known for having introduced the waxed paper process. others claim that two negatives were used. because photographic materials were not sensitive to red and highly sensitive to blue. Le Gray's picture showed a pleasing representation of sky and sea on one print. He made pictures of landscapes and seascapes. 1999. and on the mount is written "The great sensation of 1856".LE GRAY. in which a negative was made on paper which had been permeated with wax. Up till that time. © Robert Leggat. This improved the transparency of the paper. and that this was the first example of combination printing. whereas the conventional calotype could only be kept one day. Whatever the case. The print itself remains in the possession of the Royal Photographic Society. However. and who set up a portrait studio in Paris. Last updated undefined . and therefore greater definition. Gustave b. 1820. In 1861 Le Gray retired from photography (ostensibly because of the carte-de-visite boom) and was appointed Professor of Drawing in Cairo. this prompted photographers all the more to address themselves to ensuring that outdoor scenes were more aesthetically rendered. In 1850 produced a book entitled "A practical treatise on Photography" by which time he was a practising teacher. Another advantage of this process was that this sensitised waxed paper (though a little slower than the calotype) would be kept for up to two weeks before use.

Le Secq was one of these. was to assign five photographers to conduct a survey of monuments and buildings of architectural significance. Le Secq's photographs include images of the cathedrals at Rheims and Chartres. in 1851. d. 1818. Henri b. having made the Daguerreotype process free to the world. © Robert Leggat. and one of its first actions. Last updated undefined .LE SECQ. 1882 The French government. 1999. Some of his other work (including an illustrated guide to Amiens) reveals him to have been an artist of considerable delicacy. others including Bayard and Le Gray. was quick to make use of photography.

Llewelyn was a founder Council Member of the Photographic Society of London. though no details survive beyond diary references. Paris 1855. He worked with Antoine Claudet on the daguerreotype process. a first cousin of Henry Fox Talbot. Llewelyn was making images within days of Talbot's announcement and it is possible he had prior knowledge from his mother-in-law. He married Emma Thomasina Talbot. John Dillwyn b. added his maternal grandfather's name upon coming of age and inheriting his estates near Swansea. 1997. Talbot regarded Llewelyn as the first botanical photographer. his uncle by marriage Richard Dykes Alexander of Ipswich and his wife's cousin Jane St John. Some of his images were published in "The Sunbeam" by his friend Philip Delamotte and also in the Photographic Exchange albums. 12 January 1810. and botanical daguerreotypes are recorded by Kew Gardens as early as 1842. who did all his printing. © Robert Leggat. I am grateful to Richard Morris FRPS for information on John Llwelwyn. where he won a silver medal for his 'Motion Series' of four instantaneous images. his sister Mary Dillwyn. FLS and Mary. Lady Mary Cole. and remained on the Council until 1857. his daughter Thereza. an early form of dry plate photography. Last updated undefined . d. 24 August 1882 The eldest son and second child of Lewis Weston Dillwyn FRS. Lewis West Dillwyn was a distinguished botanist and a member of the First Reformed Parliament.LLEWELYN. In 1856 he discovered the Oxymel process. Llewelyn was also a member of the Amateur Photographic Association and was on their council. who had visited Talbot in 1838. south Wales. originally Dillwyn. He was distantly related to his friend and fellow photographer Calvert Richard Jones. Other members of the family who were photographers were his wife Emma. John. He exhibited at their exhibitions and at the Exposition Universelle. He claimed to have used all the known early processes and continuously experimented with variations on these. though these are now lost.

d. 1999. a principle which still applies in motion photography today. 1948 The Lumière brothers made a distinctive contribution to photography in various areas. Last updated undefined . Louis and Auguste Louis: b. 1864. d. using a claw movement which advanced the film. 1862. the first practical colour photography process. They are perhaps best known for having produced a Cinematograph camera in 1895. They also produced the Autochrome plate in 1907. 1954 Auguste: b. © Robert Leggat.LUMIERE. Louis received the Progress Medal of the Royal Photographic Society in 1909.

Etienne Jules b. Some in fact see Marey. d. rather than the Lumière brothers. 15 May 1904 Marey started his career as an assistant surgeon in 1855. In 1867 he became Professor of Natural History. as the true father of cine photography. as they passed in front of the black backdrops. For those who think slow motion photography is relatively new. Marey used only one. Characteristic of his pictures were his studies of the human in motion. Whereas Muybridge (with whom Marey was frequently in contact) had used a number of cameras to study movement. where the subjects wore black suits with metal strips or white lines. the movements being recorded on one photographic plate. He was the inventor of the "chronophotograph" (1887) from which modern cinematography was developed.MAREY. Marey also invented a slow motion camera in 1894. 5 March 1830. and specialised in human and animal physiology. 2001 Last updated undefined . which took pictures at the rate of 700 per second! © Robert Leggat.

His first experiments in photography started when he was ten years old. but in the wake of the Franco-Prussian war and the Paris Commune his family fled to England when he was a child. representing the official photographic sentiment of the day. known as "London by Gaslight" earned him the Royal Photographic Society medal. and his work gives us an insight into life in London which few photographs of the time come anywhere near to doing.. without people posing. Martin felt that there was far too lofty and rigid an idea as to what constituted "good" photography: ". d. he was unperturbed. a fellow member of his local photographic society and an influential contemporary." He was encouraged in his work by George Davidson.. taken in 1895-6. 16 April 1864.MARTIN. Martin would not have called himself a documentary photographer. and which gave him the opportunity to take some excellent candid photographs of scenes in London. his interest was simply to portray human beings candidly. He is particularly remembered for his striking pictures depicting London by night.. They felt that a plate demanded a noble and dignified subject. a cathedral or mountain. Paul Augustus b. Martin's photographs have an honest. In 1892 he purchased an unusual camera called the "Facile". This series. were not encouraging towards the type of subject which I was then taking. Because the pictures are candid. Though some members of the photographic world looked down on this type of work. There was more outlet in the suburban clubs. 1999. 7 July 1944 Paul Martin was born in Alcase-Lorraine. a large box that looked like a brown paper parcel which was held under the arm. Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. He also became a member of the Linked Ring. Writing later about these times. but even there many members regarded some of my studies as rather infra dig or even shocking.two principal exhibition societies. but he was nineteen before he started taking photography seriously. unpretentious style.

MAXWELL. James Clerk b. In working on his colour theories he collaborated with Thomas Sutton. James Clerk Maxwell was a Scottish physicist who made some far-reaching advances on electromagnetism. Lecturing at the Royal Institution in London (May 1861) he was the first to demonstrate that by taking three pictures. © Robert Leggat. each through a primary colour filter. 1999. and projecting the three using corresponding filters. 5 November 1879 Dr. d. Last updated undefined . His contribution in photography was in his studies of colour. becoming the first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge University in 1871. so that they overlapped. 13 November 1831. colour pictures could be re-created. He held Professorships in a number of institutions.

1999. he solemnly asked her to be seated. John Jabez Edwin b. said that having seen the Daguerreotype pictures. whereupon Mayall. complained to Mayall who. taken in the 1860s. and asked her to keep very still. Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. His series of portraits of the Royal Family. and upon his death he was instrumental in organising a Testimonial for his widow and three children. and then practised in Brighton. having learned of the situation from the assistant immediately offered to photograph her again. some half a million of these a year. 1810. At this point the lady exclaimed that he was about to take a photograph of the back of her head. 6 Mar 1901 Mayall was an American photographer. the only option left was to try a portrait in which the face would be entirely absent! Fortunately the client saw the funny side of this charade. for some time managing the studio owned by Antoine Claudet. were enormously successful. He brought from France the albumen process in 1851. and who had taken a dislike to the results.MAYALL. After a period as a photographer in Philadelphia he came to work in London for nearly twenty years. Placing a seat with its back towards the camera. The Photographic News of 1861 relates an incident which took place in his studio: A lady who had been photographed by Mayall's assistant. Mayall was a strong supporter of Frederick Scott Archer. began mass production of these. producing. which he thought to be good likenesses of her. He then turned to the carte-de-visite. looked again at the previous pictures. with utmost politeness. He then placed the headrest towards her forehead. and bought a few. d. from which he made a fortune. it is said.

his factory in Manchester developed to the extent of employing thirty-five skilled workmen. 1906 History can sometimes be unkind to those who do not publicise themselves.an enthusiastic photographer. having been made out of a cigar box and spectacle lens! The British Journal of Photography for Oct 31. was accidentally sold to a customer without McKellen's knowledge! Those who screw tripod or pan and tilt heads into cameras have McKellen to thank for. felt it necessary to comment "The present generation may or may not be aware that Mr. and this is certainly true in the case of Samuel McKellen. announcing his death. that they have felt constrained to grant a medal for it. his first camera. The letters of congratulation both to the inventor and to the British Jounral of Photography were wildly . in the late 1850s. It says much the Photographic Journal. One novelty was McKellen's detective camera. James Glashier commented: "The Society has never until now seern its way to giving a medal for apparatus. I had often realized that the labour and fatigue of a day's tramp with even a half-plate Camera and a dozen of plates. I confess that I would not have known about this pioneer. ready for transport. And had it not been for a letter received recently from his grandson. this was a singular honour.." The year 1884 saw McKellen being awarded the Photographic Society's Prize Medal for his camera. Samuel Dunseith b. Dec 26. but your Camera has in it so many new points." Samual McKellen was a watch and clockmaker. in presenting the prize the President of the Society. were considerably more than was pleasant. Initially McKellen had no intention to sell cameras but simply wanted to advance photography. It almost did not make the exhibition at all. 1884. who died penniless and unknown and lies in an unmarked grave in Chorlton. and is such a distinct stride in advance. so light. McKellen was the father of the modern camera. so he decided to use his skills to design a light. And I congratulate you on what may fairly be called The Camera of the Future. By comparison McKellen's weighed only 15lbs. In the 1880s professional cameras were heavy. into which the tripod screw is inserted. shaped like an attache case. and also had developed a passion for photography. so easily worked. In fact. is so compact. as it was he who in January 1884 patented the little opening in the bottom of a camera. for the camera. McKellen states: "." A contemporary instrument called the "Tourist Portable camera" weighed in at approximately 40 lbs. But it was his rack and pinion camera that most excited people at the time. and its cubic contents were about 2300 inches. Writing about his invention.McKELLEN. so simple in its movements. however the huge demand at the time caused him to change his course.1836 d. According to the British Journal of Photography. its cubic contents 850 inches. yet so firm. describes enthusiastically his camera which was displayed at an exhibition by the Photographic Society of Great Britain. and not infrequently deprived the results obtained of much of their value. versatile camera.

to the extent that one finds it difficult to understand why he has subsequently become largely forgotten. and did not pursue his patents. Last updated undefined . regrettably McKellen died in poverty because though he was a brilliant inventor. I am most grateful to McKellen's grandson. for this information. Despite the lavish obituary in the Photographic Journal. © Robert Leggat. 1998.enthusiastic. he did not have much of a business sense. without which I confess I would never have heard of this remarkable man. John McKellen.

Draper. taken in 1840. Morse then became one of the first to practise using daguerreotypes in the United States. and his development of the electric telegraph. Morse is more popularly known for the signalling code that bears his name. One of his students was Mathew Brady. and an inventor. Samuel Finley Breese b. sharing a studio with John W. a chemistry expert. which must have been an unbelievable ordeal to the sitters! His pictures of his class reunion. is the first known group portrait. Morse met Louis Daguerre. d. and they became good friends.MORSE. 2 April 1872 Samuel Morse was an accomplished American artist. 27 April 1791. © Robert Leggat. During his visit to France in 1838. who became one of the greatest documentary photographers. 1999. particularly of miniatures. Last updated undefined . and then came to England for art training under the direction of Benjamin West. Morse's first portraits were made using exposures of between 10 and 20 minutes. He studied at Yale University.

an Egyptologist who was one of the two who discovered the Tutankhamen treasures. his main sphere of influence lay in the various editorships of photographic journals. when one of Carnarvon's guests displayed the grouse he had shot that day.to be largely ignored in modern photographic history books. as they set off to the war. including "Photograms of the Year.MORTIMER. where many families parted with their sons and husbands. in fact. a keen yachtsman. Last updated undefined ." One of Mortimer's most famous pictures is the "Gate of Goodbye" . 1944 Francis Mortimer. Mortimer beamed with admiration. He was elected a member of the Linked Ring in 1907. 1874. coupled with other manipulations. when editor of "Amateur Photographer. who was instrumental in its demise only a couple of years later. and then said "What a superb gun you must have!" Though Mortimer was an influential person who in his lifetime received many honours. As a result he tends . which he found distinctly irritating. He got his own back." In fact. Mortimer was a close friend of Lord Carnarvon. 1999. Francis James b. it was he. he was often greeted with "What a wonderful lens your camera has". It is said that on one of his frequent visits to show photographs. © Robert Leggat. many being combination prints. d. his dislike for what he saw as "American temporary art crazes" left Britain somewhat isolated in the photographic world after the first World War. the background being the archway leading to Waterloo station.quite undeservedly . is best known for his dramatic sea-scapes.a combination print made from a number of negatives.

and are to be found in the Kodak Museum.MUDD. It would seem that he was also commissioned by Francis Frith to photograph scenes and buildings in his home city. The earliest of his pictures date to about 1852. James Little is known of this photographer other than he worked in Manchester as a portrait photographer and that he produced some interesting landscape pictures. In 1866 he wrote a book entitled "The Collodio-Albumen process" and other papers. one of which showed the effect of a damburst in 1864. Manchester Central Library. Last updated undefined . and in the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry. © Robert Leggat. 1999. near Sheffield.

Significant PEOPLE in the early history of Photography N-S
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Nadar Negre, Charles Nicholls, Horace Niépce, Joseph O'Sullivan, Timothy Petzval, Josef Max Polak, Richard Ponting, Herbert Price, William Lake Ray, Man Rejlander, Oscar Riis, Jacob Roberts, Robert Evan Robertson, James Robinson, Henry Peach Rosling, Alfred Salomon, Erich Schulze, Johann Heinrich Shadbolt, George Shaw, George Bernard Snelling, Henry H Steichen, Edward Jean Stieglitz, Alfred Stone, John Benjamin Strand, Paul Sutcliffe, Frank Sutton, Thomas

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b. 5 April 1820; d. 1910 His real name was Gaspard-Felix Tournachon. He was a colourful French caricaturist, writer, portrait photographer and balloonist, and flamboyant showman. Nadar was derived from his nickname ("tourne a dard") meaning "bitter sting", which he earned for his caricatures. He owned a portrait studio with his brother Adrien, from 1853, in the Rue St. Lazare, Paris. Combining his interest in balloon flying, in 1858 he received a patent for this, and became the first to take pictures from the air. His balloon was enormous, had a two-story gondola, capable of carrying up to fifty men. The balloon had its own darkroom, the process at the time requiring exposure and development whilst the plate was still wet. Two years later capped this by photographing the Paris sewers, using electric light. He photographed many famous people, including Liszt, Balzac, Delacroix, Emile Zola and Rossini. One of his pictures is that of Victor Hugo, whom he had known for many years, on his death bed, 1885. Though he photographed many women, it is said that he preferred not to, saying that "the images are too true to Nature to please the sitters, even the most beautiful". His studio became the meeting place for great artists of the day, and in 1874 it housed the first Impressionist exhibition. In 1857, when establishing his right before a tribunal to use the name "Nadar" he made the following observation: "The theory of photography can be taught in an hour; the first ideas of how to go about it in a day. What can't be taught... is the feeling for light - the artistic appreciation of effects produced by different...sources; it's the understanding of this or that effect following the lines of the features which required your artistic perception. What is taught even less, is the immediate understanding of your subject - it's this immediate contact which can put you in sympathy with the sitter, helps you to sum them up, follow their normal attitudes, their ideas, according to their personality, and enables you to make not just a chancy, dreary cardboard copy typical of the merest hack in the darkroom, but a likeness of the most intimate and happy kind...."

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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NEGRE, Charles
b. 9 May 1820; d. 16 January 1880 Negre was born in Grasse in 1820. At the age of 19 he went to Paris, where he enrolled as a pupil in the studio of a master painter Paul Delaroche. In 1844 he saw a demonstration of the daguerreotype process, and a few years later began to make his own. Three years later he turned to making calotypes. He often retouched his negatives, shading areas and accentuating tonal contrasts. His work includes the recording of lifestyles of working class people, studies of street life (for example, of chimney sweeps) and architecture. Though he was active as a photographer for only ten years or so, he is regarded as a particularly talented one. His architectural pictures (he photographed all the monuments in Paris - quite an undertaking) are far more than merely topographical, they are creative as well.

