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Bi ging lp T vn gim st

CNG NGH DM SUPER-T


CHNG V
CNG NGH THI CNG

Phn I: Cng ngh thi cng cc loi dm thng thng v dm hp i vi cc cu dng cc loi dm thng thng v dm hp, phn dm ch c th c c sn (ph bin nh dm T v dm I), dm hp c th thi cng theo phng php c y hoc c ti ch. Vi loi dm T: Dm T c th c ti hin trng hoc trong nh my tu thuc vo v tr v qui m cng trnh. Trc y do cng ngh thi cng cu cn lc hu, phn ln dm c sn xut trong cng xng, vn chuyn n chn cng trnh bng xe chuyn dng. Chnh v nhc im ny m mt s cng trnh khng th thc hin c theo ca thit k. Cng ngh thi cng cu pht trin thc y tnh a dng phong ph trong cng tc thit k. Dm T c th c sn xut ti cng trng theo kiu ko sau. Vn khun ch yu l vn khun thp, cp cng cao thng dng ca Nga (si 5) v gn y hay dng cp xon loi 12.7mm hoc 15.2mm (cp nhp khu ca hng VSL, OVM,...) Cng ngh lao lp dm vo v tr ch yu vn l phng php lao ko dc trn h dm dn hoc dng xe lao (hp l khi cu gm nhiu nhp).

Vi loi dm I, in hnh nht l cng ngh thi cng cc cu trn QL1A. Cng ngh thi sn xut v lp t dm I cng nh cc loi dm BTCT ST thng thng khc, trong phn ny ch nu tm tt cng ngh thi cng dm I 33m (Chi tit c th c phn cng ngh ring) Mt s c im v cu to ca dm I 33m: - Dm BTCTDL dng ch I - Chiu di ton b dm
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= 33m

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- Chiu cao dm - Chiu rng bn cnh dm - Chiudy bn cnh dm - Chiu rng bu dm - Chiu cao bu dm - B dy bng dm ti L / 2 - B dy bng dm ti gi - Mc b tng - S b cp cng cao - ng gen 65 / 72 ( theo kiu VSL ) - Neo EC 5-12 ( theo kiu VSL ) Cc bc cng ngh :

H Bc tc Bb hb b1 b2 loi P

= 1,65m = 0, 85 m = 0, 20 m 0,31m = 0,65 m = 0, 25 m 0,45m = 0, 20 m = 0,65 m = 35 MPa 5 b

Vic sn xut dm c tin hnh theo trnh t sau : - Thi cng p bi c dm - Thi cng b c dm - Lp t iu chnh chnh xc vn khun ct thp ng gen v.v, - b tng v bo dng b tng - Tho d vn khun - Lm sch l lun b cp cng cao - Lun v cng ko b thp cng cao - Phun va xi mng lp lng ng gen

Vt liu: Thp cng cao : + Dng loi thp cng cao sn xut theo tiu chun ASTM A 416- 85 grade 270 c bn thnh tao 7 si h VSL. + Ch tiu ca 1 tao thp 7 si VSL : - ng knh danh nh - Din tch danh nh - Khi lng danh nh 12,7mm 98,7 mm 2 0,775 kg/ m

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- Cng ko t - Lc ph hoi ( cng cc i ) - M uyn n hi : - ng sut khi cng ko + Ch tiu v cng ca b cp 5- 12 - S tao trong 1 b - Ti trng ph hoi ( min ) Ct thp thng :

1860 Mpa =18.950 kg/ cm2 PN = 184 KN/ tao 195 Gpa = 1.987.000 kg/ cm2 : s T = 14000 kg/ cm2

12 tao 2204 kn = 224 T

Ct thp thng dng loi thp ca lin doanh Vit nam - Hn quc ( VPS ) sn xut ti Vit nam , c k hiu SD 40 , SR 30 t tiu chun theo ASTM A615 . Neo v cc ph kin : Neo v cc ph kin dng loi EC 5- 12 VSL HONG KONG LTD. hoc OVM ca Trung Quc. Xi mng : Loi xi mng s dng cho vic c dm l xi mng poc lng PC 40. Xi mng khng s dng nu b vn cc hoc lu qu 6 thng t ngy sn xut . Ct liu th - dm : Mu th nghim t cng chu nn trong iu kin bo ho nc phi = 2 RB = 900 kg/ cm 2 . Vic xc nh cng chu nn ca bng phng php p mu c kch thc ( 5x 5x 5 ) cm hay mu tr trn F 5 cm L= 5 cm . Tuyt i khng s dng loi phong ho . Ct liu nh - ct : - Ct dng c dm l ct c ngun gc ca cc loi rn chc nh thch anh , khng dng cc loi ct c ngun gc l bin cht .

