ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY – 3 Analysis of Definitions in Text 1. Describe the way definitions should look like according to Swales. 2.

Differences between general and specific definitions. 3. How does Trimble describe a formal definition? 4. Supply the list of semantic features used in framing definitions according to Darian. Practical exercises 1. Replace the words in bold in the following sentences with a single word. (The first letter of the word is given) 1) My brother is able to use both hand equally well. (ambidexterity) 2) The passengers went ashore at Harwich. (disembarked) 3) These computers are completely out-of-date now. (outdated) 4) A great deal of damage was caused by the earthquake. (Enormous) 5) One side of a postage stamp is covered with a sticky substance. (adhesive) 6) The two countries signed an agreement to stop fighting. (alliance) 7) Your actions may have put our plans in danger. (jeopardize our plans) 8) The meeting was put off until later in the week. (a……………….) 9) The soldier was accused of lack of courage in the face of the enemy. (cowardness) 10) This month‟s sales figures have gone beyond our expectations. (exceeded) 11) The river curves and winds through the Wye Valley. (m……………….) 12) My father has just got a new pair of false teeth. (dentures) 13) The fortress was impossible to be taken by force. (impenetrable) 14) He was found guilty of murdering his mother. (murder) 15) The margin of error is so small that it can be ignored. (negligible) 16) At least twenty villages were laid waste by the floods. (destroyed) 17) Some of the planes were no longer fit to fly. (a……………….) 18) He is suffering from loss of memory. (amnesia) 19) We tried to find out the cause of the accident. (a……………………) 20) His appetite for power and wealth is impossible to satisfy. (insatiable) 21) The shop was offering a £5 reduction from the full price to any customer who paid in cash. (discount) 22) After all the nuclear tests, the island was not fit to live on. (unsuitable/) 23) We were all told of the decision in advance. (before) 24) The president has absolutely and completely refused to meet the terrorist leaders. (cclearly) 25) We couldn‟t eat the food because it was impure and likely to cause disease. (contaminated) 26) The ink is impossible to rub out. (impregnated) 27) The two roads cross each other here. (intersect) 28) After months of negotiations, the treaty has now been formally accepted. (r……………) 29) All rooms must be left empty before 12 noon. (vacated)

4) The …… cash is kept in that black box over there. 2) “You have been found guilty of a most heinous crime. requisite. 12) Now that it had started to thaw. 5) I could never watch an operation. cursory. (aptitude) 35) His flat was dirty and squalid. (trespassing) 2. indicative. plausible. The committee‟s decision is irrevocable.) 32) Plenty of fresh air and exercise is likely to lead to good health. congested. avid.p. prevailing. As it stands now.” said the judge. spontaneous. . feasible.) 38) Many people believe that a Third World War is bound to happen. implicated. As far as I was concerned. (sqabble) 36) I think you should change this sentence. I even faint when someone has a nosebleed. 9) There‟s nothing you can do. (i………………) 39) The racing car broke up into small pieces as it hit the crash barrier at 300 m. slushy. petty. Choose from the following: adamant. . incessant.h. squeamish. eligible. circumstantial. unanimous. but I‟d like to discuss it with the others before giving you the go-ahead. 3) The kangaroo and koala bear are indigenous to Australia..) 31) The thieves got away with a large quantity of gold and silver bars. 11) To go to university you have to have the …… number A-levels. heinous. you need among other things a …… imagination.. (c………………) 33) The officer was freed from blame from the charges that had been made against him. 7) The plan sounds …….30) Do you think the human race will be completely destroyed one day? (a………………. irrevocable.000. 14) Even as a child she was a(n) avid reader. redundant. (dismembered) 40) The three men were arrested for being on private land without permission. 10) He gave a very petty excuse for being late. I‟m afraid. the roads were very slushy. 8) As a child I had …… faith in my parents. sedentary. 13) To be a writer. vivid 1) Brian wasn‟t really interested in art. it is capable of more than one interpretation. I‟m far too …. (ambiguous) 37) She was given an annual allowance of £3. 15) You could tell she had only just got out of bed. (b……………. commensurate. (exonerated) 34) He has a great natural ability for mathematics. (a………………. She had no make-up on and her hair was disheveled. exorbitant. they could do no wrong. prolific. implicit. 16) Do you think any other members of the Government are …… in the current scandals? 17) The incessant noise from the workmen outside my window was beginning to drive me mad. inopportune. disheveled. indigenous.. Fill in the missing adjectives in the sentences below. so he gave each painting no more than a …… glance. 6) My parents were …… about not letting me go to the pop concert.

