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INDIAN

LITERATURE

ON MATHEMATICS A. K.

BAG

DURING

1400-1800

A.D.

**Indian National Science Academy New Delhi 110002 iReceived 30 August 1978)
**

The available Indian literature on mathematics during 1400-1800 A.D. can be broadly classified into two main categories. In the fir!>t Category belong the Sanskrit works, or the works written in scripts of the regional Indian languages. Though the scripts are different, tbe language of these scripts is mainly Sanskrit and bears Indian tradition both in content and character. The major portion of these works are commentaries on the works ofSiirya Siddhiinta, Aryabhatiya, Uidvati, Bijagol,lita, Siddhdnta $iromtll,li, and some other well-known works of the ancient period, and contribute little to the knowledge of mathematics. The commentators of this period w.:re perhaps content with the preservation and transmission of knowledge from one generation to the other. Their studies gave some impetus to the studies of the scholars like Miidhava, Paramesvara, Niaka91ha, SaJikara, Jye~thadeva, Aeyuta Pi~ii.rati, etc., for about 500 years starting from fourteenth century A.D. These scholars made some break-through by introducing the idea of series in calculating the value of pi, Sine-table, discovery of the sine and cosine series and made many other innovations. The second category of mathematical literature constitute the Persian and Arabic works developed mostly under the patronage of the Mughal rulers. TheSe were mainly written for readers of Persian who knew no other language and had no access in standard Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic mathematical works. Many standard mathematical works were brought here from outside India. Some scholars tried to translate or write commentaries on the available works without trying to' correlate with the available Indian knowledge. A few scholars like Munisvara, K.am1l4kara, Jagannath PaJ}.Qittried to' make a synthesis of the available knowledge but their contribution appears to be negligibly smal]. The real contribution lies in the effort of Raja Jai Singh who used the observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Mathura, Banaras and Ujjain to prepare accurate astronomical tables. In the paper, an attempt has been made to make analy~s of these two categories of mathematical literature the period.

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The Indian literature on Mathematics during the period 1400-1800 A..D., as available now in different oriental libraries, can be broadly classified into two different categories. To the first categorv belong the sanskrit works, or the works written in scripts of the regional Indian languages. Though the scripts are different, the t\O"

. *Pap!C presented at NatiO'nal Seminar on "Technology &. Science in India during 1400·1800 held at Indian National Science Academy, Ne\\' Delhi; April 20·21 1978.

itamrtasiigari is a commentary on the Liliivati oi Bhaskaracarya. the Bhatadipikii (commentaryon Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata-I). Viikyakarana (onthe method's of the derivation of the several astronomical tables) besides others are well-known. Karmadipik s (comm. Somayajl. etc. He is the author of A. a resident of South Malabar in Kerala. 1400). If appears almost verbatim of the original work.taniri)aya (computation of lunar and solar eclipses). K:. Narayana and Madhava. Goladipik s (spherical geometry and astronomy). Among his works. Madhava (c. on the Mahiibhiiskariyabhii~ya of Govindasvamt). An attempt has been made to make an analysis separately of these two categories of mathematical literature. The second category of mathematical literature consistsof Persian and Arabic works produced mostly under the patronage of the Mughal rulers. 1443-1543) was a student of paramesvara and is well-known for his contribution to mathematics and astronomy.ryabhaliyabhii~ya. Golas iira{ quintessence of spherical astro. His Venvsroha gives a method for the computation of the moon and Sphutacandriipti accounts for calculation of true moon. 1400) of Sangamagrama near Cochin was a well-known scholar in astronomy and mathematics. Tantra Samgraha itantra collection). BAG language of these manuscripts is mostly Sanskrit and bears Indian tradition both in content and in character. a number of these verses of Madhava are quoted by later astronomers like Nilakantha. He is well-known for his lucid commentaries and knowledge in mathematics and astronomy. Grahanamandana (computation of eclipses). Paramesvari (commentary on the Laghubhiiskariya of Bhaskara-I). A few of the prominent works by well-known scholars have been summerized to have an idea of the type and trend of mathematical literature. node. Paramesvara (c. the son of Govardhana and grandson of Divakara.80 A. He is also known to have written Lagnaprakarana and Mahiijiiiiniiyana prakarana. Vivarana (commentary on the Suryasiddhiinta and Lilsvati). Satikara (commentator of Tantra Sa1'flgraha). WORK:S IN SANSK:RIT LITERATURE Thousands of works were written in the period. 1430).- . apsis. was an inhabitant of Jambussgaranagar. 1.Giahar. Drgganita (drk system). etc. Grahiil)avyiikhyiidipikii (on the rational of the theory of eclipses)." He is referred to as golavid by his student Paramesvara and Nilakantha. Paramesvara was a practical astronomer and realised the limitations of previous scholars in the calculation of eclipses and devised correction for finding mean position of the sun. Narayana (commentator of the Lfliivati). His commentary Ga1J. Nflakantha Somasutvan (c. Apart from these works. on the Mahiibhaskariya of Bhaskara I). moon.' Gangadhara (c. was the student of Rudra. Siddhiintadipikii (comm.