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Nc trn b tng : - Nc trn b tng l nc sch khng c tp cht nh du, mui , a xt , kim , cc cht khc lm nh hng n cht lng b tng. PH = 4, nc c th nghim xc nhn tiu chun trc khi dng b tng . Cht ph gia : tng cng v linh ng ca hn hp b tng, dng ph gia Sika 250 hoc SiKa Rc4 pha trn theo t l khi th nghim xc nh . Cng tc lp t dm cng tng t nh dm T Vi loi dm hp Do c im ca dm hp l cu kin c kch thc hnh hc v trng lng bn thn ln, i vi dm hp gin n th vic thi cng b tng dm trn h gio l thch hp nht. Chn cu to gio : Thng s dng dn T-66 hoc gio thp khc vn khun dm hp. Tr dn c thng dng l thanh vn nng UYKM kt hp chng n g, mng tr c cu to dng mng cc BTCT M300 vung 30x30cm khc phc chuyn v thng ng, b cc l b BTCT M 200 dy 1.0m; trc khi b tng, ton b gio c cht ti mt thng kh ln. Sau khi thi cng xong dm, phn mng v b cc b li ; phn thn tr c em i xy dng tr tip theo. Chn cu to vn khun : Vn khun dng c dm nhp n gin l loi vn khun thp , cu to vn khun thnh tng tm tch ri nn c kh nng tho d n gin v lun chuyn nhiu ln. Tm vn khun ny c tng cng thm mt h khung bng thp hnh. Mi ni gia cc tm vn khun c cu to mt lp xp mt, c tc dng m bo cho vn khun c kn khi lp ghp. Lin kt gia cc khung vn khun vi nhau bng bu lng.

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Vn khun c k chn bng nm g ; c 2m theo chiu dc ca dm k mt h nm. Cc nm ny c tc dng lm chc thm vn khun v iu chnh cao y dm. Tnh ton cc b phn vn khun : Cng tc tnh ton gio vn khun dm c thc hin theo tiu chun nghnh 22TCN 200-89. Trong tnh ton xt n cc t hp ti trng nh : Tnh ti ( Trng lng dm, trng lng bn thn ca gio, vn khun ) ; ti trng ng (lc thi cng, lc xung kch do qua trnh m b tng )v.v... Tnh ton cng h khung chng vn khun theo trng thi gii hn, tiu chun thp lm h khung chng l ; Thp CT3 c Ro =1900kg/cm2; Ru =2000kg/cm2. Tnh ton cc b phn gio : Dn T - 66 trong tnh ton c coi nh mt dm gin n. Lp rp theo cu to ca dn nh hnh. Ti trng tnh ton tc dng ln dn di dng ri u ( Theo mi trng hp c th ). vng ln nht ca dn khng ch t l 1/6000 chiu di nhp. Phn tr l tr thp, khi tnh ton quan nim l dng ct chu nn, lc tc dng ln tr c phn chia ra cc nt ca dn tr. Trong tnh ton nn mng c xt n lch tm do s phn chia giai on b tng dm; Ti trng tnh ton tho mn iu kin lun nh hn sc chu ti thng ng ca nn t. Lp t gio, vn khun : Trnh t xy dng gio, vn khun c tin hnh theo cc bc sau y:
ng cc thi cng b tr . Ch to , lp rp tr bng khung thp trn b . t b nm gio trn cc im gi . Dng cn cu c sc nng 25 Tn nng cc on gio T-66 t

ln tr .
Ni cc on dm dn T-66 bng cc thanh m. Chnh cao dm; Lp t dm ngang;

