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It is my research study that gave me the opportunity to learn something that would help me at present as well as in future. This report which I am presenting to you is a contributed effort of all those who have helped me during the research study programme.
Last but not the least I would like to mention the name of my parents who encouraged me and motivated me at every point of time.
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HARI SHANKER YADAV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT COMPANY PROFILE BOARD OF DIRECTORS CEMENT PLANTS MILESTONES AWARDS & ACCOLADES ENQUIRIES OF ACC LIMITED SALES OFFICES CEMENT PRODUCTS : : CUSTOMER SERVICES CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILLITY
Development of ACC LIMITED
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY SCOPE OF STUDY ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH METHDOLOGY QUESTIONNAIRE ANALISIS FINDING LIMITATIONS SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS BIBIOGRAPHY QUESTIONNAIRE
ACC (ACC Limited) is India's foremost manufacturer of cement and concrete. ACC's operations are spread throughout the country with 16 modern cement factories, more than 40 Ready mix concrete plants, 21 sales offices, and several zonal offices. It has a workforce of about 10,000 persons and a countrywide distribution network of over 9,000 dealers.
The company actively promotes the use of alternative fuels and raw materials and offers total solutions for waste management including testing. ACC has rich experience in mining.Since inception in 1936. water management techniques and ‘greening’ activities. ACC plants. Among the first companies in India to include commitment to environmental protection as one of its corporate objectives. the company has been a trendsetter and important benchmark for the cement industry in many areas of cement and concrete technology. ACC has a unique track record of innovative research.the only one of its kind in the Indian cement industry. As the largest cement producer in India. and a considerable user of the country’s road transport network services for inward and outward movement of materials and products. product development and specialized consultancy services. suggestions for reuse. ACC has taken purposeful steps in knowledge building. being the largest user of limestone. We run two institutes that offer professional technical courses for engineering graduates and diploma holders which are 3 . it is one of the biggest customers of the domestic coal industry. the company installed sophisticated pollution control equipment as far back as 1966. recycling and co-processing. of Indian Railways. mines and townships visibly demonstrate successful endeavors in quarry rehabilitation. The company's various manufacturing units are backed by a central technology support services centre . Today each of its cement plants has state-of-the art pollution control equipment and devices. long before pollution control laws came into existence.
It is the only cement company that figures in the list of Consumer Super Brands of India 4 . The main beneficiaries are youth from remote and backward areas of the country. its high ethical standards in business dealings and its on-going efforts in community welfare programmers have won it acclaim as a responsible corporate citizen. services and sharing expertise.relevant to manufacturing sectors such as cement. Its commitment to sustainable development. ACC’s brand name is synonymous with cement and enjoys a high level of equity in the Indian market. ACC has made significant contributions to the nation building process by way of quality products.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS 5 .
S. Sekhsaria Chairman Mr Paul Hugentobler Deputy Chairman Mr Kuldip K Kaura Chief Executive Officer & Managing Director Mr S M Palia Mr Naresh Chandra Mr Markus Akermann Mr M L Narula Mr R A Shah Mr Shailesh Haribhakti Mr Aidan Lynam Mr Sushil Kumar Roongta 6 .Mr N.
Bargarh b. Chanda d. New Wadi Plant n. Wadi m. Chaibasa c. Thondebhavi o. Kymore h. Damodhar e. Lakheri j.OUR CEMENT PLANTS a. Sindri l. Madukkarai k. Jamul g. Tikaria 7 . Gagal f. Kudithini i.
SUBSIDIARIES AND ASSOCIATES ACC Concrete Limited ACC Mineral Resources Limited Bulk Cement Corporation (India) Limited Lucky Minmat National Limestone Company Private Limited Encore Cement & Additives Private Limited MILESTONES 8 .
1937. 1957 9 . 1944 ACC’s first community development venture near Bombay 1947 India’s first entirely indigenous cement plant established at Chaibasa in Bihar 1952 Village Welfare Scheme launched 1955 Sindri cement works used the waste product calcium carbonate sludge from fertilizer factory at Sindri. 1956 Bulk Cement Depot established at Okhla. Dewarkhand Cement Company. Mumbai on November 10. 1936 1937 With the transfer of the 10th company to ACC. 1936 1936 First Board Meeting of The Associated Cement Companies Limited held at Esplanade House. viz. Delhi 1957 Technical training institute established at Kymore.1936 Incorporation of The Associated Cement Companies Limited on August 1. the formation of ACC is complete on October 23. Madhya Pradesh.
