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Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Observation Note Book
Associate professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119 Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna University, Chennai.
50 Observation: Constant speed of the pump , N = Area of the collecting tank , A = Energy meter constant , EMC = Distance between the centres of vacuum gauge and pressure gauge , X= Lubricating oil used = 1440 rpm 0.3 x 0.3 ,m2 1200 , rev / kwhr 0.2 ,m SAE 40
Total Head H
Time for 5 revolutions Tn.
Actual discharge, Qact
Output Power ,Po w
Input Power ,Pi
Pressure gauge ,G Vacuum gauge ,V
Time for h=10 cm rise ,t
Kgf/ cm2 0.4
m of oil
m3/s x 10-4
51 Exp. No. :
Characteristic tests on gear oil pump at constant speed
Aim: To study the characteristics of the gear pump at constant speed. Apparatus required: i) Description: The gear pump is a positive displacement type of pump and consists of a pair of helical or spur gears, housed closely in a casing. The pressure gauge is fitted to the delivery side and a vacuum gauge to the suction side. The energy input to the pump can be measured through an energy meter. There is a collecting tank with a level indicator and a gate valve at the drain. Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) Formulae: a) Total head, H where, G V X b) = [ G x 11.33 ] + [ V x 0.0179 ] + X , m of oil Keeping the gate valve in the delivery side fully open the experiment is started. The pressure gauge reading ,vacuum gauge reading ,the time taken for 5 revolutions of the energy meter disc , time taken for 10 cm rise of oil level are noted. By closing the delivery valve gradually, the flow rate is varied. For each valve setting the above readings are noted and tabulated. Gear oil pump set up and ii) Stop watch.
= Pressure head ,kg/cm2 = Vacuum head ,mmHg = distance between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge ,m [ Ah ] / t ,m3/s
Actual discharge, Qact = where, A = h = t =
Area of collecting tank ,m2 Rise of oil in the collecting tank = 0.1 m Time for 10 cm rise of oil in collecting tank , sec
Input power, pi
= [ 3600 x n x ηmotor x 1000 ] / [ Tn x EMC ]
52 Model calculation:
53 where. ρ g = ρgQact H . sec EMC = Energy meter constant . ηpump Graphs: The following graphs are drawn taking head(H) on X axis: i) Head vs Actual discharge ii) Head vs Efficiency of pump iii) Head vs Output power . rev / kwhr d) Output power .w = Density of the oil = 882 . Po where. n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc = 5 ηmotor = 0.Kg / m3 = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.75 Tn = Time for 5 revolutions of energy meter disc .81 . m/s2 = [ Po / Pi ] x 100 .% e) Efficiency of the gear oil pump .
54 Model calculation: .
m3/s .w . Po Total head. H = = = .% .m of oil .55 Result: The characteristic test was conducted on the gear oil pump and the following graphs were drawn: ii) H vs ηpump and iii) H vs Po i) H vs Qact i) ii) iii) iv) Maximum efficiency of gear oil pump. ηpump = Actual discharge . Qact Output power from the pump .
56 Observation: Diameter at inlet of venturimeter .d2 Manometer readings Sl.4 .mm Total head .No units → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean cd = h1 cm h2 cm Time taken for 20 litre .mm 12.H m of water √H m of water Qact m3/sec x 10-4 Qtheo m3/sec x 10-4 Cd .5 .d1 Diameter at throat of venturimeter .t sec = = 25.
The manometer readings and the time taken for 20 litre of water are noted.m of water = [ (h1.57 Exp.81 . Apparatus required: i) iii) Description: i) ii) iii) Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) Formulae: a) b) Co-efficient of discharge . = [ (h1. ii) Mercury manometer and : Venturimeter : c) Theoretical discharge .m of water h1. m3/sec. Date Aim: To find the co-efficient of discharge of the given venturimeter. for each valve setting the readings are noted and the values are tabulated.m2 a1 = cross sectional area of inlet = π d12/4 .h2) /100 ] × [ ( SH / SL ) – 1 ] .h2 = difference of mercury level in the manometer.h2) /100 ] × [ ( 13.6 / 1 ) – 1 ] .m d2 = diameter at throat of the venturimeter . No. The gate valve is gradually closed. m3/sec. Venturimeter pipe set up Stop watch. Qact = Qact /Qtheo Volume of water collected / time taken for collection of 20 litres of water . The collecting tank of the venturimeter is connected to a mercury manometer.m/sec2. .Qtheo = [ a1a2√2gH ] / [ √ a12. The arrangement is of closed type.m2 a2 = cross sectional area of throat = π d22/4 d1 = diameter at inlet of the venturimeter .a22 ] . = specific gravity of mercury = 13.6 SH SL = specific gravity of water = 1 d) .Cd = Actual discharge . where. Water is circulated through the venturimeter from reservoir to collecting tank by means of a monoblock pump. The pump is primed and started. Keeping the gate valve fully open the experiment is started. Total head .H where.m g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.