© Robert Leggat, 1997. Last updated undefined

b. 1867; d. 1941 Horace W. Nicholls is another of the early documentary photographers. He was born in Cambridge, and became a full-time freelance photo-journalist. He documented the Boer War (1899- 1901), and also produced pictures showing the harsh life in the gold and diamond mines in Africa, including the degrading examination of workers to ensure that they were not seeking to take away any diamonds after a day's work. Nicholls was also responsible for a famous series entitled "Women at War", in the first world war, in a remarkably modern style. He is also remembered for his pictures of people at social events such as Henley and Derby and Ascot days, just preceding the first World War. His photographs appeared in the Daily Mirror, Tatler and Illustrated London News.

© Robert Leggat, 1999.

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O'SULLIVAN, Timothy H.
b. about 1840; d. 14 January 1882 An American, O'Sullivan was the youngest and one of the most talented of the photographic team led by Mathew Brady, and a fine photographer of the American Civil War. Like Alexander Gardner, he left Brady's firm because he felt that he was not receiving sufficient reward either financially or in terms of reputation (Brady insisted that all photographs taken by his employees bear his name). Although he had a short life, dying at the age of 41 of tuberculosis, it was nevertheless an adventurous one. He was official photographer on some U.S. government expeditions, from 1869, and was appointed chief photographer for the US Treasury in 1880. His work, much of which is quite spectacular, can be seen at the National Archives and at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, and at New York Public Library's Rare book room.

© Robert Leggat, 1999. Last updated undefined

He played a leading part in early photography by devising a portrait lens with an aperture of approximately f3. Petzval was professor of Mathematics at the University of Vienna. © Robert Leggat. which brought exposure times down to less than a minute. having seen his firm expand from a small optical shop to a major industrial enterprise thanks to the success of the Petzval lens. Voigtlander old and rich two years later. unlike Voigtlander. This lens. 1998. with whom he had fallen out because he felt he had been cheated. 6 January 1807.PETZVAL. Last updated undefined .6 gathering sixteen times more light than lenses currently in use at the time. Sadly Petzval did not profit from this invention. Petzval died an embittered and impoverished man. therefore began to pave the way for portraiture. was popularly used well into this century. d. 17 September 1891 A Hungarian optician. Josef Max b. which was made by his compatriot Peter Friedrich Voigtlander in 1841.

He found it difficult to rent a suitable studio in Rotterdam. 1999. 1957 Richard Polak was born in Holland.POLAK. the only drawback being that one had to approach it through a trap door. He sought to imitate the work of painters such as Vermeer. starting in 1912 and ending three years later because he suffered from bad health. with a good north light. "Photographs from Life in Old Dutch Costume" contains many repetitive and frankly unsuccessful attempts at recreating scenes from the past. His photographic career was a short one. At worst his work may be seen as that of someone with more money than sense. He then spent a considerable amount of money furnishing this with accessories bought at antique shops. he had to give it up for health reasons. Richard b. © Robert Leggat. but eventually discovered the ideal room. and some of his work imitates early Dutch paintings. d. 1870. Last updated undefined . but there is nevertheless a quaintness in his work which makes his contribution worth mentioning. His photographic career was short. His best-known picture is "Artist and his Model" (1914) In January 1915 he was elected to the London Salon of Photography. His folio of pictures.

1870. when he reached the Antarctic. 1999. Captain Scott and his team died.. of the ill-fated expedition by Captain Robert Falcon Scott to the South Pole. Last updated undefined .with a developing dish in one hand.. and an ordinary basin in the other!" However. the results. of photographic and camping equipment on it! Ponting did not go on the final journey and when. It would seem that Ponting did not enjoy the long journey by ship. © Robert Leggat. he sought to preserve the memory of his employer in a book published in 1921. and in a film several years later.PONTING. 1935 Herbert Pointing was a travel photographer active at the turn of the century. were spectacular. in 1911. Scott wrote: "Pointing cannot face meals but sticks to his work constantly being sick. and is particularly remembered for his coverage. on the way back. when travelling had to pull a one-man sledge with 400lb. d. Herbert b. Those who find a tripod an encumbrance might spare some thought for Ponting who.

© Robert Leggat. but there were also many critics. He exhibited at the Royal Academy.. and published a "Manual of Photographic Manipulation" (1858). 1810.photographic rendering of historical or poetic subjects give at best only the impression of a scene on a stage. and soon became known as one of the leaders of a new art movement. In 1855 he exhibited reconstructed historical scenes. William Lake b. 1999. a practical book which was revised some years later. In 1854 he began to take up photography. Last updated undefined . another as "picture of the year." The public welcomed his pictures. but Price and others began to exploit this idea with the intention of creating compositions. one of which was described by Henry Peach Robinson as "the most important completely studied picture up to that time". One wrote "." He also took several stereoscopic pictures. d.1896 William Lake Price was a painter who specialised in watercolours. Combination printing had been used by photographers to print clouds into an otherwise blank sky.PRICE.. and published several illustrated books.

although in the last century have been inspired by it and used it. There are photographers who maintain that this medium has no relation to painting. He also made Rayographs. and the faculty of interpretation peculiar to the human mind. but were concerned with the expression of an idea. our vocabulary.RAY. We have simply increased our range. A book was once published of twenty photographs by twenty photographers. There are painters who despise photography. instead of using their brains and figure out "why". Which was proof. New York. Jean Cocteau. it just turned out that way because of my background and training. Of course there will always be those who look at works with a magnifying glass and try to see "how". I was very much intimidated." "Some of the most complete and satisfying works of art have been produced when their authors had no idea of creating a work of art. So I decided to investigate." Man Ray eventually came to see painting as an obsolete form of expression. 27 August 1890. One of his admirers. I wished to distract the attention from any manual dexterity. Nothing of the kind happened. 18 November 1975 Man Ray (his real name was Emmanuel Rudnitsky) was born in Philadelphia. It is the man behind whatever instrument who determines the work of art. I did not have to try. there were those that declared the horse to be the most perfect form of locomotion. Man Ray was born somewhat later than the time when controversy over art "versus" photography raged (See Artists and Photography) but his comments put this issue into perspective: "There are purists in all forms of expression. and studied at the Academy of Art." . It is we. Many years ago I had conceived the idea of making a painting look like a photograph! There was a valid reason for this. He was a painter and sculptor in the surrealist and abstract movements of the 1920s and beyond. He started photography in 1915. But I maintained the approach of a painter to such a degree that I have been accused of trying to make a photograph look like a painting. of the flexibility of the camera and its validity as an instrument of expression. Nature does not create works of art. Man b. of the same model. There are architects who refuse to hang a painting in their buildings maintaining that their own work is a complete expression. when the automobile arrived. I see no one trying to abolish the automobile because we have the airplane. When first confronted with a camera. which were artistic photograms using three dimensional opaque and translucent objects. once and for all. There are many paintings and buildings that are not works of art. that see art. so that the basic idea stood out. In the same spirit. which photography would replace once the public was visually educated. I was very fortunate in starting my career as a painter. called him the "poet of the darkroom. They were as different as twenty paintings of the same model. All these attitudes result from a fear that the one will replace the other. d. having been introduced to it by Alfred Stieglitz.

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1875 Rejlander was a Swede who studied painting in Italy. and when Queen Victoria purchased a copy for her husband (at ten guineas). One looks with some eagerness towards gambling." . The print itself is huge (30" by 16")... Shown in 1857 at an exhibition in Manchester. only the right side being shown. this was too much. living first in Wolverhampton. At one stage this photograph went to Scotland to be exhibited and. wine. What makes this photograph such a remarkable piece of work is that the event never took place. However. In the centre appears the veiled. partly clothed figure symbolising repentance and turning towards the good. because it is a combination print using a number of negatives .no fewer than thirty...decidedly the finest photograph of its class ever pronounced. prostitution and idling. and inspired by one of Fox Talbot's assistants he turned his energies to photography. A reviewer in Photographic Notes (28 April 1857) described it as: ". industry... Victorians were quite used to the portrayal of nakedness in paintings and sculptures. families and good works. His most famous photograph is allegorical. there were others who saw in this picture a valiant attempt to use photography in a domain which up to that time painters had dominated.REJLANDER. OSCAR GUSTAVE b. d. so the story goes. The groups were photographed individually.magnificent. round about 1855. whilst the other looks (with somewhat less enthusiasm!) towards figures representing religion. 1817.. it provoked considerable controversy.. He settled in England in the 1840s. this seemed to make his photograph respectable! Such a picture would have required a large studio and an immense amount of light. but photographs were so true to life that even though the posing was discreet. called "The two ways of life". the models being strolling players. it depicts a sage guiding two young men towards manhood. the picture was considered so controversial that the left hand side of the picture was concealed. later in London.

shaped like a cone. the camera would be in the narrow part. how bits of drapery had to do duty for voluminous curtains. on the lower part of the floor. the little tricks and dodges to which he had to resort. Rejlander remained in poverty. If they were a little more open than usual he would give extra exposure. However. Rejlander was an inventive person. put the lens cap on the lens and go out for a walk! This interesting man must surely be the first person to use a cat as an exposure meter! A number of his pictures were bought by Prince Albert. he had to be content with a small portico in a friend's garden. It is so much easier to call a picture a patchwork combination than to understand the inner meaning of so superb a work as this masterpiece of Rejlander's!" Rejlander. if the cat's eyes were like slits he would give use a fairly short exposure. there are two versions of this picture. His studio was unusual. It had taken Rejlander and his wife no less than six weeks to produce it (one could only print by daylight) and the exposures were up to two hours. but his painstaking perseverance no-one can help but admire greatly. writing about him. and enabled the little souls to declare that the picture was only a thing of shreds and patches. Henry Peach Robinson. but given the nature of the subject it may well be that someone had pointed out to the poor couple that the Philosopher himself seemed more interested in vice than on virtue. a man who. was never known to use a word that would hurt the feelings of others. each very carefully done with masks. In 1859 he wrote: .. how... outlining the meaning of every figure in the photograph. and Charles Darwin used him to illustrate his book entitled "The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" (1872)." The theme of this famous print most will now find quaint. (He) thereby gave the clever critics the clue they wanted. The double exposure is not so successful... not by the method of production. Robinson said. Rejlander. The camera was in shadow so that the sitters were less aware of it. so they felt obliged to have another go at printing it! Another popular one is a self-portrait depicting Rejlander the Artist introducing Rejlander the volunteer. one can see a darker tone where he has evidently attempted to shade the print. described the method by which the picture had been done. found that his honesty and helpfulness sometimes went awfully wrong: "With the generous intention of being of use to photographers. produced a number of pictures on other themes. for want of classic architecture for his background. in the centre. whilst if the pupils were totally dilated he would admit defeat.In 1858 Rejlander read a paper to the Photographic Society. and to further the cause of art he. In the second one the Philosopher is looking towards the side that shows virtue. unfortunately. Incidentally. in fact.. was clearly crushed by this reaction: "the time will come when a work will be judged on its merits.. It is said that he used to estimate his exposure by bringing his cat into the studio. We are not told why this second print was made. the sitters at the opposite end. Some of Rejlander's photographs are not very dissimilar from Surrealist photographs of the 1920s.

some later platinum and carbon reprints and 57 wet collodion negatives. only cavil and misrepresentation."I am tired of photography-for-the-public. The RPS has quite a large Rejlander collection of about 80 prints. but to little gain. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . 1999. particularly composite photographs. some original albumen." He eventually returned to painting. for there can be no gain and there is no honour. and died in poverty.

and then they heard the patter of retreating footsteps. Somnolent policemen on the street. Last updated undefined . and only just made a living as a police court reporter for the New York Tribune. and the mysterious visitors were gone before they could collect their thoughts and try to find out what is was all about... the blinding flash.. "How the other half lives" can be seen here. Jacob b. He was clearly committed to this cause.." It was from the (then) head of the New York Police Board of Commissioners. some weird and uncanny movements. © Robert Leggat. 3 May 1849. an energetic gentleman who combines in his person. once he set fire to his own clothes. His first book. and as a Sunday school teacher he had successfully encouraged his students to become involved in numerous fund-raising activities to help the poor.. 26 March 1914 Jacob Riis arrived in America as an immigrant from Denmark at the age of 21. "How the other half lives. later to become President of the United States. for which he used a frying pan. One day Riis returned to his office to find a note reading "I have read your book and I have come to help. Riis was offered public office on more than one occasion. The party consisted of members of the Society of Amateur Photographers of New York experimenting with the process of taking instantaneous pictures by an artificial flash light....." exposed the appalling conditions of the time. He found life hard." Other books by Riis include "Children of the Tenements" (1903) and "Children of the Poor" (1892).. 1999. Moved by the photographs Riis had taken he was instrumental in securing a number of reforms. What they saw was three or four figures in the gloom.RIIS. a ghostly tripod. d.. Many of his photographs needed to be taken at night. and their guide and conductor. His artificial lighting consisted of open flash. and he hit on the idea of using photography to draw attention to the conditions under which the poor in America (particularly the immigrants) were living. Theodore Roosevelt. and on another occasion he almost blinded himself. tramps and bummers in their so-called lodgings. It caused a considerable stir. By the end of the 1880s photography was becoming cheaper. and all the people of the wild and wonderful variety of New York night life have in their turn marvelled at and been frightened by the phenomenon... but always refused. An article in the Sun (New York) for 12 February 1888 described his antics: "With their way illuminated by spasmodic flashes. the two dignitaries of deacon in a Long Island church and a police reporter in New York. Twice he set fire to the places he visited. a mysterious party has been startling the town o' nights.


but it was quite some time before photographic records became standard practice. he was not actually the first to take pictures of prisoners. This is an excellent police arrangement. In 1859 he started to photograph all the prisoners in his gaol.1885). 1851 reads: "Major Gilpin. The New York Illustrated News for 19 March. James Gardener. Robert Evan In 1854 the governor of Bristol Gaol. he was convinced that habitual offenders were getting off with relatively light sentences because there were inadequate records. and two years later was given an allowance of seven pounds a year for materials.ROBERTS. 1997." © Robert Leggat. produced a Home Office report advocating the use of photography as an aid to the administration of criminal justice. Robert Evan Roberts was the first known English prison governor to use photography for identification purposes. Last updated undefined . of Philadelphia. However. has had daguerreotypes taken of all the noted characters arrested within the past year or two. The practice was taken up by several other counties. and he has now quite a gallery of the celebrities. A governor at Bedford prison (1853.

Together with his assistant. Some of Robertson's photographs of the aftermath of the siege of Lucknow in 1858 are quite harrowing.ROBERTSON. 1999. a sequel to the work by Fenton. Felice Beato. Malta and Constantinople. © Robert Leggat. early 1900. James b. he photographed views of Athens. the Imperial War Museum and at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Last updated undefined . Some of his work may be seen at the Indian Record Office. and they both continued to visit the Middle East after the Crimean War. all in London. date of death not known Robertson was an early war photographer. In 1857 he was appointed official photographer to the British forces in India. who covered the Crimean War (1855) and the Indian Mutiny (1857).