1961 Manufacture of Accocid Cement. 1961 Manufacture of Hydrophobic (waterproof) cement at ACC Khalari Cement Works in Bihar. a waterproofing additive. a High Alumina Binder. which resists the corrosive action of acids and chemicals.000 feet. 1962 Manufacture of Accoproof. Low Density Alumina Castables and High Alumina Refractory Cement. 1965 ACC’s Central Research Station (CRS) established at Thane 1965 Manufacture of Portland Pozzolana Cement. 10 . Firecrete.Katni Refractories 1961 Blast furnace slag from TISCO used at the Chaibasa Unit to manufacture Portland Slag Cement for the first time in India. 1965 Manufacture of Calundum. 1961 Oilwell Cement manufactured at ACC Shahabad Cement Works in Karnataka for cementation of oilwells upto a depth of 6. 1968 Advent of computers in ACC for data processing and designing management information and control systems.
Full scale commercial production based on MFC technology at Wadi in 1979. 11 .1968 ACC supplied and commissioned one-million-tonne iron ore pelletising plant ordered by TISCO 1971 Manufacture of Whytheat Castables A. 1982 Commissioning of the first 1 MTPA plant in the country at Wadi. C and Cal-Al-75 1973 Take-over of The Cement Marketing Company of India (CMI) 1977 ACC receives ASSOCHAM first national award for the year 1976 instituted for outstanding performance in promoting rural and agricultural development activities. K. 1984 ACC achieves a breakthrough in import substitution by developing and supplying a special G type of oil well cement to ONGC. 1979 ACC wins international contract for operation and management of a new one million tonne cement plant at Yanbu-Ras Biridi in Saudi Arabia. 1978 Introduction of the energy efficient precalcinator technology for the first time in India. Karnataka.
and among the largest sized kilns in the world. 1999 Tata group sells 7. (GACL) 2000 Tata Group sells their remaining stake in ACC to the GACL group. 12 . a subsidiary of Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. Uttar Pradesh. the largest in the country.6 MTPA capacity at Wadi. which is successfully used in the Indian expedition to Antarctica.45% now emerge as the single largest shareholder of ACC 2001 Commissioning of the new plant of 2.2% of its stake in ACC to Ambuja Cement Holdings Ltd. 1995 ACC selected as Most Respected Company in India by Business India 1998 Commissioning of the 0. 1999 Commissioning of captive power plants at the Jamul and Kymore plants in Madhya Pradesh. 1993 ACC starts the commercial manufacture of Ready Mixed Concrete at Mumbai.1987 ACC develops a new binder for use at sub-zero temperatures. a joint venture with the Government of India. who with 14. Karnataka plant. 1992 Incorporation of Bulk Cement Corporation of India.6 MTPA cement grinding unit at Tikaria.
2005 ACC receives the CFBP Jamnalal Bajaj Uchit Vyavahar Puraskar Certificate of Merit – 2004 from Council For Fair Business Practices. 2005 Holcim group of Switzerland enters strategic alliance with Ambuja Group by acquiring a majority stake in Ambuja Cements India Ltd. 2004 GreenTech Safety Gold and Silver Awards awarded to Madukkarai Cement Works and Katni Refractory Works by Greentech Foundation for outstanding performance in Safety Management System.8 % of the 13 . 2004 ACC named as a Consumer Superbrand by the Superbrands Council of India. becoming the only cement company to get this status. Both offerings are listed on the London Stock Exchange. 2004 ACC raises US $ 100 million abroad through Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB’s) for US$ 60 million and Global Depository Shares (GDS’s) for US $ 40 million.2002 ACC wins PHDCCI Good Corporate Citizen Award 2003 IDCOL Cement Ltd becomes a subsidiary of ACC 2004 IDCOL Cement Limited is renamed as Bargarh Cement Limited (BCL). (ACIL) which at the time held 13.
Holcim simultaneously makes an open offer to ACC shareholders. 2005 Commissioning of Modernization and Expansion project at Chaibasa in Jharkhand.total equity shares in ACC.69 % of the Equity share capital of ACC. ACIL’s shareholding in ACC increases to 34.2 MTPA clinkering unit. together with a captive power plant of 15 MW. Pursuant to the open offer. replacing old wet process technology with a new 1. Bargarh Cement Limited and Tarmac (India) Limited merged with ACC 2006 ACC announces new Workplace policy for HIV/AIDS 2006 Change of name to ACC Limited with effect from September 1. 2006 ACC receives Good Corporate Citizen Award 2005-06 from Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Industry 14 . to acquire a majority shareholding in ACC. 2006 from The Associated Cement Companies Limited. through Holdcem Cement Pvt. 2005 Financial accounting year of the company changed to calendar year January-December 2006 Subsidiary companies Damodhar Cement & Slag Limited. Limited and ACIL.
2008 First Sustainable Development Report released on June 5. 2008 ACC wins CNBC-TV18 India Business Leader Award in the category India Corporate Citizen of the year 2008 2008 Project Orchid launched to transform our Corporate Office. 15 .2006 New corporate brand identity and logo adopted from October 15. 2008 ACC Cement Technology Institute formally inaugurated at Jamul on July 7. 2007 ACC partners with Christian Medical College for treatment of HIV/AIDS in Tamil Nadu 2007 Sumant Moolgaokar Technical Institute completes 50 years and reopens with new curriculum 2008 Ready mixed concrete business hived off to a new subsidiary called ACC Concrete Limited. Cement House into a green building. 2006 2006 ACC establishes Anti Retroviral Treatment Centre for HIV/AIDS patients at Wadi in Karnataka– the first ever such project by a private sector company in India.