58 Model calculation: .
61 Graphs: The following graph is drawn: i) Qact vs Qtheo Result : The co-efficient of discharge( cd ) of the given venturimeter is : i) ii) Experimentally Graphically = = .
5 mm m3 / s x 10-4 m3 / s x 10-4 Actual discharge.No. f1 Co-efficient of friction.Hf Time taken for 20 litre . v Actual discharge. Qact Velocity of water. f1 Co-efficient of friction.Hf m of water d = 12.t m of water Loss of head .5 mm m/s v2 v2 Mean i i f1= f2 = Co-efficient of friction. f2 Co-efficient of friction. Qact Velocity of water.No.t Loss of head . units↓ Sl. v m/s d = 12. f2 2 1 3 2 1 units↓ Sl. Mean f1= f2 = 62 .3 h1 h1 Manometer readings Manometer readings cm cm h2 h2 Observation: cm cm Copper (Cu) : Galvanized iron pipe (GI) : sec sec Time taken for 20 litre .
Qact = Volume of water collected / time taken for collection of 20 litres of water .6 = specific gravity of water = 1 SL d L g = diameter of pipe line . Loss of head .6 . No.63 Exp. Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Formulae: a) Darcy-weisbach’s formula: co-efficient of friction .m = length of the pipe = 0. By closing the discharge valve gradually the flow rate is varied. Apparatus required: i) Pipe line set up Description: The given arrangement is closed type fitted with a reservoir and a collecting tank.h2 = difference of mercury level in the manometer. .h2) /100 ] × [ ( SH / SL ) – 1 ] . and ii) Stop watch.v = Actual discharge / area of cross section of the pipe . f1 = [ Hf g d ] / [ 2Lv2 ] where. m3/sec.h2) /100 ] × [ ( 13. SH = specific gravity of mercury = 13. A monoblock pump which is fitted on the reservoir can pass water through any one of the four pipes of different materials ( Galvanized iron.81 .Hf = [ (h1. For each position of the discharge valve. the above readings are noted. Time taken for 20 litre of water collection is also noted.m/s = Qact / a Actual discharge . Two tapping at a distance of 60 cm are connected to a water manometer.m of water = [ (h1. Copper and Stainless steel). The discharge valve of the required pipe is fully opened and values in the manometer are noted. : Losses due to pipe friction : velocity of flow .6 / 1 ) – 1 ] .m = acceleration due to gravity = 9.m/s2 The pump is primed & started. Aluminium. h1. Date Aim: To determine the co-efficient of friction for flow of water through the given pipes.m of water where.
64 Model calculation: .
m Loss of head per unit length of pipe . f2 where. m = area of flow / wetted perimeter = [ πd2 / 4 ] / [ πd ] = d / 4 . Result : The test was conducted on the given pipe lines and the following graphs were drawn: and ii) v2 vs i i) v2 vs Hf Pipe f1 GI f2 f1 Cu f2 Experimentally Graphically .kg/m3 Graphs: The following graphs (for both GI & Cu) are drawn taking (velocity of flow)2 on X axis: i) ii) Velocity of flow2 vs Loss of head and Velocity of flow2 vs Loss of head per unit length of pipe.67 b) Chezy’s formula: = [ miρg ] / [ 4v2 ] co-efficient of friction .i = Hf / L ρ = density of water = 1000 . Hydraulic radius .