Turner. there remain some quite appealing examples of his portraiture using this technique. The last paragraph contains some remarks on dress: "Dark Silks and Satins are most suitable for Ladies' Dresses." One of his novelties was the vignetting of prints. Black Velvet is somewhat objectionable. earned the term "the King of photographic picture-making". 15/.W. being given instruction on the calotype process by Hugh Diamond. White and Light Blue should be avoided if possible. In 1850 he was introduced to photography. which doubled the cost of the portrait.M. At 19 he practised as an artist. His first advertisement. gives details of the "going rate" at the time. .(75p) if two sitters were in the same photograph. produced in 1870. He was greatly influenced by the paintings of J. That same year he began taking photographs. and was certainly one of the greatest photographers of his time. selling portraits. In fact. and numerous references to him appear in his writings. and he also learned how to use collodion. Henry Peach b. Additional services included tinting the hands and face. He later established another studio in Kent. in 1852.ROBINSON. it was Diamond who most influenced his life and encouraged him to become proficient in photography. 9 July 1830. A portrait up to whole plate (8" by 6") cost 10/6 (just over fifty pence). He was very influential until the time of Peter Henry Emerson. and exhibited an oil painting at the Royal Academy of Art. and five years later decided to make a living out it. In 1857 he abandoned book-selling to become a professional photographer. The picture shown here is "Seascape at night". dated January 1857. who introduced naturalistic photography. and opened a studio in Leamington Spa. 21 February 1901 Henry Peach Robinson was a pioneer of pictorialist photography. d.

by a mixture of the real and the artificial in a picture. of course. One has to remember. and the despair of the other members of the family. One critic said that Robinson had cashed in on "the most painful sentiments which it is the lot of human beings to experience. but not for photographers to do so." It would seem that it was perfectly in order for painters to paint pictures on such themes. to be incorporated into his pictures. in "Pictorial Effect in Photography" (1867). trick and conjuration of any kind is open to the photographer's use.Others. Perhaps the most famous of his pictures is Fading Away (1858). but leave people to enjoy the finished product! However... Already at this period there were shades of the conflict between the art and science of photography." It is clear that many who admired "Fading Away" had no idea that it was a combination print and when. the picture captured the imagination of Prince Albert. the base and the ugly. There was much discussion about what one correspondent referred to as "Patchwork".A great deal can be done and very beautiful pictures made.there were no means of enlarging at that time. and to correct the unpicturesque.. particularly the Lady of Shallot (1882). The Secretary of the Society and Editor of the Journal... and to aim to elevate his subject. This was a controversial photograph. who bought a copy and issued an order for every composite portrait he produced subsequently. The limitations of photography caused him to perfect the idea of combination printing... Robinson wrote: "Any dodge. However. particularly the triangle of grey with no detail in it. It is his imperative duty to avoid the mean.. which had greatly impressed him in the 1850s. and some felt that the subject was not suitable for photography.. in 1860. and Robinson began to conclude that perhaps it might be better in future not to divulge the secrets of his craft. that these were contact prints . in which he depicts a girl dying of consumption (which we know as tuberculosis). Sir William Crookes.' an imaginary enormity which afforded a text on which he waxed eloquent. a major literary work. for which he is particularly remembered. it is possible that he was first introduced to this technique by Oscar Rejlander. rather than composition. The technical difficulty of portraying sky as well as subject on the same negative caused him to accumulate a stock of negatives of the sky. he was greeted with howls of protest from people who seemed to feel that they had been deceived. is quoted in Robinson's autobiography: "The secretary at that time was an unsympathetic chemist and all he could see in the picture in what he thought was a ''join. Autumn (1863) are in the Pre-Raphaelite style. If one examines a large copy of a print closely one can see the "joins". Fading Away is a composition of five negatives. Robinson outlined his methods at a meeting of the Photographic Society of Scotland. one of his friends." . a composition of five negatives.

whether he be painter or photographer.we cannot help feeling that his system is pernicious. and knew why it was beautiful. when he does select. bigger and more worthless than ever. and then assembled. who despised contrived photography. 1999. a large print (40 by 15 inches) composed from nine negatives.. Tunbridge Wells.. so she may have the distinction of being the first recorded photographic widow! © Robert Leggat." (See HERE for the picture and some details)... and excusing bad photography by calling it art. The print itself. One of his most bitter critics was Emerson. The gentleman in the picture had appeared one day for a carte-de-visite.. Emerson wrote: This is an inane.in recognition of his services to photography and to the Society... a brotherhood that was to be very influential in photographic circles for the next twenty years.. this shows the same frieze-like qualities of the Pre-Raphaelite school. . A new world is open to him who has learnt to distinguish and feel the effect of the beautiful and subtle harmonies that nature presents in all her varied aspects. He is buried in Ben Hall Road Cemetery. and Robinson earmarked him for this project. He then searched for a suitable old lady. which measures 20" by 24"(50cm.. she had been told in no unequivocal terms that it must be "photography first. Again.. There was a fairly heated series of interchanges between Robinson and Emerson. and not a set of fetters to confine the ideas or to depress the faculty of original interpretation in the artist. Purely as a light incidental comment. Here is a comment on "rules" of composition: "I must warn you against a too close study of art to the exclusion of nature and the suppression of original thought.At a time when the Photographic Society seemed unduly obsessed with the scientific aspects of photography. Robinson was stressing the need to "see" a picture . flat. reviewing Emerson's controversial book "Natural Photography for Students" was equally caustic: ". he resigned (whilst still its Vice-President) and formed the Linked Ring. of which "Red Riding Hood" would be a typical example." In 1862 Robinson was elected to serve on the Council of the Photographic Society. and stop the disorder." One of his most ambitious pictures was "Bringing Home the May". In 1900 the rift was healed when the (by now Royal) Photographic Society awarded him an Honorary Fellowship . The object (of rules) is to train his mind so that he may select with ease. vapid piece of work." Some of his observations make sound advice today. wife afterwards". frustrated by the failure of the Society to recognise the artistic dimensions of photography. Art rules should be a guide only to the study of nature. Its composition is childish and its sentiment puerile. Men usually see little of what is before their eyes unless they are trained to use them in a special manner. know why one aspect of a subject is better than another. and. Reviewing in "Amateur Photographer" Robinson's print entitled "Merry Fisher Maidens" .advice which still holds good today: "However much a man might love beautiful scenery.) is made up from five negatives. we feel it to be the imperative duty of a journal like our own to produce a disinfectant. Both were photographed in his studio separately and at different times. his love for it would be greatly enhanced if he looked at it with the eye of an artist." Robinson.its highest award . his wife recalling in later years that when they were married... Robinson married in 1859. He designed and carved the headstone of his grave. he also produced a number of pictorial photographs of woodland and other scenes. Perhaps the most famous is "When Day's Work is done. Though Robinson is particularly known for his combination printing. and continued to serve on that body until 1891 when. by 61cm.

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1999. were on exhibition at the Royal Society of Arts. © Robert Leggat. and by 1846 his calotypes for the stereoscope were on sale in London.ROSLING. Last updated undefined .1802 Alfred Rosling was one of the earliest of photographers. Rosling was also the first Hon. In December 1854 his "Specimens of exceedingly minute copies of Prints and Papers" together with a microscope. Treasurer of the Photographic Society. He was also involved in micro-photography. Alfred b.

He became well known when he published pictures taken secretly at a murder trial. Unlike its predecessors. 28 April 1886. Briand. He had quite a knack of gate-crashing. and in 1931 published a book called "Celebrated Contemporaries in unguarded moments" . Salomon also worked briefly in England and in the United States. Last updated undefined . to the extent that one premier of France.SALOMON. He revelled in taking pictures in situations where cameras were not allowed. He first worked as a carpenter. by Oskar Barnack of the 35mm miniature camera. His interest in photography was aroused by the development. later reading Law at Munich. During the second World War he went into hiding. © Robert Leggat. d 7 July 1944 Salomon was a German photographer and one of the pioneers of modern photojournalism. His camera was concealed in an attaché case. this new format enabled one to take photographs by available light. Erich b. These proved so successful that he became a full-time professional. specialising in pictures which showed the human qualities of celebrities and politicans of his time. and of taking pictures of celebrities when they were off their guard. revealing expressions which they themselves might not wish to reveal in public. 1999.containing photographs of some one hundred and fifty dignitaries and celebrities of the time. once commented that meetings would never be deemed to be important unless Salomon was there. but was eventually arrested and sent to the concentration camp at Auschwitz. where he died.

One of the founders of the Photographic Society. Last updated undefined . 1999. It is claimed that Shadbolt. he was also editor of the Liverpool and Manchester Journal. a vocation which he retained throughout his working career. d. and preferred salted paper. © Robert Leggat. made the first micro-photographs. which subsequently became the British Journal of Photography. He put on a number of exhibitions. whose glossy nature he dubbed as a "vulgar glare". using the collodion process. but he also made a distinctive contribution to the development of photography from the early 1850s. George b. 1819. an enthusiast in micro-photography. and sometime President of the Microscopic Society. 1901 George Shadbolt was in the wood trade. He had an intense dislike for albumen prints.SHADBOLT.

commenting in a newspaper (17 October 1888) he wrote: ". throwing into the most extravagant prominence those contours the very existence of what is conventionally regarded as a deplorable indiscretion of Providence.. It ought. The poor lady's dilemma recurs in nearly all the figure studies. not a Shakespear (sic)... Shaw was writing about that year's exhibitions by the Royal Photographic Society and the Linked Ring. I delight in mankind as nature makes it. but in English the adjective is only used substantively by old-fashioned dealers to denote a naughty French picture. Retouching claims to be an art within an art. here is part of an article appearing in Amateur Photographer (16 October 1902).. and better grammar to boot.. Steichen actually labels the lady with the cat in the American language.SHAW. d. whilst carefully concealing all our other points. which is more accurate descriptively... now more popularly known as photography of the nude: "It is impossible to contemplate the Salon walls without condoling with Mr. This use of the word is also exemplified on the books entitled Nudes from the Paris Salon.. which lays a million eggs in order that one may reach maturity. thereby. © Robert Leggat... only five years later this is precisely what happened. and take such a moderate interest in mere garments that my tailor. 1999... To make matters worse. but of interest is his playful comments on what were then called "Life Studies". and the two became life-long friends. it should not be committed. George Bernard b. Steichen's sitters is to bury her face in a cat coiled up on the floor. In an article written as an introduction to an exhibition by his friend Alvin Coburn (1906) he wrote: "Technically good negatives are more often the result of the survival of the fittest than of special creation: the photographer is like the cod. I had no literary ambition: I aspired to be a Michael Angelo. and the instruction I could get was worse than useless..had to change his name to avoid the public discredit of my callous abuse of his masterpieces." Shaw was an outspoken as well as knowledgeable writer and critic. of course. . when the Linked Ring was created.. The method of concealment adopted by one of Mr. and doubtless it is so in much the same way that conjuring as applied to table-turning is an art within an art. hides that. I would never photograph a figure without asking that figure to take it clothes off. who began taking photographs in 1898.. Mr. however. 26 July 1856. if I dared. 2 November 1950 George Bernard Shaw is best remembered for his fifty plays and his distinction as an essayist and wit. The photographer's model.... however shapely and well-preserved. He calls her a "nude.. I venture to submit a plain proposition on this subject. He was very much against retouching... Consequently English artists use the term Life Study... The camera can represent flesh so superbly that.. So when dry plates and push buttons came into the market I bought a box camera and began pushing the button. to be kept a guilty secret at all hazards. If it is not a misdemeanour. But the avenger has come in the person of the photographer. the sitter should not be ashamed of it. If sitting for a complete life-study is a misdemeanour. knowing that her face is the only part of her person by which she can be identified. But I could not draw well enough to satisfy myself.. In a reply to Helmut Gernsheim as to why he had taken up photography.. nor should the photographer make himself accessory to it." (Shaw's poor dress sense was notorious!: "It is monstrous that custom should force us to display our faces ostentatiously." Evidently his success earlier on was not of the highest order. on the simple grounds that it is not photography. not to mention one or two examples of "retouching" which can only be compared to the pipes and moustaches with which portraits of the sovereigns of England get decorated in school histories." Commenting upon an exhibition in (12 October 1887) he was sufficiently unimpressed by the pictures being awarded medals to declare "At this rate of judging. however worn and wrinkled and mean they may be. he wrote: "I always wanted to draw and paint. a New Photographic Society will be needed unless the present one promptly mends its ways." This may be American modesty. and displays the rest recklessly.. to be excluded from a photographic exhibition." Indeed... Steichen on the conflict between art and popular prudery... In a more lighthearted vein.has." Shaw was deeply impressed by the photography by Frederick Evans. but he was also an enthusiastic amateur photographer.there is still far too much of the sort of work that can be seen for nothing in the shop-window. All the more reason for it to be artistically done.

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or the cotton gin. His work can be found here.SNELLING. he comments: He is a man of some wealth. d. entirely superceding the Daguerreotype. that none can be found who have the temerity to purchase." Referring to Fox Talbot. Mead exhibited at the last fair of the American Institute. Henry H b.? Henry Snelling. (of 1848. wrote a book entitled "The History and Practice of the Art of Photography. in their hands." his work was published in 1849. When Mr. But we shall see in the progress of this history.) four Calotypes. that the Messrs. Talbot's patent for the United States expires and our ingenious Yankee boys have the opportunity. which one of the firm brought from Germany last Spring. but he demands so high a price for a single right in this country. I believe. depth of tone and excellence of execution surpass the finest steel engraving. He beings his work. with the observation: "As in all cases of great and valuable inventions in science and art the English lay claim to the honor of having first discovered that of Photogenic drawing. The execution of his pictures is also inferior to those taken by the German artists. quite uncompromisingly. and I would remark en passant. that for beauty. ?. an American. that like many other assumptions of their authors. priority in this is no more due them. then the invention of steamboats. I have not the slightest doubt of the Calotype. .

25 March 1973 Eduard Steichen (he later changed his name to Edward) was born in Luxembourg. and when he was still a baby the family emigrated to America.. In 1900 Clarence White saw his photographs and lent some encouragement to him. Eduard Jean b. by babbling brooks and shady woods . In a somewhat whimsical mood Steichen once wrote: "Some day there may be. develop. so that there will be nothing for us to do but to send it to the Royal Photographic Society's exhibition and gratefully to receive the 'Royal Medal'. expose the plate. through fields and meadows. who bought some of Steichen's photographs. White also wrote to Stieglitz.in short. Later he was to burn all his paintings and concentrate totally on photography. He later turned his style to "straight" photography. He studied painting in Paris. machinery that needs but to be wound up and sent roaming o'er hill and dale. by means of a skillful arrangement of springs and screws. d. and had soon gained a reputation for his work in photography. Last updated undefined . print. with soft focus. and designed the cover for Camera Work. In 1901 Steichen was elected to the Linked Ring. Until the first world war Steichen's work consisted largely of photographs in a post-impressionist style. Initially his photographs show an impressionist influence. and even mount and frame the result of its excursion. compose its motif. and the following year he became a founder of the Photo-Secession.. 1999.STEICHEN. a machine that will discriminately select its subject and. 27 March 1879." © Robert Leggat.

" He studied mechanical engineering and photography at the Polytechnic of Berlin. bought it.. and carefully study the lines and lighting. After having determined upon these watch the passing figures and await the moment in which everything is in balance. A little blur in a moving subject will often aid to giving the impression of action and motion.STIEGLITZ." Stieglitz. My patience was duly rewarded. Stieglitz said "The result is the only fair basis for judgment. probably did more than any other individual to promote photography as an art at the same level as other arts. ALFRED b. and on enquiry. It fascinated me. and photography in earnest began. a gallery which came to be known as the "291".to which he replied "I wouldn't do that if I were you. as they are sure to get out of order at important moments. New York." From 1892 he was becoming famous for his photographs of everyday life in New York and Paris. but also works of Picasso. Speaking in New York." It is said that at the age of eleven he had begun to take an interest in photography. My picture. a group of talented avant-garde artists. committed to the idea of photography as art. awaiting the proper moment. was told that this made the subject look more natural . first as a passion. This often means hours of patient waiting. that is. January 1. In 1883 Stieglitz saw a camera in a shop window in Berlin.its present importance" (1897) he wrote: "The writer does not approve of complicated mechanisms. His blunt nature often came over: on one occasion he observed the photographer re-touching a plate." In 1902 he became one of the founders of the Photo-Secession. A shutter working at a speed of one-fourth to one-twenty-fifth of a second will answer all purposes. It is justifiable to use any means upon a negative or paper to attain the desired end. regardless of figures. an American photographer. "Fifth Avenue. There is a tremendous atmospheric quality in many of his outdoor scenes. My own camera is of the simplest pattern and has never left me in the lurch. In "The Hand Camera . satisfied your eye. 1864. often found this challenged. Matisse and Toulouse-Lautrec. 1946 Stieglitz. In the 1890s Stieglitz took a pioneer step in moving towards a hand-held camera. the result contained an element of chance. d. Of course. in 1902. July 13. as I might have stood there for hours without succeeding in getting the desired pictures. and has been dubbed the "patron saint of straight photography. and often the loss of a precious opportunity. then as an obsession. In order to obtain pictures by means of the hand camera it is well to choose your subject. thus causing considerable unnecessary swearing. and learned by observing a local portrait photographer work in the darkroom. Rodin. Many years later he wrote "I bought it and carried it to my room and began to fool around with it. In 1905 he also founded and directed the Photo-Secession Gallery in 291 Fifth Avenue. and which exhibited not only the work of contemporary photographers. although it has had some very tough handling.. . Winter" is the result of a three hours' stand during a fierce snow-storm on February 22nd 1893.