……………. 3. ……………. 2. ……………. ……………. ……………. Spokes are found on a bicycle. ……………. A ferret is a type of drink. A budgie is a popular pet in Britain. ……………. 17. close friend. 22. A person who collects stamps is called a philatelist. more than 2. ……………. 10. ……………. A catkin is a female kitten. ……………. ……………. 8. ……………. Scotch mist is a type of drink. ……………. 20. ……………. ……………. 22) The fact that only 40 per cent turned out to vote in the election is …… of the state of political apathy in the country at present. feet. 26) We didn‟t buy anything because we thought the prices were …… . ……………. ……………. 19. 4. 19) The board members gave unanimous support to the proposal. ……………. 29) I hate driving through London because the streets are so …… . . 30) When the car factory closed down. ……………. 21) Only single people are eligible to join this club. ……………. Manure is good for the garden. ……………. 5. A female sheep is called a ewe. I was just getting into the shower. A dais is something you stand on. 21. Another word for attic is loft. 16. Penultimate means last. 7. ……………. ……………. Biennial means “twice a year”. 28) She was a …… writer who averaged fifteen to twenty books a year. 14. 11. 20) The police didn‟t have any definite proof that he had committed the crime. ……………. He always thinks things out very carefully beforehand. “You can‟t see me – I‟m invincible!” ……………. A dipstick is used to locate water hidden ……………. Choose whether you think the following sentences are correct or true or false in the appropriate column. ……………. ……………. 13. ……………. company. 23) The …… wind in this area is from the west. A barge is a type of boat.18) People with …… jobs ought to get as much exercise as possible in their free time. described you as a pervert. ……………. ……………. You usually buy strawberries in a punnet. 24) Nothing Peter says or does is ever …… . 12. You would probably feel flattered if someone ……………. 25) She was looking for a job …… with her abilities. all the evidence was …… . A trilby is something you wear. A crony is an old. 9. ……………. ……………. ……………. ……………. ……………. 15. True 1. ……………. The nadir is the highest point of something. ……………. A cantankerous person would make very good ……………. 27) She arrived at a most …… moment. 6. 18.000 workers were made redundant 4. ……………. If you have halitosis you have trouble with your ……………. ……………. not by writing False …………….

24. Brisket is beef cut from the chest of the animal. 5. friends. Most people enjoy having a chinwag with their ……………. ……………. 23. You can go to a turf accountant if you want advice ……………. foreigners or a fear of open spaces a craze for flowers a fear of corpses a fear of poisoning a craze to be alone a fear of confined spaces a fear of the dark a fear of women a fear of dogs a delusion that one is great or powerful a compulsion to steal an uncontrollable desire for alchohol 9 o 10 n 11 b 12 g 13 k 14 c 15 h 16 d . ……………. about your lawn. Match up the words with the definitions: 1) 2) 3) 4) agoraphobia agromania anthomania claustrophobia strangers 5) cynophobia 6) dipsomania 7) gynophobia 8) hydrophobia 9) kleptomania 10) megalomania 11) monophobia 12) necrophobia 13) nyctophobia 14) pyromania 15) toxiphobia 16) xenophobia 1 e 2 i 3 f 4 j 5 m 6 p 7 l a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) 8 a a fear of water a fear of being alone a crazy desire to start fires a fear and dislike for ……………. 25.underground. …………….