He is mainly an astronomer and well-known for methods of determining corrections. Laghumiinasa.l}. a treatise on astronomical instruments in four chapters.D. It is expressed by Nilakantha in some of the passages that he had complete faith in his brother in studies of mathematics and astronomy. Ga. Brhajjiitaka. was an influential teacher and the author of not less than seven 11 . the son of Kesava Daivajfia of Nandigrama (Nandod. geometry and algebra and the second exclusively devoted to the astronomy.iidhyiiya. 1500~1600) is a well-known Kerala scholar on mathematics and astronomy. a scholarly commentary on the Tantrasamgraha. He also produced a commentary on his own Yantracintiimani. Paiicasiddhiintik a. The work is divided into two parts. Gujrat). spherical trigonometry and allied subjects. rational of eclipse correction. only difference is that Sankara's work is more elaborate. viz. Candracchsysganita (computation concerning moon's shadow). wrote his Yantracintiimani. The Sphuliidltyiiya chapter contains sine table. son of Varu na . 1503) was the son of Naganatha of'Parthapura. etc. (commentary on the Aryabltaliya of Aryabhata).INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400~1800 A. Siddhiintasekhara. Yallaya (1482). Jyotisadarpana. Siddhiintadarpana (mirror of the laws of astronomy). Yantroprakaranassdhana.eSaDaivajfia (b. Triprasnitdhik sra. the first comprising of arithmetic. He has quoted profusely from the Vediirigajyauti$a. 81 nomy). SaIikara Variar (c. He is well-known for his Siddhsnta-sundara dealing with astronomy. Cakradhara (c. Saryasiddhnnta. and Ganitasamgraha (a treatise on arithmetic). He wrote another work. Candraccltayiiganitatik ii. The work is more or less identical with the Karmapradipaka of Narayana. Jyesthadeva (c." He is wellknown for his works Aryabhatiya. It gives the raional or derivation of all theorems and formulae then in use among the astronomers. Vyiiklty dna. 1500-1560). His Sundarasiddhiintabija is another work on algebra which was written as a sequel to Bhaskara II's Bijaga1)ita. Jiiiinariija (c. son of Sridharacarya. Kalpavalli (commentary on the Siiryasiddhiinta). an elaborate commentary on the Liliivati of Bhaskara II giving rational and proof of the theorems and formulae. Graltiinayaniidhikiira and Prakirrj. Brhatsamhit a. Aryabhatiya. 1507). Laghumlinasa Kalpalatii (a commentary on the Laghumiinasa of Maiiju!iiciirya). the brother land student of Nilakantha is the author of Laghuvivrti. was the pupil of Surya. procedures for observation of planets with instruments arid for their computation using the data obtained from the observation. Kriyiikramakari. 1500). SaIikara seems to have well-versed in astronomy and in following his brother Nilakantha. His Yuktibhii$ii (rational explanation) was written to provide the basie equipment needed for the study of computation of planetary movemets as depicted in the Tantrasamgraha.

Laghucintsmani (abridgement of bigger work). Rssigolasphutanitt (ed. Viisanii 'Viirtika. Grahalsghavodaharana (commentary on the Grahalsghava of Ganesa Daivajfia). a commentary on the Bijaganita of Bhaskara II.BAG works. Madras.82 A. MakarandodiihiiraT. His Khetasiddhi describes methods for finding the true place of the planets.K:. Grahakautukodiiharana. Ciibuka Yantra. 1580). The works are Silryasiddhiintodsharana (commentary on the Silryasiddhiinta). Va$i~thasiddhiintalika and others. by K. and Suryaprak ssa-Bijavyiikhyii. Buddhivilssini (commentary on the Liliivati of Bhaskaracarya). The commentary is well-known for its style and lucidity. 1964) deals withl astronomical computation. 1578) son of Ballala and father of Munisvara wrote a commentary on the Siiryasiddhiinta. Ranganatha (c. Somasiddltiintalikii. mathematician of Kerala. Adyar Library. Dinakara (c. a commentary on the Lilsvat! of Bhaskara II. Vt:r. by Raghavan Pillai. Nrsimha Daivajfia (1586). His Candriirki deals with true place of the sun and moon in astronomy in 33 verses. He wrote as many as ten commentaries besides other works on almanacs. wrote two commentaries. Suryadasa (c. .tviiroha of Madhava and on his own Sphutanirnaya and Karanottama. son of Krsna Daivajiia and grandson of Divakara Daivajfia Golagrama (Maharashtra). He. Ganitdmrtakupikii. He comes of an astronomer family which traces his ancestry back through a long line of astronomers in Maharashtra. Siromanyudiihara1ja (commentary on the Siddhiintasiroman! of Bhaskara II).ti of Bhiiskara II). Dhruvabhramana Yantra vyiikhyii (commentary on the Dhrubabhramana Yantra of Padmanabha). Pratodayayantra (special class of astronomical instruments. Brhattithicintsmani (treatise on the preparation of lunar calendar). 1955). V. Acyuta Pisarati (c. viz. 1541). Grahalsghava (simplification of Planetary computation). Sarma. He also wrote commentary to his own Candrsrki. 1578) wrote three works. Trivendrum. Sudhiraiijana Yantra and Siddhiintasiromani vyiikhyii (a commentary on the Siddhsnta Siromar. He wrote commentaries on Silryasiddhiinta. Visvanatha Daivajfia (1580) son of Divakara Daivajfia was a powerful teacher and commentator. viz. Karanakutuhaloddharana (commentary on the Karanakutiihala of Bhaskara II). was a student of Jyestadeva. viz.ta (commentary on the Tithipatra of Makaranda). wrote these commentaries. a non-Brahmin astronomer. son of Jfianaraja. Riimavinododiiharana (commentary on the Rsmavinoda of Rama Daivajfia). His Karanottama (ed. incorporated the correction in the Sphutanimaya and explained its rational elaborately in his work. The correction was first introduced in Western astronomy by Tycho Brahe at about the same time. TSS 213. for the first time in Indian astronomy. (commentary on the Grahakautuka of Kesava Daivajiia).