2010 ACC enters its platinum jubilee year .1 MTPA of Portland Slag Cement.2009 ACC received the Jamanalal Bajaj "Uchit Vyavahar Puraskar" of Council for Fair Business Practices 2009 ACC is allotted coal blocks in Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.60 million tonnes inaugurated at Thondebhavi in Karnataka. 2010 ACC acquires 100 percent of the financial equity of Encore Cements & Additives Private Limited which is a slag grinding plant in Vishakhapatnam in coastal Andhra Pradesh. 2010 Kudithini Cement Grinding Plant inaugurated in Karnataka on January 4.the first company in the cement industry to achieve this status 2010 16 . 2009 ACC's new Grinding plant of capacity 1. This company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ACC in January 2010. 2010 with a capacity of 1.
ACC receives FICCI Award for Outstanding Corporate Vision Triple Impact Business Performance Social & Environmental Action & Globalisation for 2009-10 . Karnataka with a capacity of 12. Wadi.500 tones per day creating new landmarks for cement industry 2011 Central Control Room Building at ACC Chanda Plant.a unique award received for the first time 2011 World's largest kiln installed at ACC Cement Plant. the first of its kind in an industrial environment 17 . Maharashtra set up as a Green building.
Triple Impact . 18 . Green Leadership and Community Engagement by Enterprise Asia.Business Performance Social & Environmental Action and Globalisation for 2009-10 from Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Asia Pacific Entrepreneurship Award in two categories.AWARDS & ACCOLADES National Award for Excellence in Water Management by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Outstanding Corporate Vision.
Drona Trophy . Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award --.for valuable contribution in Mining activities from the Federation of Indian Mineral Industry under the Ministry of Coal.by The Federation of Indian Mineral Industries for environment protection measures.for excellent performance in prevention of pollution and ecological development Excellence in Management of Health. Safety and Environment : Certificate of Merit by Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association Good Corporate Citizen Award . Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award . Subh Karan Sarawagi Environment Award .By Indian Bureau Of Mines for extra ordinary efforts in protection of Environment and mineral conservation in the large mechanized mines sector.by PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry FIMI National Award . Enquiries Of ACC LIMITED Send a query : 19 .by The Ministry of Environment and Forests for "extraordinary work" carried out in the area of afforestation. Control Board. Rajya Sthariya Paryavaran Puraskar .for outstanding work in Environmental Protection and Environment Performance by the Madhya Pradesh Pollution.
email@example.com Kolkata : sanjay.com Western India:rajivkumar.com Hyderabad: navneet. Feedback & firstname.lastname@example.org 20 .email@example.com Northern India: o Cement Joydeep.firstname.lastname@example.org@email@example.com Mumbai: vishal. Enquiries For requirements in Eastern India :kurian.com Chennai:firstname.lastname@example.org@acclimited.ghai@accconcrete.A.com o Ready Mixed Concrete Bangalore:badnur.com For requirements in Delhi: anil.com Assistance B.com Southern India:email@example.com@accconcrete.
firstname.lastname@example.org E.com Sales Offices 21 .email@example.com Ulhas. Media Grievances Management Queries ACC-InvestorSupport@acclimited.com nand. Vendor Queries mahendrakumar.com D.parlikar@acclimited.C. Investor F. Waste G.com firstname.lastname@example.org@acclimited. Shareholder queries Krishnan.
P Chandigarh -JH Coimbatore Dehradun Hubli Mumbai Nagpur Pune Kanpur Lucknow 22 .Asansol Bangalore Chennai Bhopal Bhubaneswar Chandigarh .
New Delhi Kolkata Patna Raipur Ranchi Secunderabad 23 .
gray Portland cement in all respects except for its high degree of whiteness. Fly-ash based Portland Pozzolana Cement 24 . Ordinary Portland Cements White Portland cement or white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC) is similar to ordinary.CEMENT ACC manufactures the following types of cement in addition to which it provides Bulk Cement and Ready Mix Concrete. Obtaining this color requires substantial modification to the method of manufacture. and because of this. it is somewhat more expensive than the gray product.
