ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

ANALOG CIRCUIT LAB-1 List of Experiment 1] To study the static input characteristics of Common Emitter transistor. 2] To study the static output characteristics of Common Emitter transistor. 3] To study the static input characteristics of Common Base transistor. 4] To study the static output characteristics of Common Base transistor. 5] To plot the frequency response curve of double stage RC coupled CE transistor amplifier. 6] To plot the frequency response curve of double stage RC coupled CE transistor amplifier with voltage feedback. 7] To study Wien Bridge Oscillator. 8] To determine the frequency of RC phase shift oscillator. 9] To measure the maximum signal handling capacity and the value of distortion in output of transistorized push pull amplifier. 10] To study the Darlington Pair amplifier using transistor. 11] To determine the feedback factor and frequency of oscillation of Colpitt’s Oscillator 12] To determine the feedback factor and frequency of oscillation of Clapp’s Oscillator

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EXPERIMENT NO.1 INPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF BJT IN CE CONFIGURATION

Aim: To study /plot the I/P characteristics of BJT in CE configuration Apparatus Required:(a)Ammeter 0-10µA (1no.) 0-25mA (1no.), Voltmeter 0-5V(1no.) & 0-15V (1no.) (b)Component values:Transistor, NPN BC148, PNP BC157,V1 =12V variable,Vcc=12V variable Circuit Diagram:-

Theory:Transistor has a three terminal (emitter base &collector) two junction. (Emitter junction & collector junction). When both the junctions are forward biased then it is called saturation region. When both the junction is reversed biased then it is called as cut-off region of transistor. If emitter junction is F.B. & collector junction is R.B. is called as Active region.

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Transistor can be used as an amplifier in any one of the configuration. Any of its terminals can be made common to input & output. This common terminal is usually grounded. The connection is then described in terms of common terminal. By observing the characteristics of the transistor that relates transistor currents and voltages behaviors of the transistor can be studied. This characteristics curve is known as static characteristics curve. Input characteristics:It relates the input current IB with input voltage VBE for a given constant output voltage VCE . In CE configuration, IB & VBE are input variables. The output variables are IC& VCE . Fig.1 shows the typical input characteristics for CE configuration. It is plotted between IB &VBE for different values of VCE. We can find out the dynamic input resistance (ri) of the transistor at a given values of VBE . It is defined as the reciprocal of the slope of curve at operating point (P). VBE ri = ---------- at VCE = CONSTANT IB The value of ri is typically 1kΩ , but can range from 800Ω to 3kΩ . Note:Input characteristics can be plotted for NPN transistor. Only connection of all voltage sources , milliammeters, &voltmeters will be reversed for the PNP transistor. Procedure:1. Make the circuit for CE configuration. 2. Connect all theVoltmeter&Ammeter. 3. Input characteristics:Keep VCE constant, change P1 note IB & VBE. Repeat the same procedure for different values of VCE. Plot the i/p curve between IB & V BE for different values of VCE. Find out dynamic input resistance from curve plotted. Precautions:1. Connect the circuit properly. 2. Loose connection must be avoided. 3. Take the reading carefully.
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Observation Table:VCE= 2V VBE IB VCE=5V VBE IB VCE=10V VBE IB

1) From input characteristics dynamics input resistance is given by, ∆VBE ri = ---------- at VCE =constant ∆IB Result:

Conclusion:By changing P1 (VBB) , forward biasing of emitter junction can be change. Also by changing P2 (VCC) reverse biasing of collector junction can be changed . So by changing VBB & VCC transistor can be operates in active , saturation or cut off region.

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Graph:-

Viva Question:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is mean by saturation region of transistor? Define dc current gain? What is mean by cutoff region of transistor? State the range of β? What is meant by input resistance Ri? Why emitter is heavily dopped? Why it is called CE configuration?

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) (b)Component values:Transistor. Apparatus Required:(a)Ammeter 0-10µA(1no.EXPERIMENT NO. NPN BC148.Vcc=12V variable Circuit Diagram:- 6 .) & 015V(1no.V1 =12V variable.To study /plot the O/P characteristics of BJT in CE configuration. 2 OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF CE CONFIGURATION.) 0-25mA(1no. Aim:.PNP BC157. Voltmeter 0-5V(1no.).

Dynamic output resistance. & collector junction is R.at IB = constant ∆ic 2. By observing the characteristics of the transistor that relates transistor currents and voltages behaviors of the transistor can be studied. DC current gain. IC ßdc = ---------IB 3.at VCE = constant ∆iB at VCE = constant 7 . is called as Active region. The connection is then described in terms of common terminal. 1. ∆VCE ro = ---------. Output Characteristics:The curve plotted between IC and VCE for given values of IB is called as output characteristics. When both the junctions are forward biased then it is called saturation region.B.Theory:Transistor has a three terminal (emitter base &collector) two junction (emitter junction & collector junction). We can find out the following. This common terminal is usually grounded. When both the junction are reversed biased then it is called as cut-off region of transistor. Any of its terminals can be made common to input & output. This characteristics curve is known as static characteristics curve. If emitter junction is F.B. AC current gain ∆iC ßac = ---------. Transistor can be used as an amplifier in any one of the configuration.

