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# The Chomsky Hierarchy

Prof. Busch - LSU

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LSU 2 .Linear-Bounded Automata: Same as Turing Machines with one difference: the input string tape space is the only tape space allowed to use Prof. Busch .

LSU 3 . Busch .Linear Bounded Automaton (LBA) Input string [ a b c d e ] Left-end marker Working space in tape Right-end marker All computation is done between end markers Prof.

We define LBA’s as NonDeterministic Open Problem: NonDeterministic LBA’s have same power as Deterministic LBA’s ? Prof. Busch .LSU 4 .

Example languages accepted by LBAs: L  {a b c } n n n L  {a } n! LBA’s have more power than PDA’s (pushdown automata) LBA’s have less power than Turing Machines Prof. Busch .LSU 5 .

LSU 6 .Unrestricted Grammars: Productions u v String of variables and terminals String of variables and terminals Prof. Busch .

Example unrestricted grammar: S  aBc aB  cA Ac  d Prof. Busch .LSU 7 .

LSU 8 . Busch .Theorem: A language L is Turing-Acceptable if and only if L is generated by an unrestricted grammar Prof.

Busch .Context-Sensitive Grammars: Productions u v String of variables and terminals and: String of variables and terminals |u|  |v| Prof.LSU 9 .

Busch .LSU 10 .The language {a b c } n n n is context-sensitive: S  abc | aAbc Ab  bA Ac  Bbcc bB  Bb aB  aa | aaA Prof.

Theorem: A language L is context sensistive if and only if it is accepted by a Linear-Bounded automaton Observation: There is a language which is context-sensitive but not decidable Prof. Busch .LSU 11 .

Busch .The Chomsky Hierarchy Non Turing-Acceptable Turing-Acceptable decidable Context-sensitive Context-free Regular Prof.LSU 12 .