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This Investigatory Research Proposal Is Presented To The Science Department Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School Santa Cruz, Laguna


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are looking forward for something that will enhance our personality that will make us a better person and make a significant existence. We want to find the real us and mingle our lives with others. We hope that way will help our world and be recognized by others. This research paper would not have been accomplished without the guidance of our Almighty Lord God and to those people who contributed as well as supported the researchers in doing this study; Ms. Ma. Lourdes Gatapia, their research adviser, for her patience, encouragement and guidance for the completion of the study; To all the 4th year teachers of the Special Science Curriculum for their advices especially to their ever supportive class adviser Mrs. Florina C. Federico, they will treasure you always; To the friends of the researchers, for the over whelming support they gave especially, Joyce, Jodi, Carmela, Boni, Micca, Jade and many more who helped them in such a way that they will never forget them for the rest of their lives. To their classmates, for the concerns and moral support and for the four memorable years they shared together. To their seatmate, Jaira Grace M. Obsequio, who is always there for them even if we felt like giving up, remember that we love you always.

To Engr. Jay-RaldM.Delos Santos, for the ideas and suggestion, for his help and support; And also to their research teachers in the past few years, Mr. Cirilo Vista and Mr. Jun Daracan Jr., who shared their knowledge to the researchers. Lastly, to their family from the past, for the present and future.

R.M.N A.B.L.O A.N.P.S 08/28/11



CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction.. 2 Statement of the Problem. 4 Significance of the Study.. 5 Paradigm 7 Conceptual Framework. 8 Scope and Limitation. 8 Definition of Terms. 8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design.. 20 Materials and Equipments. 20 Procedure/Method 21


Application. 21 Observation 22

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION Interpretations............................................................ 23 Discussions.. 25 Computations 25 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary. 27 Conclusions 28 Implications 29 Recommendations 29 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 40 APPENDICES.. 41


Page Table 1... 23 Table 1.1 23 Table 2 25 Table 2.1 26 Table 2.2 26



This study contains information about tegula house roofs, which aims to produce a product that looks like a corrugated tegula house roof but contains water lily fibers and wood ashes in its mixture. The researchers aim to create or manufacture this experimental tegula house roof that costs lower than the commercial tegula available in markets. The researchers used water lily fibers that were cut into small pieces and completely burnt charcoal. It was then mixed with cement and water and put into mold. With the ratio of ash, water lily fibers, cement and water which is 1:2:3 (2), we obtained a product which is stronger, more durable and lighter than the commercial tegula, With the fire proofing test and water resistance test, it is proved that it is fire and water resistant. Using water lily fibers as one of the main components or additive to the tegula, the researchers can help the environment in such a way that putting away water lilies in the bodies of water will prevent it from clogging. Manufacturing of this tegula will help create more job opportunities to the community. The tegula made are low-priced due to the raw materials used. The age of their curing was 4 days. The average selling price of this Tegula house roof is Php19.72 compared to the commercialized tegula house roof available in the market which is Php28.00.

CHAPTER I Background of the Study Introduction Nowadays, people suffer from different economic problems, especially today because of the tremendous calamities that happen to strike our country. There are some effects brought by these disasters to humans. These past few days, the Philippines suffered from two consecutive typhoons. Because of this, many water lilies manifest and grew in the big bodies of water. Due to a huge number of water hyacinths, hundreds of troops and civilians cleared tons of water lilies from the Rio Grande at the southern part of the Philippines. The innocuous-looking plants are the prime culprits of recent flooding in and around this city of 400,000, according to local officials.

Instead of considering water lilies as unprofitable materials, why not turn it into a useful material?