Connect the circuit properly. Only connection of all voltage sources. millimeters. 2. & voltmeters will be reversed for the PNP transistor. Take the reading carefully. Output characteristics:a) Keep IB constant. 2. Procedure:1. 3. Loose connection must be avoided.at IB =constant ∆IC = -------8 .Note:Output characteristics can be plotted for NPN transistor.(BY SETTING P1) change P2 note IC & VCE. Make the circuit for CE configuration. 3. d) Find out dynamic output resistance. Observation Table:FOR IB = 0 VCE IC VCE FOR IB = 2mA IC FOR IB =5mA VCE IC Calculation: a) Dynamics output resistance is given by ∆VCE ro = ---------. Connect all theVoltmeter&Ammeter. Precautions:1. c) Plot the o/p curve between IC & V CE for different values of IB. b) Repeat the same procedure for different values of IB. dc current gain and ac current gain as explained in theory section.

Ω c) DC current gain.b) From output characteristics = ------------------.at VCE = constant ∆iB = ----------Result:- Conclusion:By changing P1 (VBB) . forward biasing of emitter junction can be change. So by changing VBB & VCC transistor can be operates in active . 9 . saturation or cut off region.at VCE = constant IB = ---------d) AC current gain. Also by changing P2 (VCC) reverse biasing of collector junction can be changed . IC ßdc= ----------. ∆iC ß = ---------.

10 . 5. 3. 4.Graph: Viva Question:1. 7. 2. 6. Define transistor? What is mean by active region of transistor? Why it is called as CE configuration? What is meant by output resistance Ro? Define ac current gain βac? What is the function of Emitter in the junction transistor? Draw symbol of NPN transistor.

11 .) 0-25mA (1no. If emitter junction is F. (Emitter junction & collector junction) When both the junction is forward biased then it is called saturation region. Voltmeter 0-5V (1no.V1 =12V variable. Vcc=12V (Variable) Circuit Diagram:- Theory:Transistor has a three terminal (emitter base &collector) two junction.) & 0-15V (1no.B.). & collector junction is R. NPN BC148.B.) (b) Component values:Transistor. is called as Active region. PNP BC157. When both the junction is reversed biased then it is called as cut-off region of transistor.3 Input Characteristics in CB Configuration Aim: To study /plot the I/P characteristics of BJT in CB configuration Apparatus Required:(a) Ammeter 0-10µA (1no.EXPERIMENT NO.

input resistance (Dynamic resistance) depends on the location of the operating point selected along the curve. 12V etc.3V for Ge transistor & about 0. Whereas output is taken out from the collector and base. This common terminal is usually grounded. I/P characteristics shows that if VEB is less cut in voltage or knee /threshold voltage then IE is negligibly small. After this as VEB increases its value is 0. curved) in the lower region. 10V etc. 5V. Its value in the linear region of the curve is about 50Ω Procedure:1) Make the circuit for CB configuration. For a given operating point input or dynamic resistance is given by. Connect all the voltmeter & Ammeter. The connection is then described in terms of common terminal.Transistor can be used as an amplifier in any one of the configuration.5V for Si transistor. In this configuration emitter current IE is the input current &collector current IC is the output current. 10V. The input voltages applied between the emitter and base. 2) Check the VCC and VEE voltages by using voltmeter. Any of its terminals can be made common to input & output. Therefore the A.C. say at 2V vary the VEB by plot P1 and note the corresponding IE in steps 5) Repeat step (4) for different values of VCB say 5V. 6) Plot the graph between VEB(x-axis) and IE (y-axis) for VCB= -2V. 3) It is plotted between VEB(x-axis) and IE (y-axis) for constant values of VCB 4)Keep VCB const. Input characteristics:The input characteristics are plotted between emitter current IE and emitter base voltage VEB for constant value of VCB.e. ∆ VEB Ri = ----------∆ IE at VCB = constant It may be noted that input char is linear in the upper region but Non linear (i. 12 .

at VCB=10V ∆ IE Result: . Take the reading carefully.from this we calculated the input resistance of the transistor in CB configuration. Also by changing (VCC) reverse biasing of collector junction can 13 . forward biasing of emitter junction can be change. 2. draw a small incremental triangle ABC on static char the dynamic input resistance is given by Ri = ∆ VEB ----------∆ IE at VCB=10V Precautions:1. Connection should be tight. Ri = ----------------------.Ω Conclusion:By changing (VEB). on the graph plotted having VCB=10V. Observation Table:VCB= 2V VEB IE VCB=5V VEB IE VCB=10V VEB IE Calculation: ∆ VEB Ri = --------------.7) Select a suitable operating point say point P . Connect the circuit properly. 3.

5. 14 . Graph: Viva Question:1. saturation or cut off region. So by changing VEB & VCC transistor can be operates in active. 7. Define α. What is the function of emitter in transistor function. 3. Define ICBO. 2. 4. 6. Why is base made thin? Why it is called as CB configuration? What is mean by input resistance Ri? Define transistor.be changed.

