You are on page 1of 48

SUPERCAPACITORS AND BATTERY POWER MANAGEMENT FOR HYBRID VEHICLE APPLICATIONS USING MULTI BOOST AND FULL BRIDGE

CONVERTERS
ABSTRACT
In the last few years the pollution problems and the increase of the cost of fossil energy (oil, gas) have become planetary problems. The car manufacturers started to react to the urban pollution problems in nineties by commercializing the electric vehicle. But the battery weight and cost problems were not solved. The batteries must provide energy and peaks power during the transient states. These conditions are severe for the batteries. To decrease these severe conditions, the super capacitors and batteries associate with a good power management present a promising solution. Hybridization using batteries and super capacitors for transport applications is needed when energy and power management are requested during the transient sates and steady states. The multi boost and multi full bridge converters will be investigated because of the high power This paper presents super capacitors and battery association methodology for ECCE Hybrid vehicle. ECCE is an experimental Hybrid Vehicle developed at L2ES Laboratory in collaboration with the Research Center in Electrical Engineering and Electronics in Belfort (CREEBEL) and other French partners. This test bench has currently lead-acid batteries with a rated voltage of 540 V, two motors each one coupled with one alternator. The alternators are feeding a DC-bus by rectifiers. The main objective of this paper is to study the management of the energy provides by two super capacitor packs. Super capacitors are storage devices which enable to supply the peaks of power to hybrid vehicle during the transient states. Each super capacitors module is made of 108 cells with a maximum voltage of 270V. The multi boost and multi full bridge converter topologies are studied to define the best topology for the embarked power management. This method achieved a good power management strategy by using the multi boost and the multi full bridge converter topologies.

1. INTRODUCTION
1

In the last few years the pollution problems and the increase of the cost of fossil energy (oil, gas) have become planetary problems. The car manufacturers started to react to the urban pollution problems in nineties by commercializing the electric vehicle. But the battery weight and cost problems were not solved. The batteries must provide energy and peaks power during the transient states. These conditions are severe for the batteries. To decrease these severe conditions, the super capacitors and batteries associate with a good power management present a promising solution. Super capacitors are storage devices which enable to supply the peaks of power to hybrid vehicle during the transient states. During the steady states, batteries will provide the energy requested. This methodology enables to decrease the weight and increases the lifespan of the batteries. Hybridization using batteries and super capacitors for transport applications is needed when energy and power management are requested during the transient sates and steady states. The multi boost and multi full bridge converters will be investigated because of the high power. For range problems, traction batteries used until now cannot satisfy the energy needed for future vehicles. To ensure a good power management in hybrid vehicle, the multi boost and multi full bridge converters topologies and their control are developed. Two topologies proposed for the power management in ECCE Hybrid Vehicle are presented in Figure.

Fig. Converter topologies for ECCE Hybrid Vehicle

SUPER CAPACITORS
2

Capacitors store electric charge. Because the charge is stored physically, with no chemical or phase changes taking place, the process is highly reversible and the discharge-charge cycle can be repeated over and over again, virtually without limit. Electrochemical capacitors (ECs), variously referred to by manufacturers in promotional literature as Super capacitors also called ultra capacitors and electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are capacitors with capacitance values greater than any other capacitor type available today. Capacitance values reaching up to 400 Farads in a single standard case size are available. Supercapacitors have the highest capacitive density available today with densities so high that these capacitors can be used to applications normally reserved for batteries. Supercapacitors are not as volumetrically efficient and are more expensive than batteries but they do have other advantages over batteries making the preferred choice in applications requiring a large amount of energy storage to be stored and delivered in bursts repeatedly. The most significant advantage supercapacitors have over batteries is their ability to be charged and discharged continuously without degrading like batteries do. This is why batteries and supercapacitors are used in conjunction with each other. The supercapacitors will supply power to the system when there are surges or energy bursts since supercapacitors can be charged and discharged quickly while the batteries can supply the bulk energy since they can store and deliver larger amount energy over a longer slower period of time. Super capacitor construction What makes supercapacitors different from other capacitors types are the electrodes used in these capacitors. Supercapacitors are based on a carbon (nano tube) technology. The carbon technology used in these capacitors creates a very large surface area with an extremely small separation distance. Capacitors consist of 2 metal electrodes separated by a dielectric material. The dielectric not only separates the electrodes but also has electrical properties that affect the performance of a capacitor. Supercapacitors do not have a traditional dielectric material like ceramic, polymer films or aluminum oxide to separate the electrodes but instead have a physical barrier made from activated carbon that when an electrical charge is applied to the material a double electric field is generated which acts like a dielectric. The thickness of the electric double layer is as thin as a molecule. The surface area of the activated carbon layer is extremely large yielding several
3

thousands of square meters per gram. This large surface area allows for the absorption of a large amount of ions. The charging/discharging occurs in an ion absorption layer formed on the electrodes of activated carbon. The activated carbon fiber electrodes are impregnated with an electrolyte where positive and negative charges are formed between the electrodes and the impregnant. The electric double layer formed becomes an insulator until a large enough voltage is applied and current begins to flow. The magnitude of voltage where charges begin to flow is where the electrolyte begins to break down. This is called the decomposition voltage.

The double layers formed on the activated carbon surfaces can be illustrated as a series of parallel RC circuits. As shown below the capacitor is made up of a series of RC circuits where R1, R2 Rn are the internal resistances and C1, C2..., Cn are the electrostatic capacitances of the activated carbons.

When voltage is applied current flows through each of the RC circuits. The amount of time required to charge the capacitor is dependent on the CxR values of each RC circuit. Obviously the larger the CxR the longer it will take to charge the capacitor. The amount of current needed to charge the capacitor is determined by the following equation: In= (V/Rn) exp (-t/ (Cn*Rn)) Supercapacitor is a double layer capacitor; the energy is stored by charge transfer at the boundary between electrode and electrolyte. The amount of stored energy is function of the available electrode and electrolyte surface, the size of the ions, and the level of the electrolyte decomposition voltage. Supercapacitors are constituted of two electrodes, a separator and an electrolyte. The two electrodes, made of activated carbon provide a high surface area part, defining so energy density of the component. On the electrodes, current collectors with a high conducting part assure the interface between the electrodes and the connections of the supercapacitor. The two electrodes are separated by a membrane, which allows the mobility of charged ions and forbids no electronic contact. The electrolyte supplies and conducts the ions from one electrode to the other. Usually supercapacitors are divided into two types: double-layer capacitors and electrochemical capacitors. The former depends on the mechanism of double layers, which is result of the separation of charges at interface between the electrode surface of active carbon or carbon fiber and electrolytic solution. Its capacitance is proportional to the specific surface areas of electrode material. The latter depends on fast faraday redox reaction. The electrochemical capacitors include metal oxide supercapacitors and conductive polymer supercapacitors. They all
5

make use of the high reversible redox reaction occurring on electrodes surface or inside them to produce the capacitance concerning with electrode potential. Capacitance of them depends mainly on the utilization of active material of electrode. The working voltage of electrochemical capacitor is usually lower than 3 V. Based on high working voltage of electrolytic capacitor, the hybrid super-capacitor combines the anode of electrolytic capacitor with the cathode of electrochemical capacitor, so it has the best features with the high specific capacitance and high energy density of electrochemical capacitor. The capacitors can work at high voltage without connecting many cells in series. The most important parameters of a super capacitor include the capacitance(C), ESR and EPR (which is also called leakage resistance). Equivalent circuit Supercapacitors can be illustrated similarly to conventional film, ceramic or aluminum electrolytic capacitors