25 . that react with Calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature liberated during the hydration of Portland Cement to produce stable. Pozzolana is essentially a siliceous material in finely divided form with the presence of water. cementitious compounds. These compounds contribute to strength and water tightness of Cement and are specially suitable for Dams and mass construction like foundation. that react with Calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature liberated during the hydration of Portland Cement to produce stable. It contains high reactive Silica (HRS) to enhance ultimate performance of concrete. It contains high reactive Silica (HRS) to enhance ultimate performance of concrete.Portland Pozzolana Cement is new generation cement. Pozzolana is essentially a siliceous material in finely divided form with the presence of water. These compounds contribute to strength and water tightness of Cement and are specially suitable for Dams and mass construction like foundation. Portland Pozzolana Cement is new generation cement. cementitious compounds.
where only one percent is transported in bulk. In fact.BULK CEMENT Bulk Cement Yet another first in our seven. over 90 percent cement in the USA. unlike in India. an alternative to bagged cement. which is of particular a advantage to large consumers of cement. and other European countries is transported and sold in bulk.decade history of cement in India has been the introduction of Bulk Cement. Internationally. 26 . the trend is to move cement more and more in loose form rather than bagged.
continues to be published by ACC. Chennai. It aims to disseminate the latest information and technological progress in civil and structural engineering. Redefining the pace and quality of construction INDIAN CONCRETE JOURNAL : Indian Concrete Journal The "Indian Concrete Journal". the country’s oldest civil engineering journal. Bangalore. Kolkata. Pune and Ahmedabad. It reaches out to practicing and consulting engineers. Hyderabad. 27 . Goa. construction methods and practices.ACC READY MIX CONCRETE ACC set up India's first commercial Ready Mix Concrete (RMX) plant in Mumbai in 1994. cement and concrete technologies. architects. contractors and government departments. Delhi. Today this business has been reorganized as a separate company called ACC Concrete Limited which is one of the largest manufacturers of RMX in India with over 55 modern plants in major cities such as Mumbai. builders.
we offer ACC Help services to share knowledge about the process of home building and correct procedures of product usage. rural and semiurban India. Its customer base represents the masses of India individual homebuilders in small towns. 28 . Going beyond the supply of cement.PRODUCTS : : CUSTOMER SERVICES ACC is essentially a people’s brand of cement with more than 80 per cent of sales made through an extensive dealer network that covers every state in India.
ACC Help Literature: Easy-to-understand construction guides.in : an interactive website for all your construction related questions.Our Regional Offices have Customer Services Cells manned by qualified Civil Engineers who interact with customers to assess their needs and problems. ACC Help Vans : Mobile help services.acchelp.com PRODUCTS : : QUALITY 29 . Our engineers in vans assist you at your site www. ACC reaches out to its customers. Indian Concrete Journal : the country’s oldest civil engineering journal For more information on these services SMS ‘ACCHELP’ to 575758 or send us an email addressed to acchelp@acclimited. home builders and engineers in the following ways: ACC Help Centres: For personal guidance on the right construction practices. offer advice before and after sales including educating users and customers on correct usage of cement and concrete and good construction practices.
As a result of this focus on quality. driving research. ACC has effectively pledged its reputation as the market leader in the quality of cement. Accordingly.from applied research and production to marketing. all ACC factories are equipped with state-of-the-art process control instrumentation and associated quality control and testing laboratories manned by qualified personnel. Maintaining this lead calls for harnessing the resources and expertise of the company . and justifies the preferences of a nationwide customer base. ACC cement specifications exceed those set by BIS by a wide margin.Product Development has always been an important activity at ACC. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 30 . innovation and evaluation. This demonstrates our tradition of providing reliable and consistent quality through the application of modern technology. Today. arising out of a focus on quality and process improvement. all ACC cement plants have the ISO 9001 Quality Systems certification. It has been a constant partner.
social and environmental objectives while addressing stakeholder expectations and enhancing shareholder value. The company’s earliest initiatives in community development date back to the 1940's in a village on the outskirts of Mumbai while the first formal Village Welfare Scheme was launched in 1952. The community living around many of our factories comprises the weakest sections of rural and tribal India with no access to basic amenities. – long before the term corporate social responsibility was coined.Workplace Policy HIV/AIDS treatment .Anti Retroviral Treatment Centres Disaster Relief 31 .Today we define Corporate Social Responsibility as the way a company balances its economic. Corporate Social Responsibility Policy Community & Rural Welfare Education Healthcare HIV/AIDS . But ACC has undertaken social volunteering practices almost from its inception.
Gujarat Masons’ Training Conservation of heritage structures Global Compact Support to national Sport Awards & Accolades 32 .
Price.Product. Promotion. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 33 .The products are ACC Cement.INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC Marketing Mix study of ACC Cement: Marketing mix basically consist of four factors. Place. Place. Promotion. Price.Promotion is done through advertisements.Pricing is done on the basis of consumer’s pocket. Product.It was concentrated in the urban area in the past but now both of these are expanding their market to the rural areas for rural consumers.
To know why they prefer ACC Cement products over any other company’s product. SCOPE OF STUDY 34 . Major objectives were:- To know the consumers perception regarding the products of ACC Cement. To know their satisfaction level regarding price & place where these products are available.The consumer survey or market research was done with a primary objective to study about the efficiency of ACC Cement in providing their products to the consumers & satisfying their needs. To get the main findings based on questionnaire.