The input voltages applied 15 .4 OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS IN CB CONFIGURATION Aim: To study /plot the O/P characteristics of BJT in CB configuration Apparatus Required:(a)Ammeter 0-10µA (1no. This common terminal is usually grounded. Any of its terminals can be made common to input & output.) 0-25mA (1no.) & 0-15V (1no. If emitter junction is F. & collector junction is R.B. is called as Active region.) (b)Component values:Transistor. PNP BC157.B. V1 =12V variable. When both the junction is reversed biased then it is called as cut-off region of transistor. NPN BC148. Transistor can be used as an amplifier in any one of the configuration.). The connection is then described in terms of common terminal In this configuration emitter current IE is the input current &collector current IC is the output current. Voltmeter 0-5V (1no.EXPERIMENT NO. Vcc=12V variable Circuit Diagram:- Theory:Transistor has a three terminal (emitter base &collector) two junction. (Emitter junction & collector junction) When both the junctions are forward biased then it is called saturation region.

AC & DC current gain is given by a) DC current gain. Plot the graph between VCB (x-axis) and IC (y-axis). 2) Check the VCC and VEE voltages by using voltmeter. Whereas output is taken out from the collector and base. emitter to base junction JE is forward biased while collector to base junction is reverse biased. 4) Keep IE= 0 by adjusting pot P1 vary the VCB voltage in regular steps by pot P2 and note the corresponding value of IC.Ω ∆IC CB 8) Find DC current gain at this point by αdc = IC/IE where IC and IE are the currents at the selected operating point 9) To determine αac. αac = ∆IC/∆IE with VCB constant Procedure:1) Make the circuit for CB configuration. αdc = IC/IE b) AC current gain.between the emitter and base. Output characteristics:The output characteristics is plotted between VCB (x-axis) and collector current IC(y-axis) for constant value of IE. Therefore. In active region curves are almost horizontal.at IE = const. 5) Now keep IE =5mA by using pot P1 again vary the VCB voltage in regular steps and note the corresponding values of IC. draw a vertical line through the operating point P.= ------. This shows that O/P dynamic resistance Ro is very high. = -----------. find incremental (dynamic) O/P resistance. Plot the graph between VCB & IC. 3) It is plotted between VCB(x-axis) and IC (y-axis) for constant values of IE. αac = ∆IC/∆IE 16 .at IE = constant IC At given operating point. Connect all the voltmeter & Ammeter. 6) Repeat step 5 for different values of IE 7) Select a suitable operating point on the graph plotted. In the active region. ∆VCB DB Ro = ---------. VCB Ro = --------. Draw a incremental triangle ABC see fig.

Ω AB DC Current gain.= --------. αdc = IC/IE =-------AC Current gain.Ω 17 . Observation Table:FOR IE = 0 -VCB IC -VCB FOR IE = 2mA IC FOR IE =5mA -VCB IC CALCULATION: ∆VCB Ro = -------------∆IC at IE = Constant CB = --------.Precautions:1. Connect the circuit properly. 4. Take the reading carefully. αac = ∆IC/∆IE = Result: The values of different parameters for CB are found to be. 2. Ro = ------------. Connect the voltmeter and ammeter carefully. 3. Also check the errors of voltmeter and ammeter.

Graph: Viva Question:1. Explain transistor as a switch? What is the value of α in CB configuration? What is mean by output resistance Ro? Which parameter is constant for output characteristic? State that why ICEO is greater than ICBO. forward biasing of emitter junction can be change. 3. So by changing VEB & VCC transistor can be operates in active. 7. 6. State the difference between CB & CE configuration. 2.αdc = ----------------αac = ---------------Conclusion:By changing (VEB). saturation or cut off region. Also by changing (VCC) reverse biasing of collector junction can be changed. Explain the term thermal runaway . 4. 5. 18 .

So there is no feedback in the circuit. Stages are capacitance coupled for AC operation and DC stability. 19 . patch chords and instructions manuals. The alternating emitter current does not cause any drop across emitter resistance. Circuit Diagram:- Theory:One of the most used circuits in the transistor applications is the common emitter audio amplifier. is fairly easy to design and gives good performance.5 RC COUPLED DOUBLE STAGE CE TRANSISTOR AMLIFIER Aim:-To study the frequency response of RC coupled double stage CE transistor amplifier. Apparatus Required: Training module type:EE-22 with CRO .EXPERIMENT NO. This circuit performs a variety of functions. Fig shows the transistorized RC coupled amplifier. The emitter resistances are shunted by a bypass capacitor to cause a short circuit for AC. signal generator . because it allows the output to follow the input. Class A biasing is the most often used.

Plot a graph between voltage gains and frequencies for without feedback. R2 V2 = V1 ------------------(R1+R2) R2 = V1 ------------. Loose connection must be avoided. Draw the circuit diagram on the note book. Connect an audio oscillator at the input terminals and CRO at the output terminals and adjust a small and constant value of input voltage. Precautions:1. It is comparatively inexpensive because both the load resistance & coupling capacitor are simple & cheap elements. Procedure:1. tabulate them and write down on the circuit diagram. therefore a potential divider attenuator is used as shown in fig. Trace the all waveforms from the CRO carefully. Note down i/p and o/p voltage using CRO at different frequencies in the observation table.RC coupled amplifier is popularly used for the following reasons: 1. 2. measure the biasing conditions at emitters. 3. 20 . It is the stable in operation. collectors & bases of both the transistors.(since R1>>R2) R1 4. 3. 2. 6. It may be design & constructed for a good frequency response. 2. This is the amplified o/p without any feedback. The gain of the amplifier is about 1000. 3. Connect the circuit properly. With no input signal connected. 5. 4. Connect points C and D using the patch chords and the points A and B using another patch chords. Take the reading carefully. Compare the circuit diagram drawn with that on the actual setup board and write down the values and no of the components neatly on the diagram.

