C O N V E N T I O N1

BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Republic of Latvia, DESIRING to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital, HAVE AGREED as follows:

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The convention shall have effect as from January 1, 2007.

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Article 1 Persons covered This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States. Article 2 Taxes covered 1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied. 2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation. 3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are in particular: a) in Latvia: (i) (ii) (iii) the enterprise income tax (uznemumu ienakuma nodoklis); the personal income tax (iedzivotaju ienakuma nodoklis); the immovable property tax (nekustama ipasuma nodoklis);

(hereinafter referred to as “Latvian tax”); b) in Israel: (i) (ii) the income tax and company tax (including tax on capital gains); the tax imposed on gains from the alienation of real property according to the Real Estate Taxation Law;

(hereinafter referred to as "Israeli tax").

4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

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Article 3 General definitions 1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

a) (i) the term "Latvia" means the Republic of Latvia and, when used in the geographical sense, means the territory of the Republic of Latvia and any other area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Republic of Latvia within which under the laws of Latvia and in accordance with international law, the rights of Latvia may be exercised with respect to the sea bed and its sub-soil and their natural resources; (ii) the term "Israel" means the State of Israel and when used in a geographical sense comprises the territory in which the Government of the State of Israel has taxation rights, including its territorial sea, as well as those maritime areas adjacent to the outer limit of the territorial sea, including seabed and subsoil thereof over which the State of Israel, in accordance with international law and the laws of the State of Israel, exercises its sovereign or other rights and jurisdiction. b) the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean Israel or Latvia, as the context requires. c) the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons; d) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes; e) the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State; f) the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; g) the term "competent authority" means: (i) (ii) in Latvia, the Ministry of Finance or its authorised representative; in Israel, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative;

h) the term "national" means: (i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State. 2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the

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taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4 Resident 1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein. 2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows: a) he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests); b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode; c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national; d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement. 3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States may settle the question by mutual agreement. In the absence of such agreement, for the purposes of the Convention, the person shall not be entitled to claim any benefits provided by this Convention.

Article 5 Permanent establishment 1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

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2. a)

The term "permanent establishment" includes especially: a place of management;

b) a branch; c) an office;

d) a factory; e) a workshop, and

f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources. 3. a) A building site or construction, assembly or installation project or a supervisory activity connected therewith constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than 12 months; b) Activities carried on offshore in a Contracting State in connection with the exploration or exploitation of the sea bed and sub-soil and their natural resources situated in that State shall be deemed to be carried on through a permanent establishment situated in that State, if such activities are carried on for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any twelvemonth period. 4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include: a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise; b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery; c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise; e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - is acting on

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behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph. 6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. 7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6 Income from immovable property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, any option or similar right to acquire immovable property, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources, rights to assets to be produced by the exploration or exploitation of the sea bed and sub-soil and their natural resources, including rights to interests in or to the benefit of such assets; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property. 3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

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4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7 Business profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment. 2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment. 3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. 4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article. 5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise. 6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary. 7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

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Article 8 Shipping and air transport 1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State. 2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency. Article 9 Associated enterprises 1. Where a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly. 2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

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Article 10 Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed: a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 10 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends; b) 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends, notwithstanding the provisions of sub-paragraph a), if the beneficial owner is a company which holds directly at least 10 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends where the dividends are paid out of profits which by virtue of provisions in the Israeli Law of Encouragement of Investments in Israel are exempt from tax or subject to tax at a rate that is lower than the normal rate of Israeli company tax; c) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid. 3. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident. 4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on

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the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11 Interest 1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed: a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the interest arising in a Contracting State and paid on any loan of whatever kind granted by a bank of the other Contracting State; b) 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest in all other cases.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, a) interest arising in Latvia shall be taxable only in Israel if the interest is paid to or in respect of a loan, debt-claim or credit that is guaranteed or insured by: (i) (ii) (iii) the Government of the State of Israel or a local authority thereof; or the Central Bank of Israel; or any institution for insurance or financing of international trade transactions which is wholly owned by the State of Israel;

b)

interest arising in Israel shall be taxable only in Latvia if the interest is paid to or in respect of a loan, debt-claim or credit that is guaranteed or insured by: (i) (ii) (iii) the Government of Latvia or a local authority thereof; or the Bank of Latvia; or any institution for insurance or financing of international trade transactions which is wholly owned by the Republic of Latvia;

