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Name: Vipul Singh Instructor’s Name: Mrs. Alka Singh Course Name: B.A. LLB. (hons.

), 2nd semester Roll No. 155 Date:8th April,2012 Title: A research paper on “The Grave Digger Scene of Hamlet”

Why this scene of hamlet? (1) It intensifies the effect of tragedy. In this sense, the effect is paradoxical. Its humour provides a catastrophe that is to follow. It is the calm before the storm. Simultaneously, the eerie atmosphere of the play adds to the aura of the tragedy. (2) The scene would definitely get a laugh from the uneducated groundlings who would enjoy a relief to the long and tension-prevailing play. (3) Shakespeare was not only a composer but was an actor and shareholder in the Company and the Globe. So what was to happen to the comedians, the actors of his company who played the lighter comic parts when a play such as Hamlet or Macbeth was o the board? They could not be left without some small share in the proceedings, and this accounts for the grave-digger's scene.

we get gravediggers.65-66). the gravediggers are clowns. but he is funny. an ignoramus. The grave-digger then assumes that the lady in question committed suicide. or be nothing worth! (4. to do and to perform. He's a hick. In the course they use ironical words like' salvation' when he means 'damnation' and uses the word'se offendendo' instead of 'se defendedo'. we visualize two clowns conversing regarding the imminent burial of a lady whose death has taken place. a fool who thinks he's wise. Humorously. In a scene that adds nothing to the plot.What is the plot of the scene? From what point of view the scene was written? Was the scene trying to give information. and Hamlet has sent letters to the King announcing his sudden return to Denmark. to explain something technical to convince the reader of a belief’s validity by dramatizing it in action? The last time we saw Hamlet he was saying. but offers generous helpings of comedy and philosophy. as per them .A source of comic relief At the outset. These clowns . / My thoughts be bloody. we could expect climatic confrontation between Hamlet and the King. It brings us to the burning question whether Ophelia committed suicide or not. The amusement is provided by Shakespearean irony and the grave diggers' illiteracy and ignorance. the grave digger is also addressed as Goodman Dever. Instead. the King and Laertes have plotted Hamlet's death. In Shakespeare's plays a "clown" doesn't have a red nose and floppy shoes. from this time forth. under doubtful circumstances. "O. Shakespeare parodies the same when he says that the act has three branches-to act. Ques. Since then Ophelia has died. They debate whether or not whether she deserves a proper burial in the course of the same remains indifferent on the matter. Given all this build-up. We also witness a parody of a contemporary case concerned with the death of James Hales.4.

It's a laugh line. but how do you defend yourself against an offense committed by yourself in defense of yourself? If the actors playing the clowns are any good. Instead of "salvation." but his blunder is no more absurd than his idea. In fact. like a judge at an archery contest." the clown says "crowner. "When he himself might his quietus make / With a bare bodkin? (3. physical or psychological. This suggests that the clown thinks of the coroner as a guy who hands out crowns. and now the gravediggers are busily at work.1. he offers a fragment of fractured Latin: "It must be "se offendendo ". So they docommit suicide in self-defense." To "bear arms" is the sign of a gentleman.1." The Second Clown's reply is also a laugh line. To kill someone is "se offendendo.1. "sits.12). First of all.discuss the most profound issues in their clownish way. By this time. As though proving his point. The clowns then reflect that if Ophelia had not been a gentlewoman she would not have had a Christian burial. It's been less than two minutes since we heard the beautifully elegiac description of Ophelia's death. we might realize that when we're not laughing. digging. he would have said "se defendendo. it cannot be else" (5. not on the corpse. Are we supposed to think while we're laughing? Because if we think about the clowns' absurdities." an offense. ditchers. Second. and this leads First Clown to assert that the first gentlemen were "gardeners. we think that the most common reason for suicide is that people "can't stand it anymore.1. unless it is "se defendendo. If the clown knew what he was talking about.His clownish reasoning is that they "bore arms. But the clown's idea is that ." but he sits in judgment.1.75-76). instead of "coroner. He says "the crowner hath sat on her.30). such as Shakespeare got for his family when he had enough money.4-5)." They commit suicide because they are in unremitting pain. we're laughing. like a judge or jury. a coroner. and grave-makers" (5." which did mean "coroner" a hundred years before. and it means that you have an officially registered coat of arms. "Is she to be buried in Christian burial that willfully seeks her own salvation?" (5. First Clown offers the idea that it wasn't suicide if she drowned herself in self-defense. starting with the opening line of the scene.9). and finds it Christian burial" (5." he should have said "destruction. it must have occurred to us that these two clowns are digging Ophelia's grave. Hamlet said so much when he asked why anyone would put up with the insults of life. and trying to figure out whether or not Ophelia committed suicide." in self-defense. their absurdities are not so absurd.

