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Nikhil Pradeep

Nikhil Pradeep

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Published by Nandu Surendran

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Published by: Nandu Surendran on Apr 10, 2012
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04/10/2012

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Nozzles

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Small sections of pipe welded to the shell or to the channel which act as the inlet or outlet of the fluids are called nozzles. The end of a nozzle is flanged to connect it to the pipe carrying a fluid The shell side inlet is often provided with an impingement plate. The impingement plate prevent the impact of high velocity inlet fluid stream on the tube bundle .such impact can cause erosion an cavitation of the tube just in front of the nozzle, and can also cause vibration of the tube. The erosion problem is aggravated (1) if the inlet liquid has suspended solid particles or (2)if the inlet gas stream has suspended dust or solid particles or even liquid droplets (. For example when, steam is used as the heating fluid, it may have suspended droplets of condensate. As the steam enters the shell at a high velocity , which may be as high as 35m/s or more, the water droplets strike the tubes at the front at a high speed .This causes erosion of the tubes which may cause leakage after a period of use ) An impingement plate is also called an impingement baffle There are two types of impingement plates. The impingement plate may be fitted in the shell just in front of the nozzle ,or inside expanded end of the nozzle .It is held in place by two or three narrow lugs or rods welded to the shell or expanded nozzle .

Baffles:
A baffle(of shell side baffle) is a metal plate usually in the form of the segment of a circle having holes to accommodate tubes . Shell side baffles have two functions (1)to cause changes in the flow pattern of the shell fluid creating parallel or cross flow to the tube bundle( thus increasing turbulence and there for, the heat coefficient).and (2) to support the tubes

Segmental baffles:

This is the most popular types of baffle .A segmental baffle may have horizontal or vertical cuts . The cut -out pattern (called baffle window) provides the area for flow of the shell fluid. This area may vary from 15% to about 50% ( but definitely

In fact. The baffles prevent the tubes from sagging and also from vibration caused by the flow of the fluid. At least two baffles in between the tube sheets are required to support all the tubes. but simultaneously reduces both the turbulence and the shell side heat transfer coefficient. the double segmental and the disk and dough nut type baffles. A hole in the baffle is slightly larger (. The minimum spacing of the segmental baffle is one fifth of the shell diameter or 5cm. the net flow area of the shell fluid is calculated by subtracting the cross-sectional area of the tubes passing through the cut-out portion from the area of cut –out portion itself A small notch or segment is cut out at the lowest part of a baffle in a horizontal exchanger This provides the passage to the liquid when the shell is required to be drained ( may be during the shutdown or cleaning or maintenance) Other type of baffles: Among the other type of shell side baffles.4mm or 1/64 inch larger if the unsupported tube length is greater than 1m. whichever is larger. . “flow induced tube vibration” in a heat exchanger can turn out to be a serious problem and should be properly taken care of in the design. If the clearance is larger. Baffle as tube support: Segmental baffles also act as supports to the tubes.less than 50%) A 20% cut segmental baffle means that the area of the cut-out portion is 20% of the area of the baffle However . Larger baffle spacing reduces the shell side pressure drop. Smaller baffle spacing increases both. Vertically cut segmental baffles provide better tube support than provided by horizontal cut type. the edge of the baffle hole may cut the tube because of tube vibrations.8mm larger when the unsupported length is equal to or smaller than 1m) than outer diameter of the tube. . Baffle spacing is selected in consideration of the allowable shell side pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficient desired.

centrally placed. Sometimes the tube sheets themselves act as shell flanges the bonnet and channel closures are fixed to the tube sheet by flaggers Gaskets are placed between two flanges to make the joint leak -free Compressed asbestos fiber (CAF). A section of a tube or pipe (this does not mean the heat exchanger tube) of suitable diameter (the i. Thus a shell with an expansion joint of single convolute is formed. This causes thermal stress which may damage the exchanger. Expansion joint: In many applications there may be substantial development of expansion between the shell and the tubes because of the temperature difference between the two fluid streams. After the last baffle is inserted. The piece is then welded. A piece of thin sheet expansion joint is made by cold forming (rolling or hydraulic forming) of a strip of metal or alloy. jacketed asbestos (JA) and PTFE gaskets are widely used at pressure up to20 bar and temperatures up to 150c (gaskets made of modified polymers and preferred to CAF now because asbestos is a carcinogen) The CAF gaskets may impregnated with a fine mesh steel wire gauge for extra strength .Spirally-wound gaskets or metal gaskets are used in high pressure services.d of the piece of tube should be slightly larger than the diameter of the tie rod) is slid over it. The tube sections are called spacers because they maintain spacing or distance between successive baffles. This arrangement fixes all the baffles firmly and prevents their movement Flanges and Gaskets A shell –and-tube exchanger uses a number of flanges. A baffle is then inserted followed by another section of the tube.Tie rods and baffle spacers: A few tie rods having threaded positions are used to hold baffles in positions. locknuts are tightened at the threaded free end of the tie rod. . It is possible to avoid the problem by providing the shell with a suitable expansion device. One end of the tie rod is screwed to a tube sheet. Multi convolute and various other expansion joints are also used depending up on the operating conditions. in between two segments.

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