Makarandavivrti (commentary on the Tithipatra of Makaranday.a(c. a commentary on the Eiliivati of Bhaskara II. Kr~Q. Dhundiraja (1590) son of Nrsimha was the inhabitant of Parthapura.INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400~1800 A. Makarandodiiharana (commentary on the Tithipatra of Makaranda) and Paiiciingaphala (on calendar). Nilakantha Jyotirvid (c. Grahaliighavatika. He wrote Grahakautuka. co-sine and tan series. sine. a work on mathematics and geometry. a commentary on the Siddhsntasiromani of Bhaskara II. the nephew of Ganesa of Nandigrama and was patronised by Jahangir (1605-1627) according to his younger brother Ranganatha.titika (commentary on the Tithicintdmani of Ganesa Daivajfia). This also used the idea of indeterminate equations to calculate miihiihiira and mahiiguna required in connection with the calculation of the mean motions of planets. The Karanapaddhati= (1596) is an important astronomical work in ten chapters written by anonymous Kerala Brahmin family of Sivapura+. Saranikasthaka. son of Ranganatha and a cousin of Narayana. an astronomical work and his own commentaries on it. P stas iiri1}itikii (a commentary on the P iitasiiri1}iof Ganesa Daivajfia). 1600) was the son of Vallala of Dadhigrama (Vidarbha). the work gives the values of pi. Riimavinoda prak iisapaddhati. and a commentary on the utswu of Bhaskara II. He wrote as many as four works. . flourished in late half of the sixteenth century wrote Manoramii. was the Chief Pandit of the Court of Akbar (1556-1605). 1603). The text is edited in Trivandrum Sanskrit series no. 126. Subodhlnilika (commentary on the Jaimintyasiarai. viz. 83 (commentary on the Slddh intastromani of Bhaskara II). He wrote three works. viz. Tithiratniivali. son of Ananta. son of Nrsimha Daivajfia. was the main astronomer in the court of Shahjahan (1628-59). Apart from usual elements and formulae characteristics of Hindu astronomy. Nis!$/arthaduti. He was the student of Visnu who was the pupil of Nrsimha. Grahamani (short astronomical treatise).D. Ayanatattva. Gangadhara (1590). was the resident of Golagrama (Maharashtra). Siddhiintassrvabhauma. Divakara Daivajfia (1603). Saurabhiisya (commentary on the Suryasidhanta) and Tithicintamaf. He wrote Makarandavivarana (commentary on the Tithipatra of Makaranda). He belonged to a prominent family of jyautisa. and Tattvacintsmani. Munisvara (b. Piitisiira. patronised by the King of Vidarbha. The family moved from Vidarbha to Benaras in the sixteenth century. son of Narayana. He wrote Marici. He had a controversy with Kamaliikara and tried to refute some of the latter's contribution. a commentary on the Jiitakapaddhati of Sripati. a commentary on the Grahalsghava of Ganesa Daivajfia. Bijankura (commentary on the Bijaganita of Bhaskara II). 1587).