4 .7 . N = Area of the collecting tank .7 x 0. A = Energy meter constant . X= 1200 rpm 0.V Time for h=10 cm rise .No.2 mm Hg m of water sec m3/s x 10-3 sec w % 1 2 0. EMC = Distance between the centres of vacuum gauge and pressure gauge .6 4 0. rev / kwhr 0.Po w Input Power .2 7 1. Actual discharge.31 .t Sl.4 3 0.68 Observation: Constant speed of the pump .m Time for 10 revolutions Tn. Qact Output Power .0 6 1. H Pressure gauge .Pi Total Head . ηpump Units↓ Kgf/ cm2 0.m2 750 .8 5 1.G Vacuum gauge .
sec . Take atleast 6 sets of readings by varying the head from minimum when the gate valve is fully open to maximum at shut off. d) Time for 10cm. ηpump = [Output power / Input power ] x 100 = [ Po / Pi ] x 100 Output power . No. b) The vacuum gauge reading. This can be done by throttling the delivery valve. Apparatus required: i) Description: i) ii) iii) iv) Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) Prime the pump with water. The energy input to the pump can be measured through an energy meter.m t = time taken for 10 cm rise in collecting tank .m2 h = rise of water level in collecting tank = 0. Start the motor. A = area of collecting tank . Density of water . There is a collecting tank with a level indicator.kg / m3 Acceleration due to gravity . Note: a) The pressure gauge reading .69 Exp.w where. Centrifugal pump setup & ii) Stop watch v) Formulae: a) b) Efficiency of the pump . The pump is run by a single phase motor. The pressure gauge is fitted to the delivery side and a vacuum gauge to the suction side.m3 / s Actual discharge .81 .m / s2 = Ah / t . : Characteristic tests on centrifugal pump at constant speed Date Aim: : To study the characteristics of the centrifugal pump at constant speed.g = 9. V c) Time for 10 revolutions in the energy meter by means of stopwatch. G.1 . Qact Where. ρ = 1000 . Close the gate valve. Po = ρgQactH . rise in the collecting tank by means of stopwatch e) Difference of level between the pressure and vacuum gauge.
70 Model calculation: .
H where. pi where.m of water = pressure head .75 Tn = Time for 10 revolutions of energy meter disc. rev / kwhr Graphs: The following graphs are drawn taking head(H) on X axis: i) Head vs Actual discharge ii) Head vs Efficiency of pump iii) Head vs Output power .mmHg = distance between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge .sec EMC = Energy meter constant .71 c) Total head .m = [ 3600 x n x ηmotor x 1000 ] / [ Tn x EMC ] . G V X d) Input power.w = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc = 10 ηmotor = 0.kg/cm2 = vacuum head .0136 ] + X . n = [ G x 10 ] + [ V x 0.
m of water . Qact Output power from the pump .73 Result: The characteristic test was conducted on the centrifugal pump and the following graphs were drawn: ii) H vs ηpump and iii) H vs Po i) H vs Qact i) ii) iii) iv) Maximum efficiency of centrifugal pump.m3/s .w . H = = = = . Po Total head. ηpump Actual discharge .% .
A = Energy meter constant . X= 1440 rpm 0. Qact Output Power .6 5 2. rev / kwhr 0.35 .m2 1200 .t Sl.495 x 0.4 .2 4 1.No.74 Observation: Constant speed of the pump . ηpump cd % slip Units↓ Kgf/ cm2 0.4 mm Hg m of water sec m3/s x 10-4 sec w w % % 1 2 0.Pi Pressure gauge .8 3 1. EMC = Distance between the centres of vacuum gauge and pressure gauge .G Vacuum gauge . N = Area of the collecting tank .495 .V Time for h=10 cm rise . Total Head H Actual discharge.Po Input Power .0 6 2.m Time for 10 revolutions Tn.
