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Cell Energy Worksheet SCI/230 Version 7

Associate Program Material


Cell Energy Worksheet
Answer the following questions: Cellular respiration: What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages?

Cellular respiration requires two cell to exchange two gases with it surrounding. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.)The three stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.)

What is the role of glycolysis? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur?

During glycolysis, a six-carbon glucose molecule is broken in half, forming two three carbon molecules. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) The threecarbon molecules then donate high-energy electrons to NAD_, the electron carrier, forming NADH. . (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) This process occurs in the cytosol of a cell. ( Wilfredo,2012)

What is the role of the citric acid cycle? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The citric acid cycle takes certain compounds that donate protons and electrons to the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain then generates ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, Krebs cycle also produces 2 ATP through the process of substrate phosphorylation. This process occurs in the mitochondria. ( Katherine Stillwater ,1999-2011. What is a Citric Acid Cycle? Retrieved From: http://www.ehow.com/about_5506377_citric-acid-cycle.html)

What is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur?

Cell Energy Worksheet SCI/230 Version 7

An electron transport chain functions as a chemical machine that uses the energy released by the fall of electrons to pump hydrogen ions (H_) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) The energy stored by electron transport behaves something like the elevated reservoir of water behind a dam. There is a tendency for hydrogen ions to gush back to where they are less concentrated, just as there is a tendency for water to flow downhill. The inner membrane, analogous to the dam, temporarily restrains hydrogen ions. The energy of dammed water can be harnessed to perform work. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) o Photosynthesis:

What is the overall goal of photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is a process whereby plants, algae (which are protists), and certain bacteria transform light energy into chemical energy, using carbon dioxide and the water as a starting material. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) The overral goal of photosynthesis is to turn light into food.

Because photosynthesis only occurs in plants, why is it essential to animal life? Its essential to animal life because it provides oxygen plus food for certain animal. If the plants do not convert carbon dioxide into oxygen then all life on earth would not exist.

What is the role of the light reactions? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? In the light reactions, chlorophyll in the thylakoid membranes solar energy, which is then converted to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.)

What is the role of the Calvin cycle? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur?

Cell Energy Worksheet SCI/230 Version 7

The Calvin cycle uses the products of the light reactions to power the production of sugar from carbon dioxide. The enzymes for the Calvin cycle are dissolved in the stroma, the thick fluid within the chloroplast. ATP generated by the light reactions provides the energy for sugar synthesis. And the NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the high-energy electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose. (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey, 2010.) Summary: Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are linked within ecosystems. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration is the starting point of all energy available to the ecosystem. If plants did not take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen then the ecosystem of earth would collapse completely. For example, the zebra eats the plants, the lion eats the zebra and we can eat the lion. What happens if you take away the plant is not producing energy or food for itself, it will die the zebra will die the lion will die and we will die. Since the plants need photosynthesis and cellular respiration to live as all animals do then without the plant everything would be gone.

Visit the NASA website (http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/) and research global temperature changes. How has global warming affected overall temperatures? What effects do cellular respiration and photosynthesis have on global warming? Global warming has affect overall temperature by making it either too hot or too cold depending on the region. In basic terms, photosynthetic organisms take in CO2, water (H2O) and
light energy to produce sugars (in other words, the food that makes plants a staple of our diet). During this process, photosynthetic organisms use a photopigment called chlorophyll a (Chl a) to split water molecules and produce oxygen.( Aaron Gronstal, February 2012) Increased temperature affects climate and human dependence on earth resources. Furthermore, it can cause glacier to melt which in term can cause the water level to rise. Basically, there should always be more - or

an equal amount of - photosynthesis occurring than cellular respiration. An increase in the amount of cellular respiration (likewise, a decrease in photosynthesis) could lead to what is known as global warming. (Rowell, Andy. (2010)