he sings a song about how love was sweet when he was young. and continues to dig. and sings a morbidly jolly gravedigging song.1. ditchers. Hamlet asks Horatio. Before the gravedigger answers his own riddle. As they watch. everything has changed.1. As he digs. Hamlet says. but now that he is old.1. Up to this point in the play. or they couldn't have done any digging.65-66). and grave-makers"--must have had arms. . if only we could keep it in mind. so as the gravedigger digs.9091).1. and he makes a series of punning comments about lawyers. because "the houses that he makes last till doomsday" (5. Nowadays. Horatio sensibly replies that the gravedigger has gotten used to it.41-42). Hamlet comments. and we had the trick to see't" (5. the gravedigger triumphantly gives his answer: it is the "gravemaker" that builds strongest of all." So Hamlet is saying that this change from life to death a good thing to keep in mind." and a "pit of clay" (5." "and" means "if. "That skull had a tongue in it.1. Meanwhile. who thought he could flatter a man out of a horse. the shipwright. "Revolution" means "change.all the diggers--"gardeners. This comment is the first of many that Hamlet makes in the same vein. it's illegal to commingle human remains." and "trick" means "knack" or "ability. or the carpenter?" (5. the gravedigger shovels up another skull." a "spade. Hamlet and Horatio enter and observe him. but Shakespeare's day made more economical use of graveyard space.75). He mockingly speculates that the skull could have belonged to a politician who thought he could outsmart God. or to a courtier. your whole estate will eventually be just six feet of dirt. Hamlet seems to adopt the gravedigger's viewpoint. First Clown then follows this up with another joke. "Has this fellow no feeling of his business. "Here's fine revolution. Hamlet speculates that the second skull could have belonged to a lawyer. he shovels up a skull. but in the following moments of the scene. a riddle that asks "What is he that builds stronger than either the mason.1. about a "pickaxe. Hamlet has been unable to get used to the idea of his father's death. Then he sends his partner away for some liquor. (Have lawyers ever gotten any respect?) The general point of the jokes is that no matter how many legal documents you have. Now there's just the skull.59). that he sings at grave-making? (5. being knocked around by the gravedigger's spade.96). and could sing once" (5.

" Hamlet asks again. here in Denmark: I have been sexton here.163). one of his questions receives a straight answer: eight or nine years. Juliet's youth is an important element in her character. thirty years" (5. "Why. In answer to Hamlet's questions. the clown claims that the grave is not for a man. casual way. because everyone in England is mad. This begins a quickwitted exchange between Hamlet and the clown. The gravedigger's answer to Hamlet's question is "Mine. and the gravedigger gives him a nonsense answer. but. and meets his match in mockery. he'll either "recover his wits. and if the fact that Hamlet is thirty is important. Next.161162). He steps forward. and the clown has the punchline. And speaking of lying in the earth here's a skull. why weren't we told earlier?) Hamlet's next question is "How long will a man lie i' the earth ere he rot?" (5. she's dead" (5. The clown replies that he started the day that King Hamlet defeated King Fortinbras. says the gravedigger. On the other hand. asks the gravedigger whose grave it is. the clown answers: "One that was a woman. He adds that the Hamlet he's talking about is the one who has gone mad and been sent to England.119). and in such a roundabout. and not for a woman.Then Hamlet decides--for no apparent reason other than just because--that he will speak to the gravedigger. If not. amidst the jokes. In England. "e'en with losing his wits. (Thus.135-136). But thirty is neither very young nor very old. Shakespeare doesn't specify ages very often.1. Unless the man is rotten before he dies. because then he'll be tanned himself.1. and Lear's age is equally important to his story." but the gravedigger turns the question away with a pun. man and boy. So Hamlet never does learn that this is Ophelia's grave. and keep out the water. saying. when Hamlet finally asks who is to be buried in the grave. saying "upon what ground?" "Ground" means "cause. sir" (5. which was the same day that Hamlet was born. Hamlet asks the gravedigger how long he's been on the job.1. Finally. Hamlet then asks how Hamlet went mad. it won't matter. rest her soul. and we're laughing at the way the gravedigger mocks death. either. However.1. we learn that Hamlet is thirty years old. sir. . it's hard to see why this information is offered." or not. it's easy to see why. and when he does so in other plays. a leather tanner will last longer.