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Cht ti bng phao nc ; t g nm c chiu cao thay i ; Lp t vn khun y Lp vn khun thnh, nh v chc bng hai b nh v nm mi

u ca dm ngang;
Lp t ct thp v ng ghen cho DUL;

Tho d vn khun, gio : Sau khi b tng khong 7 -10 ngy ( Tu theo nhit v thi gian bo dng b tng ) th tin hnh tho d vn khun. Cng tc tho d vn khun c tin hnh nh sau: a/ Phn vn khun: Tho nm g ti cc v tr nm v im k (tin hnh tho vn khun bin trc)
Xit cht bu lng chn sn cc khi gio to thnh lc to thnh lc y

tch vn khun khi mt khi b tng dm. Khi vn khun va c tch ra c k trn hai dm trt;
Dng ti ( hoc pa lng xch ) ko khi vn khun n v tr c dm tip

theo ( hoc sang nhp khc );


Vn khun pha trong cc u dm ch dng ti cc v tr u dm, khng

dng lm vn khun phn gia dm. b/ Phn gio : Khi b tng t c cng thit k, tin hnh lp t , cng ko ct thp DUL ; bm va b tng vo cc ng ghen. Khi va t c 70% cng th tin hnh tho d gio (dm T-66). Cc bc h gio c tin hnh nh sau: Ni bu lng, cc nm gio ra. H u cc gc ca mi dn xung. Khi ton b gio dm c h xung 2cm th dng li . Dng bu lng vt tch vn y dm khi b tng. H tip gio xung khong t 5-8cm na. Lp t tr bng YUKM hai u dm T-66. Sng ngang cho dn trt trn dm ngang k trn tr trm ra khi dm hp. Dng cn cu 25 tn h dm xung.

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Dng cu nhc tho d hai khi k tm.

Phn II: Cng ngh thi cng dm SUPER-T 2.1/ Vn khun v s k kch dm: Vn khun thp c vn y tho lp c cho php ch to dm Super-T c chiu di v chiu cao bt k. Trc khi t ct thp, b mt vn khun c lm sch v trng du. Kch thc v cao vn khun c kim tra m bo vn khun c ng hnh dng v hng.

2.2/ Cng tc ct thp: Cc ct thp c gia cng sn trong xng v lin kt li thnh khung. Vng u dm c c bit ch v l ni tp trung ng sut ln do d ng lc v do lc ct. Trong qu trnh gia cng, cc tao d ng lc (cng vi cc ng Polyetylen ngn dnh bm ng knh 17mm) c t tm vo v tr lm vic ca chng. S dng dm nng vn chuyn khung ct thp v t vo vn khun, sau , b dy lp ph ct thp v hng ca tao cp c kim tra. Cc cp lun qua cc tm Sandwich phi bo m khng chng cho hoc vng vo nhau. Sau khi cng cp, vn khun trong c t vo v tr v m bo khng dch chuyn trong qu trnh b tng.

2.3/ Cng cp Thit b s dng: 2 kch cng cc tao n s hiu HIS CH 2524 DA.

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Gy lc cng ban u xp x 10%, khong 20KN cho tt c cc tao theo trnh t trong bng di y trit tiu trng dy. Cng 90% lc cng cn li cng theo trnh t . 2 tao trn cng s 37 v 38 c cng sau khi kt thc tao s 36 thuc nhm cp di, cng vi 10% lc cng trc khi t lc cng thit k. Trong qu trnh cng cn ghi chp ch s ca ng h p lc v dn di ca cp.
Tr T C ng nh
1 - Tao 7B 2 - Tao 8A 3 - Tao 6A 4 - Tao 8B 5 - Tao 6B 6 - Tao 7A 7 - Tao 9C 8 - Tao 5C 9 - Tao 9A 10 - Tao 5A 11 - Tao 9B 12 - Tao 5B 13 - Tao 10C 14 - Tao 4C 15 - Tao 10A 16 - Tao 4A 17 - Tao 10B 18 - Tao 4B 19 - Tao 11C 20 - Tao 3C 21 - Tao 11A 22 - Tao 3A 23 - Tao 11B 24 - Tao 3B 25 - Tao 12C 26 - Tao 2C 27 - Tao 12A 28 - Tao 2A 29 - Tao 12B 30 - Tao 2B 31 - Tao 13D 32 - Tao 1D 33 - Tao 13B 34 - Tao 1B 35 - Tao 13C 36 - Tao 1C