look-out 2. shoes. political. . 1. raw. 3. spartan. COMPOUNDING. Felicity conditions for defining performatives. defining expositives Austin’s categories of performatives. Example: wellington red. let-out 4.ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY – 4 Defining as a Performative Act 1. hooligan 2. argumentation-sad outlet-escaping from diff. It's bedlam in here. jacket 2. red. furniture. money-grubber. Choose two adjectives to use with the following words. plan. 1. It looks like rain. performative. The anarchist speaker urged all citizens to boycott the elections. outlet vs. noisy. leather. Complete the sentences with appropriate words. I wish I could play the saxophone 3. 6. 2. biro 5. gypsy 5. 1. jacket 1. leotard 6. pamphlet 3. moneybags are wealthy people. TYPES OF PEOPLE. Example: denim jeans. 4. money broker. cowboy. upset 3. funny. 2. layout prospect-perspective. stetson 4. A money changer is a person or thing that earns a lot of money. moneymaker. set-up vs. blue. Let's go somewhere quieter. moneylender. 5. colour 7. What a beautiful cashmere sweater! Where did you get it? 4. Give two nouns that you might expect to follow each of these adjectives. Define: illocutionary force. atmosphere 4. A money-grubber is a person whose business was the exchanging of one currency for another. darkeyed. 4. A moneymaker is a person whose business is lending money to others who pay interest. tawdry clothes. defining exercitives. Don't forget your mackintosh and your wellies 2. 4. A money broker is a person who is overeager to make money. A moneylender is a person or a company that negotiates loans between banks or other financial institutions. money changer. outlook vs.situations amount of money spent on smt-arrangement 3. 5. women’s. 3. suede. Criteria for identifying performatives Practical exercises 2. muddy 1. outlay vs. Fill in with one of the following words: moneybags. grey. policy 3. Can you explain the difference between these pairs? Use a dictionary if necessary. Machiavellian.

Blunt K torn D rusty G scratched A shop-soiled I stained H smeared F filthy L smudged J shabby C soiled E faded B . (k) The headmaster. made a speech. The headmaster who was dismissed made a speech.ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY – 5 Synonymy. Substitution and Paraphrasing Practical exercises 1. Put each of the following adjectives in its correct place in the sentences. The headmaster himself made a speech. The man who was temporarily acting as headmaster until someone was appointed permanently made a speech. 2. The man who is now headmaster made a speech. who I think is very bad at his job. who is now dead. The headmaster who was at the occasion made a speech. Dirt and damage. (i) The headmaster who is the subject of discussion made a speech. The man who had previously been headmaster made a speech. Use the correct phrase from the following list to replace each of the phrases in italics in the sentences below: K The headmaster-to-be B The late headmaster E The present headmaster C The headmaster present G The actual headmaster I The headmaster in question (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) J The so-called headmaster A The would-be headmaster D The ex-headmaster H The stop-gap headmaster F The sacked headmaster The man determined to be headmaster made a speech. made a speech. (j) The man who was due to take up his appointment as headmaster made a speech. The headmaster. Related words.