It also gives a fair ACC Cement of the potential of a business in the future and the fluctuation in prices time to time and from product to product. advertisement. hence the discussion of whether to penetrate this section or not can be found out at the end of the data analysis. 35 . which should leave behind competitors. To keep things in minds that as the ever changing competitive business environment. new thoughts and ACC Cements should pour into research and development to innovate its existing product. This study enables the user with answers to formulate affective marketing mix strategy with a broader perspective to tap areas where it does not feel the need earlier. ways and means to cut down competition. Special reference is made to the improvement of quality of the product in terms packaging and product innovation.
M. ‘ 36 . of every division is responsible to managing director. G.ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ACC LIMITED has 10 divisions. The divisional heads of each division shall be responsible for the performance of there respective division not only at the bead office but also in the units/unions and in the fields. Every division has managers who are responsible to general manager. These offices shall not merely insure the achievement of the targets fixed and implementation of systems for there functional but promptly attend to the problems of the units/unions.
The divisional head should see the terms made by them and their officers and adequate and purposive and designate link officers for each officer in their vision. A copy of all such letters shall be the CPM section of the 37 . system development and other important matters need to put up before the managing director. Matters before approval and implementation.The divisional heads shall discharge their duties with in the policies frame laid down by the managing director & subject to his control & supervision. be routed through the Managing service division(MSD). Only important performance and control reports. policy matters. All letters to the NDDB shall before dispatch is send to the MSD. which will check the plan to see whether they are in conformity with cooperate objective. and will see that they are in conformity with other plans and systems and non contradiction occurs. question involving exception to approve policy. which will take speedy clearance at the appropriate level.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR 38 .
differences between organizational buying behavior and consumer buying behavior The nature and model of consumer involvement Consumer and industrial decision making process and decision rules Marketing implications of consumer behavior Study of consumer behavior modeling An Overview Consumer behavior is comparatively a new field of study which evolved just after the Second World War. The heterogeneity among people makes understanding consumer behavior a challenging task to marketers. ‘customer’. Consumer behavior is a study of how individuals make decision to spend their available resources. Hence marketers felt the need to obtain an in-depth knowledge of consumers buying behavior. The growth of consumerism and consumer legislation emphasizes the importance that is given to the consumer. ‘industrial buyer’ and ‘motives’ Need of consumer behavioral study. you will be able to understand: The terms ‘consumer’ . This led to paradigm shift of the manufacturer’s attention from product to consumer and specially focused on the consumer behavior. The sellers market has disappeared and buyers market has come up. Finally this knowledge acted as an imperative tool in the hands of 40 . The evaluation of marketing concept from mere selling concept to consumer oriented marketing has resulted in buyer behavior becoming an independent discipline.LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.
marketers to forecast the future buying behavior of customers and devise four marketing strategies in order to create long term customer relationship. or ACC Cements to satisfy needs and its impact on the consumer and society. induce action or determine choice in the purchase of goods or service. select. experience. services. Consumer Behaviour It is broadly the study of individuals. or organizations and the processes consumers use to search.search. desire or emotion that makes the buyer to make a decision to buy. use and dispose of products. social. psychological influences etc. Motive is a strong feeling. 41 . instinct. Consumer Motives Consumer has a motive for purchasing a particular product. It refers to person who customarily or regularly purchases particular Company. Thus a person who shops at Bata Stores or who uses Raymond’s clothing is a customer of these firms. Whereas the ‘consumer’ is a person who generally engages in the activities . experience. use and dispose of products. services. select. company. or ACC Cements. Customers versus Consumers The term ‘customer’ is specific in terms of Company. Buying motives thus are defined as ‘those influences or considerations which provide the impulse to buy. These motives are generally controlled by economic. urge. purchases particular company’s product. or shop. or purchases from particular shop.
The buyer does not try to reason out or logically analyse the need for purchase. 42 . and such valid reasons. Patronage Motives i. alternatives available. sense of ego. and his desire to be unique. Product Motives Product motives may be defined as those impulses. Rational Product Motives are defined as those impulses which arise on the basis of logical analysis and proper evaluation. These may still be classified on the basis of nature of satisfaction: a) Emotional Product Motives b) Rational Product Motives Emotional Product Motives are those impulses which persuade the consumer on the basis of his emotion. urge to initiate others.Motives which Influence Purchase Decision The buying motives may be classified into two: i. cost benefit. The buyer makes rational decision after chief evaluation of the purpose. He makes a buying to satisfy pride. Product Motives ii. desires and considerations which make the buyer purchase a product.