This equivalent circuit is only a simplified or first order model of a supercapacitor. In actuality supercapacitors exhibit a non ideal behavior due to the porous materials used to make the electrodes. This causes supercapacitors to exhibit behavior more closely to transmission lines than capacitors. Below is a more accurate illustration of the equivalent circuit for a supercapacitor.

How to measure the capacitance There are a couple of ways used to measure the capacitance of supercapacitors. 1. Charge method 2. Charging and discharging method. Charge method Measurement is performed using a charge method using the following formula. C=t/R t= .632Vo where Vo is the applied voltage.

This method is similar to the charging method except the capacitance is calculated during the discharge cycle instead of the charging cycle. Discharge time for constant current discharge t= Cx (V0-V1)/I Discharge time for constant resistance discharge t= CRln (V1/V0)
7

Where t= discharge time, V0= initial voltage, V1= ending voltage, I= current. Capacitance Supercapacitors have such large capacitance values that standard measuring equipment cannot be used to measure the capacity of these capacitors. Capacitance is measured per the following method: 1. Charge capacitor for 30 minutes at rated voltage. 2. Discharge capacitor through a constant current load. 3. Discharge rate to be 1mA/F. 4. Measure voltage drop between V1 to V2. 5. Measure time for capacitor to discharge from V1 to V2. 6. Calculate the capacitance using the following equation: C= I*(T2-T1) V1-V2 Where V1=0.7Vr, V2=0.3Vr (Vr= rated voltage of capacitor) ESR AC ESR - Measure using a 4 probe impedance analyzer at 1 kHz. DC ESR - measured using the following procedure 1. Charge capacitor using a constant current. 2. After reaching rated voltage hold voltage for at least 1 minute. 3. Discharge capacitor at a rate of 1mA/F. 4. Measure the time it takes to have the voltage drop from V1 to V2. 5. Calculate ESR using the following formula: ESR (DC) = VI Life expectancy The life expectancy of supercapacitors is identical to aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The life of supercapacitors will double for every 10C decrease in the ambient temperature the capacitors are operated in. Supercapacitors operated at room temperature can have life expectancies of several years compared to operating the capacitors at their maximum rated temperature. L2=L1*2X X=Tm-Ta/2
8

L1= Load life rating of the super capacitor. L2= expected life at operating condition. Tm= Maximum temperature rating of the supercapacitor. Ta= Ambient temperature the supercapacitor is going to be exposed to in the application. Applications for Supercapacitors Supercapacitors have found uses include: Computer systems UPS systems Power conditioners Welders Inverters Automobile regenerative braking systems Power supplies Cameras Power generators Importance of Proper Design of SCES and Future Scope of Work The utmost requirement of proper design and implementation of SCES is maintaining the reliability of the power distribution system in the grid connected mode, the switching transient mode, the island mode. This is also important in various analyses such as sustained interruptions, voltage flicker, voltage sags, harmonics, voltage regulation, voltage stability. There are other different aspects related to power distribution system where the storage study is essential, some are listed as follows. 1. Calculation of load schedule, 2. Optimal use of non-conventional energy sources, 3. Dispatch ability of Power, 4. Ride trough capability of Supply 5. Reduced insulation, 6. Transformer connections and ground faults, 7. Design of system elements: transformer, feeders.

BOOST CONVERTER
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a power converter with an output DC voltage greater than its input DC voltage. It is a class of switching-mode power supply (SMPS) containing at least two semiconductor switches (a diode and a transistor) and at least one energy storage element. Filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally added to the output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple.

Power can also come from DC sources such as batteries, solar panels, rectifiers and DC generators. A process that changes one DC voltage to a different DC voltage is called DC to DC conversion. A boost converter is a DC to DC converter with an output voltage greater than the source voltage. A boost converter is sometimes called a step-up converter since it steps up the source voltage. Since power (P = VI or P = UI in Europe) must be conserved, the output current is lower than the source current. A boost converter may also be referred to as a 'Joule thief'. This term is usually used only with very low power battery applications, and is aimed at the ability of a boost converter to 'steal' the remaining energy in a battery. This energy would otherwise be wasted since a normal load wouldn't be able to handle the battery's low voltage.*

This energy would otherwise remain untapped because in most low-frequency applications,

currents will not flow through a load without a significant difference of potential between the two poles of the source (voltage.)

10

Block Diagram The basic building blocks of a boost converter circuit are shown in Fig.

Magneti c
Voltage Source Switch Control Fig. Block diagram The voltage source provides the input DC voltage to the switch control, and to the magnetic field storage element. The switch control directs the action of the switching element, while the output rectifier and filter deliver an acceptable DC voltage to the output. Switching Element Output Rectifier and

Operating principle The key principle that drives the boost converter is the tendency of an inductor to resist changes in current. When being charged it acts as a load and absorbs energy (somewhat like a resistor), when being discharged, it acts as an energy source (somewhat like a battery). The voltage it produces during the discharge phase is related to the rate of change of current, and not to the original charging voltage, thus allowing different input and output voltages.

Fig: Boost converter schematic

11

Fig. The two configurations of a boost converter, depending on the state of the switch S.