. for the recongition of photography as a new medium of expressions.. the feeling I had about life.. the stairway leaning right. it was during a trip to Europe that one of his most well-known photographs was taken It is called "The Steerage": "There were men and women and children on the lower deck of the steerage. the funnel leaning left... A round straw hat.. It is difficult to estimate how much he has done for the good of photography.. I saw a picture of shapes and underlying that.... to be respected in its own right.. being considered necessarily superior..'art' painting because hand-made. on the same basis as any other art form. round shapes of iron machinery." Stieglitz did much to promote photography.. There were two stages in his . in the same breath. I could not understand why the artists should envy me for my work. and his self-sacrificing devotion that we owe the beautiful work before us.."Artists who saw my early photographs began to tell me that they envied me. but that unfortunately photography was not an art." In 1907." In 1903 Stieglitz launched..their. and it is to his extraordinary capacity for work. that my photographs were superior to their paintngs. yet.. and of Mr. and to get it talked about.. his masterful independence which compels conviction.. working for years against opposition and without sympathy. edited and published Camera Work .There I started my fight.. Amateur Photographer was most enthusiastic. decry it because it was machine-made . and on its first edition of 1903 wrote: "For Camera Work as a whole we have no words of praise too high. Alfred Stieglitz American photographers may well be proud.. it stands alone.a magazine which became world famous and continued publication for a number of years.... I longed to escape from my surroundings and join them.

then later moving over to realism of a high order.life: at first he produced somewhat romanticised pictures of an Impressionistic style. He was a visionary of the highest order. his leadership was little short of dictatorial and he was an insufferable egocentric windbag. 1999. His own photography alone makes him stand out as one of the greatest of photographers. He also had pronounced views about the current controversy over amateur photographers and the professional. © Robert Leggat. his influence over photography has been enormous. but he made a distinct and influential contribution to the development of new styles of photography. Last updated undefined . Not the easiest of people to get on with.

htm © Robert Leggat. and wrote several books.pijiu. I enclose the photographs. and English Heritage used these as a reference. 1902) wrote: “I attended the Knutsford May Day Festival on the 1st May and succeeded in obtaining a few snapshots of Sir Benjamin Stone. He is remembered for his many photographs of everyday life in Victorian England. an excellent book is CUSTOMS & FACES photographs by Sir Benjamin Stone 1938-1914 by Bill Jay See also http://www. and would be more and more appreciated as time went on. For further reading. and a scholar with wide interests. A correspondent to Amateur Photographer (May 22. which may be interesting to your readers. the royal chapel and the library. John Benjamin b. who was busily at work securing records of that ancient festival. travelled widely. In a brief conversation with Sir Benjamin he expressed the opinion that record photography had a great future before it. His heart and soul is in his work. His pictures included state and private apartments.co. In 1895 Stone founded the National Photographic Record Association. Sir Benjamin Stone was M. and it was a pleasure to observe with what manifest enthusiasm he made his exposures.uk/photos/benjaminstone/benjaminstone. others in the Birmingham Public Library.” His prophecy was fulfilled recently when some of his pictures of Windsor Castle proved of considerable value in the wake of a fire which damaged part of the castle. 1914 Born in Birmingham. He became a documentary worker. Some of his many pictures (he left over thirty thousand negatives) are in the British Museum.P. to help restore the building and furniture. Last updated undefined . 1836. for the city. d. 2003.STONE. who photographed an enormous variety of subjects.

work which relied totally upon subject..known. from the point of view of expression. devoid of any attempt to mystify an ignorant public. that element which gives all art its real significance... It is direct. many from 10" by 8" negatives... Lewis Hine. the photographer. and made some superb abstract close-up pictures. In what turned out to be the last edition. His vision is potential.. its contribution and at the same time its limitation. the latter clearly ignoring the conventional rules of perspective. 31 March 1976 Paul Strand was an American who was taught photography by one of his school teachers." Both are well. He was greatly influenced by the Photo-Secession group. Strand himself wrote: "Objectivity is of the very essence of photography.STRAND. In the history of photography there are but few photographers who. 16 October 1890. Paul b. 1999. Initially he did some experimental work in the medium. and who became a successful photographer. It does not rely upon tricks of process." "Honesty no less than intensity of vision is the prerequisite of a living expression. In whatever he does there is applied intelligence. rather than upon any manipulation at either the negative or the printing stage. © Robert Leggat. His work is pure.. Last updated undefined . Some of his work appeared in the last two editions of Camera Work (1916-17)... this is accomplished without tricks of process or manipulation through the use of straight photographic methods. viewpoint and choice of lighting. And by importance we mean work that has some relatively lasting quality. but then moved over to what we know as straight photography . This means a real respect for the thing in front of. devoid of trickery and any 'ism'." In this edition are "Blind" and "The Fence." Strand's images were contact prints. have really done much work of any importance. Alfred Stieglitz described Strand's work: "His work is rooted in the best tradition of photography.. Devoid of any flim-flams.. d. The work is brutally direct...

Sutcliffe followed in the wake of Emerson. it is said that they excommunicated Sutcliffe for exhibiting what they felt to be an indecent print "to the corruption of the young and the other sex". towards which it was pointed. The full extent of his contribution was not recognised until long after his death. except by fishermen and photographers. His most famous image is called "Water rats" (1886). whose fame lies in the photographing of the Whitby scene. with their street musicians. 1902) an occasion when another photographer got into difficulties: "There are two piers at Whitby. a delightful picture which caused considerable controversy. At last he had got it all unpacked. Whitby. A photographer who is regarded as a pictorialist. His work may be seen at the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society. 1892. left it to become a founder-member of the Linked Ring Brotherhood. a solitary photographer might have been seen on the other pier unpacking his apparatus. though starting from points widely apart. almost touch each other where they end. and other ordinary people. ( March 6th. Slowly the sun sank. He obviously had a good sense of humour.” an't the sitters on the seats were tapping their feet on the ground to prevent the band playing out of time.SUTCLIFFE. He retired from photography in 1922. which. 1853. Frank Meadow b. What was the solitary photographer going to take at this time of night? The crowd on the other pier began to be interested in him. d. farmers. His artistic work centred round landscapes and life in around the fishing ports of Yorkshire. What is interesting is that he had followed Emerson's suggestion that instead of having the entire picture sharp (the aim of every early photographer whether or not they succeeded) he softened part of the picture. 1941 Sutcliffe originally started photography using wet collodion in 1875. . portraying as it does the life of the times. Sutcliffe was a member of the Photographic Society. there is also the documentary aspect of much of his work. but remained a curator of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society from 1923 until shortly before his death. and his polished mahogany camera and lens “shone like a burning flame together” in the rays of the setting sun. but being opposed to the emphasis at that time on technique. and describes in A. One evening last summer. the other is deserted. when the band was playing ". The one pier is given up to fashion and frivolity. till it nearly touched the sea. but soon after turned towards dry plates. By contrast the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) purchased a copy of the picture. and the background in "Water Rats" is very soft and diffuse.Ehren on the Rhine. and the wrath of the Whitby clergy for corruption of the young.P.

uk/ Since writing this piece from the Amateur Photographer. it fell on its edge and began to roll. ' He expects a ship coming in.sutcliffe-gallery. the cap gave a little jump and went into the sea. one of his legs got entangled with one of the tripod legs. 2003.” said one." The Sutcliffe Galleries still exist. Down came the tripod. See www. Last updated undefined . The photographer slowly picked up the pieces and went home. undecided whether to rush for the cap and put it on the lens. never!" Never too late to learn new things! © Robert Leggat.” said another. as most photographers could tell you the sun sets in a westerly location which is variable according to time of year. “He wants to take a moonlight photograph. “Yes. "What beautiful legs he has got! ” said a fifth. as does a web-site on his work. camera. he wants to take the sun as it dips into the sea.Soon the end of one pier was crowded with people watching the solitary photgrapher on the other pier. The photographer stood aghast. He decided to run after the cap.” said a fourth. The photographer looked at the rolling cap.” said a sixth. which by this time was perilously near the edge of the pier. or to take his coat off and throw over the whole camera. "he is taking off the cap.” said a third. The crowd cheered to a man. but just as he was putting it on again. He writes: "Reading the account of the photographer on the Whitby pier supposedly awaiting the setting sun over the sea. but easterly. the cap fell down on to the pier. “No.co. “And his ears stick out. As he did so. Bell has written pointing out what would seem to be an inconsistency. which had called forth such admiration from one of the crowd. Whitby is on the east coast and as such the wait would have been infinite.” said a seventh. and all. with a crash. Mr. H. he is waiting till the lamps are lit.” And so he was. but his coat does not fit. “Look! Look!” said everyone at once. “No. then at the lens.

Dallymeyer. 1999. For eleven years he edited "Photographic Notes".75 for a quarter-plate model. together with Blanquart-Evrard. Thomas b. a journal which he had founded together with Blanquart-Evrard. but he is remembered as a prolific writer on photography. Sutton also had the distinction of being the first to develop a true single-lens reflex camera. He was responsible for the first English Dictionary of Photography (1858). The camera was manufactured by Thomas Ross and J. This he patented in 1861. 1819. Last updated undefined . in his excellent book "From Daguerreotypes to Instant Pictures" states that Dallymeyer used to charge £2.SUTTON. d. Brian Coe. 1875 Thomas Sutton set up a photographic firm in Jersey in 1855. © Robert Leggat.

William D . Linnaeus Turner. Carleton E. Thomas Wellington. Alexander Women Photographers Woodbury. Benjamin Breckell Vogel. Wedgwood. Charles White. James Booker Blakemore Wheatstone. John Tripe. Wilson. William Henry Fox Thomson. George Washington Wolcott. Herman Watkins. Edward L. Walter Bentley Young. Clarence Hudson Wilson.Significant PEOPLE in the early history of Photography T-Z ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Talbot.

the Royal Geographical Society printed a biography which detailed much of his work in the Far East. writing papers for the Royal Geographical Society on the uses of photography. with a view to illustrating Smith's book (Street Life in London. Thomson continued to work until his death at the age of 84. The book contains woodburytype reproductions. as is the distinctive red-brown colour of the finished work." In 1866 Thomson was appointed instructor in photography at the Royal Geographic Society. October 1921 Together with Paul Martin. In the introduction to this book (Illustrations of China and its People.but production speed and the quality of the work were a feature of this invention. the last of which contained over two hundred photographs. The work of these photographers show far more than a mere record. but his passion was geography. When he died. a process invented in 1864. there is a great deal of humanity expressed in many of their pictures." It may be that people of the time preferred not to have to come to terms with what was being portrayed. and just what was needed for wide distribution. In 1879 Thomson set up a studio in Buckingham Palace Road. He became involved in photography.THOMSON. and he travelled extensively. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . and studied at the University. John Thomson is widely regarded as one of the fathers of what we now term documentary or social-documentary photography. and Jacob Riis in America. and later on in Mayfair.each illustration had to be inserted manually into the book . This book consists of thirty-six case histories illustrated with photographs. 1873) he writes "I made the camera a constant companion of my wanderings and to it I am indebted for the faithful reproduction of the scenes I visited. JOHN b. 1998. Some of his work may be seen at the Society's headquarters in London. London.good honest photography without any pretensions. What comes over is his sensitivity and vision . 14 June 1837. d. but made no mention of his greatest work. It was not a printing process . John Thomson was born in Edinburgh. Whilst there he was approached by an otherwise unknown Adolphe Smith. 1877) on the poor of London. his travels being published in a series of books. "Street Life of London.

If Linnaeus' name seems unusual. and travelled round India compiling a large collection of calotype photographs of sculptures. 2 March 1902 In 1855 Captain Linnaeus Tripe. d. Algernon. forts and temples. an official photographer was being appointed in the Services. Cornelius. including a number of stereoscopic photographs. 1999. Linnaeus b. spare a thought for his brothers and sisters. 14 April 1822. Tripe also made a number of stereoscopic pictures. Septimus and Lorenzo! © Robert Leggat.TRIPE. The following year he became government photographer to the Madras Presidency. Last updated undefined . became official photographer to Burma. Tripe's pictures are all calotypes. serving in the Madras Native Infantry. which were subsequently published. Theophilus. Octavius. so are contact prints. whose names included Cornelia. What is particularly remarkable is that so soon after the invention of photography. and since these pictures measure 15" by 12" it shows just how bulky the equipment would have been in those days.

1815. "Scotch firs" was particularly admired by Prince Albert who. was duly presented with a copy. 1999. Regarded as a first class calotype worker. his photographs were much praised.TURNER. exhibiting at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Last updated undefined . One of his prints. Benjamin Breckell b. 1894 Turner took up photography in 1849. d. © Robert Leggat. of course.

together with a converted wagon. exposing and processing had to be done on the spot. He used huge glass plates measuring 40 by 50 centimetres. In the early 1860s he explored the Yosemite Valley to take photographs. taken in the 1860s. d. At that time. an Albumen print now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Last updated undefined . One of his best known photographs is Cathedral Rock. of course. 1999. Watkins was famous for his panoramic views. © Robert Leggat. so he had taken with him twelve mules for his equipment. which became his dark room. sensitising. 1916 A prolific and outstanding American photographer. Carleton E b 1829.WATKINS.

his work is clearly influenced by paintings of John Constable and Thomas Gainsborough.WELLINGTON. He was a member of the Linked Ring. Wellington studied architecture but soon turned to photography. before eventually setting up his own firm. He developed POP paper. d. canvas bromide. 1939 J.B. in 1889.B. In the 1880s he worked with George Eastman in New York. Last updated undefined . James Booker Blakemore b. a fast-grained emulsion and. negative intensifier. and then returned to England to become manager of Kodak at Harrow. 1858. 1999. a An accomplished pictorial photographer. © Robert Leggat.

© Robert Leggat. In his early thirties he became Professor of Experimental Philosophy at Kings College. His mirror stereoscopic viewer required that both pictures in the pair be reversed laterally. 1999. Wheatstone was a member of the Photographic Society and served on its Council. and in 1836 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. in 1838 he described the theory of stereoscopic vision and his invention of the stereoscope to the Royal Society. 19 October 1875 Wheatstone started his working life as a musical instrument maker. Sir Charles b. d. His particular contribution to photography was in his development of stereoscopy. Last updated undefined .WHEATSTONE. which is why the principle is still in use today when viewing Xray stereoscopic pictures. He was a physicist who is remembered for his studies in acoustics (including the invention of the concertina) and for his contribution to the invention of telegraphy. London. 6 February 1802. The advantage of the arrangement was that one could cope with large pictures.

His pictures are characterised by his use of light. Columbia University. Shown here is "The Orchard". delicate pictures. In 1902 he became a co-founder of the Photo-Secession group. and was printed in various editions of Camera Work. a post he occupied until his death. None of his pictures have heavy shadows or dark tones. Clarence White's portraits and landscapes showing a particular interest in chiaoscuro (the technique of representing three dimensions by carefully using light and shadow). made in 1905.WHITE. including platinum and gum bichromate. though some also were made using the gum bichromate process. often creating a virtual glow from the highlights. 1999. He experimented widely with printing processes. 8 April 1871. Clarence Hudson b. © Robert Leggat.including a whole issue in 1908. an organization that continues to exist today. His work was highly praised by Stieglitz. d. he specialised in light. but a few years later took up photography. 7 July 1925 An American. White was one of the photographers promoted by Stieglitz as the 'Photo-Secession'. Together with Gertrude Kasebier he founded the Pictorial Photographers of America. Many of his pictures are platinum prints. Last updated undefined For other pictures see here. Clarence White began his career as a book-keeper. and in 1907 became a teacher of Photography at Teachers' College. exhibiting his work in their exhibitions and publishing it in Camera Work . .