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c)

interest arising in a Contracting State shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the recipient is a resident of that other State, and such recipient is an enterprise of that other State and is the beneficial owner of the interest, and the interest is paid with respect to indebtedness arising on the sale on credit, by that enterprise, of any merchandise or industrial, commercial or scientific equipment to an enterprise of the first-mentioned State, except where the sale or indebtedness is between related persons.

4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. The term "interest" shall not include any income which is treated as a dividend under the provisions of Article 10.Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article. 5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

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Article 12 Royalties 1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 5 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties. 3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience. 4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated. 6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

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Article 13 Capital gains 1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 2. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of shares or of a comparable interest of any kind deriving more than 50 per cent of their value directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. 3. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State, or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in the that other State. 4. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State operating ships or aircraft in international traffic from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State. 5. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident, if that resident is the beneficial owner of such capital gains. Article 14 Independent Personal Services 1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base. For this purpose, where an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State stays in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, he shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State and the income that is derived from his activities referred to above that are performed in that other State shall be attributable to that fixed base.

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2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants. Article 15 Income from employment 1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if: a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and

b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State. Article 16 Directors' fees Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or any other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

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Article 17 Artistes and sportsmen 1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State. 2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised. 3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to income derived from activities exercised in a Contracting State by an entertainer or sportsman if the visit to that State is wholly or mainly supported by public funds of one or both of the Contracting States. In such a case, the income shall be taxable in accordance with the provisions of Article 14 or 15, as the case may be.

Article 18 Pensions 1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 18, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article and paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other remuneration paid under the social security legislation of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State. Article 19 Government service 1. a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

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b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who: (i) (ii) 2. is a national of that State; or did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State. b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3.

The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to such salaries, wages, other similar remuneration and to pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof.

Article 20 Students Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

Article 21 Other income 1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State. 2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected

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with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 22 Capital 1. Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State. 2. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State. 3. Capital represented by ships and aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships and aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State. 4. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State. Article 23 Elimination of double taxation

1.

In Latvia, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows: a) Where a resident of Latvia derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with this Convention, may be taxed in Israel, unless a more favourable treatment is provided in its domestic law, Latvia shall allow: (i) (ii) as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid thereon in Israel; as a deduction from the tax on the capital of that resident, an amount equal to the capital tax paid thereon in Israel.

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Such deduction in either case shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax or capital tax in Latvia, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income or the capital which may be taxed in Israel. b) For the purposes of sub-paragraph a), where a company that is a resident of Latvia receives a dividend from a company that is a resident of Israel in which it owns at least 10 per cent of its shares having full voting rights, the tax paid in Israel shall include not only the tax paid on the dividend, but also the appropriate portion of the tax paid on the underlying profits of the company out of which the dividend was paid.

2.

In Israel double taxation shall be eliminated as follows: a) Where a resident of Israel derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Latvia, Israel shall (subject to the laws of Israel regarding the allowance of a credit of foreign taxes, which shall not affect the general principle contained in this paragraph) allow as a deduction from the tax on the income or on the capital of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax or the capital tax, respectively, paid in Latvia. Where such income is a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Latvia to a company which is a resident of Israel and which owns not less than 25 per cent of the share capital of the company paying the dividend, the credit shall take into account tax paid by that company in respect of its income out of which the dividends were distributed.

b)

Such deduction in either case shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax or capital tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income or the capital which may be taxed in Latvia. 3. Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived or capital owned by a resident of a Contracting State is exempt from tax in that State, such State may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of such resident, take into account the exempted income or capital.