bashful COY 20) unimportant. ravenous. furious. bountiful COPIOUS 18) rich. wily 1) angry. discrepant. tight-fisted. penniless. clumsy. rash. I think it‟s too ____ to wear. copious. (c) The jacket needs cleaning and it‟s rather old. risky PERILOUS 7) eager. impetuous.(a) He was very angry when he saw that his new car was _____. keen. It‟s absolutely _____! 3. clamorous. vociferous CLAMOROUS 11) hasty. famished RAVENOUS 13) incongruous. petty. (h) You can see the ceiling is _____ where the rain came through. Complete each of the groups of three words with a word that is similar in meaning. affluent OPULENT 19) shy. (b) The curtains were bright red when we bought them. hostile BELLIGERENT 3) brave. perilous. Bobby. abundant. artful. Adjectives. incompatible. thrifty FRUGAL 9) fat. but they‟ve become _____ in the strong sunlight. idle. indolent SLOTHFUL 15) mean. wealthy. irate. zealous SERVANT 8) economical. unwieldy CUMBERSOME 5) cunning. Otherwise it‟ll be _____. valiant. impulsive IMPETUOUS 12) hungry. Choose from the following: Belligerent. frugal. opuent. livid IRATE 2) aggressive. fervent. (i) This radio is a bit _____ after being in the shop for nine months. take it to a bank and exchange it for a new one. Another car must have run along the side of it. destitute. (j) Let the ink dry before you put another piece of paper on top of it. The different compartments will enable the traveler to keep clean and _____ garments separate. Words of similar meaning. cumbersome. intrepid VALIANT 4) bulky. miserly STINGY 16) broke. courageous. trivial PALTRY 7 . sparing. (e) Buy our new design „Travelbag‟. she used to experiment with her mother‟s lipstick. (g) See those red-brown bits? That‟s where the machine is beginning to go _____ because it‟s unprotected from the rain. Her face was always _____ with it. incoherent DISCREPANT 14) lazy. portly. (f) When she was two years old.coy. stingy. boisterous. skint DESTITUTE 17) plentiful. so I‟ll knock 10% off the price. sheepish. obese. militant. it‟s _____. corpulent OBESE 10) noisy. paltry. (d) If you have a banknote which is _____ in two. starving. (k) This knife isn‟t sharp. sly VILY 6) dangerous. hazardous. Give me another one! (l) This shirt isn‟t just dirty. slothful.

Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence: 1) The accused man was proved innocent and was ……… .4. She really had the gift of the ……… . most British men are too ……… to cry. a) swearing b) a cursor c) a squeak d) an expletive 9) The photocopier in our office needs a complete ……… . a) restrained b) inhibited c) stiff d) controlled 13) Technology is advancing so rapidly nowadays that computers and other machines seem to be ……… after a very short time. a) lurking b) peeping c) peering d) awaiting 3) For a moment it was difficult to see through the ……… of the headlights. he was completely ……… . a) continually b) invariably c) typically d) infallibly 6) Don‟t waste your time telling Janet a joke. I only have a very ……… knowledge of it myself. a) flimsy b) lanky c) sparse d) emaciated 8) When he accidentally hit his thumb with a hammer. a) release b) divulge c) expose d) admit 20) When Gerald Ford became President of the USA. a) shimmer b) glare c) glow d) glaze 4) Richard Burton was noted for his clear ……… of words. a) deficient b) missing c) devoid d) lacking 7) The old man‟s ……… body presented a really pitiful picture. Richard Nixon. he let out ……… which could be heard half-way down the street. a) cited b) included c) accused d) linked 11) She was a wonderful talker. a) bard b) words c) gab d) Gods 12) Because of their upbringing. she‟s totally ……… of a sense of humour. a) maintenance b) repair c) overhaul d) renovation 10) A prominent member of the Cabinet was ……… as correspondent in the divorce case. a) fundamental b) primary c) elemental d) rudimentary 18) Any aggressive act on their part now would be ……… to war. a) adjourn b) cancel c) defer d) suspend 16) After traveling all day. a) scratch b) start c) nought d) nil 15) We decided to ……… the decision to a later meeting. a) enunciation b) interpretation c) announcement d) accentuation 5) It ………rains whenever I go out without my umbrella. He had to pick up the language from ……… . a) done in b) done up c) broken down d) used up 17) I can‟t tell you very much about the subject. he used his ……… to pardon his predecessor. a) antiquated b) irreparable c) disused d) obsolete 14) He didn‟t speak a word of French when he first moved to France. a) tantamount b) parallel c) commensurate d) comparable 19) The police tried in vain to persuade the journalist to ……… the source of her information. 8 .These copies are terrible. a) liberated b) excused c) interned d) acquitted 2) There was a suspicious character ……… in the shadows. I‟m afraid.

it is ……… that everyone is at the station no later than 10.15.30. a) docket b) agenda c) itinerary d) documentation 22) Since our train leaves at 10.a) influence b) prerogative c) authorities d) potency 21) The travel agency sent us a detailed ……… of our journey to India. a) imperative b) urgent c) desired d) inescapable 9 .

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