Soil erosion in India by Chris Dunstan Cynffig Comprehensive School

6 Key question : What are the environmental challenges and solutions facing India?  The causes and consequences of soil erosion .Key idea on WJEC specification  1.

What are we learning?  What are the causes of soil erosion?  Himalaya case study. Terai Nepal  What are the effects of soil erosion?  What ways can you manage soil erosion?  Case study :Management of soil erosion in the Rajasthan Desert  Soil not oil .

sheep and goats is the most important cause of depletion of the vegetation cover and soil erosion. grazing by cattle. and clearance of forests for extension of cultivation under the pressure of demand for agricultural land from the increasing population. is a major cause of destruction of forests. Intensive felling to obtain supplies of fuel or timber. . Unregulated grazing In the north-western Himalayas.What are the Causes of soil erosion ? In the forests of Assam and Madhya Pradesh. shifting cultivation. is practised by the tribal people in these areas.

Considerable erosion results from faulty land use practices on farmlands themselves.4. Failure to practise such measures as ploughing along the contours on sloping lands. 5 . provide the most effective protection against erosion on hill slopes. proper crop rotations and in particular growing of cover crops are causes of erosion. They break the force of run-off by impeding the flow of rainwater down the slopes and by absorbing large quantities of it in their dense mat of undergrowth. . Deforestation Vegetation acts as a protective cover against the forces of wind and water and protecting the soil from being washed or blown away. Forests.

. When the protective cover of forests is destroyed rainwater flows down the slopes unimpeded at great speed and carries with it large quantities of soil and other loose material. the hill slopes are protected from erosion. Most of the water flows away during the rainy periods with the result that on the one hand floods are more frequent and more severe and. the danger of floods is reduced and sufficient quantities of water are available in dry periods. Ground-water. The hill-slopes are denuded of valuable soil and in the foot-hill zone where this mass of sands and gravels is deposited are rendered unproductive.This absorbed water flows away slowly over a period of time In this way. the flow of streams is regulated. supplies are also reduced as much less water is absorbed in the soil than before. little water is available during the dry periods. on the other.

Deforested & eroded Hillslopes .

You could use some of these key words:  Floods  Runoff  Underground vegetation mat  Protective cover  Foot hill  Ground Water supplies .Pupil task: flowchart design  Produce a flowchart to show the causes of soil erosion that are associated with DEFORESTATION.

Nepal Soil erosion case study  90% of the population are rural subsistence farmers. . fodder tree cutting and construction means that Deforestation rates have increased  Terrace construction for agriculture on steep marginal land has led to increases in soil erosion.HIMALAYAN Terai.  Increases in fuel wood demand.

 Reductions of fuel wood supply lead to increased use of dung for fuel reducing nutrient status of hill slope soils.  Terrace soils degrade .giving higher erosion rates  Changes in river flow regime and high sediment yields lead to river bed deposition and increased siltation of reservoirs and increased flood stages on the Gangetic plain. .

earth clips. The results from this study estimate current soil erosion rates for Kerala to be in the order of 19-150 tonne/ha/yr which are higher as compared to non-monsoon rainfall erosion of the UK of 0. .  Monsoon rainfall is a major source of soil erosion.5 tonne/ha from a typical site. Gravity pulls constantly at soil. moving it down hill. cracks. creep and slumps.What are the Effects of soil erosion ?  Physical damage is the most visible form of soil loss.23-1. causing soil slips.

—Retiring cultivated lands in highly erodable areas from cultivation and bringing them under forests or grazing . application of adequate manures and fertilizers 4. Regulation of land use. and settlement of shifting cultivators to permanent cultivation. proper crop rotations . . restrictions on or closure of grazing in badly eroded areas.—Under this are included construction of bunds and terraces. check dams and channels for drainage of surplus water. 2.Afforestation and preservation of forests by scientific forest management. Improvement of land use practices on farm lands. This includes such measures as ploughing along the contours and strip-cropping on sloping lands.What ways can you manage soil erosion ? 1. Engineering measures. 3.

Why is it soil conservation important for India ?  Soil conservation if of utmost importance for a country like India which is mainly has an agricultural economy.  A large part of India’s population depends on the soil for their livelihood and hence soil erosion and the measures of soil conservation taken up to prevent soil erosion are of key concern for the Indian government. .

. 2.Case study :Management of soil erosion in the Rajasthan Desert  What is the Issue?= Desert and semi-desert conditions occur in Rajasthan and there has been advance of the desert and encroachment of sand on fertile lands due to desertification and soil erosion. especially the creation of shelter belts of trees by cultivators 3. Research on soils.Creation of a vegetation belt—five miles wide—along the western border of Rajasthan.  There has been a programme of action which includes: 1. Improvement of land-use practices. land-use and afforestation practices would be undertaken at this station. A Desert Research Station is being set up at Jodhpur to investigate the problems of desertification.

Soil not oil  Condemning industrial agriculture and industrial bio fuels as recipes for ecological and economic disaster. she argues. connects the food crisis. . peak oil prices and climate change to show that a world beyond a dependence on fossil fuel and globalization is both possible and necessary.  What we need most in a time of changing climates and millions hungry. Shiva’s champion is the small. biologically diverse farms that are more resistant to disease. Calling for a return to local economies and small-scale food production. and flood. Indian scientist and agricultural activist . independent farm. drought.  In Soil Not Oil. are sustainable. Dr Vandana Shiva.

Terai. Nepal: Khet Terraces .

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