According to some researches, Water lilies are aquatic perennials growing from an underwater stem, which is buried in the mud and sends down rootlets for anchorage. The water lily has round, leathery leaves, deeply notched at the base, and a multi petaled white blossom (June-September). The yellow pond lily has heart-shaped leaves and produces a cup-shaped yellow blossom (May2

October). Water Lily flowers are wonderfully showy and fragrant, lasting only a few days. Some open during the day and close at night, others the opposite. Water lilies add vibrant color to the pond. The flowers of the water lily are up to 4 inches across with oblong petals arranged in circles around the center. Tropical water lilies are not frost hardy. They will die if the pond water gets cold. The advantage of tropical water lilies is they will have many flowers on one plant. They also come in blue and purple which hardy water lilies don't. Hardy water lilies survive the winter as dormant tubers. When spring arrives the lily starts to grow and bloom again. Other colors for both hardy and tropical lilies include white, pink, yellow and a dark pink that is almost red. With the introduction, we can see that we want to know more about the importance and properties of water lilies so that we can turn nothing into something new. Hypothesis: Alternative Hypothesis : The Water Lily (Nymphaeaodorata) fibers are effective additive component to cement in making Concrete Tegula Roof. Null Hypothesis :

The Water Lily (Nymphaeaodorata) fibers are not effective additive component to cement in making Concrete Tegula Roof.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This investigatory research proposal will aim to determine if Water Lily fibers can be an effective additive component to cement in making Concrete Tegula Roof and to evaluate the acceptability of water lily fibers. Specifically, this will aim to answer the following questions: 1. Can we use water lily fibers added to cement in making concrete tegula roof? 2. How durable is the finished product if new used water lily fibers in making tegula house roof? 3. We want to determine the quality of water lily fibers in terms of : 3.1 Quality 3.2 Effectiveness 3.3 Capability of being mixed 4. Testing 4.1 Strength 4.2 Durability 4.3 Fire resistance 4.4 Water Proofing 5. Cost


Species in the water lily family are important components of the plant communities of most freshwater lakes, ponds, and other shallow-water habitats. They provide food for many types of herbivorous animals, and a habitat substrate for others, such as the long-toed birds known as "lily-trotters" or jacanas (family Jacanidae, including Jacana spinosa of Central and South America).

Species of water lilies provide a beautiful aesthetic to aquatic habitats, which is greatly appreciated by many people. The sacred lotuses

(Nelumbonucifera and N. nelumbo) are especially important in this regard in a number of cultures. This is particularly true in India, China, Japan, and elsewhere in Asia, where sacred lotuses are featured prominently in horticultural plantings in many gardens and parks, in paintings and other visual arts, in architectural motifs and decorations, and as symbolism in literature.

Several other species in the water lily family are of minor economic importance as horticultural plants, because of the pleasing aesthetics of their floating leaves, as well as their attractive flowers. Various species of water lilies and spatterdocks are commonly planted in gardens which have shallow ponds incorporated into their design. A water lily native to North

America, Nymphaeaodorata, is commercially available in rose-hued flowers, as well as the wild-type white color.

Another minor use of some species is in the production of food for fishes grown in tropical aquaculture. Water lilies growing in commercial fish ponds are eaten as a food by certain herbivorous fish, and thereby contribute to the productivity of the agricultural ecosystem.

Some people eat the seeds of Nymphaea, Nelumbo, and Victoria, but this is a relatively minor use of the plants.

For students, this study will serve as a reference in dealing with fastest improvement of discoveries. They may help also understand the concepts and theories applied while studying this kind of study.









CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The illustration in the paradigm shows the method on how to dry the leaves of water lily to get its fibers. It illustrates the input, processes and output of drying leaves, getting the fibers, mixing and molding with cement. With these methods, we can come up with the finished output of a lower pricedtegula concrete house roof. SCOPE AND LIMITATION The study is mainly concern about the fiber content of water lily that can be an ingredient or additive for cement in making concrete tegula house roofs. The proposal also covers the acceptability of this water lily fiber in the production of less expensive tegula house roofs and its effectiveness at lower price. It also includes the computation of its cost to be comparable to the concrete roof tiles available in a market and a chemical to be used.

Definition of Terms: 1. Tegula - overlapping roof tiles used in ancient Greek and Roman architecture as a waterproof and durable roof covering. They were made predominantly of fired clay, but also sometimes of marble,bronze or gilt. In Rome they replaced shingles, and were used on almost every type of structure, from humble outbuildings to grand temples and public facilities.

2. Fiber -a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. Vegetable fibers are generally based on arrangements of cellulose, often with lignin: examples include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, ramie, andsisal. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile (cloth), and dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition.