The basic principle of a Boost converter consists of 2 distinct states (see figure ):

in the On-state, the switch S (see figure) is closed, resulting in an increase in the inductor In the Off-state, the switch is open and the only path offered to inductor current is through

current;

the flyback diode D, the capacitor C and the load R. This result in transferring the energy accumulated during the On-state into the capacitor. The input current is the same as the inductor current as can be seen in figure. So it is not discontinuous as in the buck converter and the requirements on the input filter are relaxed compared to a buck converter. Continuous mode When a boost converter operates in continuous mode, the current through the inductor (IL) never falls to zero. Figure shows the typical waveforms of currents and voltages in a converter operating in this mode. The output voltage can be calculated as follows, in the case of an ideal converter (i.e. using components with an ideal behavior) operating in steady conditions:

12

Fig: Waveforms of current and voltage in a boost converter operating in continuous mode. During the On-state, the switch S is closed, which makes the input voltage (Vi) appear across the inductor, which causes a change in current (IL) flowing through the inductor during a time period (t) by the formula:

At the end of the On-state, the increase of IL is therefore:

D is the duty cycle. It represents the fraction of the commutation period T during which the switch is on. Therefore D ranges between 0 (S is never on) and 1 (S is always on). During the Off-state, the switch S is open, so the inductor current flows through the load. If we consider zero voltage drop in the diode, and a capacitor large enough for its voltage to remain constant, the evolution of IL is:

Therefore, the variation of IL during the Off-period is:

13

As we consider that the converter operates in steady-state conditions, the amount of energy stored in each of its components has to be the same at the beginning and at the end of a commutation cycle. In particular, the energy stored in the inductor is given by:

So, the inductor current has to be the same at the start and end of the commutation cycle. This means the overall change in the current (the sum of the changes) is zero:

Substituting

and

by their expressions yields:

This can be written as:

Which in turns reveals the duty cycle to be?

From the above expression it can be seen that the output voltage is always higher than the input voltage (as the duty cycle goes from 0 to 1), and that it increases with D, theoretically to infinity as D approaches 1. This is why this converter is sometimes referred to as a step-up converter. Discontinuous mode In some cases, the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in a time smaller than the whole commutation period. In this case, the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. The only difference in the principle described above is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle (see waveforms in figure ).
14

Although slight, the difference has a strong effect on the output voltage equation. It can be calculated as follows:

Fig: Waveforms of current and voltage in a boost converter operating in discontinuous mode.

As the inductor current at the beginning of the cycle is zero, its maximum value is

(at t = DT)

During the off-period, IL falls to zero after T:

Using the two previous equations, is:

15

The load current Io is equal to the average diode current (ID). As can be seen on figure 4, the diode current is equal to the inductor current during the off-state. Therefore the output current can be written as:

Replacing ILmax and by their respective expressions yields:

Therefore, the output voltage gain can be written as flow:

Compared to the expression of the output voltage for the continuous mode, this expression is much more complicated. Furthermore, in discontinuous operation, the output voltage gain not only depends on the duty cycle, but also on the inductor value, the input voltage, the switching frequency, and the output current. APPLICATIONS: Battery powered systems often stack cells in series to achieve higher voltage. However, sufficient stacking of cells is not possible in many high voltage applications due to lack of space. Boost converters can increase the voltage and reduce the number of cells. Two battery-powered applications that use boost converters are hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and lighting systems. The NHW20 model Toyota Prius HEV uses a 500 V motor. Without a boost converter, the Prius would need nearly 417 cells to power the motor. However, a Prius actually uses only 168 cells and boosts the battery voltage from 202 V to 500 V. Boost converters also power devices at smaller scale applications, such as portable lighting systems. A white LED typically requires 3.3 V to emit light, and a boost converter can step up the voltage from a single 1.5 V alkaline cell to power the lamp. Boost converters can also produce higher voltages to operate cold cathode fluorescent tubes (CCFL) in devices such as LCD backlights and some flashlights.

16

ELECTRIC VEHICLE An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric spacecraft.[1] Electric vehicles first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. During the last few decades, increased concern over the environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the spectre of peak oil, has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure. Electric vehicles differ from fossil fuelpowered vehicles in that the electricity they consume can be generated from a wide range of sources, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power, and wind power or any combination of those. However it is generated, this energy is then transmitted to the vehicle through use of overhead lines, wireless energy transfer such as inductive charging, or a direct connection through an electrical cable. The electricity may then be stored onboard the vehicle using a battery, flywheel, or super capacitors. Vehicles making use of engines working on the principle of combustion can usually only derive their energy from a single or a few sources, usually non-renewable fossil fuels. A key advantage of electric or hybrid electric vehicles is regenerative braking and suspension; their ability to recover energy normally lost during braking as electricity to be restored to the on-board battery. In 2003, the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline-electric car, the Toyota Prius, was introduced worldwide, and the first battery electric car produced by a major auto company, the Nissan Leaf will debut in December 2010. Other major auto companies have electric cars in development, and the USA and other nations are building pilot networks of charging stations to recharge them. aero-planes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric

17

Vehicle types Hybrid electric vehicle A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) power train with some form of electric propulsion. Common examples include hybrid electric cars such as the Toyota Prius. On- and off-road electric vehicles Electric vehicles are on the road in many functions, including electric cars, electric trolleybuses, electric vehicles and tractors. Rail borne electric vehicles A streetcar (or Tram) drawing current from a single overhead wire through a pantograph The fixed nature of a rail line makes it relatively easy to power electric vehicles through permanent overhead lines or electrified third rails, eliminating the need for heavy onboard batteries. Electric locomotives, electric trams/streetcars/trolleys, electric light rail systems, and electric rapid transit are all in common use today, especially in Europe and Asia. Since electric trains do not need to carry a heavy internal combustion engine or large batteries, they can have very good power-to-weight ratios. This allows high speed trains such as France's doubledeck TGVs to operate at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph) or higher, and electric locomotives to have a much higher power output than diesel locomotives. In addition they have higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration, and using regenerative braking can put braking power back into the electrical grid rather than wasting it. Maglev trains are also nearly always electric vehicles. Airborne electric vehicles Since the beginning of the era of aviation, electric power for aircraft has received a great deal of experimentation. Currently flying electric aircraft include manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. Seaborne electric vehicles
18

bicycles,

electric

motorcycles

and

scooters, neighborhood

electric

vehicles, golf carts, milk floats, and forklifts. Off-road vehicles include electrified all-terrain

Electric boats were popular around the turn of the 20th century. Interest in quiet and potentially renewable marine transportation has steadily increased since the late 20th century, as solar cells have given motorboats the infinite range of sailboats. Submarines use batteries (charged by diesel or gasoline engines at the surface), nuclear power, or fuel cells run electric motor driven propellers. Space borne electric vehicles Electric power has a long history of use in spacecraft. The power sources used for spacecraft are batteries, solar panels and nuclear power. Current methods of propelling a spacecraft with electricity include the arc jet rocket, the electrostatic, the Hall Effect thruster, and Field Emission Electric Propulsion. A number of other methods have been proposed, with varying levels of feasibility.

ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES:

Environmental
Due to efficiency of electric engines as compared to combustion engines, even when the electricity used to charge electric vehicles comes a CO2 emitting source, such as a coal or gas fired powered plant, the net CO2 production from an electric car is typically one half to one third of that from a comparable combustion vehicle. Electric vehicles release almost no air pollutants at the place where they are operated. In addition, it is generally easier to build pollution control systems into centralized power stations than retrofit enormous numbers of cars. Electric vehicles typically have less noise pollution than an internal combustion engine vehicle, whether it is at rest or in motion. Electric vehicles emit no tailpipe CO2 or pollutants such as NOx, NMHC, CO and PM at the point of use. Electric motors don't require oxygen, unlike internal combustion engines; this is useful for submarines.

Mechanical
19

Electric motors are mechanically very simple. Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combined with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back into stored electricity. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip. Regenerative braking is especially effective for start-and-stop city use. They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. This removes the need for gearboxes and torque converters. Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operation and consequently have less noise and vibration than internal combustion engines. While this is a desirable attribute, it has also evoked concern that the absence of the usual sounds of an approaching vehicle poses a danger to blind, elderly and very young pedestrians. To mitigate this situation, automakers and individual companies are developing systems that produce warning sounds when electric vehicles are moving slowly, up to a speed when normal motion and rotation (road, suspension, electric motor, etc.) noises become audible.

Energy resilience
Electricity is a form of energy that remains within the country or region where it was produced and can be multi-sourced. As a result it gives the greatest degree of energy resilience.

Energy efficiency
Electric vehicle 'tank-to-wheels' efficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal combustion engine vehicles. It does not consume energy when it is not moving, unlike internal combustion engines where they continue running even during idling. However, looking at the well-towheel efficiency of electric vehicles, their emissions are comparable to an efficient gasoline or diesel in most countries because electricity generation relies on fossil fuels.

Cost of recharge

20

The GM Volt will cost "less than purchasing a cup of your favorite coffee" to recharge. The Volt should cost less than 2 cents per mile to drive on electricity, compared with 12 cents a mile on gasoline at a price of $3.60 a gallon. This means a trip from Los Angeles to New York would cost $56 on electricity, and $336 with gasoline. This would be the equivalent to paying 60 cents a gallon of gas.

Stabilization of the grid


Since electric vehicles can be plugged into the electric grid when not in use, there is a potential for battery powered vehicles to even out the demand for electricity by feeding electricity into the grid from their batteries during peak use periods (such as mid afternoon air conditioning use) while doing most of their charging at night, when there is unused generating capacity. This Vehicle to Grid (V2G) connection has the potential to reduce the need for new power plants. Furthermore, our current electricity infrastructure may need to cope with increasing shares of variable-output power sources such as windmills and PV solar panels. This variability could be addressed by adjusting the speed at which EV batteries are charged, or possibly even discharged. Some concepts see battery exchanges and battery charging stations, much like gas/petrol stations today. Clearly these will require enormous storage and charging potentials, which could be manipulated to vary the rate of charging, and to output power during shortage periods, much as diesel generators are used for short periods to stabilize some national grids.

21

FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER


A bridge is an arrangement of four (or more) diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output for either polarity of input. When used in its most common application, for conversion of an alternating current (AC) input into direct current a (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input, resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding. A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion of the waveform), the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage, i.e., the term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube diodes and copper(I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used. HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER: In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

22

The output DC voltage of a half wave rectifier can be calculated with the following two ideal equations:

FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER: A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier:

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back (i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) can form a full-wave rectifier. Twice as many windings are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage compared to the bridge rectifier above.

23

very

common vacuum

tube rectifier

configuration

contained

one cathode and

twin anodes inside a single envelope; in this way, the two diodes required only one vacuum tube. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration.

Fig. A three-phase bridge rectifier.

Fig. 3-phase AC input, half & full wave rectified DC output waveforms
24

For three-phase AC, six diodes are used. Typically there are three pairs of diodes, each pair, though, is not the same kind of double diode that would be used for a full wave single-phase rectifier. Instead the pairs are in series (anode to cathode). Typically, commercially available double diodes have four terminals so the user can configure them as single-phase split supply use, for half a bridge, or for three-phase u Most devices that generate alternating current (such devices are called alternators) generate three-phase AC. For example, an automobile alternator has six diodes inside it to function as a fullwave rectifier for battery charging applications. The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave rectifier can be calculated as:

Where: Vdc,Vav - the average or DC output voltage, Vp - the peak value of half wave, Vrms - the root-mean-square value of output voltage. = ~ 3.14159 PEAK LOSS: An aspect of most rectification is a loss from the peak input voltage to the peak output voltage, caused by the built-in voltage drop across the diodes (around 0.7 V for ordinary silicon pn-junction diodes and 0.3 V for Schottky diodes). Half-wave rectification and full-wave rectification using two separate secondaries will have a peak voltage loss of one diode drop. Bridge rectification will have a loss of two diode drops. This may represent significant power loss in very low voltage supplies. In addition, the diodes will not conduct below this voltage, so the circuit is only passing current through for a portion of each half-cycle, causing short segments of zero voltage to appear between each "hump". RECTIFIER OUTPUT SMOOTHING:
25

While half-wave and full-wave rectification suffice to deliver a form of DC output, neither produces constant-voltage DC. In order to produce steady DC from a rectified AC supply, a smoothing circuit or filter is required.[1] In its simplest form this can be just a reservoir capacitor or smoothing capacitor, placed at the DC output of the rectifier. There will still remain an amount of AC ripple voltage where the voltage is not completely smoothed.

RC-Filter Rectifier: This circuit was designed and simulated using Multisim 8 software. Sizing of the capacitor represents a tradeoff. For a given load, a larger capacitor will reduce ripple but will cost more and will create higher peak currents in the transformer secondary and in the supply feeding it. In extreme cases where many rectifiers are loaded onto a power distribution circuit, it may prove difficult for the power distribution authority to maintain a correctly shaped sinusoidal voltage curve. For a given tolerable ripple the required capacitor size is proportional to the load current and inversely proportional to the supply frequency and the number of output peaks of the rectifier per input cycle. The load current and the supply frequency are generally outside the control of the designer of the rectifier system but the number of peaks per input cycle can be affected by the choice of rectifier design. A half-wave rectifier will only give one peak per cycle and for this and other reasons is only used in very small power supplies. A full wave rectifier achieves two peaks per cycle and this is the best that can be done with single-phase input. For three-phase inputs a three-phase bridge will give six peaks per cycle and even higher numbers of peaks can be achieved by using transformer networks placed before the rectifier to convert to a higher phase order.
26