He translated Euclid's Elements from the Arabic version Tahirir-u-Uqlidas by Nasir-ud-din at-tusi (1201) under the . was also a great patron of learning. Malayendusuri (c.84 A. Pandit Jagannatha (c. 1667-1750) flourished under the patronage of King Jayasimha (1693-1743) of Amber. the ablest General under emperor Aurangzeb (1659-1709). the versatile scholar in Sanskrit worked under his patronage. Kairasyudiiharana (commentary on the Liliivati of Bhaskara II). he made contribution to trigonometry by giving s~eral correct relations between chords and its corresponding arcs in his section of Spas. On the whole. Ganita. Other instances of resemblence can also be identified with particular propositions of Elements. His brothers. 1616-1700). Yantraracanii. His other works are Grahagolatattva. was the descendent of Visvanatha family of Golagrama. The prince was greatly interested in mathematics particularly in astronomy. iidhyiiya. Pandit Jagannatha. It is a guide to the preparation of an instrument by means of which the times of day and night may be accurately ascertained. Divakara and Ranganatha. Some of the passages of the Siddh iintatattvaviveka are evidently copied from the Elements. Another work. there is absolutely no doubt that Kamalakara had knowledge of Euclid's Elements. D. A table known as Drkpaksassrani was prepared under his order. Euclidean geometry and Ptolemaic astronomy as presented by Ulug Beg. were also noted astronomers in Benaras in mid-seventeenth century. Jayasimha (died in 1667). He was a great scholar of Sanskrit and acquired great proficiency in Persian and Arabic. He was born in Benaras. and Vicdrana. Kamalakara (c. son of Nrsimha Daivajfia. BAG Rama Daivajfia (1615). 1320). He wrote a commentary entitled Yantracintsmanitik s (commentary on the Yantracint smani of Cakradhara). He was a follower of Suryasiddhsnta and tried to refute some of the views of the Bhaskara II and Munisvara. He was the court astronomer of Jahangir (1605-1627). a supplement to the author's Siddh dnto-Tattvaviveka. He composed his work Siddhiintatattvaviveka in 1658 A. 1659) wrote a commentary on the Yantrariija of Mahendrasuri (c. Kamalakara combined traditional Indian astronomy with elements of Aristotelian physics. Malayendu Suri wrote another work Yantrarsjaracans which is also useful in the preparation of Yantrarsja. The work in 5 chapters are Ghatans. Sauraviisanii (commentary on the SuryasiddltCinta) and Se$aviisan ii. son of Madhusudana was the resident of Parthapura. and within a short time mastered in Persian and Arabic languages. Manoramii (commentary on the Grahaliighava of Ganesa Daivajfia). Grahiisarani. K:. The table was used for finding lunar days according to the motion of the planets determined by means of astronomical observations. Yantrar dja was also compiled by him which contains directions for preparation of universal sundial. Yantrasodhana. His descendent Sawai Jayasimha or Jayasimha II became the prince of Amber in Rajasthan and stabilised his Kingdom in 1708. Though Siddhsntatattvaviveka is ~ainly a work on astronomy.

Nrsimha.Vallala Vallala . 2. duration of eclipses..INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400---'1800 A. 85 name of Rekhsganita. Nayanasukhopadhyaya (c. TRADITION AND TREND OF MATHEMATICAL !LITERATURE IN SANSKRIT The present survey shows that the major portion of these works are commentaries on the works of Suryasiddhiinta. His other works are Samrii! Siddhimta. The manuscript copy is available in the Calcutta Sanskrit College. Bijaganita.Trimalla Gopiraja Trimalla .D. rational explanation and the corrections on them. Dadhigriima (Vidarbha). Golagriima (Maharashtra) and followers of the traditional schools which are as follows : (a) Jambusdgaranagara : Divakara .Gangadhara (b) Dadhigriima (Vidarbha) Rama .Narayana Ranganatha -MuniSvara.Rama . This was prepared from an Arabic translation of a Greek work of anonymous author.Govardhana . Nandigriima (Gujrat). Luqa. Nayanasukha took the help of the Abid for its translation into Sanskrit.Rama + Krsna -l-Govinda + Ranganatha Govinda . Lilsvati. 1730) is the author of Ukar akhya. These works have been mostly produced by six well-known families or traditional schools in Jambussgaranagara.)+Mallari+ Kesava -l-Visvanatha Krsna-r Nrsimha +Siva Nrsirpha + Divakara + Kamalakara -l-Gopinatha + RaIiganatha. Maharashtra). a treatise on spherical trigonometry. The other works contain some improved results in trigonometry and methods for finding the position of the sun and the moon.grantha. Aryabhatiya. The Arabic translation was perhaps done by Qusta b. Siddh sntaslromani and some other well-known works of the ancient and medieval period. 1615) (e) Golagr lima (Maharashtra) Divakara Daivajfia+Visnu-l-Krsua (1500 C. District. . + + Mahadeva (c) Nandigriima (Gujrat) Kamalakara Daivajiia =Kesava Kesava . P Sanskrit version of Ptolemy's Almagest and Siddhsnta Siirvabltauma which contains partly Samrii! Siddhiinta and partly Hindu astronomy. Parbhani. Psrthapura (Pathari. +Ganesa (d) Psrthapura (Maharashtra) Naganatha -Jiianaraja +Snryadasa Nrsimha=-Dhundiraja (1575) Madhusudana+-Rarna Daivajfia (c.