3. Water Lily -The phrase "water lily" is used to describe aquatic plants of the following families, which have lily pads:

4. Cement - a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to was made from

describe masonry resembling crushed rock with

modern concrete that binder.

burnt lime as

The volcanic

ash and

pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cment and cement.

5. Concrete -a composite construction material, composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of

gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water and chemical admixtures.

6. Molding - the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. 7. Mixture - a material system made up by two or more different substances which are mixed together but are not combined chemically. Mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances the identities of which are retained and are mixed in the form

of alloys, solutions, suspensions, and colloids. Mixtures are the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical

substances like elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup.



REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Water Lily (Water lily products made in Taguig) Water hyacinths clogging tributaries of Laguna de Bay are providing a promising livelihood venture for Taguig City residents.

The plants are now processed and turned into decor and other items that have the potential to make it in the international market.

Water hyacinth bags, place mats, wreaths and even parol (Christmas lantern) made by Taguig residents debuted Friday at the Department of Trade and Industrys One Town, One Product fair at Market! Market in Bonifacio Global City.

Launched in August, the Water Lily Livelihood Project has been implemented in six of Taguigs 18 barangay by Soroptimist International headed by Kaye Tiga, wife of Mayor Sigfrido Freddie Tiga. Councilor Gigi de Mesa, one of the projects point persons, said the project could also solve the problem of water lilies clogging Taguig River.

Water hyacinths, also called water lilies, thrive in parts of Laguna de Bay, the third largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, and its tributaries, including the rivers of Pasig, Pateros and Taguig.

Over 200 persons were trained under the project in the villages of Napindan, Signal Village, Lower Bicutan, Wawa, Bambang and Tuktukan.

Each barangay processes water lilies into a different product. For example, Napindan residents make slippers and place mats, while Signal Village and Lower Bicutan make bags and house decors, respectively.

Wawa and Bambang residents produce Christmas decorations, and Tuktukan does novelty items.

De Mesa said no chemicals were used to make the products.

(The cornerstone of Aromatherapy is using synergistic plant based ingredients to ensure the effectiveness of the essential oil compounds, 2008) Not only does an authentic natural botanical source ensure the ready uptake of nutrient by our skin, but the compatibility of a natural source limits toxicity and synthetic ingredients.

This ensures our systems of elimination can safely and effectively remove unwanted compounds.

The effectiveness of any product range depends on the concentration of pure plant derived ingredients and the exclusion of benign mineral oil fillers and petrochemical derivatives. Purity ensures that Waterlily products are free from mineral oils, petrochemicals, propylene glycol, synthetic fragrances, colours, and

synthetic fillers. All ingredients come from the purest botanical source possible to ensure product integrity and effectiveness.

A products effectiveness is determined by its percentage of active components. Waterlily focuses on utilizing at least 95% of active botanical or organic material to ensure each products efficacy.

Each label clearly lists ingredients in their common botanical name to demonstrate the rich volume of active ingredient. (Paniqui Water Lily Handicrafts, 2010) Dried water lily stalks woven into fine handicrafts became the livelihood of women, housewives, out-of-school youths, and senior citizens of Paniqui, Tarlac, Philippines.

A wide range of products like shoes, sandals, slippers, bags, baskets, wallets, pouches, belts, trays, placemats, boxes, tissue holders and many others can be crafted by Paniqui folks using stalks of dried water hyacinths. The ample visibility and fast growth of this plant caused a problem of obstructing the flow of water as the region is traversed with many rivers, swamps, and creeks, causing flooding during heavy rains. The local government started this project with 25 weavers which increased to 50 within 12 months as demand from local and foreign tourists poured out. Over a wide variety of handicrafts can be made from dried water hyacinths. Its light yet strong fiber property can be woven to different products

according to the clients preferences. Because it is organic, it can be used for packaging of goods which will substitute plastics that are non-biodegradable.

The abundant yield of high quality dried water lily straws with the hardworking weaving skills mean that the plant harvesters and weavers of Paniqui have very good potential to enter the market of producing high quality handmade water lily handicrafts in different designs and products.