21 .Observation:1. Without feedback arrangement Vi =___________ volts Sr.No Vo(V) Voltage gain (dB) A = 20log(Vo/Vi) Frequency (KHz) Voltage Gain (A)=Vo/Vin Result: From above formula we calculated the value of voltage gain  Without feedback__________________ Conclusion:The frequency response curve between voltage gain & frequency without feedback arrangement are drawn.

22 . What is meant by multistage amplifier? 6. Why we use coupling between two stages of an amplifier? 4. Give the formula for overall power gain for three stage amplifier. In an amplifier circuits intermediate stages are CE configured. 7. Define Bandwidth. What is the need of bypass capacitor in circuit diagram? 3. why? 5. What are the lower & upper cut off frequencies? 2.Graph Viva Question:1.

is fairly easy to design and gives good performance. This circuit performs a variety of functions.EXPERIMENT NO. If we remove the shunt 23 . Circuit Diagram:- Theory:One of the most used circuits in the transistor applications is the common emitter audio amplifier. Fig shows the transistorized RC coupled amplifier.6 RC COUPLED VOLTAGE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER Aim: To study the frequency response of RC coupled double stage CE transistor amplifier. signal generator . Stages are capacitance coupled for AC operation and DC stability. So there is no feedback in the circuit. patch chords and instructions manuals. The emitter resistances are shunted by a bypass capacitor to cause a short circuit for AC. Class A biasing is the most often used. The alternating emitter current does not cause any drop across emitter resistance. because it allows the output to follow the input. Apparatus Required: Training module type:EE-22 with CRO .

2. It may be design & constructed for a good frequency response. Note down i/p and o/p voltage using CRO at different frequencies in the observation table. Connect an audio oscillator at the input terminals and CRO at the output terminals and adjust a small and constant value of input voltage. This is the amplified o/p without any feedback. 3. Plot a graph between voltage gains and frequencies for without feedback and with feedback arrangement. Draw the circuit diagram on the note book. 7. measure the biasing conditions at emitters. 6. R2 V2 = V1 ----------(R1+R2) R2 = V1-----.(since R1>>R2) R1 Connect points C and D using the patch chords and the points A and B using another patch chords. therefore a potential divider attenuator is used as shown in fig. It is the stable in operation. 8. It is comparatively inexpensive because both the load resistance & coupling capacitor are simple & cheap elements Procedure:1. 5. An alternative method of obtaining feedback is to connect point E at the output to input using the patch chords and repeat step 5. In case of feedback arrangement change the value of R11 to vary feedback fraction. disconnect points A and B and repeat step 5. The gain of the amplifier is about 1000. Compare the circuit diagram drawn with that on the actual setup board and write down the values and no of the components neatly on the diagram.capacitor then the AC voltage developed across the emitter resistance will be added negatively causing a negative feedback. RC coupled amplifier is popularly used for the following reasons: 1. With no input signal connected. Now for obtaining negative current feedback. 4. tabulate them and write down on the circuit diagram. collectors & bases of both the transistors. 24 . 2.

No. Vo(V) Voltage gain (dB) A = 20log(Vo/Vi) Frequency (KHz) 2. Connect the circuit properly. Take the reading carefully. 2. Trace the all waveforms from the CRO carefully Observation:1. without feedback arrangement Vi =___________ volts S.Precautions:1. with feedback arrangement Vi =___________ volts 25 . 3.

Vo(V) Voltage gain (dB) Afb = 20log(Vo/Vi) Frequency (KHz) Result: From this we calculated the value of voltage gain  without feedback__________________  with feedback_____________________ Conclusion:When negative feedback is used the voltage gain is reduces but output waveforms improves and stability increases.S. When frequency response curve between voltage gain and frequency for feedback and without feedback arrangement are plotted the curve resemble as shown in fig. 7. Give the advantages of negative feedback. 4. 6. 2. 5. Why positive feedback amplifier is used in oscillator. 26 . Viva Question:1. 3. Differentiate between positive & negative feedback. What are the types of feedback? What is the need of bypass capacitor in circuit diagram? Why we use coupling between two stages of an amplifier? Define voltage gain.No.

lag network provides a positive feedback to the input of the first stage & the voltage divider provides the negative feedback to the emitter of Q1 transistor which controls the gain of transistor Amplifier Q1.R2 called a voltage divider.R6 = 10KΩ.1. R5 = 100KΩ. so the feed back network has no need to induce any additional phase shift. (b) Components Value: R1 = R4 = 10KΩ.C1. R8 = 10KΩ. The circuit consist of two stage RC coupled amplifier.µ f.µ f. R9 = 1KΩ. Q1 = Q2 = BC548 Circuit diagram: Theory: Wien Bridge oscillator is sine wave AF oscillator. R3 = 6KΩ. The feedback network consists of R1 .7 WEIN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR Aim: To study the circuit of Wein Bridge Oscillator & measure the frequency of oscillation. R4 C2 called as lead . C1A = C2A = 0.lag network and R3 .bridge oscillator. which provide an approximately 360 or 0 phase .µ f. R2 = 3KΩ. The lead . Apparatus Required: (a) CRO.EXPERIMENT NO. Digital multimeter.shift between I/P & O/P signal. Fig. C0 = 0.22. Shown on the front panel of the kit circuit diagram of the Wien .1. R7 = 100KΩ. Patch cords. C1B = C2B = 0. R10 = 1KΩ. 27 .

The frequency of oscillations for the wien . The process continues. R4 . Procedure: 28 . The part of the output signal is feedback to the base of Q1 through a Wien bridge network. at its collector. therefore these oscillations are in phase with the input signal. C1 or C2.(2) and the ratio of the resistor R3 to R4 is given by R3 -----------.≥ C 2 or R3 > 2R2 Thus a ratio of R3 to R4 greater than 2 will provide a sufficient gain for the circuit to oscillate at the desired frequency. till sustained oscillations are produced finally it produces sine wave O/P.The operation of Wien Bridge Oscillator is as follows: When the circuit is energized by switching on the supply a small random oscillations appearing at the base of Q1 transistor are amplified. These oscillations are further amplified by the collector of Q2 transistor. having frequency in Audio Range so it is also called as AF Oscillator.bridge oscillator is given by the relation. Fo  1 / 2 R1 R4 C1C 2 If R1=R4=R & C1=C2=C 1 Fo = --------------2πRC Then -----------. The frequency of oscillation can be changed by varying the values of R1. Since the oscillations at the collector of Q2 transistor has been inverted twice. This is further amplified.

2) Connect Capacitors C1A & C2A in the Circuit.1) Study the circuit provided on the front panel of the kit. 3) Connect the CRO at O/P terminal. Therefore. C1A = _______________ µf .Hz. 6) Now Connect Capacitors C1B & C2B in the Circuit & Repeat the above steps. 1)Theoritical Frequency of Oscillation: R2 = __________________KΩ C1B = _________________ µf C2B = _________________ µf R4 = __________________ KΩ Fo  1 / 2 R1 R4 C1C 2 = ---------Hz As R1 = R4 = R & C = C1A = C2A. 4) Switch ON the power supply. 2) 1 Fo = -----------. 7) Draw the O/P on graph. 5) Observe & Note the practical frequency of oscillation compare it with theoretical value. Observations: R1 = ________________ KΩ. R4 = ________________ KΩ. 2πRC Practical Frequency of Oscillation 29 . Note this values & determine its Theoretical frequency by using equation (1) Fo = -----.= ----------Hz. C2A = _______________ µf .

Connect the all connections carefully. Conclusion: Theoretical & practical frequency of oscillation (Fo) for Wein bridge oscillator is nearly equal. Where wein bridge oscillator is commonly used. No variation in value of resistant ad capacitance. So the circuit used as Wien bridge oscillator. Precautions: 1. Take the trace of all waveform from CRO screen carefully 2. 30 . Give the difference between amplifier & oscillator.Fo = _________________ Hz. What is the oscillator? 2. Result:As the Wien bridge transistor amplifier Q1 & Q2 produces oscillations which are in AF range. Define Barkhausein criterion. Define the frequency of oscillation? 3. What is the advantage of wein bridge oscillator as compare to other oscillators? 4. Give the range of frequency in Wein bridge oscillator? 5. Viva Question: 1. 6. 7. 3.

however the capacitor is frequency sensitive. as the name implies.EXPERIMENT NO. Patch cords. Circuit diagram: Theory: The basic phase shift oscillator. CRO 2. It is typically used in fixed frequency applications. As XC 31 . The phase shift oscillator accomplishes this with a series of RC networks connected in the collector-to-base feedback loop. In a RC network the phase difference between current and voltage falls between 0 and 90°. since its reactance changes with frequency. It is easy to cascade identical networks. current leads voltage by 90°. Training module of RC phase shift oscillator. the amount f phase shift across an RC network can be controlled. 45°.resistance does not vary with frequency. Apparatus required: 1. because resistance affect the phase relationship. N this case 90°. and 30° are all multiple of 180°. 3.60°. the collector output signal must be shifted 180° to produce the required regenerative feedback. As in the conventional LC oscillator. To obtain the 180° phase shifts requires filters that are even multiple of 180°. In a purely capacitive circuit. is a conventional amplifier ad a phase shifting RC feedback network. By carefully selecting the resistance and capacitive values.8 RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR Aim: To study the RC phase shift oscillator.

Connect “B cannel” CRO terminal to the feedback path marked “A”. Each network contributes 60° to the total phase shift of 180°. At point ‘B’ the phase difference is 120°. there by reducing the phase shift across each network. 5. To compensate the losses use the high gain of transistor (30 and 50). The phase shift network comprised of R1C1. The approximate frequency of oscillation can be determined using the formula Fo  1 / 2 6 RC Stability can be improved by increasing the no of RC networks. 6. 7. Observe the phase difference between output and input. 3.changes. the phase shift of the RC network also varies. provides the 180° phase shift that make the circuit regenerative. Adjust 470K potentiometer (P1) to get 1 KHz sin wave. 4. Switch on the trainer and check the power supply to be +15V. Observation: Trace the all wave forms from the CRO a compare the all waveform with each others and observe the phase shift between output and input. When three 60° phase –shift network are cascaded the combined phase shift is 180°. 32 . 8. Connect “A cannel” CRO terminal to the output of oscillator. Procedure: 1. 2. R2C2. and R3C3 is connected between the collector and base of Q1. At point ‘C’ the phase difference is 180°. At point ‘A’ the phase difference should be 60°.