.that it is he who takes the pictures. Moreover. then. your pictures will present a worn and wearied expression. The photographer is very much tried by his patrons sometimes.. Light Orange. How to come Never come in a hurry or a flurry. Scarlet. which you will not like. and are worse photographically than pure white. People who desire pictures. Dark Orange.poplins. that it is he whom you hold responsible for the result and not yourself. Corn color and Salmon are better. pea green. ... The best materials to wear.. Though well-meaning. take very light. when about to sit for a picture.. or when mingling among their friends.. a knowledge of which will save time. He is entitled to the same respect and consideration from you as your minister. crimson. but it does show reveal some of the limitations which made portraiture in the 1870s quite a difficult task. who place upon their persons. Bottle Green..WILSON. and result in the most successful pictures.. We guarantee satisfaction. the light is best when the heavens are clouded.... Materials with too much gloss are objectionable... Dress naturally.. for ladies. When to come A bright day is not necessary. Rose pink.... for example. In fact.. it comes over as a bit of a sermon. should never be worn for a picture.. For the sake of a good result." giving advice to those who were to come to him to have a portrait taken. show a pretty light gray in the photograph. in order that the intercourse between them and their photographer may be pleasant. d. satins and silks.. The following is a short portion of the pamphlet: "The intention of this little book is to say a few words in a kindly way to those who have photographs taken. your physician. to say nothing of an expensive outfit and a properly arranged studio. or your lawyer. much study and practice. To produce pictures. take still darker. if you are pushed for time. Blue Purple. not you. therefore. With all these the photographer must know how to manage a most obstreperous class of chemicals. that it is he who knows best (or ought to) how to take it.. 1838. The various colours in the dry goods market take about as follows: Lavender.. and not you... we publish this that you may be informed beforehand on certain points.. show nearly the same agreeable color in the picture. and. b.. all sorts of gee-gaws and haberdasheries which they never wear at home. he needs all the assistance from you that you are able to give him. are such as will fold or drape nicely. How to dress Dress is a matter which should have your careful attention.. 1903 Edward Wilson was an American professional photographer.. fickle as the wind... Cherry. not yours.. culture. good taste. Wine colour. As time is precious. or goods having bold patterns in them. therefore. Striped goods.. though we can generally overcome that. which is dark but not black. Avoid anything that will look streaky or spotty. who is of interest inasmuch as he prepared a lengthy pamphlet entitled "To my Patrons.. generally seem unwilling to give the necessary time to secure good ones. requires skill. and think a little while you are about it. Edward L." . Lilac. Light-haired and light-eyes subjects should avoid a very bright day if convenient. Sea Green. and that his reputation suffers if he fails.. The consequence is some miserable distortions and caricatures. Claret.. try to submit to the suggestions of your photographer. Remember.. Red takes black and red faces take black..

And so it goes on! One should bear in mind. 1999 Last updated undefined . of course. © Robert Leggat. that at this time photographic plates were sensitive only to blue light.

His fame spread widely. and commissioned the partners to document the building of Balmoral. setting up a portrait studio. 9 March 1893 George Washington Wilson was born in Scotland. Wilson's albumen prints were more stable than others made in the same era. 1999. a brave feat at a time when photography was becoming an ever-increasing challenge offering cheaper pictures and becoming fashionable. from 1853 onwards. After a while he began a short partnership with John Hay. and was particularly keen to ensure that his prints were carefully washed and gold-toned. He was the photographer whose photographs were first sold in Cabinet size. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were keen on photography. and in 1868 Wilson illustrated one of the Queen's "Leaves from the Journal or our Life in the Highlands." In 1873 he was awarded a royal warrant. In 1876 Wilson built new premises. and was one of the early royal photographers. As a result. He also produced a number of Stereoscopic pictures.WILSON. perhaps the first to mass-produce photographs. d. By the 1880s his was one of the largest photographic publishers in the world. 7 Feb 1823. This large firm rivalled that of Frith over the border. and in 1864 claimed to have sold over half a million prints. George Washington b. In 1849 he set up business as a portrait miniaturist. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . their new highland home. He employed over thirty assistants in his Aberdeen firm. notable for the fact that the exposures were very short . Thus began a long association with the Royal Family. so as to remove all residual chemicals.less than one second.

The disadvantage was that the size of the pictures were limited to 2 square inches. Wolcott opened the world's first portrait studio in March 1840. had inside it a large concave mirror which reflected intense light on to the plate. It also had another advantage for Daguerreotype photographers in that the image was no longer laterally reversed. He is particularly remembered for having invented a camera which. Last updated undefined . thus greatly lessening the required exposure time. 1844 Wolcott was an American Daguerreotype photographer and instrument maker. Alexander b. 1999. 1804. and a year later sold exclusive rights to Richard Beard. who opened the first studio in Europe a year later. © Robert Leggat.WOLCOTT. d. instead of a lens.

and the whole process initially was a bit of a hit-and-miss affair. 61 years old. wife of Disderi. his wife Harriet accompanied him. the records only mention the husband's name. the chemicals could be smelly. Emma Llwelyn printed for her husband. d. There is also evidence that women did not receive the acknowledgement due to them inasmuch as many accepted a more supportive role for their husbands. Of those who participated. She also produced nudes and soft-focus portraits. a number would be relatives of a male photographer. In the earliest days. consequently the equipment needed for photographs outside a studio would be cumbersome. and though the work received much acclaim. This book makes illuminating and compelling reading. famous for his carte-de-visites. Constance. In addition. development would be needed immediately after exposure. John Llwelyn. this clearly did not deter women from being actively involved in picture-making. women were very active in this field and deserve far greater prominence than has been accorded to them. Elizabeth. 1871) became the first person to print and publish a book. for which there could be several reasons. One is that history has a habit of becoming repeated and in turn quoted. This brief article can only scratch at the surface. d. Robert Tytler photographed the ruins following the Indian Mutiny of 1858. It says much of the times that her death certificate cites "without profession. spent many years photographing specimens.Women Pioneers of Photography Few women photographers are cited in the most popular books on the history of photography. photographically illustrated. and wrote articles on photomicrography. Fox Talbot had a number of female relatives who were active in this field. Essex. Anna Atkins(b. was in partnership with her husband. published by the Abbeville Press (ISBN 1-55859-761-1).1799. Berenice Abbott studied with Man Ray in the early 1920s. In fact." There follows the names of a few women who practised photography in the earliest years: Laure Albin-Guillot (b. and the author of this article has drawn heavily upon it. with the result that it becomes the established lore even when the story may have been incorrect. Those familiar with the ordeal of taking photographs in the earliest days would sympathise if women were to regard this new activity as not being their cup of tea. 1880. those wishing to pursue this further are well advised to read "A History of Women Photographers" by Naomi Rosenblum. However. and indeed his own wife. 1962) together with her husband. On her tombtone in Halstead. both took pictures and developed and printed them. and continued to operate in Paris after his death. and was almost solely responsible for preserving the work by Eugene Atget. plant cells and animal organisms. her husband is . until her own death in 1878.

1952) was an American photographer. d. The number of events she covered included Derby Day. she received second prize for a photograph entitled "Threading the needle". Surrey. She was a close friend of Edward Steichen. 1869. 1866. though her work ultimately became recognised and she was able to live comfortably for the last years of her life.again a sign of those times. She operated in Ohio. portraits and theatre. 1926) was an American-born impressionist. Bessie Buehrmann was an associate of the Photo-Secession group.1815. 1943) was an American photographer whose work included pictures of children. Mary Cassatt (b. "The awakening". She became a member of the Photo Secessionist movement." . d. and exhibited in the Photo-Secession exhibitions. 1872. . the Oxford and Cambridge Boat race. Julia Margaret Cameron b.referred to as a JP. Nancy Ford Cones (b. she became involved in documentary work. 1866.1879. d. Some of her pictures are in Camera Work. 1938) lived and worked in Birmingham and in the Isle of Wight. Christina Broom (b. and the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace. famous for her paintings of mothers and children. she was for a while in the equivalent of a poor house. Alice Austen (b. Emma Barton (b. d. 1962) worked in photography in the latter stages of the period covered by this work. One of her pictures. One of her pictures was published in Camera Work. d. Edward Steichen winning the competition. 1950) was an American who produced a number of nude and draped figures in landscape. She too had some pictures published in Camera Work. Her consisted mainly of portraiture. Brigman (b. d. and Alfred Stieglitz coming third. gained her a medal from the Royal Photographic Society in 1903. Kodak used some of her work for publicity purposes. 1863. For a while she worked in the studio of Gertrude Kasebier. 1869. at Epsom. investitures of monarchs. Having lost her money and home in the 1920s stock crash. d.. but she is simply referred to as "Daughter of. is without question the most well-known woman pioneer in photography. Anne W. Alice Boughton (b. women suffrage demonstrations. She received a camera at the age of ten. d.. In a Kodak competition of 1905. 1939) has sometimes been referred to as the first British woman press photographer.1844. and never looked back! In addition to many family and local interest photography.

In 1893 she married Henry Ward.Clementina Hawarden (born 1822. She was awarded a medal by the (then) Photographic Society. Catharine Barnes Ward (b. died 1952) was an American photographer who opened a studio in Washington in 1890. Theresa Llwelyn. before receiving the award. It is stated that she was one of the first to use a prism in the camera so as to reverse the daguerreotype image. In 1897 she published an article entitled "What a woman can do with her camera. She exhibited at the Photographic Salon of the Linked Ring and at the Royal Photographic Society.1851. at present." Her works included a well-illustrated "Shakespeare's Town and Times" . books on Dickens and the land of Lorna Doone. She joined the Photographic Society in 1893. the founder and editor of the magazine "Practical Photographer. She became associate Editor of the American Amateur Photographer in 1890. an English photographer. doubtless many more being unheralded and. 1913) was an American photographer who later lived in England. Last updated undefined . and also experimented with the autochrome colour process. Jane Wigley. Many of her prints are owned by the Victoria and Albert Museum. and had several assignments photographing in the White House.1934) was the first woman to be elected to the prestigious Linked Ring. which covers the entire period of photography from the earliest days up to the present. purchased the franchise to operate from Beard. d. © Robert Leggat. Frances Benjamin Johnston (born 1864. These are just a few of the many women early pioneers of photography. a distant relative of Fox Talbot used "photogenic drawing" (photograms) of seaweed specimens. and produced hundreds of images of her family and nearby surroundings." Gertrude Kasebier (b. She was much in demand photographing celebrities of her day. where she was highly active. and worked in Newcastle and London. was a popular lecturer. 1852. and a strong supporter of women photographers. Rosenblum's remarkable book. though she died aged forty-two. d. those wishing to pursue this area further should read Dr. unknown. Again. London.1872. She specialised in landscapes and portraits.1953) was inspired by her elder brother to take up photography. died 1865) operated in South Kensington. d. London. Agnes Warburg (b. She was a foundermember of the Society's Pictorial and Colour Groups. 1997.

Here. and lived for some time in Australia and Java. before returning to England. 5 Sept 1885 The inventor of what came to be called the Woodburytype process. He also invented a method of water-marking.WOODBURY. 1999. calling it "filigrane". This he patented in July the following year. d. demonstrating this to the Photographic Society on 5 December 1865. using the Collodion process. establishing photographic studios there. © Robert Leggat. whilst working on the Carbon process. 26 June 1834. England. he developed a new mode of photographic engraving. Last updated undefined . he was born in Manchester. Walter Bentley b.

Last updated undefined . William D. Young produced a number of photographs recording the building of the railways in Uganda and Tanzania. © Robert Leggat. in the 1890s.YOUNG. 1999.

Photography of Waxed paper process Wet plate process Women pioneers of photography Woodburytype process . processes and stories Vorticism War.Processes. Photography for Stereoscopic photography Subtractive colour process The "291" Tintype process Toning Travel Photography Unusual equipment. styles and movements in photography ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Additive colour process Albumen process Amateur photographers Amateur photographer Magazine Ambrotype process Anaglyphs Architectural photography Artists and Photography Autochrome process Beginnings of Photography Bromoil print process Calotype process Camera Lucida Camera Obscura Camera Work Carbon process Cartes-de-visite Collodion Process Colour. photography in Combination Printing Cyanotype process Daguerreotype Development Documentary photography Dry-Plate Process Enlargers Fading of prints Film Fixing Gelatin Gum Bichromate Process Heliographs ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Impressionism Kodak Landscape Photography Latent Image Lighting Linked Ring Melainotype process Micro-photography Naturalistic Photography ozotype Photo-Secession Pictorialism Platinum Process Portraiture Pre-Raphaelites Salted prints Separation Negatives Social Reform.

the additive and the subtractive. green and blue. 1999. by Sir James Clerk Maxwell. all colours can be made by mixing three primary colours: red. Last updated undefined .The ADDITIVE colour process There are two different ways of producing a colour. Yellow. in 1861. is a mixture of green and red light. Though this was the first of the two. for example. In the additive process. it was the subtractive process which was to become the standard colour one in our lifetime. © Robert Leggat. This process was first demonstrated.

in 1863: ". has all his energies directed to make things pay. is he a professional photographer? The Royal Photographic Society does not distinguish between professional and amateur. But the professional has his batch of perhaps six hundred. 27 March 1885: . are some of the stances that were being taken in the previous century. the controversy was as vociferous in the early days of photography. drama. and if he fail.professional photographers there was considerable debate as to whether the term should be used..rushing here. because it seemed to carry a pejorative innuendo. For example. the reality is that there is ample room for both.agreeable occupation. often retiring. On the other hand.it is not to be wondered that the impulses forward should emanate rather from the amateur than the professional. but eventually succeeding in finding new tracks and safe paths for the main body to securely pass along. The one can try all manner of experiments. with little comment. The advance of photography is something like the progress of an army. the latter for profit.AMATEUR photographers In many areas . while the more daring and adventurous are the pioneers who lead the army ." Article appearing in "Amateur Photographer". and still continues to present a difficulty. or whether he will employ the same opportunities to advance the art. pooh" all innovations. This is no less the case in photography. and whether he succeed or fail he secures his object ." Many of the candidates for this examination are undoubtedly professionals in all kinds of areas. Let him consider whether he will occupy his spare time and cash in producing photographs of more or less merit and which may be doomed to fade before his eyes. If an amateur experiments with a new toning bath on a batch of perhaps half-a-dozen prints. Some may be pursuing courses as a creative leisure pursuit. He chooses the safest way. and he gains in knowledge and experience. and sport for example. and fails. others may be doing so because they wish to use photography as an adjunct to their professional activities.music. however.. feeling their way there. The professional. always skirmishing. and when he gets hold of anything that works passable well. and compare that with one's own view.. If some of the quotations below are anything to go by. He has too much at stake to speculate. and it may be a useful exercise to identify the prejudices and misunderstandings. He is the true conservative. is a teacher who uses photography in the classroom as a tool to enable his children to attain educational objectives other than photography a professional? He may be a professional teacher.. In the recently developed City & Guilds photography scheme for non. a large class of amateurs are equally ready to "try" all new processes. where they exist. Professional photographers have rarely the time to bestow on experiments. and they are generally too ready to "pooh." Jabez Hughes. and it offers to the intelligent amateur a field for readily gaining distinction as the author of valuable experiments. good or bad. whether a print is saleable is irrelevant. Here. in 1857: "Photography is yet in its infancy. The former pursues the art for pleasure. well the loss is not great. Too many people confuse "amateur" with "amateurish. The main body keeps in safe marching order. changes with reluctance. Nevertheless amongst photographers there still remains a slight tension which is not easily resolved. the loss is something considerable. Thomas Sutton. the term "Amateur" has its own connotation.

but a question of knowledge and capacity. and may reasonably be expected to have a keener sense of the aesthetic principles. As the name implies. in 1899: "Let me here call attention to one of the most universally popular mistakes that have to do with photography ." Alfred Stieglitz." Peter Henry Emerson."The amateur is. and using the term amateur to convey the idea of immature productions and to excuse atrociously poor photographs. As a matter of fact nearly all the greatest work is being.d.. and viewed in this light the incorrectness of the popular classification is readily apparent. by those who are following photography for the love of it. a man of more cultivated education and greater leisure than the professional photographer. no matter how many of his productions he may sell. an amateur is one who works for love. without knowledge and without capacity. and not merely for financial reasons.better skilled though the latter may be in the technique of his art. in his book "Naturalistic Photography" took precisely the opposite point of view: "In reality professional photographers are those who have studied one branch of photography thoroughly. this "professional" and "amateur" question. It is not a question of £.s. Last updated undefined . and has always been done. and a more educated knowledge of the history and science of art than his professional brother . An amateur is a dabbler without aim." © Robert Leggat. 1999. presumably. and are masters of all its resources and no others.that of classing supposedly excellent work as professional.