Patronage Motives Patronage motives may be defined as consideration or impulses which persuade the buyer to patronage specific shops. without any logical reason behind this action. Rational Patronage Motives are those which arise when selecting a place depending on the buyer satisfaction that it offers a wide selection. offers good aftersales service etc. It is essential for marketers to understand consumers to survive and succeed in these competitive marketing 43 .ii. Just like product motives patronage can also be grouped as emotional and rational. He may be subjective for shopping in his favorite place. Emotional Patronage Motives those that persuade a customer to buy from specific shops. it has latest models. Need for Study of Consumer Behavior The study of consumer behavior helps everybody as all are consumers. Knowledge of buyer motives of consumers is useful for marketers to anticipate market trends and formulate effective marketing strategies.
shopping or engaging in other activities. The two perspectives that seek application of its knowledge are micro and societal perspectives. and watching advertisements related to them. the purpose may be to attend immediate and tangible reasons. The following reasons highlight the importance of studying consumer behavior as a discipline. 44 . Pertinence to Decision Making Consumer behavior is said to be an applied discipline as some decisions are significantly affected by their behavior or expected actions. The people involved in this field try to understand consumers in order to be more effective at their tasks. Importance in day to day life The purpose of studying a discipline is to help oneself to better appreciate its contributions. All these reasons suggest the need for study. The extra time is usually passed in knowing and thinking about products and services. The reason to study consumer behavior is because of the role it plays in the lives of humans. discussing with friends about them. However. The usage of them significantly reveals our life styles.environment. Most of the free time is spent in the market place. The micro perspectives involve understanding consumer for the purpose of helping a firm or organization to achieve its objectives.
Whereas the societal or macro perspective applies knowledge of consumers to aggregatelevel faced by mass or society as a whole. instead of purchases being made for individual consumption industrial markets are made for business use. Organizational buyers are fewer in number but they are bulk buyers compared to individual buyers. Organizational buyer markets are either vertical or horizontal. Buyer Characteristics iii. Decision Process and Buying Patterns i Market Structure and Demand : The distinguishing factors of market structure and demand are as follows: In organizations buyers are more geographically concentrated than consumer markets. Organizational Buyer versus Individual Buyer The obvious difference between industrial or institutional markets and consumer markets is that. There are several factors that differentiate consumer markets and their buying behaviour from organizational market and their buying behavior. In vertical structures they cater only one or two industries. The behavior of consumer has significant influence on the quality and level of the standard of living. 45 . The key factors of differentiation are: i Market Structure and Demand ii. whereas in horizontal structure the buyer base is too broad.
quotations. Buyer Characteristics: The distinguishing factors of buyer characteristics are as follows: Many individuals or group involvement is seen in decision making process. Decision Process and Buying Patterns The major differences are as follows: In organizational buying lot of formalities like proposals. procedures are to be followed unlike consumer buying. Decision process is much complex with high financial risk. iii. The nature of the demand is fluctuation and inelastic.Organizational demand is derived from consumer demand. ii. The buying motive is mostly rational than individual buyer. Organizational buying requires more extensive negotiation over larger time period than consumer buying. CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT 46 . Organizational buyers are quite knowledgeable and professional. technical aspects. multiple influencing factors etc.
A consumer who is highly involved with a product would be interested in knowing a lot about it before purchasing. CAUSES OF CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT The factors that influences consumer involvement include personal. values and needs. the more likely the consumer is to feel involved in it.Some consumers are characterized as being more involved in products and shopping than others. the value symbolism inherent in it and the needs it serves are fitting together with the consumer self. They tend to use products and services that reflect their life style.image. Celebrities for example share a certain self-image. and looks for recommendations. Personal Factors Self-concept. asks questions. imported cars. product and situational. health care products etc. The more product image. and certain needs. and think about product information prior to purchase. and values are the three personal factors that influence the extent of consumer involvement in a product or service. They get highly involved in purchasing prestigious products like designer wear. compares Companies and models available at different outlets. Product Factors 47 . certain values. Thus Consumer involvement can be defined as heightened state of awareness that motivates consumers to seek out. needs. attend to. Hence he reads brochures thoroughly.
The consumer involvement grows as the level of perceived risk in the purchase of a good or service increases. It is likely that consumers will feel more involved in the purchase of their house than in the purchase of tooth paste, it is a much riskier purchase. Product differentiation affects involvement. The involvement increases as the number of alternatives that they have to choose from increases. This may be due to the fact that consumers feel variety which means greater risk. The pleasure one gets by using a product or service can also influence involvement. Some products are a greater source of pleasure to the consumer than others. Tea and coffee have a high level of hedonic (pleasure) value compared to, say household cleaners. Hence the involvement is high. Involvement increases when a product gains public attention. Any product that is socially visible or that is consumed in public, demands high involvement. For example, involvement in the purchase of car is more than the purchase of household items.
The situation in which the product is brought or used can generate emotional involvement. The reason for purchase or purchase occasion affects involvement. For example, buying a pair of socks for yourself is far less involved than buying a gift for a close friend. Social pressure can significantly increase involvement. One is likely to be more self conscious about the products and Companies one looks at when shopping with friends than when shopping alone.