Article 24 Non-discrimination 1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more

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burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article l, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States. 2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favorably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents. 3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. Similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State. 4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected. 5. The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to taxes of every kind and description. Article 25 Mutual agreement procedure 1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

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2. The competent authority shall endeavor, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States. 3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavor to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention. 4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly, including through a joint commission consisting of themselves or their representatives, for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 26 Exchange of information 1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes covered by the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. 2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation: a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State; b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

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c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public). Article 27 Members of diplomatic missions and consular posts Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions and consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements. Article 28 Entry into force 1. The Governments of the Contracting States shall notify each other in writing, through diplomatic channels, that the procedures required by their law for the entry into force of this Convention have been satisfied. 2. The Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 and its provisions shall have effect in both Contracting States: a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after the first day of January of the calendar year following the year in which this Convention enters into force; in respect of other taxes, for taxes chargeable for any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year following the year in which this Convention enters into force. Article 29 Termination

b)

This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination in writing at least six months before the end of any calendar year. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect in both Contracting States: a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after the first day of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice has been given;

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b)

in respect of other taxes, for taxes chargeable for any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice has been given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done in duplicate at…………......... this .......day of ………….......... 2006 which corresponds to the _________ day of ___________ 5766, of the Hebrew Calendar, in the Hebrew, Latvian and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

For the Government of the State of Israel:

For the Government of the Republic of Latvia:

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PROTOCOL At the signing of the Convention between the Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Republic of Latvia for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income and Capital, the undersigned have agreed that the following provisions shall form an integral part of the Convention: 1. Ad Article 2 paragraph 2 It is understood that taxes on total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises shall also be regarded as taxes on income, but social security charges or any other similar charges shall not be regarded as taxes on income. 2. Ad Article 3 paragraph 2 With respect to Israel, the term "law" in paragraph 2 of Article 3 includes rules, regulations, administrative directives and court decisions of the State of Israel. 3. Ad Article 4 paragraph 3 a) Where a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States and the competent authorities are trying to settle the question by mutual agreement, they shall have regard to such factors as the place of effective management, the place where it was incorporated or otherwise constituted and any other relevant factors. b) It is understood that the provisions of paragraph 3 are applicable as long as the place of effective management criterion for the determination of residence is not used under the domestic legislation of Latvia. In the case of implementation of such criterion the competent authority of Latvia shall inform the competent authority of Israel as soon as such criteria is implemented, and the following provisions shall be applicable instead of the provisions of paragraph 3 from the earliest possible date as determined by the competent authorities of both Contracting States: “3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.” 4. Ad Article 5 paragraph 6 It is understood that when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph. 5. Ad Article 6 paragraph 3 and Article 13 paragraph 1 It is understood that all income and gains from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State in accordance with the provisions of Article 13.

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6. Ad Article 7 paragraph 3 It is understood that the provisions of this paragraph do not apply to expenses which would not be deductible if the permanent establishment were a separate enterprise of the Contracting State in which is located. 7. Ad Article 11 paragraph 3 It is understood that ASHR'A the Israel Export Insurance Corp. Ltd. is the institution referred to in sub-paragraph a)(iii). 8. Ad Article 12 paragraph 3 It is understood that any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work encompasses copyright of films or tapes and other means of image or sound reproduction for radio or television broad-casting. 9. Ad Article 16 It is understood that Article 16 shall not apply to any remuneration paid to a member of any board or organ referred to in this Article in connection with his performance of any function other than his function as a member of such body or organ. 10. Tax relief Relief provided in this Convention to a resident of a Contacting State by the tax authorities of the other Contracting State, shall be conditioned upon the presentation of a certificate of residence indicating the relevant income, signed by the tax authorities of the first Contracting State. 11. Prevention of tax evasion or tax avoidance This Convention shall not prevent a Contracting State from applying its domestic law on the prevention of tax evasion or tax avoidance.

Done in duplicate at…………......... this .......day of ………….......... 2006 which corresponds to the _________ day of ___________ 5766, of the Hebrew Calendar, in the Hebrew, Latvian and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

For the Government of the State of Israel:

For the Government of the Republic of Latvia: