Explain the concept of communication protocols The primary purpose of every network is to provide communication.

All communication methods have three elements in common: Sender, Receiver, and Channel. The protocols or rules of communication are :       Identification of sender and receiver Agreed-upon medium or channel (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph) Appropriate communication mode (spoken, written, illustrated, interactive or one-way) Common language Grammar and sentence structure Speed and timing of delivery

Protocols define how messages are transmitted and delivered . This includes issues of :       Message format Message size Timing Encapsulation Encoding Standard message pattern

Encoding is the process of converting thoughts into the language, symbols, or sounds, for transmission. Decoding reverses this process in order to interpret the thought. Encoding and decoding are two important processes in a communication by messages. Most common way of written communication is letters and it has few rules :      An identifier of the recipient A salutation or greeting The message content A closing phrase An identifier of the sender

This message is encapsulated in a envelope which contains sender and receiver address . The process of placing one message format (the letter) inside another message format (the envelope) is called encapsulation. De-encapsulation occurs when the process is reversed by the recipient and the letter is removed from the envelope. Frame is envelope It provides receiver and sender information.

Frame is also called a sentence that a receiving person can process at a time. Message timing is factor that affects how well a message is received and understood. There are few rules of timing:    Access method Flow control Response timeout

Access Method determines when someone is able to send a message. Flow control is the time necessary for destination host to translate the message. Response timeout is the amount of time one need to wait before asking other person to repeat. Message patterns:    Unicast: There is only single destination for the message. Multicast: When the same message is delivered to only a group of persons Broadcasts: a one-to-all message pattern.

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