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The morphological systems of the English and Ukrainian languages are characterized by a considerable number of isomorphic and by some

allomorphic features. The isomorphic features are due to the common Indo-European origin of the two languages while the allomorphic features have been acquired by them in the course of their historic development and functioning as independent national languages, Contrastive morphology deals with: a) the specific traits of morphemes in languages under investigation; b) the parts of speech arid their grammatical meanings (morphological categories). The morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit, which may be free!root, that is they can stand alone and do not depend on other morphemes in a word, and hound, that is they cannot stand alone, they are bound to the root or to the stem consisting of the root and one or more affixal morphemes. Due to its historical development, English has a much larger number of root morphemes than Ukrainian. Consequently, the number of inflexions expressing the morphological categories is much smaller in English than in Ukrainian. E.g.: arm, pen, hoy. work, do, red, he, she, it, five, ten, here: , , , , , , ,etc. Affixal morphemes are represented in English and Ukrainian by suffixes or prefixes. Suffixes in the contrasted languages, when added to the root, change the form of the words, adding some new shade to their lexical meaning: duck .............................................. duckling:, four ............ fourteen --forty; .The number of suffixes in the contrasted languages considerably exceeds the number of prefixes. Among the noun indicating suffixes in English are -, -anee, -ion, -dom, -er, -ess, -hood, -ism, -Ity, -merit, -ness, -ship and others. The adjective indicating suffixes are: -able, -al, -k, -isfa, -ful, -less, -otis, -some -y, etc. The verb indicating suffixes are -ate, -en, -esee, -ify, -ize, and. the adverb indicating suffixes -!y, -wards, -ways, Ukrainian word-forming suffixes are more numerous and also more diverse by their nature because there exist special suffixes to identify different genders of nouns. The masculine gender suffixes of nouns in Ukrainian are -, -, -/~,-up, -, -, -.Suffixes of feminine gender in Ukrainian are: -/, -/, -ec/a, -/, -/. Suffixes of the neuter gender are mostly used in Ukrainian to identify collective nouns, as in the nouns:--, 6--. --.Besides, inUkrainianthereexistiargegroupsofevaluativesuffixes(--, --)andpatronymicsuffixes: --, -, - (, , ). Prefixes in the contrasted languages modify the lexical meaning of the word: coexistence, unable, , , , .Word-forming prefixes pertain mostly io the English language where they can form different parts of speech, Verbs; enable, disable, enclose. Abjectives: pre-war, post-war. Adverbs! today, tomorrow, together. Prepositions: below, behind. Conjunctions: because, unless, until. In Ukrainian only some conjunctions and adverbs can be formed by means of prefixes, for example:, .Isomorphic is also the use of two (in English) and more (in Ukrainian) prefixes before the root: misrepresentation, oversubscription, ., ,etc. Inflexional morphemes in the contrasted .languages express different morphological categories. The number of genuinely English inflexions is restricted to noun inflexions: -s/-es, -en, -ren (boys, watches, oxen, children); inflexions of the comparative and the superlative degrees of qualitative adjectives: ~er, -est (bigger, biggest): inflexions of the comparative and the superlative degrees of qualitative adverbs: -er, -est (slowlier, slowliest); the verbal inflexions: ~s/-es, -d/-ed, -t, -n/-en {he puts/watches; she learned the rule/burnt the candle; a broken -pencil); the inflexions of absolute possessive pronouns: -s, -e (hers, ours, yours, mine, thine). Besides the genuine English inflexional morphemes, there exist some foreign inflexions used with nouns of Latin, Greek and French origin only. Among them Latin inflexions -um/-a (datum ........... data); -us/-i (terminus ........................ termini); -a/-ae (formula .......................... formulae); -is/-es (thesis ........................ theses); Greek inflexions -on/-a (phenomenon phenomena); -ion/-ia (criterion criteria). The number of inflexions in Ukrainian exceeds their number in English since every national part of speech has a variety of endings. They express number, case and gender of nominal parts of speech and tense, aspect, person, number, voice and mood of verbs: ; ; - ,etc. and The contrasted languages are characterized by such common morphological phenomena of word-building nature as agglutination suppletivity.