H ng D H ng B

1 3 5 7 9 11

13

H ng C H ng A

10 12

2.4/ b tng dm: B tng c ng u trong tng lp khng dy qu 600mm. B tng c kim tra st trc khi . Sau khi xong, s dng m rung ngoi gn cch nhau 2m mt trong lng vn khun trong. m di cng c s dng khi cn thit (cho sn dm). Sau khi b tng xong, b mt dm c ph mt lp vi gi m cho vic bo dng. Bn cnh dm c to nhm bng nc sau khong 4-5 gi bo dng.

2.5/ Truyn lc cng: Khi b tng dm t cng 35MPa (sau 18 n 24h t khi b tng) , bt u qu trnh truyn d ng lc vo b tng. Ch to 8 mu hnh tr t 2 m b tng cui cng, 2 mu u s c th nghim sau 24h, sau l cc cp mu khc cch nhau 2 n 3h. Tng cp c nung nng theo ng trnh t nh lc cng t ng thi 2 u v c ct cch u dm ti thiu 300mm. Cn bo m qu trnh truyn lc vo b tng xy ra t t. Trc khi truyn lc cng, kho st cao nh, cnh dm
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vi khong cch 8m mt. Sau khi truyn lc cng, tin hnh tng t v o vng ca dm. Sau khi truyn lc cng, dm s b vng ln di tc dng ca d ng lc v t tch ra khi vn khun y, tin hnh tho vn khun v nhc dm khi b c bng gin cn cu.

2.6/ Vn chuyn dm Super-T vo v tr lm vic: Dm Super-T c vn chuyn t bi cha dm ra v tr cu dn bng xe ko r moc. Trn xe c khung dm gi n nh ngang. Cc dm dng cho thi cng nhp b Bc s c vn chuyn qua sng bng x lan. Cc dm c lp t v tr nhp gn m nht. Mt dn thp c th chy trn ray-t trn nh 2 x m- s nng dm v sng ngang, ri t vo v tr. Do ray t trn nh x m (dng ch T ngc) nn khng h nh hng n v tr t dm v cng khng cn cc gi tm cho gin thp. 2.7/ b tng bn mt cu: Thi cng dm ngang u dm cn theo st qu trnh lp dm m bo cc dm n nh. Sau khi b tng dm ngang, bt u tin hnh thi cng bn mt cu. Phn lng hp h s c y kn bng tm b tng dy 40mm lm vn khun y cho bn mt cu v to sn cng tc. Sau khi lp t xong ct thp, t vn khun chn 2 u dm, cch tim tr 2m, ri tin hnh b tng bn mt cu t thp ln cao, cho tng nhp bt u t nhp gn m nht. 2.8/ Bn ni lin tc nhit Bn mt cu lin tc ti v tr tr , ngn cch vi x m tr bng lp polystyrene dy 20mm, s c sau cng - ti thiu 3 ngy sau khi b tng mt cu ng cng. Khi bn mt cu, cn c bit ch ti gim thiu nh hng ca nhit trong cc nhp k bn v cn hon thnh trong khong 4h sau khi mt tri mc.

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Bn lin tc nhit c th c thi cng theo bt k trnh t no vi iu kin l v tr tr P3 c thi cng sau cng (y l v tr tm chui di nh hng ca t bin, co ngt v nhit d kin trong thit k).

CHNG VI
PHN TCH U NHC IM CA DM SUPER-T V KT LUN

Phn I: Cc u nhc im ca dm SUPER-T u im : Tit kim chi ph: - Tc xy dng cng trnh nhanh, hiu qu gi thnh c th t c bng cc tiu chun ho chi tit dm v ct thp bn mt. Xy dng bn mt lin quan n lao ng chn tay. - Vn khun c nh gim gi thnh xy lp. Gi chnh thc s c gim dn sau khi sn xut ra mt s dm. - Thi gian xy dng gim v c th nhc d dng dm ra khi vn khun (tho lp vn khun nhanh) -Gi thnh thu mt bng xy dng gim. Gim bt c lng vn khun ca bn v y nhanh tc xy dng. - So snh tng hp ch tiu b tng / 1m2 mt cu (ca c kt cu phn trn v di) cho thy dm super-T tit kim khong 0.5m3 so vi dm I-33m. Ch s dng mt b khun c c nh cho tt c cc chiu di dm lm gim chi ph xy dng. Chi ph xy dng ti hin trng gim do phn ln vn khun mt cu c loi b. Gi thnh cu cho cc dm Super T gim v t khi gii thiu
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dm Super T (mc d s lng cu c dm Super T qu nh dn n kt lun trong giai on ny). Qu trnh gii ngn ca nn kinh t chnh l nhn t ch yu trong vic h gi thnh, nhng theo quan im ca chng ti, nhng chic dm mi gy ra nhng nh hng quan trng sau: Mt s ch tiu k thut ca dm Super-T trong d n cu M Thun khi so snh vi dm I kiu AASHTO cho trong bng sau.

SO SNH CC CH TIU V B TNG

HNG MC Dm Bn ti ch X m tr Thn tr B tr Cc Tng cng

KHI LNG B TNG / 1M2 MT CU


(DM I) (DM SUPER-T)

0.517 0.302 0.209 0.168 0.121 0.096 0.118 0.154 0.284 0.067 0.186 0.146 1.435 0.933 Tit kim b tng = 0.502 m3/sq.m.

An ton trong thi cng: Bn cnh dm cng to sn cng tc cho cc cng vic trn v di mt cu ngay sau khi dm c t vo v tr, to nn s an ton cho cng nhn ti cng trng s tng ln khi so snh vi cc loi dm khc, bi v mt bng lm vic s c to ra ngay khi lp dng dm. Thm na, cnh vn khun v tay vn c lin kt vi pha trong dm khi lp dng, tng an ton trong thi cng. c tnh trn lm cho dm Super Tees tr nn l tng i vi cu c mt giao thng cao, ng st v cu qua sng. Hnh dng p: Dm c mt y dng dm hp vi t gc cnh nn c xem nh tng ng vi cc dm hp hay bn c l c ti ch ang c a chung. y cc nhp v x m lin tc to hiu qu cao v m quan.
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Hiu qu kt cu: Do c cng chng xon cao nn ti trng tc dng ln dm s phn b nhiu hn cho cc dm ln cn. Chiu di lm vic ca bn mt cu ngn nn tit kim thp. i vi tit din Super - T qua tnh ton v thc t cho thy s phn phi ng sut trn mt ct trong cc giai on pht huy trit tnh nng ca vt liu, iu chng minh rng dm super - T phn nh u im ni bt nht v k thut . n nh : Khi cu lp, dm khng cn bt c lin kt ngoi gi n nh khi m s mt n nh theo phng ngang do un kt hp xon i vi cc dm di l mi lo ngi khi thi cng. Tc xy dng: Do khng cn gin gio cho thi cng bn mt cu, ct thp c th c lp t ngay sau khi t dm. Sau khi truyn lc cng, dm t tch khi vn khun v c nhc khi b cng m khng cn phi tho vn khun. Loi dm Super-T hin ang c s dng cng trnh cu M Thun l loi dm Super-T ci tin (Super-T Roff) vi tit din ngang dng hp m v vi chiu di ln hn nhp tiu chun ang c s dng c. Tuy ging nhau v kch thc nhng vn khun trong lng hp ca loi Tee Roff c th tho ra, do vy c th s dng li. Hai vch ngn bn trong lng hp c tc dng tng cng n nh cho dm trong qu trnh vn chuyn v lp dng. Dm Super-T dng hp m nh hn dm Super-T thng khong 10% v c nhng u im nh: d kim tra cht lng b tng bn trong lng dm bo m khng c hin tng b tng b r t ong v tit kim chi ph do khng cn s dng vn khun trong lng hp bng vt liu Polystyrene. Nhc im:

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Do cnh dm rng nn khi p dng cho cc cu trn ng cong, c siu cao cn phi c bin php x l b rng cnh v trnh to bn mt cu qu dy. Dm c ch to theo phng php cng trc thch hp vi ch to trong cng xng. Kt cu b tng thnh mng i hi cao v cng tc qun l cht lng. Mt trong nhng vn ny sinh sm nht l vt nt dc ti ui dm lc th kch sau khi s l hi nc. iu u im ta nghin cu ch ra rng t hp cc ng xut nh trong sut qu trnh cng ko gy ra ng xut ln cng vi n cn do nguyn nhn do Gradient nhit ti u dm lc cng ko, gradient nhit pht trin nhanh do nhit lnh ca cc phn ngoi ca dm so vi cc phn bn trong c s l hi nc dn ti vic tng ng xut ko. gim bt vt nt ti u dm thi phi tng ct thp ti ui dm ti b mt ca u dm. Vic gi nghing dm dn ti mt s vn ny sinh lc ct ti gi gy ra bi trng lng kt cu. Phn II: Nhn xt v kt lun v dm Super-T

Qua phn tch v cc ch tiu kinh t, k thut, cng ngh thi cng v yu t m quan trn thy rng: Dm Super-T l loI dm BTCT DL hin I mi bt u c p dng nc ta, n k tha nhng u im c sn ca dm BTCT ST c sn, cu to n gin, tnh cng nghip ho cao. Dm Super-T c p dng trong cc cng trnh m yu t kin trc ng vai tr quan trng. Hiu qu kinh t cao nht t c trong cc cu c nhp gin n t 30 ti 40m v khi cho php ch to dm trong cng xng hoc c dm vi s lng ln, dm Super-T cng l gii php so snh vi cc loi dm khc khi la chn loi hnh kt cu nhp. Dm Super T c mt s u im quan trng so vi cc loi dm hin ti, Cc u im dn ti h gi thnh cu. B vn khun c nh vi tm trt di ng
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c s dng vi cc loi dm trong khong t 20m~40m. N dn ti gim gi thnh xy dng, bao gm s u t vo b vn khun v gim thi gian xy dng, tit kim thi gian v tin bc ngay c trn cng trng bng cc gim vn khun, b dm ngang, s dng lao ng n gin. Chiu rng ca bn cnh c th thay i ph hp vi chiu rng ca cu v s hnh hc. An ton cho cng nhn xy dng c tng ln. Dm Super-T c hnh dng p, vt c khu ln (nu so snh cc dm cng khu th dm Super-T c chiu cao thp hn. Hn na dm Super-T c tnh an ton cao trong xy dng. Do vy loi dm ny p dng thch hp cho cc cu vt trong thnh ph, cu vt ng giao thng v cc cu nhiu nhp. Tuy nhin, dm Super-T cng c nhng hn ch nh sau: B vn khun c nh dn ti vic sn xut dm ch thc hin trong cng xng hoc trn cc cng trng cu ln m s lng dm Super-T ng k, cc cu nh, n chic hoc xa cng xng m ng vn chuyn kh khn th vic s dng dm Super-T l hn ch. Do c trng hnh hc ca mt ct (thnh mng) cho nn bt li trong qu trnh ch to, vt liu nht l b tng i hi cng cao (M500), tuy nhin hin nay vic sn xut b tng mc cao tr nn d dng, do vy vn ny c th khc phc c. Dm Super-T s dng hp l cho cc cu ln c nhiu nhp dn, cc cu vt ng t v cu vt thnh ph. Chiu dI s dng u vit nht l t 30m n 40m. Trong tng lai gn, dm Super-T cn c nh hnh ho nh cc loI hnh dm trc y v nn pht trin bi v y l dng kt cu hin i v c nhiu u Im trong kt cu dm BTCT DL gin n.

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TI LIU THAM KHO

(1) (2) (3) Final Bridge Design Report - My Thuan Bridge Project, Maunsell Pty Ltd, November 1996 (4) Course Note for Approach Structure Section 4-5, Steve Griffiths, 1999. (5) Calculation of My Thuan bridge Bob Taylor, 1996 (6) Austroads-92 (7) Prestressed Concrete - R F Warner and K A Faulkes (8) Method Statement , Approach Structure, My Thuan Bridge Project

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