To further reduce this ripple, a capacitor-input filter can be used. This complements the reservoir capacitor with a choke (inductor) and a second filter capacitor, so that a steadier DC output can be obtained across the terminals of the filter capacitor. The choke presents a high impedance to the ripple current. A more usual alternative to a filter, and essential if the DC load is very demanding of a smooth supply voltage, is to follow the reservoir capacitor with a voltage regulator. The reservoir capacitor needs to be large enough to prevent the troughs of the ripple getting below the voltage the DC is being regulated to. The regulator serves both to remove the last of the ripple and to deal with variations in supply and load characteristics. It would be possible to use a smaller reservoir capacitor (these can be large on high-current power supplies) and then apply some filtering as well as the regulator, but this is not a common strategy. The extreme of this approach is to dispense with the reservoir capacitor altogether and put the rectified waveform straight into a choke-input filter. The advantage of this circuit is that the current waveform is smoother and consequently the rectifier no longer has to deal with the current as a large current pulse, but instead the current delivery is spread over the entire cycle. The downside is that the voltage output is much lower approximately the average of an AC half-cycle rather than the peak. VOLTAGE DOUBLING RECTIFIERS: The simple half wave rectifier can be built in two versions with the diode pointing in opposite directions, one version connects the negative terminal of the output direct to the AC supply and the other connects the positive terminal of the output direct to the AC supply. By combining both of these with separate output smoothing it is possible to get an output voltage of nearly double the peak AC input voltage. This also provides a tap in the middle, which allows use of such a circuit as a split rail supply. A variant of this is to use two capacitors in series for the output smoothing on a bridge rectifier then place a switch between the midpoint of those capacitors and one of the AC input terminals. With the switch open this circuit will act like a normal bridge rectifier with it closed it will act like a voltage doubling rectifier. In other words this makes it easy to derive a voltage of roughly 320V (+/- around 15%) DC from any mains supply in the world, this can then be fed into a relatively simple switched mode power supply.
27

Fig. Cockcroft Walton Voltage multiplier Cascaded stages of diodes and capacitors can be added to make a voltage multiplier (Cockroft-Walton circuit). These circuits can provide a potential several times that of the peak value of the input AC, although limited in current output and regulation. Voltage multipliers are used to provide the high voltage for a CRT in a television receiver, or for powering high-voltage tubes such as image intensifiers or photo multipliers. The essential feature of a diode bridge is that the polarity of the output is the same regardless of the polarity at the input. The diode bridge circuit is also known as the Graetz circuit after its inventor, physicist Leo Graetz. Basic operation: According to the conventional model of current flow originally established by Benjamin Franklin and still followed by most engineers today, current is assumed to flow through electrical conductors from the positive to the negative pole. In actuality, free electrons in a conductor nearly always flow from the negative to the positive pole. In the vast majority of applications, however, the actual direction of current flow is irrelevant. Therefore, in the discussion below the conventional model is retained. In the diagrams below, when the input connected to the left corner of the diamond is positive, and the input connected to the right corner is negative, current flows from the upper supply terminal to the right along the red (positive) path to the output, and returns to the lower supply terminal via the blue (negative) path.

28

When the input connected to the left corner is negative, and the input connected to the right corner is positive, current flows from the lower supply terminal to the right along the red (positive) path to the output, and returns to the upper supply terminal via the blue (negative) path.

Fig. AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals.

29

In each case, the upper right output remains positive and lower right output negative. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC, this circuit not only produces a DC output from an AC input, it can also provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection". That is, it permits normal functioning of DC-powered equipment when batteries have been installed backwards, or when the leads (wires) from a DC power source have been reversed, and protects the equipment from potential damage caused by reverse polarity. Prior to the availability of integrated circuits, a bridge rectifier was constructed from "discrete components", i.e., separate diodes. Since about 1950, a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in a bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. Output smoothing: For many applications, especially with single phase AC where the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC output, the addition of a capacitor may be desired because the bridge alone supplies an output of fixed polarity but continuously varying or "pulsating" magnitude, an attribute commonly referred to as "ripple" (see diagram to right).

The function of this capacitor, known as a reservoir capacitor (or smoothing capacitor) is to lessen the variation in (or 'smooth') the rectified AC output voltage waveform from the bridge. One explanation of 'smoothing' is that the capacitor provides a low impedance path to the AC component of the output, reducing the AC voltage across, and AC current through, the resistive load. In less technical terms, any drop in the output voltage and current of the bridge tends to be canceled by loss of charge in the capacitor. This charge flows out as additional current through the
30

load. Thus the change of load current and voltage is reduced relative to what would occur without the capacitor. Increases of voltage correspondingly store excess charge in the capacitor, thus moderating the change in output voltage / current. The simplified circuit shown has a well-deserved reputation for being dangerous, because, in some applications, the capacitor can retain a lethal charge after the AC power source is removed. If supplying a dangerous voltage, a practical circuit should include a reliable way to discharge the capacitor safely. If the normal load cannot be guaranteed to perform this function, perhaps because it can be disconnected, the circuit should include a bleeder resistor connected as close as practical across the capacitor. This resistor should consume a current large enough to discharge the capacitor in a reasonable time, but small enough to minimize unnecessary power waste. The capacitor and the load resistance have a typical time constant = RC where C and R are the capacitance and load resistance respectively. As long as the load resistor is large enough so that this time constant is much longer than the time of one ripple cycle, the above configuration will produce a smoothed DC voltage across the load. In some designs, a series resistor at the load side of the capacitor is added. The smoothing can then be improved by adding additional stages of capacitorresistor pairs, often done only for subsupplies to critical high-gain circuits that tend to be sensitive to supply voltage noise. The idealized waveforms shown above are seen for both voltage and current when the load on the bridge is resistive. When the load includes a smoothing capacitor, both the voltage and the current waveforms will be greatly changed. While the voltage is smoothed, as described above, current will flow through the bridge only during the time when the input voltage is greater than the capacitor voltage. For example, if the load draws an average current of n Amps, and the diodes conduct for 10% of the time, the average diode current during conduction must be 10n Amps. This non-sinusoidal current leads to harmonic distortion and a poor power factor in the AC supply. In a practical circuit, when a capacitor is directly connected to the output of a bridge, the bridge diodes must be sized to withstand the current surge that occurs when the power is turned on at the peak of the AC voltage and the capacitor is fully discharged. Sometimes a small series resistor is included before the capacitor to limit this current, though in most applications the power supply transformer's resistance is already sufficient.
31

Output can also be smoothed using a choke and second capacitor. The choke tends to keep the current (rather than the voltage) more constant. This design is not generally used in modern equipment due to the high cost of an effective choke compared to a resistor and capacitor. Some early console radios created the speaker's constant field with the current from the high voltage ("B +") power supply, which was then routed to the consuming circuits, (permanent magnets were then too weak for good performance) to create the speaker's constant magnetic field. The speaker field coil thus performed 2 jobs in one: it acted as a choke, filtering the power supply, and it produced the magnetic field to operate the speaker. Poly-phase Bridge The diode bridge can be generalized to rectify poly-phase AC inputs. For example, for a threephase AC input, a half-wave rectifier consists of three diodes, but a full-wave bridge rectifier consists of six diodes.