Agglutination represents a mechanical adding of one or more affixal morphemes in preposition, post-position or in interposition to the root morpheme. The quantitative representation of the parts of speech formed by means of pre-posed agglutinating morphemes in the contrasted languages is somewhat different. In present-day English there exist a larger number of the parts of speech formed by agglutinating prefixes, Pre-posed agglutinators apart from forming new parts of speech or creating some shades in the lexical meaning of the words (do undo overdo, lead mislead; )can also perform some purely grammatical function: for example, they may sometimes turn the intransitive verbs into transitive: live outlive, , .In Ukrainian pre-posed affixes can change imperfect verbs into perfect ( - ). Post-posed agglutination is observed in both contrasted languages, in Ukrainian even more frequent than in English. All Ukrainian infinitives, without exception, are formed by adding to the root the post- posed morphemes-/-, -, -, -, -/-(diminutive

forms):, , , ,etc. In English most of the indefinite form infinitives are pure root-morphemed words {come, live, love, fly, sit, read, swim., warm), There are only five post-posed verbal morphemes: -ate, -en, -escc, -ity, -:create, blacken, acquiesce, purify, civilize, etc. Post-posed agglutination helps to form nouns in the contrasted languages: freedom, employee, hostess, boyhood, friendship, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian:, , , .Among other parts of speech formed by means of post-posed agglutination are English relative adjectives (economic,Polish,political), adverbs of both languages (nicely, sideways, westwards, , , );numerals of both languages {fifty, sixty, fifteen, eighteen, , , ).Isomorphic is also the post-posed agglutination of two affixal morphemes to a stem: nouns (capableness, responsibility); adjectives (meaningful, motionless); numerals (thirteenth, twentieth); adverbs (foolishly, needlessly). Root morphemes in the contrasted languages can be pre-posed and post-posed simultaneously, as in the words irresponsibility,unrealistically, , ,etc. Suppletivity as a means of grammatical expression is observed in words, word-forms and morphemes of all Indo-European languages. At the lexical level it helps to express, in English and Ukrainian, gender distinctions: boy girl, man woman, cock hen, , ................ , ................... ,etc. Of suppietive nature are most of nouns forming the LSG denoting kinship: father mother, brother sister, son daughter; aunt uncle; , , , .Suppietive forms of a verb paradigm can be used in English and Ukrainian to express morphological categories. The English verb "to be" has more forms to express different categorial meanings than the verb Ukrainian ":am, is, are; was, were, been e, //.Suppietive forms of some qualitative adjectives and adverbs in the contrasted languages are represented by degrees of comparison: good better best, baa worse worst, ; ................... ............ .Suppletivity of pronouns finds its expression and realization in English and 'Ukrainian at different levels: a) at the level of the lexieo- grammatical class of words as a whole: f he, she, it; we, you, they , , , , ; , , ;b) at the level of paradigmatic word forms: Jme, we us; , ,etc. These forms are more numerous in Ukrainian, where all pronouns are declinable: , , ,etc. However, in English there exist possessive absolute suppietive forms of pronouns unknown in Ukrainian (mine, hers, yours, ours, theirs). Ukrainian, on the other hand, has suppietive forms of some interrogative and indefinite pronouns: , , ; , , ..Least represented in both languages are suppietive forms of numerals, only two ordinal numerals of the kind in English (one ..................................... - the first, two - ............. the second) and one in Ukrainian( ),whereas all simple numerals are suppietive in both languages: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine,, ten; , , , , '. The identification of the parts of speech in the contrasted languages is not always an easy matter because of "migration" of one part of speech to another. For example: a just man (adj.), he has just come (adv.), just a moment, please (particle). Or in Ukrainian: ? (adv.), (particle); (conjunctive element). Nevertheless, the number of notional parts of speech in English and Ukrainian from the typological point of view may be considered the same six: noun,adjective, pronoun, numeral* verb, adverb .......................... , , , , , .As to the funetionals, their number in the contrasted languages is not identical (present-day English has the article which is missing in Ukrainian). The rest of funetionals are common: conjunction* preposition, particle, interjection, medals words , , , , . The noun as a part of speech is characterized in English and Ukrainian by a common, lexico-grammatical nature of substantively. It finds its realization not only in concrete nouns (book, boy, house, tree, fish, meat etc.) but also in abstract nouns (love, friendship, business, information, etc.). Typologically isomorphic are also the paradigmatic classes of nouns, which are two: 1)common nouns, and. 2)proper names. Isomorphism is observed in the existence of some other grammatically relevant groups of nouns in English and Ukrainian. Among these are, first of all, life nouns (boy, girl, cat ............................... , , ); inanimate nouns (door, stone , ); count nouns (pen, star, tree , , ),and non-count nouns (air, honesty , ), The only morphological category of the noun which is almost always marked in present- day English is that of number. It is realized, like in Ukrainian, through zero and marked inflexions, respectively: book books. Completely allomorphic is the formation of plural number by way of mutation in the following seven English nouns: foot - feet, tooth teeth, goose geese; man men, woman women; louse lice, mousemice. A lew simple life nouns in English have identical singular and. plural forms (sheep, swine, deer, trout, salmon).