Take the trace of all waveform from CRO screen carefully. Precautions: 1. 3. Phase of input signal -----------------------Phase of output signal----------------------Conclusion: The phase shift oscillator functions best at fixed frequencies. No variation in value of resistance and capacitance. 33 .Calculation: Fo  1 / 2 6 RC =-----------Hz. Results: Frequency of oscillation (Fo) =-------------Hz. 2. since any variation of resistance or capacitance upsets the phase shift. Connect the all connections carefully.

In RC phase shift oscillator variation in R& C value what effect on the output signal phase shift? 2. What is the oscillator? 3.Viva Question: 1. What happened if the number of RC network increases in RC phase shift network? 4. 34 . Give the types of an oscillator.

How can an amplifier are converted into oscillator. What is meant by undamped oscillation? 6. 7. What is difference between signal generator & oscillator? 35 .5.

It has less distortion and much efficiency. as in any other transistor amplifier. Output power meter. Circuit diagram: Theory: The push pull connection is the most widely used in power amplifier. 8Ω speaker. Apparatus required: 1. CRO 6. 4. Distortion-factor meter. The out 36 .9 TRANSISTORISED PUSH PULL AMPLIFIER Aim: General study of push pull audio power amplifier. R2 & RE fix up the operating point. The resistor R1.EXPERIMENT NO. 5. 2. Training module of push pull amplifier type: EE-24 analog with its instruction manual and patch chords. 3. Audio signal generator.

The out put voltage is proportional to net current (IC1-IC2) flowing through the primary of the output transformer. For a matched pair of transistor. 4. It provide input signal to the two transistors.put transformer has center-tapped primary and it serves to match the load with the output impedance of transistors. This gives the maximum signal handing capacity of the amplifier. not down the output power. Increase the input signal voltage tilt h output wave shape starts getting distorted. Select load impedance (in the power meter) which is equal to or near the optimum load. See the wave shape of the output voltage on the CRO. Now reduce the input signal to a value slightly below this voltage. find the impedance for which the output power is maximum. Change the impedance (in the power meter) in steps. Replace the loudspeaker with power meter. From this graph. Measure voltage VCE for both the transistor. Hence the name push pull amplifier. Connect the loudspeaker as a load resistor at the out put. Find the transistor type numbers from the experimental board & also find the transistor are n-p-n or p-n-p. 8Ω) in the power meter. Switch ON the instrument. 2. Note the value of this input voltage. This is the value of the optimum load. Plot the graph between output power and load impedance. 6. the collector current of one transistor is “pulled down”. For each value of impedance. Feed the AC signal at the input. Also connect the output to a CRO. the circuit is working. Keep the frequency at 1 KHz (midband frequency). On applying the input signal. Half of this current will be approximately the collector current of each transistor. 3. Note this input signal voltage. Increases the input 7. Measure voltage drops across RE gives the sum of the two emitter-currents. Signal till the wave shape just show distortion. 37 . If you hear a sound. Select a typical value of the load impedance (say. the voltage VCE for both should be the same. 5. Trace the circuit of the amplifier a write down the values of the components used. See the output on the CRO. We may connect load resistor to measure the out put power. Procedure: 1. The input transformer has a center-tap secondary. These signals are equal in magnitude but opposite in phase.

.8. Load impedance(in Ω) Out put power (in mW) 4. mV. VCE2=…………V VE=……………. Operating point: VCC=…………. VCE1=…………….mV 2.mV Signal frequency =1 KHz S. 3. Observation: 1. Maximum signal handling capacity: Selected value of optimum load =……………… Frequency of the input signal =……………… 38 . Typical load connected: Input signal frequency = 1 KHz Maximum input signal giving undistorted output =………….V.V. IC1=IC2= ½ (VE/RE) =……………. Optimum load : Input signal =…………. Slightly increase the input voltage connects a distortion-factor meter at the output and measure the distortion... No.

Maximum signal handling capacity =…………. What is the mean of power amplifier? 3. Why power amplifier is called large signal amplifier. Take the reading from Audio signal generator. Connect the circuit properly. Distortion=…………………….mV 3. 39 . 3.. Output power meter & Distortion-factor meter carefully. What is the function of the center tapped transformer in push-pull amplifier? 5. Which types of distortion are occurs in push-pull amplifier? 4.% distortion in output=……………. Viva Question: 1... Trace the all waveforms from the CRO carefully. What is the advantage of push-pull amplifier as compare to class-B amplifier? 2.% Conclusion: Precautions: 1.mV Results: 1. 2. 7. Why a step down transformer is used in output circuit of output transformer. 6. Optimum LOAD impedance =……………… 2. Give the type of power amplifier.

EXPERIMENT NO.98 αeff = iCT / iE1 = (α1+α2-α1α2)= 0. Training module of Darlington pair amplifier. we have IC1 = α1iE1 and iB1 = iE1.10 DARLINGTON PAIR AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT Aim: Experiment with Darlington pair amplifier. Apparatus required: 1.9996 40 . 3. DC supply Circuit diagram: Theory: DARLINGTON CIRCUIT: In the diagram shown with common-base configuration. Voltmeter. 2. iC2 = α2iB1= α2iE1(1-α1) And If Then iCT = iC1 + iC2 = iE1(α1+α2-α1α2) α1 = α2 = 0.iC1 = iE1(1-α1) For the transistor T2. for transistor T1.