The need to make a fast decision also influences involvement. A consumer who needs a new refrigerator and sees a ‘one- day- only sale’ at an appliances retailer does not have the time to shop around and compare different Companies and prices. The eminence of the decision heightens involvement. The involvement is high when the decision is irrevocable, for example when the retailer does not accept return or exchange on the sale items. Thus involvement may be from outside the individual, as with situational involvement or from with in the individual as with enduring involvement. It can be induced by a host of personal-product-and situation related factors, many of which can be controlled by the marketer. It affects the ways in which consumers see, process, and send information to others.
TYPES OF INVOLVEMENT
The two types of involvement are: A) Situation B) Enduring Involvement has various facets of consumer behavior such as search for information, information processing, and information transmission.
Situational involvement is temporary and refers to emotional feelings of a consumer, experiences in a particular situation when one thinks of a specific product.
Enduring involvement is persistent over time and refers to feelings experienced toward a product category across different situations. For example, holidaymakers renting a resort for their trip are highly involved in their choice, but their involvement is temporary. Whereas involvement of a person whose hobby is bike racing endures overtime and affects his responses in any situation related to pre-purchase, purchase and post- purchase of sport bikes. It is observed that involvement is triggered by special situation in the case of holiday makers, but in the second case, in comes from, and is a part of the consumer.
" Type of study : Descriptive Study No method known to man entirely eliminates uncertainty. Every company wants to improve its sales all time according to its production capacity. By doing so it reduces the danger of making a wrong choice between alternatives of action. 51 . On the other hand. But scientific methods more than any other method minimize those elements of uncertainty. Thus major purpose of this section is to describe the research problem in different parts. this results from lack of information. the objective of the research was : "To evaluate the competitive strength of ACC Cement with respect to the availability of the stock and analyze the Company strength with respect to the competition. This is the theme behind choosing the research ethnology for attainment of the objective. To provide a feedback on the asset utilization in the market place and how it can be used more effectively to yield better results.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Objective of Research: The main objective of the research in the project was to get the consumer behavior with respect to ACC Cement.
Sample Design : 1. the sample design was purposive because we targeted only the ACC Cement exclusive outlets. The sample comprised items of all profiles in a well-defined ratio. Sample Size : 100 A random sample of 100 times was decided to get the require information from the customers. Secondly. For the groceries the sample design was of two types. Research design is a specification of the methods and of procedures needed for acquiring information to solve the problem. Research design gives a clear cut picture. 2. we used the quota sampling method as we targeted factory outlet of ACC Cement. For the project we used non probabilistic sampling that can also be termed as purposive or judgmental sampling as we only targeted the store. 2. Firstly. There are two types of research design namely : 1.Research Design : The design of our research is statistical as it concerns that how many items of ACC Cement are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analyzed. how researcher must progress with research problem. Exploratory Research Conclusive Research 52 . Research design tends to minimize the accuracy of potential errors at any specified budget level.
marketing strategies etc. It can be done by survey of secondary data and survey of different people. Observation Method 53 . Data Collection Method : it is necessary to collect accurate data to achieve useful results for this reason. There are two types of data sources (primary and secondary) and observation methods are two basic methods of collecting data in marketing research. Clarification of concepts of formulation of hypothesis. It is done when one has very little knowledge about the problem which are going to examine. Secondary Data : Secondary data is the data that a researcher based on organization survey report basically in the form of kept records for an internal evaluation’s.Exploratory Research : It is a type of preliminary research in which the emphasis is on the discovery of new ACC Cements. It is helpful to consider the methods of collecting data and the quality of information that may be expected to produce. it is an informal research.
Observation method is used less frequently in marketing research. Questionnaire Method A questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to the respondents of their answers. According to the topic it is necessary to prepare a relevant questionnaire. In this method. The questionnaire is the most common instrument used to the collect the primary data. As a Brand ACC Cement product in Consumer’s ? 54 . surveyor or researcher should observe the sampling unit and their behavior with the help of a video camera. It is a subjective type of method of primary data collection which is used for exploratory research. It is a time consuming method of data collection. To find the cold stock of Pepsi and other Companies the respondents should be asked two type of questions : QUESTIONNAIRE 1 .
1 2 Topic Yes No Percentage (%) 95 5 5% 95% Yes No Interpretation : Most of the person purchase a ACC Cement product in his life. 55 .S.No.
Where do you get the best distribution channel of sales & services? S. 56 .2.No. 1 2 3 4 Topic ACC Cement Prism Birla Others Percentage (%) 55 25 15 5 ACC Cement Prism Birla Others 15% 5% 55% 25% Interpretation : Best sales & services which is given by the ACC Cement.
57 . a sales staff helps to select right things while buying product? S. 1 2 3 4 Every time Topic Percentage (%) 35 42 19 4 Most of the time Sometime Never 4% 19% 35% 42% Every time Most of the time Sometime Never Interpretation : Most of the time a sales staff helps to select right things.No.3. How many times.