Unlike English, Ukrainian number inflexions are partly predetermined by the declension groups, and partly by the gender of nouns and final consonant or vowel, which can respectively be hard, soft or mixed (sibilant). Thus, nouns of the !. bl declension have the following endings: u , , , Nouns of the 20declension havethefollowingendings:0-......................... -1 ......... , ...... .......... - , , , , - .The 3IUand lh ra 4 declensionnounsmayalsohavehardpalatalizedandsibilantfinalconsonants: inthe 3 declension:u , ;inthe 4Wdeclension:a , , : , .The major allomorphic feature in the system of noun categories is the existence in Ukrainian of dual number. The nouns express dual number in connection with the numeral. The number is mostly indicated by stress which differs from that of the plural form; .................................- ; ............. ; .

The category of case is represented in present-day English by two cases: common and genitive (-'s genitive and of-genitive). Ukrainian nouns may have 7 marked singular and plural oppositions in nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative cases:, , , , , (.) , ; , , , , , () , . The morphological category of gentler is identified through the inflexions of the attribute , , or through the inflexion of the finite form of the verb inUkrainian: , , .In presentday English no distinctions of the kind are possible: the great actor played/the great actress played, A testimony to being no grammatical gender in English nouns is the use of appositional pronouns and nouns to indicate the gender of living beings as in hoy friend ................................................... girl friend, torn cat pussy cat, he-hear she-bear, cock-sparrow hen-sparrow. The noun in English and Ukrainian can be made definite/indefinite semantically by some morphological or syntactic means. Compare: The door opened andthe teacher entered. , ( ). The door opened, and a teacher entered, , .. The Pronoun in contrasted languages has the following classes: E Personapronouns; seven in English(I, he, she, it, we, you, they) and eight in Ukrainian (because of - ........................... thou which is substituted in English by you). All personal pronouns in Ukrainian are declinable(, , , ).Ail English personal pronouns, except "it" and "you" take objective case forms (me, him, her, us, them). 1. Possesive pronouns in English may be a) possessive conjoint (my, his, her, etc.) and b) possessive absolute (mine, hers, its, ours, etc.). The latter are used as attributes (the friend of mine) or as predicatives (that hook is mine). Possessive conjoined pronouns very often function as determiners: He has his hands in his pockets. Ukrainian possessive pronouns have gender (, , ),case(, )and number categories(, ).They are often substantivized in colloquial speech( . ). 2. English demonstrative pronouns nave the same equivalents in Ukrainian: this/that, these/those; /, /.Demonstrative pronouns in English agree in number with the head noun: this day these days. Apart from number Ukrainian demonstrative pronouns, which are more numerous than in English, have also case and gender distinctions; , . ; /, //, ,etc. 3. Interrogative pronouns in the contrasted languages are used as noun-pronouns (who, what, how many/much;, , ) and as adjective pronouns (which, whose; , , ).They may correlate with numerals (how much/many ).In contrast to Ukrainian, English interrogative pronouns have no number, case or gender distinctions (except