Nilakantha Somasutvan Jyesthadeva -Pupil. 233 (13 figures) for a radius of 9 X 1011. 14159265359) correct to 11 places of decimals. Ie BAG Madhava +student. the ruler of Sind. Hyderabad. 1415929 (correct to 6 places of decimals).86 (f) Kerala A. 33. Some synthesis of available astronomical knowledge was tried by Munlsvara. for they had some opportunity to be familiar with Persian or Arabic version of Greek materials but it appears that these scholars were unaware of the development of mathematics in the south. He wrote a commentary on 'Ala'ud . sometimes with some insight into the ancient material without any change in content and character. in arithmetic through the use of symbols.1388 A. He might have written another Persian work. 43.din al . which gives the value of pi (= 3.liiri al. piitl and dust. The date of compilation is not available. . Out of the 104 chapters (babs) in the original. -l-Jyesthadeva Narayana Bhattatiri. Nujum al=Hind Wa San'a: . 88.). Muslihu'd . In the process some success has been achieved in algebra through the application of continued fraction. D. Later he joined the Court of Mirza Shah Husain Arghun {I 556). Madhava used the idea of series for calculating the circumference of the circle to be 28. Nllakantha gave the value of the circumference of the circle of diameter 113 to be 355 which gives the value of pi as 3.usturliib on Indian astronomy and construction of astrolabe.i . The works produced by these scholars reflect fully the Indian tradition of writing commentaries or explanations which at times appear verbatim of the original work. Pararnesvara Paramesvara-s-son Damodara Damodara +Pupils. in trigonometry with the help of the senes. Acyuta Pisarati=-Pupil. W 3. For example. Kamalakara and Jayasimha. From this the 24 mahiijyiis or sine or cosine table correct to 7 or 8 places of decimals were calculated by applying sine and cosine series by Madhava much before Newton. To what extent these scholars and some muslim scholars under the Mughal rules have been effective to draw materials from the Persian/Arabic literature can be seen from our survey of Indo-Persian Literature". only eight were left out in the translation.40). 27. The manuscript is available in the Bankipur Library and State Central Library.An~ari flourished during the reign of Humayun (1530 .din 'Ali Qft&tji's Risiilal: dar Hai' at entitled Shorb Risa/ah i Qu~i. 21600 x 9 X 1011 In radian measure the radius of the circle came out to be 282743388233 =3438'44 48'". INDO-PERSIAN/ARABIC LITERATURE DURING THE PERIOD 'Abd al-' Aziz ibn Shams prepared a Persian version Tarjumah-i Biiriihi6 of the Brhat SaT]'lhitii of Varahamihira for Firoz Shah Tuglaq (1351 .

algebra.i Ajiiqi dealing with sine quadrant. and applied geometry. The former deals with eras. his court poet. The manuscript copies are available in Bankipur and British Museum. His Risiiladar Ma'rifat i A 'mill i Rub'mujayya . son of Ustad Ahmad Nadir. Azad Library (Aligarh) and Salarjang Library.Liliivati in 1587 A.. 995 .1659). He wrote Taqwim Lutfi. The same author wrote perhaps two other works. Bankipur. viz. This is referred by Farid . H.i .i .INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400-1800 A. The manuscript is available in the State Central Library.Shiihja hilni and Jai Singh Sawa'i in Zij . 1634) and the second son of Ustad Ahmad.i .6).i . D. on almanac . This was dedicated to Shahjahan (1628 . Aligarh.D. The other work is Khulasah-i-Baz dealing with arithmetic. D.din Amuli's mathematical work Khuldsatu'l Hisdb and was written in Persian in 1681 A. Hyderabad. The Persian version was translated into English by Edward Strachey in 1813 A. astronomy. Tashililt. Khasinatril A 'dad dealing with arithmetic. 'Atau'llah Qari (Qadiri?) flourished during the reign of Barhan Nisam Shah. The copies of the manuscripts are available in the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Lutfu'llah Muhandis. Abul Faizr. His Muntakhab is a short versified translation of Baha'ud . Siriiju'l Istikhrai and Zij -i Shilhjahan i in 1629 A.Akbari.U .sawali on geometry in question answer form and Risalah . The latter is on calendars and astronomical tables.Arsmatiqi on properties of numbers are still available in the Rampur Library and Saidiyah Library (Hyderabad). It is under his order. geometry. British Museum. well-known for his knowledge in mathematics. D. son of Hafis Ibrahim Munajjimwas the court astronomer of Shahjahan. calculations of dates and principles of computation of almanacs. etc. by 'Ataullah Rashidi.Mubammad ShilM.1595). (A.1605).35 A. D.ud Din in Zij . D. 87 The Liliivati gained a wide popularity in India and was held in esteem in the time of Akbar (1556 . was also well-known for his interest in mathematics and other sciences. commentaryand some interpolations. prepared a Persian translation Tarjamah . He was originally a resident of Lahore and had his education under his father and Makramat Khan. A Persian translation of the Bijaganita entitled Tarjamalt i Bij was made in India in 1634 . ruler of Ahmadnagar (I 591 . viz. Some discussion is also available on some astronomical problem. He was considere'd as a great scholar in mathematics. His Rissla dar Jawab i . He wrote perhaps two works. Farld'd-d in Mas'sud. From the translation it appears that it is not a faithful translation of the Bijaganita but is a mixture of text. mensuration and algebra in verse form. He wrote a work on astronomical table. Hyderabad and Azad Library. the brother of Ata'ullah Rashidi (c. Hyderabad. Mullachand was also the court astronomer of Akbar. The manuscripts of both the works are available in the State Central Library. This is mentioned in Ain . the builder of Taj.