193). He says. This precious memory collides with the skull in Hamlet's hand. but not royal. In short. But he doesn't forget it. your jaw. of most excellent fancy" (5. this meandering conversation suddenly takes a poignant turn. Then he asks Horatio if Alexander the Great. As Hamlet ruminating on the future uses of human dust. At this moment." of the upper class. Yorick was his father's jester. then a child of six or seven.219).185-186). "my gorge rises at it" (5. "Alas. And the deceased was a suicide. a man with the knack of making people laugh.that's been in the grave for twenty-three years. we have rich funerals and poor ones. Yorick's skull has reminded him that we must all come to this. Hamlet explains the significance of what he sees.1. Horatio: a fellow of infinite jest. Your chops are your lower cheeks." you have a long face because you're sad. "And smelt so? pah!" (5. He's chop-fallen. they would want to know why a suicide is being buried in sanctified ground. The deceased was "of some estate.200). a man who had given Hamlet. we cannot see what Hamlet (and Shakespeare's audience) does.1.188). Yorick the jester isn't jesting now. Horatio says that he must have.says Hamlet. and if you are "chop-fallen. she'll be only a skull soon enough. Hamlet and Horatio step out of sight--though not out of the audience's sight--to watch. he starts bantering with Yorick's skull. He asks Yorick where his "flashes of merriment" are.1. and he feels his throat tighten. Because we lack these customs. That is. a "thousand" piggy-back rides. The impression of "maimed rites" is nearly impossible to reproduce on the modern stage. and accuses him of being "quite chop-fallen" (5. looked like this skull. after he was dead. In fact. but instead of crying.1. and Hamlet dismisses the skull. . Hamlet tells Yorick's skull to go to a fine woman's dressing room and tell her that no matter how much make-up she uses. Hamlet sees a funeral procession conducted with"maimed rites" (5. saying. and he launches into a flight of fancy about how the clay of Alexander or great Caesar could be used as a cork for a beer-barrel or caulk to fix a hole in a wall. poor Yorick! I knew him. The skull is Yorick's. Luckily." but the "pah" makes it feel like he just tosses it aside. At this point the editorial stage directions usually say that Hamlet "puts down the skull. but not different procedures that indicate who the deceased was and how he/she died. his chops have fallen completely off. Hamlet has just made a terrible pun at Yorick's expense. another corpse comes onto the scene. Presumably.1.