"whom" and "whose" expressing respectively dative arid genitive case) as most of their Ukrainian equivalents do:, , , /, , , etc. The pronoun, however, does not express gender or number category but only quantity{ , )as its .English equivalents(how many books, how much suger), 1. Relative pronouns in English and Ukrainian coincide with the interrogative pronouns and perform the function of connectors. 1. Negative pronouns are generally common in English and Ukrainian:no, nobody, none, nothing, neither , , , , Ukrainian negative pronouns are declinable. Isomorphic are the structural forms of negative pronouns, which may be simple (no) or composite: nobody, nothing ............................. , , , , .Allomorphism is observed in the wide use of English negative pronouns to form negative word-groups and sentences: no pains, no gains, nobody home; .Both smiled, hut neither spoke. Nobody ever knows anything. Ukrainian equivalent sentences have negative pronouns and the negative particle: . 7;Indefinite pronouns are mostly common in English and Ukrainian: some, any, somebody, something, anybody, anything; , , , , -, - .Some English pronouns (much, little, few) are allotted in Ukrainian to indefinite numerals(, , ). 1. Reflexive pronouns In English have singular and plural forms (myself, himself, ourselves, themselves, etc.). They correspond to the Ukrainianwhich, has no nominative case form(, , , , () )and no number distinctions ( , ).Reflexive pronouns in English are used to form reflexive verbs (to wash oneself). 2. Reciprocal pronouns are two in English (each other and one another) and one n. Ukrainian, where it exists in three gender forms and are used as noun pronouns: , , .Very often, however, the neuter gender form may be used for any gender: The two younger people looked at one another. ........................................... .They looked into each others eyes for a silent moment. , The adjective as a part of speech expresses the attributes of substances (a nice flower, urgent measures) and can serve as a predicative complement after the verb (the child was small, he grew old; , , ). Adjectives may be qualitative (having grading) and relative which characterize objects and phenomena through their relation to other objects and phenomena (economic progress, urban population; , ). Most qualitative adjectives in English and Ukrainian are gradable and have three degrees of comparison: the positive (), the comparative (), and the superlative (). The way of grading may be synthetic or analytical. The employment of the synthetic way of grading in English is restricted to base adjectives: big, bigger, biggest. This way of grading have also the two-syllable adjectives in -le, -er, -owf -y (narrow, narrower, narrowest; happy, happier, happiest) and the two-syllable adjectives with the concluding stressed syllable (complete, completer, completest). In colloquial emphatic speech base and disyllabic adjectives may be graded in the analytical way, too: The roar grew more loud; the passengers more numerous, the shops more busy... It appeared to me that he was more clever and cold than they were,.. The analytical forms of grading are more often employed in English than in Ukrainian: interesting, more/less interesting, most/the least interesting. In Ukrainian the synthetic way of grading is more often used. It is formed by means of the suffixes--/--and the prefixes-, -or-: , , .Thecomparativeorthesuperlative (orboth) degreesofsomeUkrainianadjectivesmaybeformedbyanalyticalmeans, mostofwhichareintensifyingadverbs/, , /, , : / , / , : , / .Of isomorphic nature in the contrasted languages is the existence of suppletivity (in actually the same adjectives): good, better, - best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; , , ; , , ; , , . The Numerals in the contrasted languages fall into some common and divergent subclasses. Common are 1)cardinal; 2)ordinal and3)fractional (common and decimal fractions). In Ukrainian, all numerals are declinable, having number, case and gender distinctions:, , .; , , ; , , : , ,etc. As to gender, only the cardinal numerals, have three gender distinctions(, , ; , , ).All others have a common form for masculine and feminine genders and a separate form for neuter gender: /, : ' /, ' . The verb in English and Ukrainian serves to convey different kinds of activity (go, read, skate), various processes (boil grow, obtain), the inner state of a person (feel, bother, worry), possession (have, possess), etc. Due to these lexico-graininatical properties the verb generally functions In the sentence as predicate going into combinations with: 1. 2. nouns and pronouns performing the functions of the subject or the object: The sun shines. The student passed his examinations. . . verbs (to want to know; )or adverbs (to read well; );