Fig: Three phase bridge rectifier.

32

Fig. 3-phase AC input waveform, half-wave rectified waveform, and full-wave rectified waveform.

RECTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY: Electromechanical Early power conversion systems were purely electro-mechanical in design, since electronic devices were not available to handle significant power. Mechanical rectification systems usually rely on some form of rotation or resonant vibration in order to move quickly enough to match the frequency of the input power source, and cannot operate beyond several thousand cycles per second. Due to the complexity of mechanical systems, they have traditionally needed a high level of maintenance to keep operating correctly. Moving parts will have friction, which requires lubrication and replacement due to wear. Opening mechanical contacts under load results in electrical arcs and sparks that heat and erode the contacts.
33

Synchronous rectifier To convert AC currents into DC current in electric locomotives, a synchronous rectifier may be used. It consists of a synchronous motor driving a set of heavy-duty electrical contacts. The motor spins in time with the AC frequency and periodically reverses the connections to the load just when the sinusoidal current goes through a zero-crossing. The contacts do not have to switch a large current, but they need to be able to carry a large current to supply the locomotive's DC traction motors. Vibrator In the past, the vibrators used in battery-to-high-voltage-DC power supplies often contained a second set of contacts that performed synchronous mechanical rectification of the stepped-up voltage. Motor-generator set A motor-generator set or the similar rotary converter, is not a rectifier in the sense that it doesn't actually rectify current, but rather generates DC from an AC source. In an "M-G set", the shaft of an AC motor is mechanically coupled to that of a DC generator. The DC generator produces multiphase alternating currents in its armature windings, and a commutator on the armature shaft converts these alternating currents into a direct current output; or a homopolar generator produces a direct current without the need for a commutator. M-G sets are useful for producing DC for railway traction motors, industrial motors and other high-current applications, and were common in many high power D.C. uses (for example, carbon-arc lamp projectors for outdoor theaters) before high-power semiconductors became widely available. Electrolytic The electrolytic rectifier was an early device from the 1900s that is no longer used. When two different metals are suspended in an electrolyte solution, it can be found that direct current flowing one way through the metals has less resistance than the other direction. These most commonly used an aluminum anode, and a lead or steel cathode, suspended in a solution of tri-ammonium ortho-phosphate. The rectification action is due to a thin coating of aluminum hydroxide on the aluminum electrode, formed by first applying a strong current to the cell to build up the coating. The rectification
34

process is temperature sensitive, and for best efficiency should not operate above 86 F (30 C). There is also a breakdown voltage where the coating is penetrated and the cell is short-circuited. Electrochemical methods are often more fragile than mechanical methods, and can be sensitive to usage variations which can drastically change or completely disrupt the rectification processes. Similar electrolytic devices were used as lightning arresters around the same era by suspending many aluminum cones in a tank of tri-ammonium ortho-phosphate solution. Unlike the rectifier, above, only aluminum electrodes were used, and used on A.C., there was no polarization and thus no rectifier action, but the chemistry was similar. The modern electrolytic capacitor, an essential component of most rectifier circuit configurations was also developed from the electrolytic rectifier. Mercury arc A rectifier used in high-voltage direct current power transmission systems and industrial processing between about 1909 to 1975 is a mercury arc rectifier or mercury arc valve. The device is enclosed in a bulbous glass vessel or large metal tub. One electrode, the cathode, is submerged in a pool of liquid mercury at the bottom of the vessel and one or more high purity graphite electrodes, called anodes, are suspended above the pool. There may be several auxiliary electrodes to aid in starting and maintaining the arc. When an electric arc is established between the cathode pool and suspended anodes, a stream of electrons flows from the cathode to the anodes through the ionized mercury, but not the other way. [In principle, this is a higher-power counterpart to flame rectification, which uses the same one-way current transmission properties of the plasma naturally present in a flame]. These devices can be used at power levels of hundreds of kilowatts, and may be built to handle one to six phases of AC current. Mercury arc rectifiers have been replaced by silicon semiconductor rectifiers and high power thyristor circuits, from the mid 1970s onward. The most powerful mercury arc rectifiers ever built were installed in the Manitoba Hydro Nelson River Bipole HVDC project, with a combined rating of more than one million kilowatts and 450,000 volts. Argon gas electron tube The General Electric Tungar rectifier was an argon gas-filled electron tube device with a tungsten filament cathode and a carbon button anode. It was useful for battery chargers and similar
35

applications from the 1920s until low-cost solid-state rectifiers (the metal rectifiers at first) supplanted it. These were made up to a few hundred volts and a few amperes rating, and in some sizes strongly resembled anincandescent lamp with an additional electrode. The 0Z4 was a gas-filled rectifier tube commonly used in vacuum tube car radios in the 1940s and 1950s. It was a conventional full wave rectifier tube with two anodes and one cathode, but was unique in that it had no filament (thus the "0" in its type number). The electrodes were shaped such that the reverse breakdown voltage was much higher than the forward breakdown voltage. Once the breakdown voltage was exceeded, the 0Z4 switched to a low-resistance state with a forward voltage drop of about 24 volts. Vacuum tube (valve) Since the discovery of the Edison effect or thermionic emission, various vacuum tube devices have been developed to rectify alternating currents. Low-power devices are used as signal detectors, first used in radio by Fleming in 1904. Many vacuum-tube devices also used vacuum rectifiers in their power supplies, for example the All American Five radio receiver. Vacuum rectifiers were made for very high voltages, such as the high voltage power supply for the cathode ray tube of television receivers, and the kenotron used for power supply in X-ray equipment. However, vacuum rectifiers generally had low current capacity owing to the maximum current density that could be obtained by electrodes heated to temperatures compatible with long life. Another limitation of the vacuum tube rectifier was that the heater power supply often required special arrangements to insulate it from the high voltages of the rectifier circuit. Crystal detector The cat's-whisker detector, using a crystal such as galena, was the earliest type of solid state diode. Selenium and copper oxide rectifiers Once common until replaced by more compact and less costly silicon solid-state rectifiers, these units used stacks of metal plates and took advantage of the semiconductor properties of selenium or copper oxide. While selenium rectifiers were lighter in weight and used less power than comparable vacuum tube rectifiers, they had the disadvantage of finite life expectancy, increasing resistance with age, and were only suitable to use at low frequencies. Both selenium and

36

copper oxide rectifiers have somewhat better tolerance of momentary voltage transients than silicon rectifiers. Typically these rectifiers were made up of stacks of metal plates or washers, held together by a central bolt, with the number of stacks determined by voltage; each cell was rated for about 20 volts. An automotive battery charger rectifier might have only one cell: the high-voltage power supply for a vacuum tube might have dozens of stacked plates. Current density in an air-cooled selenium stack was about 600 mA per square inch of active area (about 90 mA per square centimeter). Silicon and germanium diodes In the modern world, silicon diodes are the most widely used rectifiers and have largely replaced earlier germanium diodes.