Specification of the pump : Type of the pump : Double acting cylinder Piston stroke : 4. Apparatus required: i) Description: The reciprocating pump is a displacement type of pump and consists of a piston or a plunger working inside a cylinder.The pump can be run at three different speeds by the use of V. The belt can be put in different grooves of pulleys for different speeds. The cylinder has got two valves.5 cm Piston diameter : 5 cm Suction pipe : 1” Delivery pipe : 3/4 ” An energy meter is provided for determination of input to the motor. Note the following : a) Pressure gauge (G) and vacuum gauge (V) readings. A set of pressure gauge are provided and the required pipe lines are also provided. During the return stroke the suction valve closes and the water inside the cylinder is displaced into the delivery pipe through the delivery valve. Repeat the experiment for different heads.75 Exp. During the suction stroke. No. Start the motor. Reciprocating pump set up & ii) Stop watch. Throttle the gate valve to get the required head. one allowing water into the cylinder from the suction pipe and the other allowing water from the cylinder into the delivery pipe. a petrol vacuum is created inside the cylinder. Open the gate valve in the delivery pipe fully. The pump is belt driven by a A.belt and differential pulley system. : Characteristic tests on reciprocating pump at constant speed Date : Aim: To study the characteristics of the reciprocating pump at a constant speed. b) Time taken for : 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank and 10 revolutions of the energy meter. the suction valve opens and water enters into the cylinder. Take atleast 6 set of readings.C motor . In case of double acting pump two sets of delivery and suction valves are provided. vi) . Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Select the required speed. So for each stroke one set of valves are operated and there is a continuous flow of water.
76 Model calculation: .
Po = ρgQactH .m a = Cross sectional area of cylinder = [ πd2 ] / 4 .sec .w where.Qact ] / [Qtheo ] x 100 Power input to the pump .1 .sec Tn Power output from the pump .77 Formulae: a) = [ Ah ] / t Actual discharge of water .1 m rise of water . Qact where. kgf / cm2 Vacuum gauge reading .rev / kwhr = Time taken for n revolutions of the energy meter disc . mmHg Distance between the centres of pressure gauge and vacuum gauge .m2 h = Rise of water in collecting tank = 0. Qtheo = [ kalNp ] / 60 . m of water Total head . ρ = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.% c) d) e) Qtheo . n = No. A = Area of collecting tank .% h) Efficiency of the pump . m of water f) g) Pressure gauge reading . K = No. H where.m3 / s b) Theoretical discharge of water .81 . of strokes of the pump = 2 l = Stroke length = 0. Pi = [ 3600 x n x ηmotor x 1000 ] / [ EMC x Tn ] where.0136 ] + X .Qact [ Qtheo . m = [ Po / Pi ] x 100 .m3 / s where.cd Slip % Slip = = = Qact / Qtheo .m d = Diameter of cylinder = 0.m2 Np= Pump speed = 300 .m t = Time taken for 0.m / s2 H = Total head . of revolutions of the energy meter disc = 10 ηmotor = 1 EMC = Energy meter constant .05 . ηpump .045 . G = V = X = = [ G x 10 ] + [ V x 0.rpm Co-efficient of discharge .
79 Graphs : The following graphs are drawn taking Total head on X axis: i) Total head vs Actual discharge ii) Total head vs Efficiency of the pump iii) Total head vs Power output iv) Total head vs % Slip Result : The characteristic test was conducted on the reciprocating pump and the following graphs were drawn: ii) H vs ηpump iii) H vs Po i) H vs Qact iv) H vs % S i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Maximum efficiency of reciprocating pump.cd = = = = = . Po Total head.m3/s .% and .% .m of water . Qact Output power from the pump .w . ηpump = Actual discharge . S Co-efficient of discharge . H % Slip.
Wt To Kg T1 -T2 +T0 Kg Speed N Q m3/s Input Power watts Output Power watts η % . G Total Head H Dead Wt. T1 Sp.80 Observation: No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 P1 P2 Gauge Pr.
Then the jet glides along the path of the cup. Keep the nozzle opening at the required position. Take readings in manometer. Pelton wheel set up & ii) Stop watch. No. Note the pressure of water in the pressure gauge. The buckets are in the shape of double cups. While passing along the buckets. The jet of water then strikes the buckets of the pelton wheel runner. Note dead weight T1 and spring weight T2 Note the head. Repeat the experiment for different loadings. Procedure : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) Formulae: To find discharge The venturimeter and the manometer has been calibrated. which is used to utilise high heads for generation of electricity. Allow water in to the turbine. i. joined at the middle portion. The water leaves the nozzle in jet formation. Tabulate the readings. Apparatus required: i) Description: Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine. Date Aim : To conduct a test on the pelton wheel (turbine) at constant head. and the jet is deflected through more than 160° to 170°. All the available head is converted into velocity energy by means of spear and nozzle arrangement. Note the speed of the turbine. Start the pump. then the turbine rotates. full opening or 3/4 opening. The specific speed of the pelton wheel changes from 10 to 100.e. the velocity of the water is reduced and hence an impulsive force is supplied to the cups which in turn are moved and hence the shaft is rotated.81 Exp. Load the turbine by putting weights. : Pelton wheel : . The jet strikes the knife edge of the buckets with least resistance and shock.