and he rushes out from his hiding-place to leap into the grave. Laertes repeats the question. But. Ophelia's corpse has been lowered into the grave.79-80). With Ophelia's body in his arms he asks that the earth be piled on the both of them until a mountain covers the "quick and the dead. while the priest can go to hell. churlish priest.1.In the funeral procession. and flowers to be scattered over her corpse. as he explains to Horatio in the next scene. / She should in ground unsanctified have lodged" (5. Hamlet recognizes him. then leaps into Ophelia's grave. Meanwhile. "Bravery" means "showiness. / When thou liest howling" (5." In a few minutes." and wants more to be done for his sister. saying "Sweets to the sweet: farewell! / I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife" (5.228-229). Hamlet is almost certainly right about Laertes.223). That is. and he curses Hamlet. / Till I have caught her once more in mine arms" (5.243-244). He says that Ophelia's death was "doubtful.2. This is certainly not what Laertes wants to hear.1. Only now does Hamlet realize whose grave this is. Laertes is angry that Ophelia's rites are "maimed. asking the priest"What ceremony else? (5. and the Queen steps forward to strew flowers. if he had had his way. the regular procedure ("order") for a suicide would have been followed. If Hamlet hadn't rushed out to join Laertes in the grave.1.240-242). He says. it doesn't seem likely . saying"Hold off the earth awhile." Laertes' actions and words enrage Hamlet.1. and points him out to Horatio as "a very noble youth. too. Hamlet's opinion will change drastically.1.249250). This makes Laertes very angry.233). Ophelia has flowers.Laertes asks again if nothing more is to be done. She has her "virgin crants" (a garland). and rocks thrown on her grave. but of being melodramatic. "I tell thee. is that "the bravery of his grief did put me / Into a towering passion" (5. What matters." and "but that great command o'ersways the order.1." Hamlet doesn't accuse Laertes of outright hypocrisy. The priest doesn't answer. The fact that Laertes has just cursed him doesn't seem to matter to Hamlet. and we find that the priest isn't too happy either. and Ophelia would have been buried in unsanctified ground. and the priest replies that to do more would be an insult to "peace-parted" souls. her "maiden strewments" (5. He declares that violets will grow from Ophelia's grave. because of a "great command" (presumably the King's). Of course. / A ministering angel shall my sister be. the first person we hear is Laertes.

saying.2. (Just how grotesque have these few moments been? There are at least four feet in that grave with Ophelia's body. The motivation for this furious mockery now seems to be that Laertes' grief is an affront to Hamlet's. the only thing that happens in the whole scene is that the threat to Hamlet's life is intensified. Both the King and Queen try to calm Laertes by saying that Hamlet is mad. . because Hamlet takes four lines to tell him to get his fingers off his throat.254-257). Does she get stepped on?) Hamlet declares that he loved Ophelia. Hamlet says to Laertes. the King takes the opportunity to reassure Laertes that they will soon put their plot against Hamlet into motion. with all their quantity of love. but perhaps it indicates that Hamlet has doubts or guilt about the depth of his feeling for Ophelia. sir. / Make up my sum" (5. And just before he exits. Laertes grapples with him.that Laertes would have actually stayed in there while the gravedigger shoveled dirt onto him. and makes them stand / Like wonder-wounded hearers?" (5. Will he fight? Starve himself? Eat a crocodile? If Laertes will do it. perhaps without mockery. But development in what direction? He banters about death with the gravedigger. Once Hamlet is in the grave. It seems that a major purpose of the scene must be to show the development of Hamlet's character. / What is the reason that you use me thus? / I loved you ever" (5. and they come out of the grave. and with Horatio. And there's no soliloquy to explain it all. Still.277-278). as far as the plot of the play is concerned.288-290). The notion that Laertes is trying to outdo Hamlet in grief seems highly illogical. but as soon as Hamlet is gone.1. Horatio and others intervene to separate the two. with Yorick's skull. Hamlet asks Laertes. but apparently not with deadly intent. Hamlet will too.269-271). as though Laertes were putting on a show of grief in order to demonstrate that Hamlet has no grief for Ophelia.He then asks Laertes what he'll do for Ophelia. then flashes into anger at Laertes' grief over Ophelia.1.1. why should it matter so much to Hamlet? Hamlet's first words melodramatically mock Laertes' melodramatic grief:"What is he whose grief / Bears such an emphasis? whose phrase of sorrow / Conjures the wandering stars. Thus. "Forty thousand brothers / Could not. "Dost thou come here to whine? To outface me with leaping in her grave?" (5. "Hear you.

What is the significance of the scene? The Significance of the Grave-digger‟s Scene in Hamlet WHY this scene? (1) It intensifies the effect of tragedy. as per them . A Source Of Comic Relief At the outset. Shakespeare parodies the same when he says that the act has three branches-to act. In this sense. intermingles with the comic element. somber. (3) Shakespeare was not only a composer but was an actor and shareholder in the Company and the Globe. under doubtful circumstances. They debate whether or not whether she deserves a proper burial in the course of the same remains indifferent on the matter. In William Shakespeare tragedy Hamlet. and this accounts for the grave-digger‟s scene. The amusement is provided by Shakespearean irony and the grave diggers‟ illiteracy and ignorance.. It brings us to the burning question whether Ophelia committed suicide or not. the actors of his company who played the lighter comic parts when a play such as Hamlet or Macbeth was o the board? They could not be left without some small share in the proceedings. the effect is paradoxical. grotesque. to do and to perform. we visualize two clowns conversing regarding the imminent burial of a lady whose death has taken place. So what was to happen to the comedians. Ques. We also witness a parody of a contemporary case concerned with the death of James Hales. (2) The scene would definitely get a laugh from the uneducated groundlings who would enjoy a relief to the long and tension-prevailing play. the grave digger is also addressed as Goodman Dever. the eerie atmosphere of the play adds to the aura of the tragedy. Simultaneously. grave diggers scene is one place where seriousness. painful. What is the genre or the general field of the scene and how does the scene fits into it? Death is tragic. . In the course they use ironical words like‟ salvation‟ when he means „damnation‟ and uses the word‟se offendendo‟ instead of „se defendedo‟. Its humour provides a catastrophe that is to follow. The grave-digger then assumes that the lady in question committed suicide. It is the calm before the storm.and the end product? One of the greatest works of literature is born. Humorously.. But who ever knew that death could even be laughed at.Ques.

This intrusion of the comic into the tragic mode is called comic relief. if Claudius was wrong to kill his brother and marry his brother‟s wife (and surely he was). like the Act Fives of all major revenge tragedies preceding Hamlet. and the gratification which would arise from the destruction of an usurper and a murderer. Johnson charges that the ending of Hamlet is both unjust and improbable. this final Act of Hamlet is as mysterious. Hamlet seems to bring the drama to a close almost accidentally. miracle and morality plays. The death of Claudius certainly lacks the poetic justice that vengeance seems to require. the revenge which he demands is not obtained but by the death of him that was required to take it.The occasional admission of comic ingredient in a tragedy to make it light. and controversial as those that precede it. if ironically. shouldn‟t the lethal correction of these crimes feel more satisfying. Indeed. including the role of the ghost in giving the death of Claudius a moral shape. . After all. The play begins rather straightforwardly. humorous is one of the most interesting forms of tragedy. more “right. and Johnson accuses Shakespeare on these grounds of dramatic clumsiness and moral ineptitude. writing in 1765. What on earth is Shakespeare trying to do with this strange play – why doesn‟t he give it a proper ending? Many of the earliest extant critics of the play. those of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.” than it does in this play? Samuel Johnson. is abated by the untimely death of Ophelia. and may be charged with equal neglect of poetical probability. ambiguous. Though Aristotle in his Poetics does not make allowance for the dilution series action. half-cocked. These critics often found fault with the play‟s lack of moral meaning. Conclusion: No surprise. in Act Five Hamlet kills Claudius – finally. English drama fortunately is replete with instances to show how comedy and tragedy occurred frequently in mystery. found the strange and abrupt manner of Hamlet‟s revenge to be as puzzling as we might.” In other words. off-hand way. we wonder whether this really counts as revenge. should fulfill this initial plotline. voices critical dissatisfaction quite clearly: “The poet is accused of having shown little regard to poetical justice. The earlier part of the play. as a revenge tragedy – Old Hamlet‟s ghost spurs his son to revenge – and it would seem that Act Five. But he does so in such a roundabout. The apparition left the regions of the dead to little purpose. seems to have been forgotten.