for those interested in the history of photography there is a wealth of data in the early copies showing the rise and fall of certain models of cameras. Robinson's "Picture Making by Photography. reviewing Emerson's book "Naturalistic Photography for Students" wrote: "We cannot help feeling his system is pernicious. but this is misplaced. though it is very different from the rather stuffy and text-ridden journal it once was.J. Its composition is childish and its sentiment puerile. made to the development and encouragement of photography has seldom been noted.duty of a journal like our own to produce a disinfectant. Last updated undefined . affectionately known as the AP.. We feel it to be the. P.worthless. and also coincided with the publication of H. especially those which contained each other's work. in a second lecture.. 1902) provides details of a Christmas lecture for children at the (now) Royal Society of Arts. By this time photography had been in existence some fifty years. of Promenade Concert fame... the use of the camera for scientific investigation. Sir Henry Wood. and were duly rewarded! Emerson described a piece of work by Robinson as "inane.. He also gave a demonstration of the principles of colour photography. However. 1884.The AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER magazine The contribution which The Amateur Photographer. ensuring in particular that alternative movements like the Photo Secessionists were kept at bay.H. However." Being well aware of the rivalry between Robinson and P. this was also a period when those who practised photography varied enormously in their styles. that year saw the beginning of photography reproduction in printing.. For example. and stop the disorder. but “Amateur Photographer” (Jan 2. Obviously Sir Henry was not only a man of distinction in music! © Robert Leggat. does not feature as a photographer. AP has continued to this day. where he presented a few experiments on the properties of light. Up till this period photographs. and excusing bad photography by calling it art... and there was considerable intolerance of other peoples' methods..Emerson the astute editors of the AP invited each to review exhibitions. This new Society formed its own annual exhibition called the Photographic Salon. Moreover." whilst Robinson.. and of course there is always a new generation of beginners who can gain much from reading it.Mortimer who kept a tight rein on the magazine. It becomes fashionable (a form of one-upmanship perhaps) to decry the magazine once one has gained some expertise in photography. flat. whether they practise for profit or as amateurs . given the stature of many of its contributors right from its beginnings on October 10. One of the most long-serving editors was F." In 1891 the rejection by the Photographic Society of George Davidson's picture "The Onion Field" from its annual exhibition precipitated many resignations from the Society and led to the formation of the Linked Ring. 2003. like paintings. Photographers. can always gain from the experiences of others. Meetings of this group were often held at AP's offices in London. had to be viewed at exhibitions. including spherical and chromatic aberration and. and the fads of the time. which is surprising.

by fusing these together a three dimensional effect was recreated. one in blue (or green). Thus a three dimensional image would result. Rollman who in 1853 first illustrated the principle of the anaglyph using blue and red lines on a black field with red and blue glasses to perceive the effect. This process consisted of printing the two negatives which form a stereoscopic photograph on to the same paper. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . one in red. but this was for line drawings only. The left eye would see the blue image which would appear black. and which enabled each eye to see only one. It is to Louis Ducas du Hauron that we owe the first printed anaglyphs. 1999. The viewer would then use coloured glasses with red (for the left eye) and blue or green (right eye). whilst it would not see the red.ANAGLYPHS The conventional method of viewing stereoscopic photographs in the last century was to use a viewer which held a pair of images. In 1858 Joseph D'Almeida began projecting three-dimensional magic lantern slide shows using red and green filters with the audience wearing red and green goggles. this registering as black. It was W. produced in 1891. similarly the right eye would see the red image.

behind which was a layer of panchromatic film. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . ** The colours are disputed. Most writers however stick to the primary colours. as a transparency. The pictures. The film was then subjected to reversal development. See here. and then viewed. were delicate and of a soft pastel nature. blue and green)**. though dark by present day standards. though an identical screen. When the picture was taken these starch grains acted as tiny filters on the film. The Autochrome "screen" was created by forming a layer of minute starch grains dyed in the primary colours (red. 1999. and was introduced in 1907 by the Lumière brothers.AUTOCHROME process The Autochrome was the first viable colour photograph process.

and consisted of a positive image on a paper support. it was bleached in a solution of potassium bichromate. to remove the black silver image.J. Both processes. using special brushes.BROMOIL PRINT process This process was introduced in 1907 by E. which had been invented in the previous decade. received the term "muck spreading" by their detractors! © Robert Leggat. It was based on the principle that oil and water do not mix. Wall. In time this replaced the gum bichromate process. Once an enlargement was made. 1999. incidentally. Last updated undefined . This left it in a condition in which it was possible to apply greasy inks of various colours to pigment the surface of the gelatin.

designed in 1807 by Dr. as Fox Talbot also discovered. © Robert Leggat. However. William Wollaston. The paper was laid flat on the drawing board. See also Camera Obscura. 1997. He would then fill in the image. Last updated undefined . that too required artistic skills. No darkroom was needed. as anyone who has tried using these will know only too well. and the artist would look through a lens containing the prism.CAMERA LUCIDA The Camera Lucida. so that he could see both the paper and a faint image of the subject to be drawn. was an aid to drawing It was a reflecting prism which enabled artists to draw outlines in correct perspective.

turned out to be the last of this remarkable series. good taste.. of which few copies now remain." This magazine was beautifully produced. It comes in paperback.. © Robert Leggat.. as it contains a simply excellent collection of outstanding photographs. Last updated undefined .. from Frank Eugene. will find recognition in these pages. A "must" for any serious photographic historian.. and a masterly introduction by Pam Roberts. 1999. The script clearly shows that further editions were at the planning stage. The last publication was in June 1917. The older I grow the more I appreciate what you have accomplished with your very wonderful publication. Many of the articles were written by leading authors.. when the Photo-Secession movement had begun to lose its way. which reads as follows: "I have not received Camera Work for a very long time. and if one were only allowed to recommend one book. probably due to the war. tried to do for the man with the conscience. The reception by British photographers to the publication was immediately favourable. etc... who is the Curator of the Royal Photographic Society.. Camera Work has been republished by Taschen Publications (ISBN 3-82288072-8) The book contains all the illustrations. the fiftieth edition...for centuries. and. There were in total fifty editions. It does. (See Stieglitz). and what an incentive it has always been to my pupils towards a higher standard. or such as exemplifies some treatment worthy of consideration. etc. or contains some exceptional feature of technical merit. addressed to Stieglitz. censorship. The first edition reads: "Only examples of such work as gives evidence of individuality and artistic worth.. The June edition contains a letter (17 November 1916).for the man with the camera. what the Bible has. and pasted in by hand. Since this was written. When I see you I shall be delighted to tell you how largely the possession of Camera Work has helped me in my work as a teacher. regardless of school. Some of the pictures were printed on fine Japanese tissue. It was edited by Alfred Stieglitz. and among the many contributors were Frank Eugene." Sadly this. That same year "Photography" reported: "There can be no other verdict but that Camera Work beats all previous records for dignity.CAMERA WORK This is the title given to an influential quarterly journal which appeared in 1903 in the wake of the Photo-Secession movement.value." "Amateur Photographer" for 1st January 1903 also was full of praise. Clarence White and Edward Jean Steichen. it must surely be this one.


The sensitising solution consisted of a mixture of carbon. and were permanent. the image was in relief. gelatin. Development consisted of washing the unexposed soluble material away in warm water. and in 1864 Joseph Wilson Swan perfected the process. The Print fading was a common occurrence in the earliest days of photography. Prints made by this process would come in any colour. Last updated undefined . but which could be leather or wood. Carbon prints became very popular. introduced a year later. Prints made using this process came in any colour. and potassium bichromate. Once the paper was exposed to light.CARBON process. and the process is still used occasionally. The image being laterally reversed. A variation on the carbon process was the Woodburytype. and were permanent. 1999. © Robert Leggat. which he also patented. In the mid 1850s some began to experiment with carbon. the areas exposed became insoluble in water. and several people sought to address themselves to this problem. the colouring material. it needed to be transferred to another base which was usually paper.

it was discovered that the green filter had also passed some blue light. one could combine dyed images. whilst the ribbon's red colours were also reflecting ultra-violet rays. it was to be some time before colour photography was to become a reality. So how could anything have been recorded on the "red" and "green" slides? It was not until one hundred years later that when the experiment was repeated. In 1873 Herman Vogel discovered sensitising dyes. However. © Robert Leggat. which had been recorded on the red plate. but at that time the emulsion in use only responded to light at the blue end of the spectrum. which was a step forward in the pursuit of full colour photography. but were well received at the time. One of his suggestions had been that instead of mixing colour lights. film could be coated with three very thin layers of emulsion. using a different system from that above. strictly speaking this experiment should never have worked! Maxwell did not know this. Interestingly. each one taken using a different colour filter (red. for with an appropriate emulsion responding to all colours the method works well. sensitive to all colours. blue and green).painted. each sensitive to the primary colours. In the 1860s James Clerk Maxwell. When in 1906 "panchromatic" films. came into production. Photography in Though the invention of photography had an immediate impact on the whole art world. Back in 1869 Ducas du Hauron had published a book offering another method . the early photographs were in monochrome. often looking very dark. each equipped with a corresponding filter.COLOUR. daguerreotypes could be hand. up till then the additive methods suggested by Maxwell had been used. which kept a number of painters of miniatures in business. but nevertheless they deserve the credit for laying the foundations of trichromate colour photography. "orthochromatic" plates. At the time. In 1907 Auguste and Louis Lumière produced plates they called Autochrome. however. showed that three monochrome images could be formed of a subject. using a viewer which enabled one to see all three slides superimposed upon one another. once processed as positives. were produced. using as a subject a tartan ribbon. to be named Kodachrome. sensitive to all colours with the exception of red. However. the transparency could then be viewed as a full colour photograph.the subtractive one by which colour could be re-created. 1999. Last updated undefined . though this (by sheer coincidence) produced the right effect. By projecting these images using three lanterns. some photographers began taking three "separation" negatives. the colours could be recreated. it does not detract from Maxwell's discovery. The results were somewhat disappointing to Maxwell and his collaborator Thomas Sutton. the emulsions were such that none of his proposals could be tested. The colours appeared in delicate pastel shades. As a result of his work. As an additional service. It was not until the mid 1930s that Kodak was to produce a film based on this principle.


did a lot of experimental work on this. Roger Fenton. on the sheet of paper.COMBINATION PRINTING In the early days of photography the material of the time was not sensitive to red. particularly William Lake Price. It can take various forms: ● ● ● printing two or more negatives." © Robert Leggat. one after the other.very little detail (if any) in the sky. Rather different is the technique by Henry Peach Robinson. it was highly sensitive to blue. and arranging. superimposing two negatives. an architectural and landscape photographer and one of the fine photographers of this period. 1999. began to explore the idea of using combination printing to produce compositions. by Rejlander. Last updated undefined . and then photographing the finished result (montage). perhaps pasting them on card or photographed background. others. and therefore blue sky was rendered in a very light tone. Hippolyte Bayard was the first to suggest that separate negatives of clouds be used to print in the skies." Combination Printing is the term given to the technique of making pictures from more than one negative or print. This however was not an ideal solution. cutting out parts of a number of prints. and it was the problem of this attempt to record sky that led photographers to probably one of the most interesting early concepts in photography which we now call "combination printing. However. The most famous of the early combination prints is "The two ways of life". his classic example is "Fading Away. The solution he adopted was to make negatives a little thin in the foreground and then to over-expose when making the prints. who made photomontages. who masked all areas of the photograph other than the area being printed. Most of the photographs taken in the 40s and 50s were usually of foreground landcapes with blank skies . printing them both together.

The paper was then washed in water. It is still in use today. who produced the first photographically illustrated book. and the image would come out as a white image on deep blue. One of the earliest users of the process was Anna Atkins. and is more commonly known as the blue-print process. but one advantage was that since the chemicals were mainly sensitive to Ultra-Violet rays. Last updated undefined . Long expsoure times were required. rather than in a darkroom. In the early days paper was impregnated with iron salts and then used in contact printing. 1999. © Robert Leggat. the solutions can be prepared in subdued light.The CYANOTYPE process This is an early process first introduced by John Herschel in 1842.

It is said that Daguerre discovered development accidentally. © Robert Leggat. having placed some unsuccessful sensitised plates into a cupboard. By further experimentation he concluded that the mercury in the same cupboard was responsible for producing the image. Last updated undefined .DEVELOPMENT The function of a developer is to convert the invisible (latent) image into a visible form. and having returned later to discover that the plates bore an image. In the very earliest days of photography exposures had to continue until an image had been formed. and as a result was able to reduce drastically his exposure time . 1999.from as much as an hour to a minute or less. Fox Talbot also discovered that there was such a thing as a latent image that could be developed. hence the need for very long exposures.

either from a sense of mission. and compellingly to draw attention to situations about which we might otherwise be unaware. see Architectural. incorrect. and whilst many of them evoke an emotional response it is difficult to be sure that what we are being presented with is not fanciful. however. Landscape.DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY The history of photography is full of people who with great intensity put forward theories on the nature of photography. Social Reform. for example by selection of viewpoint. Even with "straight" photography (i. for example. or set up break-away groups. or simply to leave an accurate version of their life and times for others. Portraiture. © Robert Leggat. to reproduce images in considerable detail. where neither negative not print has been retouched). Up to the time photography was invented events were portrayed by means of painting. There are.e. or by using a picture out of context. Used honestly. These people have their place. 1999. photography has the capacity to capture a particular moment in time.) Photography does add to authenticity. For specific aspects of documentary photography. or who denigrated the work of others. This capacity was immediately recognised by early photographers. to overcome language barriers. there are many ways by which the process can be used to manipulate and mislead. Last updated undefined . Travel and War. but the oft-quoted adage that "the camera cannot lie" is a very misleading one. so many different paintings of Queen Elizabeth I that it is not clear what she looked like! (See also Alfred Chalon's comments in Artists and Photography. but fortunately there were others who avoided controversy and who set about recording the life and times of the period in which they lived. or even blatantly dishonest.

As the sensitivity of papers increased. In 1840 he wrote: "Exposures are made with a very small camera on very small plates. The heat of the condensed rays of sun was such that one had to have water troughs built in. from Aachen. It was an American. However. The picture shows an advert for his cameras. of course. so it was possible to use other sources of light.A. Woodward. Another pioneer was Wothly. They are subsequently enlarged to the required size in a larger camera on a rigid stand. and showed it to the Paris Photographic Society in 1861. This method will probably contribute very much to the practice of the art. who in 1857 first constructed an enlarger. and a medal that he had been awarded to him at a major exhibition." Louis Jules Duboscq (1817-1886) made an apparatus for enlarging by electric light. Wothly's solar camera was a monstrosity! The condenser had a diameter of 1 metre.ENLARGERS The earliest enlargers used direct sunlight. the solar camera disappeared from the photographic industry and was replaced by enlarging cameras that used arc lamps. and the camera has to be turned with the sun. who made a few improvements to Woodward's solar camera. . and exhibited portraits almost at life size. D. This design became the model for a number of solar cameras. It was a cumbersome object. Eventually. The sun was collected by means of a convex lens. perhaps the first ever reference to an enlarging process can be attributed to Draper. and thus came to be known as "solar cameras".

. This one was made by Griffin and Sons. the user places his negative in the groove at the small end and sensitive paper in the box at the large end. is 12s 6d (62p).. Having set up the instrument. Upon development of the exposed paper a sharp.P. 2003.50p). have introduced an instrument which should find a cordial welcome at the hands of many an amateur who desires to make bromide enlargements without elaborate apparatus. including meral exposure shutter and achromatic lens. The camera is then taken into daylight and exposed to the clear sky for a period varying between a few seconds and a minute or two. J. there being no loose screws or bolts..However. 10s 6d . The attachment can be fitted to almost any enlarger on the market. bright enlargement will be the result.. in the A. Griffith and Sons Ltd.. J. The price of the enlarger to take quarter-plate and enlarge to whole plate. Last updated undefined . May we also ask your attention to our gaslight attachment for enlargers? This consists of a parabolic reflector. © Robert Leggat. in from of which are fixed two incandescent gas burners of a special type. . read as follows: Messrs. The advert.. They are inexpensive. even at the turn of the century it was possible to buy simple daylight enlargers." (Cost. and whilst folding into small space can be erected quickly and by one movement.


received support from an equally concerned Prince Albert. the process being perfected by Sir Joseph Wilson Swan in 1866. Last updated undefined . In 1856 Robert Howlett published a booklet on the preservation of prints. they still had a major problem in that many of the early photographs had a tendency to fade. using pigment.FADING of prints Though (unlike Wedgwood). The major causes of fading which were identified by the committee included the presence of sulphur in the prints. They recommended more careful washing of prints. became popular. So serious was the problem that in 1855 the Photographic Society formed a committee to examine the causes of fading. this committee. Most members of the committee concluded that gold toning would enhance the life of prints (which indeed it did) and also that some experimenting with protective coatings on the print might be helpful. chaired by Roger Fenton. the early photographers had learned to remove the unused light-sensitive solutions by fixing prints. 2000. and (in some instances) the type of mounting used. the presence of fixer because of insufficient washing. © Robert Leggat. In the 1860s the carbon print process. who contributed £50 to its funds.