son of Sh. 'Alavi Khan Zubadatu'l Munajjimin Taliqa~i. Haji Khalu'Ilah.1743) flourished under the . He was appointed principal of Madrasah . and Azad Library Aligarh. compound proportion etc. The copies of both the works are available in the State Central Library.BAG and Tarjuma Kit lib Suwar i Kawiikib-. Husain s. The copies of manuscripts are listed by C. Nand Ram.Haji Kalil. A. D. the work contains a selection of examples taken from the Lil iivati. M. Zubair at Bljapuri. Muhammad (seventeenth century i\. flourished under emperor Aurangzeb (1659 . D. (died in 1649) wrote a commentary on the work of mathematics entitled Shari: i Kitiib .88 A. and concern primarily business translation.Siyaq in 1680 One copy of the manuscript is available in the State Central Library. He produced Ujalatur Rub in Arabic which deals with application of quadrant for recording various astronomical data. The manuscript is available at Saidiyah Library. This shows that the Liliivati received recognition among the Mughal emperors. He is known for his two works.i Niz smi (astrological and astronomical table).1709).i . India Office Library (three copies) and John Rylands Library in Manchester (one copy) to mention a few. Ain . viz. Khwaja Bahadur Husain Khan Bahadur flourished during the reign of Aurangzeb and later went to the South with Qulich Khan. He wrote in Arabic Shar/:las Siriijiyyah.i -Li! iivati was prepared by Amin Shaikh Muhammed Said in 1678 The incomplete Manchester copy has been translated by Winter and Mirza. Dharma Narayan ibn Kalyanmal Kayath wrote a Persian commentary in 1663.a commentary on the celebrated as tronomical work Suwaru'! Kawdkib.MaJ:tmud in Bidar by Aurangzeb in 1686. rule of three. Another version Dastia al . Raja Jayasimha (1693 . He learnt astronomy and astrology under S. The manuscript is available in Rampur Rida Library.i Nizami(commentary on Zij-i Niz dmi) and Zij . inverse proportion. Khan in the beginning of seventeenth century A. P. The examples include problems on investigation of mixture.1709). Muhammad Said.i . 1696) was born at Bijapur and studied under M.i Zi] . The manuscript is available in the Asiatic Society of Bengal.i Funim and dedicated to Alamgir (1659 .Hissb : Tarjuma .:K:. an incomplete commentary on a Sajavandi's algebrical treatise known as Sirajiyah. The scholar has made studies of both Indian and non-Indian works.1709) and wrote a work on accountancy. o.). A copy is available in the Rampur Library. son of Amanu'llah and brother of Mulla Murshid Makramat. Storey. Manuscript copies of Faizi's version are found deposited in the British Museum (one copy). U.patronization of Maharnmad . Hyderabad.64 at Etawah on the Liliivati under the title Badii'! .Sl!ar/:l. son of Hiranand Ka'isth flourished during the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1659 . Khalilullah (d. Hyderabad. Sh.

89 Shah (1719 .i Muhammad ShaM.D. the second son of Lutfalla MUhandis of Lahore and nephew of 'Ata' Allah Rushdi (c . Jaipur. A manuscript of Almagest with his commentary is available at the Raza Library. 1693 . The manuscript is available in the Rampur Library. Ashraf Husaini. His Taqribu't Tahrir.Tasrihfi sharhi' Tashril.the Zij-i-Mubammad ShiiM. 1701).i Jadid . He wrote another commentary on . Benaras.z (commentary on Tasrihu'd . He was a native of Ambala and later on resided at Delhi.Ii Ashkiilu't Ta'sis li Tusi is a super commentary on the commentary by Tusi on theAshkalu't Ta 'sis. was astronomical adviser to Jayasimha (ft.INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400-1800 A.din Husain (b. Bankipur and British Museum.1634). ftourished during the reign of Muhammad . The manuscript is available in the Bankipur and Rampur Libraries. which was completed in 1727. a geometrical work of Sharnsu'd Din M b. The manuscript is available at the Oriental Library. He started organising new observations with the help of the Muslim. Rarnpur. Under his patronization. Euclid's Elements as Rekhsganita.i Julldu'l Hisiib. After seven years of observations in Delhi.Anbalaji ad-Dehlawi wrote in 1718' his Ghayat . The manuscript is available at the Bankipur Library.z on the latter's Zij i Muhammad Shiihi. 'Imamu'd . Kewal Ram (Gujrathi Brahmin) translated De la Hire's table as Jai Vinod Vibhag Siira1)i. Samrat Jagannatha translated Ptolemy's Syntaxix as Siddhiintasiira Kaustubha. he deputed Padre Manoel with some competent hands to Europe who brought back with them the astronomical tables of De la Hire. » Mirza Khairullah Muhandis (c.Ta' liqst 'ala Sharhi'l Mulakhkhasi'l Chagmini (commentary) on the At. His Tahriru'l Ashkiil li Hal.din Aftak of Baha'ud . Mulchand. Pundarik Ratnakara. son of Lutfu'llah Muhandis was appointed the head of the observatory at Delhi by emperor Mohammad Shah in 1718 . son of M.j Sharlt .1740). the eldest son of Lutfu'Ilah Muhandis was a well-known astronomer. ' He also translated a copy of Almagest and wrote a commentary on it.Mulakhkhas fi'l= Hai'al of Qa4i Zsdal: ar . Mathura. Hindu and European experts. is a Persian translation of Nasirud-din's Arabic version on Ptolemy's Almagest. Ulugbeg's tables as Tsra-Siirani. 1700 . a Maharastrian Brahmin wrote Jai Singh Kalpardrum dealing with Pursnic facts. He compiled with the help of Nizamu'd-dln al-Barjandi's commentary on Tusi's above work. and Ujjain. These materials are compiled in his Zij .humi and At .1748) and tried to rectify and improve the almanacs already constructed by his predecessors". He wrote many works on astronomy of which mention may be made of at .din' AmuH).. 12 son of Harihar Prasad.1743) and wrote a Sharl. Sadiq al . Abu'l Khairu'Ilah. He wrote several other books in mathematics and astronomy. ' Muhammad Zaman Fayyad.