POWER MANAGEMENT

37

Power

management is

feature

of

some

electrical

appliances,

especially copiers, computers and computer peripherals such as monitors and printers, that turns off the power or switches the system to a low-power state when inactive. In computing this is known as PC power management and is built around a standard called ACPI. This supersedes APM. All recent (consumer) computers have ACPI support. Motivation: PC power management for computer systems is desired for many reasons, particularly:

Reduce overall energy consumption Prolong battery life for portable and embedded systems Reduce cooling requirements Reduce noise. Reduce operating costs for energy and cooling.

Lower power consumption also means lower heat dissipation, which increases system stability, and less energy use, which saves money and reduces the impact on the environment. Processor level techniques: The power management for microprocessors can be done over the whole processor, or in specific areas. With dynamic voltage scaling and dynamic frequency scaling, the CPU core voltage, clock rate, or both, can be altered to decrease power consumption at the price of potentially lower performance. This is sometimes done in real time to optimize the power-performance tradeoff. Examples:

AMD Cool'n'Quiet AMD PowerNow! [1] IBM EnergyScale [2] Intel SpeedStep Transmeta LongRun and LongRun2 VIA LongHaul (PowerSaver)
38

Additionally, processors can selectively power off internal circuitry (power gating). For example:

Newer Intel Core processors support ultra-fine power control over the functional units AMD CoolCore technology get more efficient performance by dynamically activating or

within the processors.

turning off parts of the processor.[3] Intel VRT technology split the chip into a 3.3V I/O section and a 2.9V core section. The lower core voltage reduces power consumption. Power Management System helps to: Avoid Black-outs In case of a lack of power, Load Shedding secures the electrical power to critical loads by switching off non-critical loads according to dynamic priority tables. Reduce Energy Costs / Peak Shaving When all on-site power generation is maximized and the power demand still tends to exceed the contracted maximum electricity import, the system will automatically shed some of the low priority loads. Enhanced Operator Support At sites where electricity is produced by several generators, the demands with respect to control activities by operators are much higher. Advanced functions such as intelligent alarm filtering, consistency analysis, operator guidance, and a well organized single-window interface support the operator and prevent incorrect interventions. Achieve Stable Operation The Power Control function shares the active and reactive power between the different generators and tie-lines in such a way that the working points of the machines are as far as possible away from the border of the individual PQ-capability diagrams so that the plant can withstand bigger disturbances.

Optimize Network Design

39

Because the set points for the generators, turbines and transformers are calculated in such a way that no component will be overloaded and the electrical network can be used up to its limits, overdimensioning of the network is no longer needed. All Minimize Cabling and Engineering the signals and information which are available in protection/control relays,

governor/excitation controllers and other microprocessor based equipment can be easily transmitted to the Industrial PMS via serial communication links. This avoids marshalling cubicles, interposing relays, cable ducts, spaghetti wiring, cabling engineering and provides extra functionality such as parameter setting/reading, stored events, disturbance data analysis and a single window to all electrical related data.

II. DC/DC CONVERTERS TOPOLOGIES AND MODELING


2.1. Multi boost and Multi full bridge converters modeling Figure (a) shows the multi boost converter topology.

The general model for this topology is given by equation; where (1) and (n) define respectively the duty cycle and parallel input converter number.

40

The voltage drops in the Ln and inductances are given by equation.

The converter average model has a nonlinear behavior because of crosses between 1 control variable and Vbus1 parameter. The Vbus1, Vsc1, Vsc2, Vscn , Ich and Vbat variables can to disturb the control, they must be measured and used in the estimate of the control law to ensure a dynamics of control [3]. The multi boost converter [4] topology control law which results from the boost converter modeling is presented by 1 duty cycle; where Np = max(n) is the maximum number of parallel converters.

The multi boost converter control strategy is presented in Fig (a).

41

It ensures the super capacitor modules discharge with variable current. The super capacitors reference current (Iscref) is obtained starting from the power management between batteries and hybrid vehicle DC-link. This control strategy includes the super capacitors and batteries current control loops. PWM1 signal ensures the multi boost converters control during super capacitor modules discharge. These modules being identical, the energy management between the modules and the hybrid vehicle DC-link enables to write the super capacitors current references.

To simplify the super capacitors current references estimation, the multi boost converter efficiency () was fixed at 85%. The multi full bridge converter [5] control strategy proposed in this paper consists to establish the full bridge converters standardized voltage [6]. The control law which result from the multi full bridge converter modeling is presented by equation, where (m) defines the transformer turns ratio.

This standardized voltage is compared with two triangular carrier waves of amplitude Vmax = 1V with a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The inverter control strategy is presented in Fig.(b); where Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 are the control signals applied to K1, K2, K3 and K4 switches. The simulations and experimental parameters are presented in table below. 2.2 Full bridge converter simulation results for Np = 2 The simulation has been made for Np = 2 [7]. The maximum and minimum voltages of the super capacitor modules are respectively fixed at 270V and 135V. The hybrid vehicle requested current (Ich) is respectively fixed at 100A from 0 to 0.5s, 400A from 0.5s to 18s and 100A from 18s to
42

20s. Battery reference current (Ibatref) is fixed at 100A independently of the hybrid vehicle power request.

Fig (a): Super capacitor modules voltages, (b): Super capacitor modules currents Super capacitor modules voltages (Vsc1, Vsc2) presented in Fig.(a) are identical. The currents amplitudes (Isc1, Isc2) presented in Fig.(b) are also identical. Control enables to maintain the battery current (Ibat) at 100A; but around 0.5s and 18s the battery current control loop has not enough time to react Fig (a). The important power of the transient states is ensured by the super capacitors modules (IL) Fig (b). Simulation parameters are presented in TABLE. TABLE: FULL BRIDGE TOPOLOGIE SIMULATIONS PARAMETERS

3. Design and Experimental results Wiring in power electronic design is a general problem for electrical energy system and the voltage inverters do not escape to this problem. The switch action of semiconductors causes instantaneous fluctuations of the current and any stray inductance in the commutation cell will produce high voltage variations. Semiconductors, when switching off, leads to high voltage transitions which is necessary to control within tolerable limits. The energy stored in parasitic inductances, during switching on, is generally dissipated by this semiconductor.
43