." Sodium thiosulphate (incorrectly known as Hypo) is still. One of the causes was inadequate washing of prints after processing. 1999. Last updated undefined .. a fixing agent used today. However. Had Thomas Wedgwood been able to fix his pictures. it was not until after his death that Sir John Herschel discovered what Wedgwood had found so elusive. thus making the image more permanent.almost as readily as sugar in water.. It was this instability that caused people to investigate more lasting processes such as the Carbon one. © Robert Leggat. dissolves in this salt (hyposulphite). in fact. the invention of photography would have been attributable to him. In a paper printed in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal ( 8 January 1819) Herschel wrote "Muriate of silver (now known as silver chloride). Though fixing made prints more stable. newly precipitated.FIXING Fixing is the process of removing from photographic materials the unused light-sensitive solutions. fading was at first a problem that needed to be addressed.

using any kind of surface most suited to the result wanted. could change an image so much that it looked more like a painting than a photograph. It was eventually superseded by the bromoil one. printing-over.. © Robert Leggat. leaving the hardened parts behind. he is also at liberty to select the color in which he wishes to finish his picture. get rid of details. The exposed gum layer containing a pigment was then washed with water. by a system of re-coating. A gum bichromate practitioner could alter the tones. The print could then be treated with brushes and thus be modified considerably. Gum bichromate prints have little detail. but may sometimes appear almost like charcoal drawings. In this process the photographer prepares his own paper. and with a spray of water or brush can thin-out. The paper would be coated with gum arabic mixed with a sensitive chemical. he can combine almost any tone color. 1999. Besides this. from the even-surfaced plate paper to rough drawing parchment. pencil or rubber. enabling photographers to obliterate many of the photographic qualities. and was one of several introduced about this period.effect. These effects are so "unphotographic" in the popular sense of that word as to be described as illegitimate by those ignorant of the method of producing them. writing about the process. shade. said that in it "the artist has a medium that permits the production of any effect desired. and using a brush. and can produce at will in india-ink. or remove any portion of its surface. etc. The print having been made he moistens it. Last updated undefined . Stieglitz. which would harden on exposure to light. red-chalk or any other color desired." One of the leading exponents of this process was Robert Demachy.GUM BICHROMATE PROCESS The gum process was introduced in 1894.

1999. a derivation of asphalt. hardened when exposed to light. The solution he used for this first image was Bitumen of Judea. Last updated undefined . were shown by the bitumen. found in Syria. it was in fact a cul-de-sac as far as photography was concerned. It was a varnish which. In fact this process has greater resemblance to lithography than to photography. when coated and dried. The areas not affected by light were then dissolved using oil of lavender and white petroleum. The light areas. the dark ones by the bare metal. then. when he produced what is generally agreed to be the first photograph. and though it was the first permanent method of recording an image. in 1827. © Robert Leggat.HELIOGRAPHS The name was coined by Nicephore Niépce (pronounced Nee-ps) to describe the new process he had discovered.

The term itself comes from a Monet painting entitled "Impression: Sunrise". painted in 1872. from then onwards Impressionism was a term representing an experience arising from a fleeting impression. we do not see individual objects each with its own colour but rather a bright medley of cones which blend in our eye or really in our mind. Renoir and Pissarro. using the term in a derogatory way. Photography also had its impressionists. and work was exhibited by.strokes. writes: "They discovered that if we look at nature in the open.IMPRESSIONISM This movement developed from naturalistic painting. They looked with a measure of contempt at the current establishment. In May 1874 a group of them in Paris began to exhibit photographs at the studio belonging to Nadar. Their work is characterised by a variety of brush. and by high-key colours. for they were widely different. the art historian. a picture of Le Havre in the mist. A malicious critic. the accent being on colour and light in rapid brush. The group continued in being for the next twelve years. Cezanne and Gaugin. among others. rather than laborious detail. it is said that Sir Joshua Reynolds was nicknamed "Sir Sloshua" by them. and repeated rejections by the Salon jury in France. dubbed his work "impressionist". particularly landscape. a central feature of 19th Century art.strokes." What brought these artists together was not their strategies or general approach. Sir Ernst Gombrich. but others warmed to Monet's style and happily adopted the name. Another photographer . Louis Leroy. It carried the realist landscape painting of Courbet and others a stage further. Other impressionists in the art world included Degas. what united them was an intense dislike for the art establishment of the time. commenting upon the impressionists.

who contended that a sharp photograph was not always to be striven for. For one of his photographs. 1999.who was influenced by the impressionists was George Davidson. "The Onion field" (1890) he used rough-surfaced paper and a soft-focus technique. © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined .

And at the end of the film one simply sent the entire camera for processing. In July 1888 the Kodak camera was exhibited for the first time in Minneapolis. so a circular mask was placed in front of the film at the focal plane . There was no film counter. In the 1920s Eastman wrote: The letter "K" had been a favourite with me . If you are visitng the UK or already live there. the most beautiful instrument that has ever been offered for the public in connection with photography. without exception. which ensured that pictures were sharp provided that one kept the camera still the camera had an f9 lens which ensured that all subjects beyond eight feet or would be in sharp focus. and leave the preparation and the development processes to others. incidentally). and became an instant success.it seems a strong. Why the name Kodak? It was short. Because of the wide angle. they were picture makers in a very real sense! When Kodak cameras appeared on the scene. and this paved the way for people to concentrate on the image. The genius behind the Kodak camera . the National Museum of Photography Film and Television is a must. and was immediately acclaimed. It was a watershed as far as photography for the ordinary person was concerned. with a sixty degree angle of view. However. sufficient to allow for as many as a hundred pictures approximately 2 1/2" in diameter. The lens was wide. it was not considered necessary to have a viewfinder..2 Kodak camera introducing transparent celluloid film for the first time... the Kodak seems as necessary a part of their belongings as the portmanteau" ( a leather trunk for clothes etc.was George Eastman. It became a question of trying out a great number of combinations of letters that made words starting and ending with "K". but it was too costly. pressing the exposure button.and its name . was still much lighter than current cameras. What features did the first Kodak have which caused it to have such an impact? ● ● ● ● It contained a 20 foot roll of light-sensitive film.which was not to everybody's liking. 1891: "In my varied wanderings I have met the gentleman with the black leather covered box everywhere. but because it was the first company to produce equipment that could be used by anyone. As the advertisements claimed. it opened the door for photographers to take pictures. Other versions soon followed. and winding the film on. Up till this time would-be photographers virtually had to be chemists as well as artists. Hence the famous advertising slogan "You Press the Button. and it would be returned with a new film installed. and was sold with film for 100 exposures (paper-based. where the American tourists swarm... From the Photographic News Almanac. ." It rapidly became the tourist's camera. the No. The Kodak Gallery will take you through the history of popular photography from its earliest days up to the present.The KODAK Story Or part of it. In effect. We do the Rest!" The Kodak reached Britain towards the end of 1888. The Amateur Photographer review stated: We venture to say that it is. not because of any major technical development. it could be used in the hand the shutter worked at roughly 1/25s. The Kodak was relatively small (approximately 6"x3"x3") and though it weighed nearly three pounds. at any rate! Kodak's name will be remembered. His first box camera (the Eastman Cossitt) was produced in 1886. the wide angle lens had very poor definition at the edges. incisive sort of letter. opening into two equal parts). there were only three simple movements to make: setting the shutter. without having to learn about processing or chemicals. thus anything from four feet onwards would be in sharp focus. and easy to pronounce. picture taking came to the fore.

2002. Last updated undefined .© Robert Leggat.

How pleasant our visits to moss-green old churches and picturesque cottages and stately castles and a thousand pretty nooks. Last updated undefined .H.. What agreeable association are connected with our excursions into the country. particularly when the collodion process was used. by the river side. or descended the shady valley. upon the delicate tablets we carried. in the shady wood. even though it often involved considerable trial and inconvenience. where the wild convolvulus.. How often have we wandered along the rough sea-shore or climbed the breezy hill-side. the marvellous beauty of Gothic window. An interesting catalogue of landscape photography is to be found in a somewhat poetically-delivered lecture by James Mudd. the burdens we carried. in the excitement of our pursuit. 1999. the bramble and luxuriant fern have arrested us in our wanderings. What delightful hours we passed in wandering through the quiet ruins of some venerable abbey. © Robert Leggat. forgetting. with wondrous truth. impressing. and Francis Bedford. and ivy wreathed arch." Among the leading landscape photographers of this period were Roger Fenton. Delamotte. of broken column. to the Manchester Photographic Society in 1858: "Landscape photography! How pleasantly the words fall upon the ear of the enthusiastic photographer. or in the hedgerow. or toiled along the rock bed of some mountain stream. or the roughness of the path we trod. landscape work was popular. P..LANDSCAPE photography From the earliest days of photography.

and keeps improving for several minutes." © Robert Leggat. Last updated undefined . 1999. an image would start to appear. if one were to treat exposed plates with the fumes of heated mercury. accidentally. the paper when removed is often perfectly blank but when kept in the dark the picture begins to appear spontaneously. discovered that whilst short exposures produced no visible image. Half a minute suffices for the Camera. and photographers would peer into the camera to inspect the image as it appeared. it seems.LATENT IMAGE. In his record dated 23 September 1840 Talbot wrote about his calotype: "Some very remarkable results were obtained. then. after which it should be washed and fixed with (iodine of potassium). read "hidden. because it enabled much shorter exposures to be made. Then Daguerre and Fox Talbot both independently and. no change had occurred. The The earliest exposures were very long indeed." For latent. This was a major breakthrough. At the time it had been assumed that if the image did not appear.

Last updated undefined . 1999. The Melaiontype was the name given by its inventor. Peter Neff Jr. © Robert Leggat. The This is the name given by some to the Tintype process.MELAINOTYPE process.

in 1839. he set about preparing a pigeon post service.MICRO-PHOTOGRAPHY This is photography made on a vastly reduced scale. had little time for this kind of work. portability or. which he dismissed as "of little or no practical utility" and "somewhat childish and trivial. the micro-photographic process is taken to mean a substantial reduction of the "real thing" either for archival." Though George Shadbolt is credited with being the inventor of microphotography." Brewster also took some of Dancer's work on a tour in Europe. and when they reached the unoccupied zone. in his 1858 Dictionary of Photography. © Robert Leggat. (For further details of this interesting story see HERE). a prominent physicist and Principal of Edinburgh University. was most enthusiastic about Dancer's work. It was probably as a result of this tour that several opticians in France began producing micro-photographs. To maintain communication with Paris. Among these was Rene Dagron. At one stage Dargon employed over a hundred in this flourishing trade. in the Siege of Paris in 1870. Sir David Brewster. and then were attached to the tails of carrier pigeons. Dargon and his assistant escaped from the city by balloon. signet rings and other objects. Many people were able to escape from Paris by balloon. placing microphotographs in penholders. when he produced photographs 15mm in diameter. who produced curios. In the 1857 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica he wrote: "Microscopic copies of despatches and valuable papers and plans might be placed in spaces not larger than a full stop of a small blot of ink. the first known example of micro-photography was by John Benjamin Dancer. The term should not be (but often is!) confused with photo-micrography. 1997. Last updated undefined . and predicted that micro-photographs might one day be used to send secret messages in the event of war. The messages were subsequently enlarged by projection. clandestine purposes. but because of the prevailing wind a journey to Paris was not possible. Thomas Sutton . Only a few years later." However. Messages were printed in microphotographic form. Brewster's prediction came true. as shown above. to be observed using a microscope or projected using a "magic lantern. spies used to smuggle secret reports in micro-photographic form. It is also said that during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904.

with such manipulation as combination printing. Emerson produced a book entitled "Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art." © Robert Leggat. Emerson's main claim was that one should treat photography as a legitimate art in its own right. imitation was not needed . Emerson's feeling was that pictorialism was becoming somewhat bogged down due to sentimentalism and artificiality. should have no place in photography.. Emerson urged that photographic students should look at nature rather than paintings. and Emerson was making the plea that contrived photography.NATURALISTIC Photography In 1889 P... others were becoming dissatisfied with the fact that the Photographic Society had become too concerned with scientific rather than with artistic aspects of photography. rather than seek to imitate other art forms.H.. that one should look at the range-finder or focusing screen and see what kind of pictures this created. that is something to have accomplished..which shall show the author has something to say and knows how to say it.it could confer its own legitimacy without it.try to produce one picture of his own. At the same time. 1999. Last updated undefined ." This was at the time pictorialism was in vogue. He felt every student should ".

The method did not prove to be very popular at the time. for which he was granted a patent. Henry Dick. Curiously enough.OZOTYPE PROCESS. The The Ozotope is a pigment process introduced by Thomas Manley in 1898. sometimes one reads of modern day attempts. 2003. and a search might prove profitable! Picture: On Yarmouth Fish Quay. A gelatine silver bromide was transferred by contact to pigment paper. 1903 © Robert Leggat. Rev. Last updated undefined .

and George Davidson. By the second half of the nineteenth century the novelty of capturing images was beginning to wear off. Examples of this approach include combination printing. sometimes. and the use of techniques such as gum bichromate. as impressionism was in vogue at the time. as it was then being used. the term Pictorialism is used to describe photographs in which the actual scene depicted is of less importance than the artistic quality of the image. In its original meaning anything that put the finished picture first and the subject second was pictorialism. pictorialism by no means excluded more modern trends. © Robert Leggat. the emotional impact of the image.PICTORIALISM The modern usage of this term may give a misleading picture of the movement as it arose in the second half of the nineteenth century. as they saw it. These new techniques came also to be known as High-Art photography. the manipulation of the negative. like the all-embracing word "art" it is a most elusive. was in fact too accurate and too detailed in what it recorded. Robert Demachy. This. Henry Peach Robinson (who wrote a major book entitled "Pictorial Effect in Photography"). In effect. any photograph that stressed atmosphere or viewpoint rather than the subject would come under this category. many photographs have more than a passing resemblance to paintings in this style. In modern parlance it is sometimes taken to suggest conservatism. rather than what actually was in front of their camera. Because pictorialism was seen as artistic photography. the use of focus. and highly subjective term. intangible. Given such a meaning. coupled with the fact that painting enjoyed a much higher status than this new mechanistic process. Last updated undefined . in any case. one would not be surprised that current styles of art would be reflected in their work. and some people were now beginning to question whether the camera. which greatly lessened the detail and produced a more artistic image. and the unwillingness to explore new approaches. 1999. Among the major workers who are associated with this approach to photography were Oscar Rejlander. caused some photographers to adopt new techniques which. made photography more of an art form. Pictorialists would be more concerned with the aesthetics and.