Furthermore, the same raw materials and weaving techniques can be applied to develop a range of good quality and attractive water lily fashion ware like slippers and handbags . The production of the water lily baskets and boxes would be undertaken by the Paniqui Women Association and the PAGASA Youth Association both recognized and supported by the local government. High quality fabric materials for fastenings, linings, gloss, water-proofing, and highlights were sourced from the locality.


Production of water lily mats, trays and other handicrafts would enhance the quality and value of products produced by the local groups and should give in a major income increase for their own households.

The target market for water lily handicrafts would be predominately the local market of wealthier Filipinos, overseas Filipino workers, expats and foreigners. The local government unit of Paniqui plans to engage on supplying water lily handicrafts for wholesale to a number of domestic distributors and retail networks. The aim of water lily boxes, baskets, and handbags will primarily be environment conscious consumers who do not use plastic bags or plastic containers. These consumers and other unaware consumers will be targeted through direct marketing and direct and indirect advertising campaigns backed up by the local government, and the Department of Trade and Industry.

There are three main market targets for the water lily handicrafts. The target for the water lily fashion items (mostly handbags, slippers, wallet, etc.) will be established domestic handicraft wholesalers and retailers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, as well as exporters for the United States, Japan, and European markets. It is anticipated that domestic sales to cater to the large tourism market all over the Philippine islands will make up the majority of water lily fashion item sales.


The target market for water lily handicrafts (mostly lampshade, decorative household products, placemats, etc.) will initially be the Filipino community living abroad. This embodies a significant market, as there are many Filipinos working around the world-over 860,000 not mentioning Filipino immigrants, so the overall potential market size is large.

The main potential competitors would be other communities all over the country who also started this water lily weaving project, as this is promoted by the Department of Trade and Industry to local government units with trouble with the pesky water plant. Another is handicrafts made of other indigenous materials. Water lily products could compete well on the basis of price with other indigenous materials as the raw materials are freely harvested.

The distinctive promotion about the water lily products is that they are well crafted by hand utilizing indigenous materials and the designs are decorative emphasizing the Filipino heritage. Also, the use of the product is very helpful to the environment as it substitutes the use of plastic materials and at the same time ceases the clogging of flow of water on rivers and creeks. However, the selling price of the handicrafts is very reasonable. The handicrafts could also be made to order.


The water lily project started as a livelihood program for the Paniqui women, out-of-school youths, and senior citizens organized by the Local Government Unit of Paniqui. Management is directed by the Municipal Mayor with the help of the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office.

The Program is in coordination with the Provincial Government of Tarlac which also gives the needed promotional and advertising campaign with the national agency, the Department of Trade and Industry who assist the weavers for needed training and development.

It started from 12 housewives to 25 women and youths and then to 50 within a year. Handcrafting eventually became a constructive activity for people who were once dawdling outside their homes playing cards and getting drunk the everyday.

Some weavers take their work at home with the whole family joining the making of the water lily handicrafts. While others chooses to work at the Paniqui Livelihood Center were materials are readily available.

A household would earn roughly around three hundred pesos (Php 300) weekly during slack season and about six hundred pesos (Php 600) weekly during peak season.


Before it became a livelihood program last August 2008, the conceptions for these water lilies are pests to the community as it hampers the flow of water in rivers and creeks during heavy rains causing flooding in the area. It is projected that by the fourth year of operation the total income for the workers from handcrafting activities could increase roughly 3 times by the year 2012. (Made Handicrafts From Water Lilies/Hyacinth To Solve Flood Problems, 2011) While the residents of Cotobato are busy removing tons of water hyacinths from Delta Bridge of Rio Grande de Mindanao River, the residents of Las Pias are making different handicraft products out of water lilies.

They harvesting water lilies (stalks) from Zapote river. Then dry in oven or under suns heat. Pass it through a flattening machine. Then it is used for making variety of handicrafts like bags, basket, chair, lampshade, bayong and slippers.

Water lily fiber is as strong as abaca, softer to weave. Their products are popular both local and export.

Clogging of Rio Grande de Mindanao have caused wide spread flood in Cotobato City. De-clogging duty is a joint force of army, DPWH, local government unit and local residents.

More residents using water lilies in create handicraft will mean lesser flood problems. Time will come that we need to culture them to meet local and foreign demands.

(Water lily fibers supply textile artisans, 2009) Renewable fibers from coconuts, bamboo and pineapple are joined by a new plant-based raw material: the lovely water lily. The Philippino Las Pinas Water Lily Weaving Center recently donated an extracting and drying machine for water lily fiber to Malabon City to support artisans making handicrafts such as bags, table runners, carpets and other textiles. The machinery will allow Malabon residents to more efficiently use lilies found in large numbers in local aquatic areas.




RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents research design, materials and equipments procedures and the application of the methods mentioned above. Research Design The method that will be used in this study is the experimental method. In order to indicate and determine the importance of Water lilies in the community despite the fact that it harmed the lives of some Filipinos in Cotabato City, the researchers want to turn these plants that were considered trash into useful ones that may help enhance the quality of the concrete materials for construction, particularly, the Tegula House Roof.

Materials and Equipments Water Lily Fibers Tegula Roof Mold Used Oil Type A Cement Water Admixture Wood Ashes


Procedure In making tegula house roofs out of cement and water lily fibers, gather first the materials to be used. Dry the water lily stems for one whole week. While drying the stems, it is better to make the molder so that time will not be wasted. In making the molder, the researchers measured an actual size of tegula. Then remove the outer part or the skin of the stems in order to get the fibers when the stem is already dried. Second, cut the fibers into small pieces. Prepare the mold and apply used oil so we can easily get the product when dried. Mix the cement, a small volume of wood ashes, water and the dried fibers of water lily. Third, put the mixture into the molder and wait until its solidified. Lastly, remove it from the molder. Application The gathering of water lily fibers takes about 4 days and the drying of leaves is about one week. Making the whole Tegula House Roof will take about 4 weeks, including the preparation, gathering, and performing the experiment. We will let it dry for 4 days, and then get the product slowly from the mold.


Observation In the first step of this method, which is the collection of water lily fibers, the researchers did not find it so hard to gather, because water lilies are abundant, covering the river. The process of taking off the skin is the easiest way, but takes a longer period of time. The reaserchers need the sand-like texture of the fibers. They did this by cutting the fibers until we reach our desired texture. It is easier to use blender than cutting it manually using scissors. Preparing the mixture is like the typical way of mixing cement and sand just like the construction workers domixing cement and sand and adding water. The only difference is they added the cut water lily fibers into the mixture. The purpose of adding the grinded water lily fibers is to make the product lighter than the original product, but still, it has the quality of a good Tegula house roof. It also lessens the population of water lilies in rivers and ponds. The cost of this new product is priced lower than the pure-cement tegula house roof.



Results and Discussions

The findings were taken through experiment presenting the result of the data gathered and presented in the following order.

Table 1. Curing Period

No. of Roof Tiles Sample

Proportion (A,WL,C) (W)

4 days Curing done done done

1 1 1

1:2:3 (2.75) 1:2:3 (2.50) 1:2:3 (2)


An impact test was done to obtain the strength of the Tegula House Roof. Careful observation was done.

Table 1.1 Impact Test Result

Ash:WaterLily:Cement (Water) 1:2:3 (2.75) 1:2:3 (2.50) 1:2:3 (2)


2 3 5


Rating Scales : 5 no cracks, no damage 4 chipped, few cracks 3 more cracks, but did not break 2 broke into fragments 1 extensive damage; crushed

Impact Test Results

On the first test that we did, we stepped on the product for 10seconds and recorded our observation. The product was broken into fragments and had many cracks. Because of this, we have to make another product, but this time, we added the admixture to make the next product more compact and increase its strength.

On the second trial, we also stepped on the Tegula. It was broken into two pieces, unlike the first that had many cracks and fragments. We can say that adding admixture can improve the strength of the Tegula.

We made another Tegula but now, we computed the exact measurements and ratio of cement, water lily, water and admixture.


On the third trial, when we stepped on the Tegula, but it was not broken, or even a single crack was not visible. We can say that our Tegula is durable and strong.

Fire Resistance Results

We made the fire proofing test by comparing it to a commercialized Tegula sample. As compared to the commercialized Tegula, its fire resistance is the same. It did not burn, but left a mark on the Tegula product.


Comparing the Tegula product that was made into the commercial Tegula sample, we can say that the strength and durability of our product is the same as the commercialized Tegula. It is also fire resistant. Hence, the Tegula house roof that we made is a quality product which can be sold in the market at a lower price.

Table 2.Computations:

Based from the experiment, the cost of the tiles is as follows:

Material 1 bag of cement 1 gallon of Admixture Water Lily

Cost Php 200.00 Php 300.00 Php 0.00


Table 2.1Materials needed for every piece of roof tiles:

Material Cement Admixture Water Lily

Unit 3 kg 200 mL 200 grams

Table 2.2Material Cost per piece:

Cement Admixture Labor cost Cost

3 kg

(Php200/45kg) (Php300/Gallon)

= Php13.3333 = Php 0.3750 = Php6.0050 = Php19.7153


43.82% of materials





This investigatory research proposal aimed to determine if water lily fibers can be an effective additive component to cement in making concrete tegula roof and to evaluate the acceptability of water lily fibers. Specifically the researchers sought to find answers to the following questions:

1. Can we use water lily fibers as an additive in making concrete tegula roof? 2. How durable is the finished product if the researchers used water lily fibers in making tegula house roof? 3. The researchers want to determine the quality of water lily fibers in terms of: 3.1 Quality 3.2 Effectiveness 3.3 Capability of being mixed 4. Testing 4.1 Strength 4.2 Durability 4.3 Fire Resistance 4.4 Water proofing 5. Cost


The researchers used experimental method to produce or manufacture tegula house roof using water lily fibers. In making tegula house roof, the researchers first gathered all samples. The water lily fibers should be dried up before it would be grinded to its smallest particles. After the preparation of the materials, it will be mixed together with different ratio to attain the desired result. It will undergo into curing so that it can be tested to know the compressive strength of the sample ratio and into compact test as well.


Based from the findings, the following ratio was revealed:

1. Water lily fibers are possible to use in making tegula house roof. 2. The plasticizer added more strength in the cement. 3. Using water lily fibers as one of the main components or additives to the tegula house roof help the environment in such a way that it can help reduce the water lily waste population and to reduce air pollution in using wood ashes as well. Manufacturing of this tegula house roofing also help to create job opportunities to the community. The tegula house roof made is priced low due to the raw materials used. 4. In actual making of this tegula house roof it was found out that too much water lily fibers, wood ashes and less amount of cement makes it weak. Furthermore, it was also found out that during the process, the mixture must have a wellcontrolled pouring of water in order to avoid over mixing.



Based from observations, the researchers had formulated the following implications:

1. During experimentation, the researchers found out that the water that settled in the molder affect the strength of the tegula house roof. 2. The more water lily fibers to be mixed, the more water to add. 3. The amount of water to be added also affect the strength of the mixture.


After the data and findings were analyzed, the researchers recommend the following:

1. To the next researchers who has interest in Applied Science involving water lily raw materials, a thorough follow-up study is recommended to determine the effectiveness of water lily fibers and wood ashes in making tegula house roofs and determining the life span of the roofing. 2. The researchers recommend further study to develop better design mixes. 3. Try to use various additives that can be an alternative for better and lower priced product.


4. Try to find other materials that can be used for the tegula molder. 5. Study more about the fibers and types of cement more appropriate to use in mixing with wood ashes to meet the given specification. 6. Further research in its uses is highly recommended to ease the fear of what the community might think of the product.


Impact Test and Compressive Strength

Trial 1

First Test

Broke into fragments, many cracks


Trial 2

Second Test

Few cracks, broke into two


Trial 3

Third test

No damage

Fire Resistance Test

(As compared to a Commercial Tegula sample)

Commercial Tegula

Tegula Product



Collection of Water Lilies

Drying of water lily stems

Getting the fibers

Cutting the fibers into smaller pieces


Preparing the molder

Putting floor wax on the molder

Mixing the cement, water, and admixture

Putting the mixture in the molder



Letting it dry

Final Product





TIME TABLE June Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Revision Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 July August