In the case of the single-phase inverter, each cell includes two switches and a decoupling capacitor placed at the cell boundaries, which presents a double role. It enables to create an instantaneous voltage source very close to the inverter. The (C) capacitor associated to an inductor enables to filter the harmonic components of the currents which are generated by the inverter. Parasitic inductances staying in the mesh include the capacitor inductance, the internal inductance of semiconductors and the electric connection inductances. A good choice of the components with an optimal wiring enables to minimize parasitic inductances. Using the semiconductors modules solves the connection problems between components. All these efforts can become insufficient, if residual inductances remain too high or if the inverter type is the low voltages and strong currents for which the voltage variations are much important. In both cases, the use of the chopping devices is necessary. These devices must be placed very close to the component to avoid any previous problem. The parameters used for experimental tests are presented in TABLE and the principle of such circuits [8] is given in Fig. TABLE: FULL BRIDGE EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS

Figure. Full bridge converter with chopping devices


44

During switching off of the semiconductors, the corresponding current stored in wiring inductances circulates in the following meshes C1, D1 ; C2 , D2; C3, D3 and C4 , D4 which limits the voltages applied to the switches. When electrical energy is fully transferred in C1, C2, C3 and C4 capacitors, the current becomes null and the meshes become closed. The C1, C2, C3 and C4 capacitors are used only for transient energy tank and it is necessary to recycle this switching energy while controlling the voltage at the semiconductors boundary. This function is ensured by R1, R2, R3 and R4 resistances. R1, R2, R3 and R4 resistances are identical and C1, C2, C3 and C4 capacitors are also identical. 3.1 Experimental setup at reduced scale For reasons of cost components and safety, the experimental test benches were carried out at a reduced scale (1/10). The boost converter test bench Fig (a) is made of: a battery module of 4 cells in series, two super capacitors modules of 10 cells (Maxwell BOOSTCAP2600) in series for each one, an active load which is used to define power request, two boost converters in parallel which ensure power management in hybrid vehicle.

Figure. Boost and full bridge converters experimental setup For the full bridge converter [9] test bench Fig (b), a batteries module, a super capacitors module, two high frequency planar transformer, the DC/AC and AC/DC converters have been designed. The super capacitors modules voltages must be between 27 V and 13.5 V. The batteries module which imposes the DC-bus voltage presents a rated voltage of 48 V and the DC-link voltage level

45

must be between 43 V and 60 V. The converters are controlled by a PIC18F4431 microcontroller with 10 kHz control frequencies for boost converters and 20 kHz for the full bridge converter. 3.1. Boost converters simulation and experimental results The boost converters experimental test is carried out in the following conditions: During the super capacitors discharge, the batteries current reference (Ibatref) is fixed at 13A so that, the super capacitors modules provide hybrid vehicle power request during the transient states. For these tests, the hybrid vehicle request (Ich) was fixed at 53A. The experimental and simulations results of the modules voltage are compared in Fig (a) and Fig (b). The (Isc1) and (Isc2) experimental currents are not identical

Figure. Super capacitor modules experimental and simulation voltage results Fig (a), Fig (b) because the super capacitors dispersion and the power electronic circuits (boost converters) inequality.

Figure. Super capacitor modules experimental and simulation current results The first boost converter ensures 50% and the second ensures also 50% of the DC-link current (IL). In other words the two super capacitors modules ensure a (IL) current of 40A to hybrid vehicle as presented in Fig (a), and 13A only is provided by the batteries Fig (b).
46

Figure. DC-link voltage and current experimental validation

CONCLUSION
In this paper, multi boost and multi full bridge converter topologies and their control strategies for batteries and super capacitors coupling in the hybrid vehicle applications were proposed. The system control is ensured by PIC18F4431 microcontroller type which includes 9 analog inputs and 8 PWM outputs. For reasons of simplicity and cost, the multi boost converter is the most interesting topology regarding the multi full bridge converter topology. It enables a good power management in hybrid vehicle. Full bridge experimental tests conditions were different from that of boost converter topology, so at this time it is not easy to make a good comparison between the two topologies. However, multi full bridge converter topology is well suitable to adapt the level of available voltage to the DC-link. For low voltage and high current applications such as super capacitors, the full bridge converter seems to be less interesting because of its higher cost ( many silicon and passive components), and a lower efficiency.

47

REFERENCES
[1] J.M Timmermans, P. Zadora, J. Cheng, Y. Van Mierlo, and Ph. Lataire. Modelling and design of super capacitors as peak power unit for hybrid electric vehicles. Vehicle Power and Propulsion, IEEE Conference, 7-9 September, page 8pp, 2005. [2] Huang jen Chiu, Hsiu Ming Li-Wei Lin, and Ming-Hsiang Tseng. A multiple- input dc/dc converter for renewable energy systems. ICIT2005, IEEE, 14-17 December, pages 13041308, 2005. [3] M.B. Camara, H. Gualous, F. Gustin, and A. Berthon. Control strategy of hybrid sources for transport applications using supercapacitors and batteries. IPEMC2006, 13-16 August, Shanghai, P.R.CHINA, 1:15, 2006. [4] L. Solero, A. Lidozzi, and J.A. Pomilo. Design of multiple-input power converter for hybrid vehicles. IEEE transactions on power electronics, 20, Issue 5, 2005. [5] Xin KONG and A. KHA. Analysis and implementation of a high efficiency, interleaved current-fed full bridge converter for fuel cell system. IEEE, 28-01 Nov, 1:474479, 2005. [6] M.B. Camara, F. Gustin, H. Gualous and A. Berthon. Studies and realization of the buck-boost and full bridge converters with multi sources system for the hybrid vehicle applications. Second European Symposium on Super capacitors and Applications, ESSCAP2006, Lausanne, Switzerland,2-3 November, 2006. [7] Huang-Jen Chiu, Hsiu-Ming, Li-Wei Lin, Ming-Hsiang Tseng. A Multiple-Input DC/DC Converter for Renewable Energy Systems, Industrial Technology, ICIT2005, IEEE international Conference, 14-17 December 2005, Pages:1304-1308 [8] LOUNIS Zohra. APPOTS DES TECHNIQUES DE CABLAGES LAMINAIRES DANS UN ONDULEUR A IGBT DE MOYENNE PUISSANCE. PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2000. [9] Seong-Jeub Jeon, Gyu-Hyeong Cho. A Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current Switching Full Bridge DC-DC Converter With Transformer Isolation, IEEE Transactions on power Electronics, Vol.16, No.5, September 2001, Pages:573-580 [10] Yungtaek Jabg, Milan M.Jovanovic, Yu-Ming Chang. A New ZVS-PWM Full-Bridge Converter, IEEE Transactions on power Electronics, Vol.18, No.5, September 2003, Pages:11221129 Authorized
48