1997. Clarence White . The process produced an image with beautifully rich black tones. when it was introduced by William Willis. The print would then be developed in a potassium oxalate solution. Amongst those who used this medium were Peter Henry Emerson. One of the reasons why this and the gum-bichromate process became more popular amongst serious photographers was that these were ways of distancing themselves from the snapshooters which began to proliferate as a result of the introduction of the first Kodak cameras and film. Last updated undefined . Frederick Evans. permanent. when palladium largely replaced it. unlike other processes. Plain paper with sensitive iron salts (no silver) was exposed in contact with a negative. It was also. Its use declined after the first world war because of the rising cost of platinum. that makes platinum prints stand out. and Gertrude Kasebier. and a tremendous tonal range. © Robert Leggat.PLATINUM printing This process dates from 1873. both processes required skills above the level of the casual amateur photographer.

until the fountains of his eyes were dry. In any case. who invented the Wet Collodion process. There are several instances in which a famous personality has been painted on numerous occasions. became very popular. artists are able. as most of the studios were located on the top of a building. one must add it was quite commonly used on conventional portraiture). Beard himself became bankrupt in 1847. though much sought after. and it is not difficult to understand why photography. Until the eighteenth century. but what they believe or prefer to portray.the operator promenaded the room with watch in hand. this profession could also be precarious. a popular one being a metal clamp (hidden from the camera) behind the sitter's head.. clients would often have to climb a number of stairs. not only to depict what they see. was a tobacconist. and Scott Archer. and have such striking differences that it is difficult to know what the sitter really looked like! The eighteenth century saw a demand for portraits which were less expensive. sometimes cut freehand from paper.a fortune then!) However. and had to sell out and return to Whitby. and like others. which were relatively much less expensive. often embellished with gold. This technique was named after Etienne de Silhouette (1709-1767). had such an instant appeal both in America and in Europe. portraits were generally regarded as the privilege of the wealthy. and this resulted in two developments. was said to have earned forty thousand pounds in one year (a large sum today . from the earliest days. One sitter recalled the ordeal: "(He sat) for eight minutes. Richard Beard. The portrait. would offer a photograph and a cigar for six pence (2. calling out the time every five seconds. there were various methods of keeping a sitter still. (This was not new to photography." . through this medium. Sutcliffe. and such silhouettes. usually traces from the shadow cast by a lamp. failed in Tunbridge Wells. was often an event which one had good cause to remember: ● ● ● As the process was only sensitive to blue or white. died penniless. therefore. Portraiture. One was the use of miniature portraits. The problem is that the skills required to make portraits are in short supply. the portrait could only be taken if the weather was suitable. the brilliant photographer of Whitby. was now available to all. one had to dress in appropriate colours. One of the earliest photographers. The invention of photography marked a watershed as far as portraiture was concerned. Consequently some photographers diversified. once only for the well-to-do.PORTRAITURE Throughout history people have sought to produce images either of themselves or of others. Henry Peach Robinson used to provide very specific hints. and therefore expensive.. particularly in this area. who made profiles.5p) Others combined photography with more traditional art. as a natural leveller. There was a lot of money to be made out of the practice. Thomson in addition to being a photographer. the other was the popularity of profile pictures. with strong sunlight shining on his face and tears trickling down his cheeks while.

where we read of one operator who had tried all sorts of means of persuasion. he would take the picture. One problem which Hill and Adamson were not able to resolve was eye control. it was the discovery of this process which triggered off the enormous boom in portraiture. which suggests that there was some device to keep her head still during exposure. whose husband had been the first President of the Photographic Society. and levelling it at the sitter's head." Though there are many examples of work before the invention of Collodion. wrote: "Who can number the legion of petty dabblers.. advertising photography "without pain" proposed to use gas on his sitters. Here is one way to solve the problem! One of Fox Talbot's pictures.. of the camera. An interesting photograph is "The Bird Cage" by Hill and Adamson (a section of which is shown on the left). and once they were out for the count. who display their trays of specimens along every great . one should note how carefully the hands are placed in this picture. of his wife and daughters: they are facing the other way.'" Another. or anything else. he explains in a voice and with a look suggestive of lead and gunpowder: 'Dare to move a muscle and I'll blow your brains out. As soon as he had completed his adjustments.. he suddenly draws a revolver.Full length portraits often reveal how carefully one posed people in order to keep them still and yet provide a natural posture.. and you can do anything with them under such circumstances. In April 1857 Lady Elizabeth Eastlake. Exposures were very long indeed. 1861... Yet another suggested "A good dose of laudanum (opium) will effectively prevent the sitters from being conscious of themselves. The most extreme form of persuasion comes from an article in the American Journal of Photography. and note also the tell-tale shadow behind the head of the lady on the right. They become most delightfully tractable.when it occurred to him that the strongest of all human motives is fear.... and it is likely that Hill (the artist of the two) advised sitters to close their eyes unless they were very good at keeping their eyes open without blinking. and we only see their hats! (Picture dated 19th April 1842) Trying to keep a sitter still for this long process must sometimes have been quite a feat. ".

by making them feel at ease. and by discarding trite backgrounds. many of the Carte-de-visite portraits were verging on the banal. Robinson is said to have commented upon the many people who buy clothes specially for the occasion. the smallest town is not without them. coupled with a conveyor-belt mentality by some photographers. The lighting for many of these was uninteresting. possibly harsh world and presented them as more well-to-do than in real life. where there is evidence that the photographer went to great lengths to portray the sitter as would a painter. but for medical reasons. there are some remarkable exceptions to this rather dismal trend. Last updated undefined . especially on what to wear. a visit from a photographic travelling man gives it the advantages which the rest of the world are enjoying. such an arrangement may have satisfied the needs of both photographer and sitter! Nevertheless. for one shilling. and if there be a village so poor and remote as not to maintain a regular establishment. tens of thousands. their authors being apparently more concerned with making a quick profit than to "portray" the sitter. 1999. many images show evidence of very fast impersonal photography where the practitioner was out to make a quick kill and had little time or interest for the sitter as a person. where not half a generation ago the existence of such a vocation was not dreamt of. and given the fact that a straight photograph (unlike a portrait) can be cruel. rather than by its quality. Not all photographers of the period may have welcomed this. was Hugh Welch Diamond. The large provincial cities abound with the sun's votaries. they are wanted everywhere and found everywhere. Some interesting advice to patrons was provided by Edward Wilson.. it was fashionable to have pictures which took people out of the real. which show more of the props and mock glamour than the faces being portrayed... Sitters would either stare into the camera or would look into the distance. practising a new pleasure. particularly daguerreotypes. but the customer has always to be right. Alvin Langdon Coburn. is the main reason why so many pictures. The length of exposure. hence the use of standard props which provided such an image. Another photographer who used portraiture. To some extent the early photographers may be exonerated. are now following a new business. speaking in a new language. as Lewis Carroll put it in Hiawatha's photography: "With a look of pensive meaning As of ducks that die in tempests" The "style" being used was not only determined by financial considerations but to some extent by the demands of the sitter. For such photographers. Julia Margaret Cameron. by producing close-ups of the face that revealed their personality. by using more adventurous lighting. and to have said "How am I to get a likeness of a person who does not look like herself?" Many of the images are full-length photographs. executing for our lowest servants. twenty years ago? Not that photographers flock especially to the metropolis." It has to be said that this was a period in which portraiture was perhaps more characterised for the quantity of production. Lewis Carroll and. Thus... sometime later. because of the technical aspects which so dominated the process. Among such workers are Hill and Adamson. appear so impersonal. Nevertheless. the motive was not profit but quality. the setting often so stereotyped that one can almost date the photographs by the props! Bluntly.thoroughfare in London. that which no money would have commanded. and bound together by a new sympathy. © Robert Leggat.


a fascination for the Middle Ages.who painted "The Light of the World" (1853).Raphaelite movement were Lewis Carroll. all using the same initials PRB. who rejected the neoclassical style which at that time was in vogue. The The Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood was founded in 1848. It would be wrong to imagine that a school of Pre-Raphaelite photography existed.PRE-RAPHAELITES. and Dante Rossetti. They tended to look to the past for their inspiration.contrive the situations. Among those who one might suggest were influenced by the Pre. When a few years later the names of the painters became known.where the emphasis was upon historical and religious paintings (eg Rossetti. Last updated undefined . and consisted of a group of mainly British artists. and mediaeval themes and styles. © Robert Leggat. the impact they had upon art in Britain at the time was considerable. Their message appeared to be that truth was ugly. Hunt) "truth to nature" . John Ruskin actively promoted this trend. Their name comes from the fact that they believed that Raphael had introduced the art they so disliked. almost of surreal detail. 1998. all in their twenties. and thus their pictures had religious. particularly mediaeval themes. Initially they all exhibited pictures anonymously.where the stress was upon contemporary scenes. Though the movement lasted only ten years or so. they were quite harshly taken to task by Charles Dickens. and though the group disbanded in 1855. but rather that a number of photographers shared some of the sentiments typical of those who were in the Brotherhood. Julia Margaret Cameron. The movement had in the main three phases: ● ● ● realist . Amongst their number are names such as Holman Hunt . its ideas continued for quite some time. leading to painting of Arturian legend. Henry Peach Robinson and Francis Bedford. mythological or historical bases. wishing to return to what they felt to be purer Early Renaissance art. that to beautify it to make "high art" dress people up .

Last updated undefined . Some actually preferred this. rather than on it. then. They were printed out. preferring the matte form of salted-paper.SALTED PAPER Until 1850. a process that would take approximately thirty minutes. placed in a frame with the negative. that is to say they were contact prints. They were made by coating sheets of paper with salt dissolved in water. Because the paper had been sensitised in this manner. It would then be fixed in the normal way. the earliest prints were salt-paper ones. the image was in the paper. but left to print out in the sun. and were not taken by the glossy appearance of the albumen paper which began to supersede it (see for example Shadbolt). The texture of the paper. and this caused a loss of definition. and then sensitising the paper. 1997. also appeared on the image. © Robert Leggat. Salted papers were not subjected to development.

blue and green) and by superimposing the lantern slides (again with the appropriate filter in each projector). because the visible spectrum has been separated into three parts. each through a filter (red. Last updated undefined .created. Initially the subjects were still-life ones (obviously the three images had to be exactly the same). Early attempts to reproduce colour began at the turn of the century. The three negatives produced in this way are called colour separation negatives.SEPARATION negatives It was James Clerk Maxwell who first showed that by taking three separate pictures. 1999. though cameras were then produced which exposed three pictures simultaneously. © Robert Leggat. but were out of the reach of all but the more dedicated and wealthy photographer. colours could be re.

The three filters associated with this process are ● ● ● blue-green (called cyan) which is white minus red. the additive process and the subtractive one. © Robert Leggat. This forms the basis of the current colour photographic systems. Last updated undefined . 1999. and yellow. magenta. So to produce yellow. In the subtractive process a colour is produced by subtracting colours from white light. for example. blue is subtracted from white. which is white minus green.The SUBTRACTIVE process There are two ways of producing a colour. which is white minus blue.

From November 1905 this group laid on exhibitions of work at "The Little Galleries of the PhotoSecession" at 291 Fifth Avenue." Though the idea initially had been to display the new form of photography. Picasso. in financial difficulties. and Toulouse-Lautrec. the 291 evolved to become a major focal point of modern art. and a group of avante-garde photographers in the United States. Rodin. spearhearded by Stieglitz The American group came to be known as the Photo-Secession. © Robert Leggat. In 1917 the 291. 1998. Paintings exhibited included those of Cezanne. Matisse. which came to be known simply as "291.The "291" A growing dissatisfaction with the photographic establishment in England and in America at the turn of the century led to the formation of new groups such as the Linked Ring in the UK. though Stieglitz operated other similar galleries up to the 1940s. closed its doors. New York. Last updated undefined .

Tintypes were eventually superseded by gelatin emulsion dry plates in the 1880s. The one shown here is of a child who has died. is a variation on this. 35mm and Polaroid photography were to replace these entirely. brooches. the base did not need drying. some even had their shop on river-boats. Some have suggested that the name after the tin shears used to separate the images from the whole plate. or mounted in an album. visiting the encampments. etc. and their quality was very variable. The tintype. It was introduced by Adolphe Alexandre Martin in 1853**. They do have some significance. Compared with other processes the tintype tones seem uninteresting. The smallest were "Little Gem" tintypes. The material could easily be cut up and therefore fitted into lockets. It was much faster than other processes of the time: first." It is perhaps worth adding that there was no tin in them. also known as a ferrotype. tintypes could be sent by post. tin) instead of glass. in that they made photography available to working classes. In fact. If this seems bizarre. others that it was just a way of saying "cheap metal" (ie non-silver). however. of course. and secondly. we see more relaxed. Whereas up till then the taking of a portrait had been more of a special "event" from the introduction of tintypes. sent in the post. no negative was needed. Later. it would seem to have been quite a practice in the last century. Cheap to produce. and he and . see Ambrotype. They were often made by unskilled photographers. being more robust than ambrotypes it could be carried about. as in the wet plate process. but produced on metallic sheet (not. and many astute tintypists did quite a trade in America during the Civil War. That this process appealed to street photographers was not surprising: ● ● ● ● ● the process was simple enough to enable one to set up business without much capital. 2 1/4'' x 3 1/2''. a typical price for a tintype was 6d (2 1/2p) and 1 shilling (5p). not just to the more well-to-do. Eventually. made simultaneously on a single plate in a camera with 12 or 16 lenses. or just possibly they did not discover it until after the photographer had disappeared!*** Being quite rugged. ** Professor Hamilton L. the writer well remembers being photographed by one of these street photographers in Argentina. The most common size was about the same as the carte-de-visite. either people did not worry about this. though street photographers in various parts of the world continued with this process until the 1950s. though it was also widely used by street photographers in Great Britain. particularly in the United States. actually. so it was a one-stage process. about the size of a postage-stamp. The print would come out laterally reversed (as one sees oneself in a mirror).The TINTYPE process First. Some tintypes that remain are somewhat poignant. The plate was coated with collodion and sensitized just before use. the original name for Tintype was "Melainotype. when he was a boy. Smith was the first to make ferrotypes in the Unites States. spontaneous poses. and became instantly popular. but both larger and smaller ferrotypes were made.

Victor Moreau Griswold introduced the process to the photographic industry. © Robert Leggat. 1999. (See HERE). *** Sometimes failure to recognise this has led to false assumptions. whose picture is shown on the right. as has been assumed by many. left-handed. Last updated undefined . One reader kindly drew my attention to an article in the Guardian. regarding Billy the Kid. He was not.

(For example. one finds that prints made in England seem warmer than those made in France. Print Toning was a chemical process which changed the colour of a photograph. Gold toning came into use in the 1850s. the light. The tone of the prints varied considerably. using gold chloride. which was due to the fact that paper sizing in England was with gelatin). It had a further benefit in that a toned image would be far more permanent. Last updated undefined . and even the way the paper had been sized.TONING. as the toning depended upon such factors as the density of the negative. 1999. © Robert Leggat.

© Robert Leggat. Vorticism was a movement introduced by the painter and writer Wynham Lewis when he published "Blast: Review of the Great English Vortex. The roots of this were in Cubism. Like all movements. who was one of its leading exponents. 1999. a concise definition can be misleading. and made popular by Alvin Langdon Coburn. a regular contributor to the Amateur Photographer in the early part of the 20th century. and modern technology exalted. Last updated undefined ." In this the traditional values were ridiculed. Another exponent of this relatively short-lived movement (three years or so) was Malcolm Arbuthnot.VORTOGRAPHS and VORTICISM With its roots in Futurism and Cubism. This movement was championed by the poet Ezra Pound. but one of the aims of the Vorticist photographer was to mirror the complexity of industrialised civilisation.

It was for this reason that most of the subjects using this process were inanimate. Care was taken to ensure that the right kind of paper was used. a process whereby waxing was part of the process prior to exposure and development. © Robert Leggat. the imperfections of the paper would also show.WAXED PAPER Process One of the problems of the calotype process was that as one had to print through the paper negative. Last updated undefined . in 1851. It was quite a common practice to wax the calotype negative after it had been developed and fixed. However. though it showed a definite improvement in definition. sometimes exposures of up to fifteen minutes in sunshine were sometimes required. However. the greater the definition. the more transparent the paper. Gustave Le Gray introduced. Le Gray's process also enabled the paper to be kept a week or so before use. it was also slower than the calotype process. 1997. However.

Last updated undefined . © Robert Leggat. exposing it. and processing had to be completed before the collodion dried. 1999.WET PLATE PROCESS The more popular name for the wet plate process is Collodion. It is called such because the entire process of coating the plate. invented by Scott Archer.

The great feature of the Woodbury process is that a photograph in gelatine is caused by enormous pressure to indent a sheet of lead. mentioned here because it appears almost identical as a photograph. © Robert Leggat.The WOODBURYTYPE process This is a form of photographic printing. with no grain. and the process was widely used until the turn of the century. Last updated undefined . 1999. The quality of the pictures was remarkable. and is similar to the carbon process. The process was patented by Walter Woodbury in 1866.

Includes an essay tracing the stages of development from daguerrotypes through calotypes and the collodion process to the dry plate process. " Education Index Top Site "Summarizing photography from its beginnings through 1920. George Eastman. It's an excellent resource.Awards to this site Back to main index A History of Photography from its beginnings till the 1920s. Offers a bibliography and list of British museums with large photography collections. It provides thumbnail biographies of people who made significant contributions and reasonably extensive information on the processes. no photographs are included due to copyright restrictions. Alfred Stieglitz. Unfortunately. and terms. Rating: **** Resource for information about the early years of photography. and William Henry Fox Talbot. Find "This site is a very good source of information on the beginnings of photography until the 1920s. It also includes an extensive bibliography organised in terms of level of study and a list of museums where you can see the real thing. Provides brief biographies for an extensive list of important early photographers such as Louis Daguerre. Eadweard Muybridge. this is a text presentation with information on the contributions of dozens of people and processes in early photography. movements. Also defines and describes various processes. styles and movements involved." . well organized for ease of use.

Links2Go: Photography Top 5% in K-12 Education Dr. Leggat provides a readable and well organized history of the development of photography.studyweb.com StudyWeb Schoolsnet.com Schoolzone. Los Angeles Times http://www.uk .co.

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