9996/(1-0. So a Darlington pair circuits gives a high current gain and also helps to eliminate a number of circuit component. Also hfe = β = α/(1-α) = 0.A value almost equal to 1.9996) = 2499 If two common emitter stages are cascaded. the current amplification factor would be hfe2 = 2401. Difference amplifier: Another effective method of improving performance is by the use of difference amplifier shown in fig. In this way the input impedance is increased. the 41 . fig In fig the input impedance T2 is given by Rin = hie + (1+hfe) RL Where RL is the load in the emitter circuit. The impedance of transistor T2 will be Zi2 = hie2 + (1+hfe2)Zi1 Where Zi1 is the load in the emitter circuit of T2.

The 42 . there will be complete cancellation of effects of supply voltages. etc.Figure 3 & 4: If the transistors and circuit components are completely matched.

Define the α and β? 43 . 2. then VO1 and VO2 are measured and noted so as to calculate Ad. the VO1 AND VO2 measured and noted so as t calculate AC. or larger than. The operating points for the two devices are noted as well as current through RE. What is mean by Darlington pair? 2. the circuit gain for the common mode signal is much smaller than for the conventional circuit. The DC collector voltages VO1 and VO2 with respect to ground are measured so as t find the difference VO1-VO2. VS1 adjusted to be –VS2 = 10mV at a single source frequency of 1 KHz. The value of CMRR can be computed from the measured values of Ad and AC. 3. Check the connection before switch on the power supply. Why we use Darlington pair? 3.configuration will be very effective especially if the emitter circuit resistance is equal to. Procedure: 1. Viva Question:1. Connect the circuit properly. 4. Take the reading carefully. However. 2. Results: Conclusion: Precautions:1. VS1 is adjusted to be VS2 = 20m V at a single source frequency of 1 KHz . the value of load resistance. The base terminal of TR1 and TR2 are grounded.

What are the advantages of Darlington amplifier? 6. What is the relation between α and β? 5. Give application of Darlington amplifier. 44 .4.

multimeter .connecting wires. Circuit Diagram: 45 . Apparatus Required: Madras-83 Kit.11 COLPITT’S OSCILLATOR Aim: To determine the feedback factor and frequency of oscillation of Colpitt’s Oscillator.EXPERIMENT NO.CRO etc.

resulting in regenerative or positive feedback. eliminated for simplicity.so DC collector current does not pass through the choke.Capacitor C3 couples AC collector voltage to the tank.collector voltage is 1800 The arrangement of capacitor C1 &C2 in a voltage-divider network produces the desired 1800 phase shift across capacitor C1. are similar to other transistor oscillator.This negative potential is felt across the entire tank.The tapped capacitor arrangement identifies the Colpitts oscillator. Sincethe oscillator is a common-emitter configuration.it is used in manysignal generator.The result is that the 46 .As with all LC oscillator .Since the colpitts is more stable.Theory: The colpitt is essentially shunt-fed.while blocking DC. charging the top plate of C1 to a positive potential through inductor L1. Bias networks. FIG-1 Figure 2 shows the tank circuit with negative potential at the bottom plate of C2.frequency is determined by inductor L1 and the series combination of capacitors C1 &C2.

producing regenerative feedback. Q1 is further forward biased and quickly saturates. there is no voltage drop across RFC. With Q1 saturated. Fig-2&fig-3 Fig.The flywheel effect of the tank then takes over (fig-3) as C1 &C2 act as one capacitor discharging through L1 & building up the magnetic field.feedback voltage across C1 is phased shifted 1800. because current is no longer changing as shown in below fig1.2 47 .

When feedback capacitor C1 is fully charged. C1. This can be illustrated by reviewing the formula for capacitive reactance(Xc).Fig3 When the capacitors are completely discharged.4. the field collapses & charges the top plate of C1 negative .the feedback capacitor. Again a field is built up around L1 that subsequently collapses and charges C1 in the opposite direction(fig-4) Fig.If the capacitances of C1 decreased the amount of feedback is increased. 48 . energy lost in the tank is replaced . result in opposition(Xc). Transistor Q1 is now forward biased and conducts.The series combination of C1 & C2 determines oscillator frequency.Q1 is driven into cutoff.Therefore.The feedback factor is determined by the ratio of the capacitors. it discharges through L1. a larger feedback voltage is developed across this increased opposition. Xc=1/2πFC A decrease in capacitances C.Thus. reverse biasing Q1.a similar action occurs each cycle as positive feedback replenishes energy expanded. This is result of the series voltage-divider arrangement of C1 & C2. controls the amount of feedback.

or 10 to 50%.1µF and C2=0. 4]. Disconnect C1 & C2 & select C1=0.1 to 0.001(µF) (50-500)pF Frequency (inKHz) RESULT: CONCLUSION 49 .5.No.01(µF) 0. Measure the frequency of the output with C1=0. Take the reading carefully.001µF and measure the output frequency.A feedback factor of less than 10% may not be sufficient to sustain the oscillation. Procedure: 1] Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.01µF 7 C2=0. as a transistor Q1 is saturated for long periods of time. 1 2 3 C1 (µF) 0. 3.001 (µF) C2 0. 2] Switch on the trainer and measure the power supply to be +15.Feedback Factor (B)=C2/C1 The feedback factor for the Colpitt’s is typically 0.1 (µF) 0. Check the connection before switch on the power supply. 6].01 (µF) 0.01µF. Connect the circuit properly.Vary the 1M Potentiometer and 10K Potentiometer to get a sine wave. 5]. Observation Table: Sr. 3] Observe the output at the collector of transistor onCRO. Precaution: 1. Too much feedback distorts the output waveform. 2.