82 Model calculation: .
36 K = Coefficient of the venturimeter D = 0.72 a1√ H1 K.40 m 0. power T2 T0 W N D = = Q m3/s = Hm = 1000 X gQH = = = = = = = = kg kg kg kg T1 .81 60 .83 d Venturimeter .36 a1 √2g √ H1 √ 1 . h1 The height of mercury column in right arm.00332 m2 Qa = K 0.015 m 0.6 h m m m m Manometer Reading: The height of mercury column in left arm.0055 √H1 m3/s ----------------------------------------------= = = h1 -h2 = 12.(0.415 m 2 π N (W*R)*9. T1 Spring weight . 0. Dia. 1.065 m a1 = 0. H1 Calculation of input power : Discharge Head Input power Calculation of output power : Dead weight. K. h2 Difference of level .T2 + T0 RPM 0. output. h Equivalent water column. Weight of hanger Resultant load Speed. of brake drum Thickness of pipe Resultant dia.6 = 0.0057 √H1 K = 0.962 ----------------------------------------------Qa = 0.36) = 0. D a1 a2 Qa = = Where.
84 Pelton wheel .
i) Output power Vs N & ii) Efficiency Vs N .85 Result: A test is conducted on Pelton wheel (turbine) and the following graphs were drawn.
Gauge P1 P2 H1 `m’ Discharge Q m3/s I P Speed (W) N T1 K g T2 Kg W OP (W) η % . Pr. No G V Head G+V Weight of Hanger T0 = 1Kg.86 Observation : Gate Opening: Sl.
). Francis Turbine is a radial inward flow reaction turbine. The turbine consists essentially of runner (G. Note the readings in the pressure gauge Left limb reading = P1 m Right limb reading = P2 m. a volute casing(spiral casing) . This has the advantage of centrifugal force acting against the flow. Francis turbines are best suited for medium heads. Experiment can be repeated for different guide vane opening. say 40m to 300m. The specific speed ranges from 25 to 300. Date Aim: To study the characteristics of Francis Turbine at constant head. a ring of adjustable guide vanes. No. Apparatus required: i) Description: Francis turbine is a prime mover. : Francis turbine : Pressure gauge readings: Left limb reading = P1m. thus reducing the tendency of the wheel to race. Take all readings. Procedure: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) Formulae: I. Adjust the gate valve so that G +V reads = 15m. Repeat the experiments for various loadings and take 6 readings. Right limb reading = P2m. Francis turbine set up & ii) Stop watch. draft tube.87 Exp. It converts the hydraulic energy (head of water) into mechanical energy. which in turn can be transformed into electrical energy by coupling a generator to the turbine. Difference of levels H1 = (P1 -P2) 10 m of water . Measure the speed of the turbine by tachometer Load the turbine by putting weights in the weights hanger. Prime the pump Start the pump Vent the manometer Note the pressure gauge reading (G) and vacuum gauge reading (V).M. Discharge: Keep the guide vanes fully opened or 6/8 opening.
88 Model calculation: .
.0131 ÖH1 m /s 3 89 Pressure gauge = G m. Output: = 1000 QH 75 Brake drum diameter = 0. Resultant load = T1 -T2 + T0 = T kg.(X = Difference of levels pressure & vacuum gauge) = H III. H. IV.Venturimeter equation Q II. Hanger weight = T0 Kg = 1 kg.315m. Spring Load = T2 kg. Vaccuum gauge = V m. Head: = 0. Speed of the turbine = N RPM Output power = 2πN (w x R) watts 60 Output Efficiency = Input x 100 m. Dead Weight = T1 kg.015m Equivalent drum diameter = 0.30m. Rope diameter = 0. Total Head = G + V + X . Input to the turbine: I. P.
at constant head is studied and the i) Output power Vs Speed ii) Output power Vs Input power and iii) Output power Vs Efficiency Calculate specific speed. .91 Result: The characteristics of Francis turbine following graphs were drawn.
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