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Direct Retainers Infra Bulge Direct Retainers

Dr.Mohammad Al Sayed 26/4/2008

Infra Bulge Retainers: (Bar clasp: (Roach

Bar clasp originate from denture framework or a metal base and approaches the retentive undercut .from a gingival direction

Other bar clasps e.g. T bar or modified T bar do not have a tripping action since the retentive terminal engages the . undercut from an occlusal direction The push type retention of bar clasps is more effective than the pull retention of .a circumferential clasp

:Types of bar clasps

The bar clasp arm is classified by the * shape of the retentive terminal into: T, .modified T, I, Y or any letter clasp arm Bar clasp arms generally are used on the * buccal surfaces of teeth in combination .with lingual circumferential clasp arms Some types of bar clasps e.g. I bar are Push type having a tripping action :Tripping Action Is caused by a clasp arm that engages the undercut directly from a gingival . direction

:Rules applied to bar type clasp

The approach arm of a bar clasp must never impinge on soft tissues. Adequate relief must be applied under . the arm The approach arm must always taper uniformly from its attachment at the . frame to the clasp The approach arm must never cross a deep soft tissue undercut requiring a great deal of relief. This will result in a food trap or lead to injury of the . mucosa of the lip or cheek .1

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A bar clasp usually engages .02 inch undercut except for the I bar which . engages .01 inch The occlusal rest of the clasp assembly must be thick enough to provide adequate support without breaking and to avoid impinging of the soft tissue due . to settling of the approach arm The minor connector (proximal plate) should be rigid and strong to provide .some bracing to the partial denture The Approach arm should cross the gingival margin at 90 angle to avoid . irritation

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The distance between the vertical projection arm and other vertical . component should be at least 5mm The retentive terminal of a bar clasp should point toward the occlusal surface . never towards the gingiva It must be kept as low as possible on the . tooth to reduce leverage Flexibility of bar clasps can be controlled by the taper and length of the approach arm. The greater the length and more taper the more . flexible the clasp will be

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Greater retention than occlusally . approaching due to the trip action It is more esthetic than the occlusally . approaching clasps The flexibility of the bar clasp arm can be . controlled by its taper and length Covers less tooth structure than the occlusally approaching clasp (less caries (.susceptibility .1 .2 .3 .4

Greater tendency to collect and hold .1 food debris (more gingival (. irritation The retentive arm does not .2 . contribute to bracing and stability

When a deep cervical tooth undercut .1 . exists When a severe tissue undercut .2 . exists .When there is a shallow vestibule.3 When there is excessive buccal or .4 . lingual tilt of the tooth When the height of contour is close .5 to the occlusal surface of the . tooth

:Types of the gingivally approaching clasps Bar Clasp (Roach or vertical.1 (projection :Indications
On abutment for tooth supported or tooth-mucosa supported RPD when . there is distobuccal undercut In situations in which esthetics is . important .1


Component parts: It is usually used as a.1 .combination clasp form .a) Rest .b) Minor connector .c) A cast bar retentive clasp arm d) A cast circumferential bracing .clasp arm .Provides unilateral bracing.2 .Engages 0.01 inch undercut.3 The shape of the retentive terminal as a .4 T,Y, or I classify the bar clasp

The I and Y retentive clasp arm provide tripping action, which is called push type . clasp The T and modified T clasps did not have tripping action since the retentive terminal actually engage the undercut from an occlusal direction. One terminal of the T-bar clasp lies above the survey line for bracing and the other terminal below the survey line for retention. The modified T-bar clasp has only one . terminal below the survey line

Lingual view

Buccal view

:RPI Clasp.2
:Indication Commonly used for tooth mucosa borne partial .dentures :Design :It consists of.1 .a) Mesial rest b) Minor connector; placed into the mesiolingual embrasure, but not contacting . the adjacent tooth c) Proximal plate contacts approximately 1 mm of . the gingival portion of guiding plane d) Cast I bar retentive clasp arm located at the mesiobuccal prominence of the tooth or .mesial to it

.Engages 0.01 inch undercut. 2 .Provide unilateral bracing. 3 The proximal plate and the minor connector . provide stabilization and reciprocation During function, proximal plate and I-bar clasp arm move in a mesiogingival directiondisengaging tooth. This distribute more . functional load to edentulous ridge

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:Combination clasp
Commonly used for tooth mucosa borne RPD, when there is mesiobuccal undercut on the .abutment tooth

:Component parts are.1 .a) Rest .b) Minor connector c) Wrought wire circumferential . retentive clasp arm d) Cast circumferential bracing clasp . arm .Engages 0.01-0.02 inch undercut.2 Provides bilateral bracing, but less than a .3 . cast circumferential clasp

.Greater flexibility.1 It is more esthetically acceptable because . it is placed too much gingival It flex in all directions (round in cross section), Which allow it to dissipate .forces exerted on the abutment tooth The retentive arm can be adjusted in all . directions Makes little tooth contact (line contact, rather than the surface contact of the ( cast clasp arm .2 .3 .4 .5

It is easily distorted or fractured by .1 . careless handling by the patient It does not possess the bracing and .2 stabilizing qualities of cast clasp . arm . It involves extra step in fabrication.3

:Criteria for clasp selection

The selection of the clasp depends mainly on the type of support, the presence of undercut areas, and .esthetics For bounded saddle; the retentive.1 undercut present is used with any acceptable clasp type (clasping for (.convenience

For distal extension base; a stress releasing clasp that equitably distribute the force between the abutment and the . ridge is used a) If a mesiobuccal undercut is available on the terminal abutment, a combination clasp with the wrought . wire, RPI, or RPA clasps are used b) If the retentive undercut is located on the distobuccal surface, a bar clasp, reverse circlet (the minor connector and the occlusal rests are placed . mesially) and the C-clasp are used c) If mesiolingual undercut is present a . wrought wire clasp is used