3] Give the application of colpitts oscillator 4] Define Feedback Factor. 50 .Viva-voce Question: 1] What is meant by tank circuit 2] Define Oscillator. 5] What is meant by RFC.

Apparatus Required : Connecting wires.12 CLAPP OSCILLATOR Aim: To construct clap oscillator and determine oscillator stability. CRO etc Circuit Diagram: Theory: The colpitts is essentially shut-fed. Since the colpitts is more stable. millimeters. (Fig 1) 51 . so DC collector current doesn’t pass through the choke. it is used in many signal generators.EXPERIMENT NO.

The tapped capacitor arrangement identifies the colpitts oscillator.5 is determined by the ratio of C1to C2. Capacitor C3 couples AC collector voltage to the tank. usually 0.Bias network eliminated for simplicity. resulting in regenerative or positive feedback. are similar to other transistor oscillators. As with all LC oscillators frequency is determined by inductor L1 and the series combination of capacitors C1 and C2. Initial forward bias is furnished by the bias network and Q1 52 . Feedback increases if the value of C1 is lowered. C2 has most pronounced effect on frequency. collector voltage is out of phase with base voltage. Since the oscillator is a common emitter configuration. The arrangement of capacitors C1 and C2 in a voltage divider network produces the desired 1800 phase shift across capacitor C1. while blocking DC. The colpitts is shock-excited into oscillation much like the other oscillator. The feedback factor.1 to 0. Although the combination of C1 and C2 determines oscillator frequency.

charging the top plate of Q1 to a positive potential through indicator L1. Q1 is farther forward biased and quickly saturates. The end result is that the feedback voltage across C1 is phase shifted 180o producing regenerative feedback. the following discussion will cover only the AC current path in the tank circuit. because current is no longer changing as shown in below fig1. This negative potential is felt across the entire tank.2 53 . since the change is rapid. Capacitor C3 couples this negative voltage to the lower plate of capacitor C2. through the RFC.The flywheel effect of the tank then takes over (fig-3) as C1 &C2 act as one capacitor discharging through L1 & building up the magnetic field. This initial surge of current causes a negative voltage drop across the RFC. The DC collector current path is from emitter to collector. Fig-2&fig-3 Fig. With Q1 saturated. For simplicity. Fig 2 shows the tank circuit with negative potential at the bottom plate of C2. returning to the power supply.begins to conduct. there is no voltage drop across RFC.

Q1 is driven into cutoff.3 When the capacitors are completely discharged. Again a field is built up around L1 that subsequently collapses and charges C1 in the opposite direction(fig-4) 54 .Fig. it discharges through L1. the field collapses & charges the top plate of C1 negative . reverse biasing Q1.When feedback capacitor C1 is fully charged.

fig5 Circuit Description: The clapp oscillator shown in fig 5 is a variation of the colpitts oscillators. The only difference is the addition of variable capacitor C3.C3 effectively determines the oscillators frequency. in relation to C1 & C2 due to the relationship of capacitors in series and parallel circuit configuration. 55 . Capacitor C3 forms a series-resonant circuit with inductor L1 and allows capacitor tuning without effecting the feedback ratio. C3 is small.

Too much feedback distorts the output waveform.Transistor Q1 is now forward biased and conducts. 2] Switch on the trainer and measure the power supply to be +9.a similar action occurs each cycle as positive feedback replenishes energy expanded. result in opposition (Xc). the feedback capacitor. A feedback factor of less than 10% may not be sufficient Procedure: 1] Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.If the capacitances of C1 decreased the amount of feedback is increased. energy lost in the tank is replaced . This is result of the series voltage-divider arrangement of C1 & C2. This can be illustrated by reviewing the formula for capacitive reactance(Xc). 5] Compare the practical frequency with the theoretical frequency by given formula Fo  1 / 2 LC RESULT: 56 . as a transistor Q1 is saturated for long periods of time. Thus. or 10 to 50%.5. Feedback Factor (B)=C2/C1 The feedback factor for the Colpitts is typically 0.Therefore.1 to 0. 4] Measure the frequency on CRO at about 80 KHz. Xc=1/2πFC A decrease in capacitances C. The series combination of C1 & C2 determines oscillator frequency C1. a larger feedback voltage is developed across this increased opposition. 3] Observe the output at the collector of transistor on CRO. controls the amount of feedback. The feedback factor is determined by the ratio of the capacitors.

What is oscillator? 2. What is meant by sustain oscillation? 5. What is the difference between clapp & colpitts oscillator? 3. Give the advantage & disadvantage of clapp oscillator. Define capacitive reactance. 57 . 4.CONCLUSION: Viva-voce Question: 1.

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