3. 4. prepositions (to depend on smb/smth.; ; conjunctions (neither read nor write, to work and. rest; , ; ). Allomorphic is the combinability of English verbs with postpositional particles (sit down, stand, up, put off, read through). The main classes of verbs are common in the contrasted languages. They are a) notional verbs (go, ask, write; , , )and b) auxiliary verbs. The latter split into primary (he, do, have; , ),modal (can, may, must, could, should, need; , , )and linking verbs (appear, look, become; , ). English notional verbs split into two subclasses which are not available in Ukrainian. These are 1)regular verbs forming their past stem and the past participle with the help of the ending, -ed(dressed/worked);2)irregular verbs having their oast stems and the past participle formed with the help of vowel gradation (take took taken, begin began begun). Suppietive verbs are common in the contrasted languages(be .................................................... was ........... were, go ............... went; , , ). The finite verb in the contrasted languages has six common morphological categories which are realized partly with the help of synthetic means (inflexions) and partly through different analytical means. Thus, the categories of person and number are realized in both languages synthetically, the category of tense synthetically and analytically, the category of aspect synthetically or analytically (continuous) in English and only synthetically in Ukrainian, the category of voice - only analytically in English but synthetically and analytically in Ukrainian, and the category of mood is realized in both languages synthetically and analytically. Morphological categories of the verb In English and Ukrainian Morphological category Person Number Tense I know: he knows He reads: they read I work: I worked: I will work English Means of Realization Ukrainian : : : : : : (/) / . / . . ? ! ! , . , !


He works: he is working (common/continuous)


The house Is/was built; is being built. The house will be/have been built.


Indicative: I study English. Do you speak English? Imperative: Keep silent! Don't speak so loud! Subjunctive: If I were you, I would have told him everything. Come what may.

The verbals in the contrasted languages have both common arid divergent forms. Common are the infinitive and the two participles; divergent are the gerund in English and the diyepryslivnyk in Ukrainian. The English infinitive is always distinguished by its determiner "to" (to ask, to he asked,

to he doing), whereas the Ukrainian infinitive is characterized by the suffixes-, -, - -.Specifically Ukrainian is the diminutive form of the infinitive formed by combined suffixes; , , , .The infinitive in the contrasted languages can be active simple (to ask,/), active perfect (to have asked, /)and passive simple (to be asked, /).The U kraini an infiniti ve cannot De perfect passive and continuous, the English infinitive can (to have been ashed, to be asking, to have been asking). The participle in the contrasted languages has only two common forms: Present Participle active (asking, )and Past Participle passive (asked,).The Ukrainian participle has no perfect active and perfect passive of Participle I like English having asked, having been asked; at the same time the English participle has no Past Participle active like Ukrainian, . The functions of the infinitive and the participles in the sentence generally coincide in both languages, though Ukrainian participles have gender, number and case distinctions: , , (), /, -, -,etc. The English infinitive and participle may form complex constructins: We heard him sing/singing. It is easy for us to decide. The lesson (being) over, they went home. The gerund and the diyepryslivnyk represent allomorphic verbals and cannot be contrasted in any way. The gerund, has both verbal and noun characteristics. The verbal characteristics of the gerund find their expression in the categories of time correlation and. voice (asking being asked, having asked having been asked). The noun characteristics of the gerund find their expression in the functions in the sentence as subject, object, predicative, and as an adverbial modifier of manner: Seeing is believing. He left without saying a word. Ukrainian diyepryslivnyk as an indeclinable verbal my be present and past. The present diyepiyslivnyk is formed from the present stem of the verb belonging to the first declension by adding the suffix-/-: , ,The past diyepryslivnyk is formed from the infinitive stems with the help of the suffix -: , . According to their lexical meaning, adverbs in both contrasted languages can perform the following common functions in the sentence: 1. 2. 3. 4. The adverbial modifier of manner or quality: He began to work very carefully. . The adverbial modifier of time: Your advice has helped me today. . The adverbial modifier of place and direction: Tell them. Til be right there. , , The adverbial modifier of degree and quality:Almost instantly we were shut up in a fog. ,

Allomorphic for English is the use of adverbials in the function of a simple nominal predicate: . . . .