What type of promotional schemes attract the customer’s? S.4.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Topic Buy one get one free Gift vouchers Discount coupons Flat discount Seasonal offers Percentage (%) 15 5 10 50 20 20% 15% 5% 10% 50% Buy one get one free Discount coupons Seasonal offers Gift vouchers Flat discount Interpretation Consumer attract by the flat discount mostly. 58 .
No. 1 2 3 4 Topic Extremely important Very important Little important not important Percentage (%) 25 60 10 5 10% 5% 25% 60% Extremely important Little important Very important not important Interpretation Good display attract the customer in the store. 59 .5. Display of merchandise in the store as a advertisement is- S.
1 2 3 4 Very different Slightly different Somewhat different Not at all different Topic Percentage (%) 20 60 15 5 15% 5% 20% 60% Very different Somewhat different Slightly different Not at all different Interpretation: Slightly different is ACC Cement Company from other Companys 60 . How different is ACC Cement Company from other Companies S.6.No.
1 2 3 4 5 Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Somewhere in between Topic Percentage (%) 12 85 1 0 2 0% 1% 2% 12% 85% Very satisfied Dissatisfied Somewhere in between Satisfied Very dissatsfied Interpretation Mostly people satisfy with the ACC Cement Company.No.7. How satisfied customer’s from ACC Cement Company ? S. 61 .
No. How would you rate the quality of ACC Cement Company? S.8. 1 2 3 4 Excellent Good Fair Poor Topic Percentage (%) 20 65 15 0 15% 0% 20% 65% Excellent Good Fair Poor Interpretation : Most of the people rate the quality of ACC Cement Company is good in the market 62 .
Mostly people believe in ACC Cement in all area to buy the ACC Cement merchandise in his life. 63 . Most of the consumer attract to the flat discount. Mostly the middle class (income family uses the ACC Cement products in comparison to others. Indian are very emotional when it comes in buying of Cement appear all then they talk to the sales staff of all necessary things including terms and conditions.FINDINGS Due to new developing area in future number of outlets may be increase.
Most of the outlets have not all types of merchandise in the store. 64 . In case of Cement and appraisal. so it was difficult to talk to them and hence a lot of time was wasted in waiting.LIMITATIONS Some consumer's were found to be unsatisfied with ACC Cement hence they refused to keep its merchandise. People see all immediate benefit out of it. Cement apparel is subject matter of solicitation. Retailers were often busy with their customers. the intangibility of the product is high. It is very much like selling a product to someone who never hopes to use it. It is people's driven industry.
Product brochure should be easy to understand. newspaper and magazines in order to make it useful for consumers. 65 . Display stands should be constructed attractive. Some attractive schemes should be provided to the consumers directly. Company should be checked time to time by TDM himself for increasing market supply. The schemes must be communicated properly and should be continued for a longer period. A survey would have to be done among the consumers to know their choice and views Various commitments must be honored and the services should be further improved. Schemes must be printed upon the billboard.SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Company personnel must keep on visiting the outlets through the years whether it is season or off-season. There should sufficient advertisement of the company and about product knowledge. All terms and conditions should be written in easy language.
if ACC Cement wants to capture more market and to increase it sales then it would have to cover rural area shops also. yet there were some problems which act as a hindrance in its upliftment. This study shows that expectable trust and long terms relationship. All facilities should provide in rural areas 66 . So. ACC Cement have good company which are more popular among consumers than others. The present scenario the Cement is very important for any person. There are many companies which is related to Cement but all other companies are not available in rural area. transportation and services are concerned. So we have ACC Cement about company that they should be proper advertisement and easy availability to understand of products.CONCLUSIONS Though ACC Cement has a good Company image in Varanasi and is enjoying market share than other Companies. Whenever 70% population lived in Rural area and majority know about ACC Cement only. It is very clear that ACC Cement is one of the best Cement as far as quality.
engineeringcivil.Philip Kotler Research Reporter issue from May. M.R.com 67 .acclimited. applications and Cases.C.S. Kothari Marketing Management .Concepts .com http://www.understanding-cement.BIBLIOGRAPHY Magazine : Books Consumer Behavior.Raju. Websites : www. Dominique Xardel Research Methodology .com/ http://www. June and July.
a sales staff helps to select right things while buying product? Every time Most of the time .QUESTIONNARE PART-A Please tick the response that you agree with :1.Where do you get the best distribution channel of sales & services?? ACC Cement Prism Birla Others 3.How many times.Sometime Never 68 .As a Brand ACC Cement product in Consumer’s ? Most of the time 50-50 Rarely never 2.
5) Display of merchandise in the store as a advertisement is Extremely important Very important Little important Not important 6. How different is ACC Cement Company from other Companies ? Very different Slightly different Somewhat different Not at all different 69 .4. What type of promotional schemes attract the customer’s? Buy one get one free Gift vouchers Discount coupons Flat discount Seasonal offers .
How would you rate the quality of ACC Cement Company? Excellent Good Fair Poor 70 .7. How satisfied customer’s from ACC Cement Company ? Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Somewhere in between 8.
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