a commentary in Arabic on the first book of Euclid and Al-Hashiyah'ala Uqlidas. He wrote a number of works in mathematics and other subjects. viz. His work Dasturu'l Amal chiefly dealing with accountancy was written in first half of eighteenth century in Persian. The manuscript is available at the Azad Library. He taught at Calcutta Madrasah and Fort William College. The manuscripts are available in the Osmania University Library. and was well-known for his Shari: Tahrir-u usuli'l Handasat-i wa'l-Hisab. zodiacal signs. One copy of the manuscript is available in State Central Library. a treatise on the cons- . flourished during the reign of Muhammad Shah (l719-1748). One copy is available at Bankipur Library. 1785) was a descendent of Faridu'd-dln Mas'ud al "judhani. State Central Library. His lJisab Niimah. Raushan 'Ali (flourished second half of the eighteenth century) was born at Jaunpur. It contains informations on weights and measures. commander in chief of Nizamud Din Mir. son of Rajah Mardi Ram of Allahabad. Anand Ram Mukhlis. A. Nizam 'Alikhan Fath Jung. He wrote also a commentary Sharh-iKhulii$atu'l lfisab on the Khulii$tu'/ lfisiib of Baha'u-d-Din 'Amuli'. Mir'atu'! lfisab in 1786 to Mumtazu'd Daulah M. Risalah-i Hisiib (a treatise on arithmetic) Tarjumah-i Khulasatu'l Hissb (a translation of Baha'ud-d in Anuli's mathematical treatise). ruler of Hyderabad. Aligarh. a gloss on the Euclid. Muhammad Barkat flourished in Lahore in 1782 A. Some of these works are Risalah fi Jabr wa Muqab-tal: (on algebra). His grandfather migrated to Hyderabad and was appointed an officer under Asaf Jah Nizam.BAG (1719-1748) ruler of Delhi. Three copies of the manuscripts are available in the Sa Idiyah Library. Khwajah Muhammad was a native of Hyderabad and dedicated his arithmetical work. Risslah der Boyan i Amal-i Qite.D. a native of Hisar wrote his Dastur-i-Hisiib in 1767. a treatise on arithmetic was written in Delhi. The manuscript is available in Rampur Library.K. Karim Baksh made a selection from a larger treatise. Hindu science and siistras in tabulated forms. Nawab Shamsu'ul Umara Fakhru'd-dtn Khan Bahadur (b. He quoted profusely about his teacher Mirza Bedi in the work. Umudu'l Hisiib for a Deccan Prince Arastu Jah.90 A. Rampur Library and Mashriqi Kutub Khanah Salar Jung. It is a treatise in five maqulah and a Khatimah. Hyderabad. Inderman. He took interest in propagating western knowledge to India. 'Zamu'd-din Khan Bahadur Muzaffar Jung. He wrote two works. Hyderabad. first founder Nizam of Hyderabad (died in 1748). The manuscript is available in the State Central Library.

The manuscript is available in the State Central Library. Both these manuscripts are available in State Central Library. a work on geometry. 91 tructicn of the sector and Sham su'l Handasah. mensuration and trigonometry. Maghribi Tilimsani al. State Central Library. a treatise on arithmetic.m. He wrote several other works. Hyderabad and Rampur Library. 1814) was attached as collector in the Department of Revenue of Madras. arithmetic. The manuscript is available in State Central Library. 'Abdu'l-Azim Isfahani Landani. M. now available in the State Central Library. He spent most of his time with the princes of Benaras and Murshidabad. 1800) was born at Aurangabad.P. Sayyid Nuru'l Asfiyah Aurangabad (c. 4. TREND OF INDO-PERSIAN LITERATURE The Persian and Arabic literature were produced mostly under the patronage of Mughal rulers. The manuscript is available in the State Central Library. son of Fath M. Tahrir-i-Uqlidas al Mijisti-Arabic version of Euclid's Elements . A bu'l Qasim (Ghulam Husain). Hyderabad. He lived for a considerable time with Nawab ali Khan at Kamal and later on shifted to Hyderabad and joined the service under Nawab Shamesu'ul Umara. Sharzhala Tahrir-i Uqlidas (commentaries on Euclid) and al-Mijisti (commentary on Almagest of Ptolemy). I#ilabatu't Taqwin (on compilation of almanacs) and Zij-i-Bahiidur Khiini (on astronomical tables). etc. He composed several treatises on mathematics and astronomy. horoscope and calendar.INDIAN LITERATURE ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400~1800 A. science of geometry. He wrote his Risiilah-i Hai'at-i Angrezi in 1797 on European astronomical system specially English and French. The Zubdatu'/ His ab is another mathematical treatise available in Asiatic Society in four chapters dealing with arithmetic. D. Many standard works were brought from outside India. Salarjung Library. Sh.. He was born at Jaunpur in 1790-91 and had his lesson in mathematics under his father and some contemporary scholars in mathematics. Anisu'l-Abbab Ii Bayiin-i Masa'i/-. son of S. practical geometry dealing with the measurement and division of circle. The copies of manuscripts are available in the Asiatic Society of Bengal. viz. The work is devoted to mathematics and astronomy in six chapters. heavenly bodies. Some of these are Khwa$lu'l/fisab ofBahii'ud-din 'AmiiIi (c. optics. Usturl db (commentary on the Bahau'd-d in 'Amuli's treatise on Sulaibah). Hyderabad. He wrote Risalah-i-Nuru'l Histib. His A' zamu'l-His ab is a treatise on mathematics. Al-karbala-i wrote his Jami'i Bahiidur Khani in 1834. Hyderabad. U. He perhaps wrote another work Mlr'atu'l-i Alam on mathematics. finding an unknown quantity and some essentials relating to arithmetic.Ansari as-Sa'imi (c. 1547-1621)written originally in Arabic in Iran. Husain Isfahani Landani. Ahmad b. flourished during the days of Asifu'lmulk Sikandar Jah Bahadur. measurement. viz.

. V. 2 Sarma.. 1970. et al. Indian Historical QUIlrteriy. and Bijaganita in the period. Samuel Devis (1790-1792) and John Bentley (1799). R. David. National Institute of Sciences of India. German language. Bibliography of Sanskrit Works in Astronomy and Mathematics. Vishvesbvaranand Institute. A. V.K. 1. viz. besides some others on accountaney. CONCLUSION To sum up. S. • The date of Kar~i has been suggested as 1732 A. Vol. S. Le Gentil (1772). Persian. Hoshiarpur. The activities of the Indian scholars in mathematics and astronomy also attracted the attention of European scholars. A.D. which attracted attention of many Indian scholars. 1 . Robert Barker (l7?7).. Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit. M. Jagannatha Pandit and Raja Jayasimha to make a synthesis of the available Indian 'knowledge and that of Ptolemy and Euclid.92 A. N. Arabic and European works which helped him to modernize the observatories in Delhi. Only a partial attempt has been made by Munisvara and Kamalakara. This is very important because this will help us to assess correctly the proportion of cultural interdependence in the field of mathematical knowledge. American Philosophical Society. but very few attempts have been made to make a comparison with the available knowledge in Sanskrit sources. writing articles in French. A. Vol. New Delhi. B. A History of Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy. Mathura. Sanna and others. by K. 1966. • Rahman. Attempt has been made to translate and write commentaries on these texts. and Sarma. 14. Jaipur.. Bag. William Jones (1790). The account gives both Hindu and Islamic traditions in India as well as their activities in the form of writing commentaries on older Indian and some Persian texts. which helps us to some extent to assess the trend of literature. The real success has been achieved by Raja Jayasimha who used the services of great Sanskrit scholars having knowledge of Sanskrit. Bailey (1878).. K..BAG and Ptolemy's Almagest by Nasiru'd-dln at-tusi etc. Joseph Tieffenthaler (1785-1789). NOTES AND REFERENCES Pingree.2 & 3. who tried to make an assessment of Indian activities by writing translation of the texts. • HabibuUah. 3 Sen. But the assessment of the actual contribution in the period deserves more intensive research. Ujjain and left two almanacs in Sanskrit and one work in Persian. Banaras. Mediewd Bibliohraphies (in Press). It is by no means complete. Series-A. 1938 •. Philadelphia. Liliivati. Arabic and Persian treatises in mathematics. the present survey gives an idea of the Indian literature on mathematics during the period. Similar attempts have been tried to make translations of Brhatsamhitti. Latin." 5. K. 1972. Independence Square. Medieval Indo-Persian Literature relating to Hindu Sciences and Philosophy. Sen8 has made a resume of these activities. PI" 167-181. Giovanni Dominique Cassini (1691-1699). These were written mainly for readers of Persian who knew no other language and had no access in standard Sanskrit.

.1. N. G.E ON MATHEMATICS DURING 1400~1800 A. 1918. Archaeological Survey of India. 1978. No. 1972. 7. 93 Kaye.D. Scientific Works in Sanskrit. 44-70. Singh. 8 Sen.. New Imperial Series. Bharata Manisha Research Series.INDIAN 7 LITERATUR. Varanasi. Indian Journal of History of Science. S. Prahlad. R.. 40. The Astronomical Observatories of Jai Singh.D.. pp. translated into Foreign Languages and Vice-versa in the 18th and 19th Century A.. Calcutta. Stone Observatories in India.

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