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PLANNING THEORY (NOTES)

Lecture 1 : introduction to town and regional planning

Lewis keeble, 1969, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING

The art and science of ordering the use of land and the character and siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience and beauty.

Keebles definition has given rise to four characteristic of successful town planning which are of prime importance:

1. The promotion of accessibility: Accessibility of homes to work, shop, school and entertainment, of industry to sources of labour, power and raw materials and so on. It would hardly be going too far to call Planning a study in accessibility 2. The employment of resources as economically as possible so as to achieve the greatest possible measure of improvement with necessarily limited means 3. The separation of incompatible land uses from each other and the association of compatible or mutually helpful uses 4. The carrying out of all development in as visually pleasant a manner as is practicable.

B.J COLLINS, DEVELOPMENT PLANS EXPLAINED Organizing of building and land use in pursuance of an express scheme of urban or rural evolution.

The art Planning through rational decision- making whereby there is no right or wrong

The science The use of scientific methods to carry out projections to achieve the goals and objectives of a plan.

Planning seeks to guide and control change. The profession needs an awareness of the process of change in the human environment, the reasons for them. The interactions between groups and skills in the techniques of fores and guidiy change. Mc Loughlin

Planning is concerned with providing the right site , at the right time in the right place for the right people.- John ratcliffe

Planning is a reconciliation of social and economic aims, of private and public objectives. It is the allocation of resources, particularly land in such a manner as to obtain maximum efficiency, whilst paying need to the nature of the built environment and welfare of the community.

AIMS/PURPOSE OF PLANNING

According to Ratcliffe J. Town planning aims at securing a sensible acceptable blend of conservation and exploitation of land, as the background for human activity. This involves the process of : a) establishing the desires of the community, b) formulating them in a manner that facilities comprehension and discussion, c) preparing a policy for their adoption, d) regulating public and private investment guiding the provision of public services e) initiating action where necessary and continually examining the effect of the adopted policy, f) Making adjustment if required.

Planning has the following aims :

Aspect

Physical Social economics

SOCIAL Concerned with the conditions of people Makes people lives easier and happier Not detrimental to health Facilitates social interactions

Visual attractiveness Eliminate poverty and deprivation

ECONOMICS Generate employment Raise the standard of living Increase income Efficient arrangement and distribution of communication routes

PHYSICAL Material expression of policy on the land (where,how many?)

How to achieve the aims ? o o o Through rational decision-making Scientific methods for projections Awareness of the process of change in the human environment

FACTORS IN TOWN PLANNING

3 MAIN FACTORS :

Economics factor This factor refers to economic theory whereby the use of each land parcel is determined by the urban land market based on the factors of land as a commodity is influenced by the market forces of supply and demands

Urband land is considered to have value because of its potential to produce income in the future . land in the city center is much higher in the value than those in rural areas

rural

urban

Harga/nilai tanah

The market value of land varies according to the functional type of area in which it is located in the overall pattern of land uses and with respect to the other sites within one particular type of use area

Social factor Social factor in terms of ecological process / urban ecology . the physical change processes in the city concerned with 1. The physical , spatial and material aspects of urban life 2. The social structure in the city with its concern for humans values , behaviour and interaction as reflected in the existing social institutions.

PUBLIC INTEREST FACTOR

In this context refers to the health , safety, and general welfare (the public interest) which concerned with public actions that seeks to assure livability and sound development in the city as land is put to urban used.

Liveability refers to those qualities in the physical environment of the urban area which tend to induce in citizens a feeling of mental , physical , and social well-being according to the extent to which their fundamental day-to-day living needs and wants are satisfied.

WHY PLAN? I. II. III. IV. V. Maximize economic benefits Convenience and beauty Efficient allocation of resources Minimum disturbance to the built and natural environment Maximize welfare of the community

ACHIEVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

a) PROMOTION OF ACCESSIBILITY HOME INDUSTRY works, shops , schools, recreation source of labour , power, raw materials

b) USED OF RESOURCES possible benefit with least/given amount of resources

c) SEPERATION OF INCOMPATIBLE LAND USE AND ASSOCIATE MUTUALLY USES d) AESTHETICS All development as visually pleasant a manner as possible

PLANNING INVOLVES

1. Reconcile : social and economic 2. Allocate : maximum benefit/efficiency 3. Manage : welfare of the community/built environment

Characteristic of planning

a. Goal orientation b. Change orientation c. Expression of choice d. Rationality e. Collective basis

IDEOLOGY AND FUNCTIONS OF TOWN PLANNING 3 main: I. II. To reconcile competing claims for the use of limited land so as to provide To provide a good or better physical environment that is essential for the promotion of a healthy and civilised life III. To provide the physical basis for better urban community life that strive for: a) The provisions of low density residential area whenever possible b) The fostering of local community life c) The control of the urban conurbation growth

THUS: Planning is an all-embracing and complex task relating to the organisation and management of the physical environment.