Hamlet‟s final Act transcends the play itself. By the final Act. Hamlet‟s mind seems to work as an intense magnifying glass of sorts. Bloom writes: “Any Fortinbras or Laertes could chop Claudius down. for lack of a better term. for instance. to a scathing parody of Osric‟s ludicrous courtly mannerisms. The critic Harold Bloom. the nature of mortality as occasioned by the discovery of Yorick‟s skull – and treating it with a . Shakespeare‟s abandonment of the central focus on revenge. Yorick. some of them have found the ending of Hamlet to signal a shift to a “higher. which Shakespeare was not quite ready to compose. and. massively significant.” In this view. As noted before. Hamlet has been. post-theatrical. to his declaration of love for Ophelia and his attendant mockery of Laertes‟ over-the-top mourning display. deeper investigation of the nature of performance itself. in between the two major events of Act Five (the burial of Ophelia and the duel between Hamlet and Laertes). Shakespeare includes several very famous setpieces.” more self-aware theater. the action. in other words. a purposeful rejection of the simple morality of revenge in favor of a richer. Oh cursed spite / That ever I was born to set it right!” Shakespeare has purposefully miscast his hero and given us a character whose accomplishments are intellectual and verbal. has only been an occasion for Hamlet‟s own tremendously powerful self-exploration. He looks at one subject – say. has written at length about Act Five as Hamlet‟s rejection of his own dramatic role. perhaps amounts to his finally agreeing with his protagonist. and shrugs off its generic requirements. Indeed. The range of Hamlet‟s verbal and philosophical variety becomes clear as he goes from trading macabre jokes with the gravedigger. to his moving rumination on the dead court jester. and the culmination of the requirements of "revenge tragedy" appropriately occurs almost despite the play itself. from the very first moments of the play. the gravedigger‟s macabre humor – and scrutinizes it to exhaustion before turning to another – say. then. taken it from a simple and predictable genre play to something inscrutable. He seems to have grown bored with his own play. it seems as though the playwright has finally given up trying to tie his hero down to conventions. The plot. not violent and physical. so to speak.Later critics have been much less quick to fault Shakespeare‟s dramatic instincts. reluctant to carry out the absurd and generic task that is his as a character in a revenge tragedy – “The time is out of joint. Hamlet has forced Hamlet off the rails. Hamlet knows he deserves the prime role in a cosmological drama. Meanwhile.

Of the four deaths that occur in the final scene of the play. With the arrival of Fortinbras. Fortinbras. a man like Laertes. if it be not to come. as he does for instance in his soliloquies on Hecuba and on Fortinbras‟ army. in fact. In a way. senselessly. not in prospective action. Hamlet‟s dying words. to help the court audience sort out the carnage that they have seen: “[I]n this harsh world draw thy breath in pain. are a plea to his friend. it will be now. The readiness is all. As Hamlet predicts. against the uncertainty and confusion of death. The variety of his curiosity is matched by depth of penetration. for instance. ‟tis not to come. his rise in Norway impeded by his uncle.. in nonetheless Hamlet's opposite. but to celebrate it. at least spontaneous and chaotic. and the triumph of thought over fate. The other three are. absurdly. we might ask what Hamlet means by “it” in the above sentence.” Hamlet emphasizes that significance comes only in retrospect. any event?) At any rate. so be it. which he has made not with “a bare bodkin” but with his own mental powers. The only meaning that matters must be made out of apparent meaninglessness. Hamlet has achieved a point of philosophical “quietus.). he hardly wastes a . Horatio. he rejects the ghost‟s order to fulfill a set goal. Hamlet seems no longer to curse this tendency of his to become distracted by thought in favor of action.” an acceptance of the world with all of its flaws and absurdities. or any futureoriented thinking at all. he rejects any predictive phenomena. [.” Does “it” rather refer to death itself? – “If I am to die now. He says to Horatio. only one – Hamlet‟s – is planned. if not senseless. He is both wide-ranging and profound – truly a Renaissance mind. / To tell my story.” Or is “it” a placeholder for anything. (By the way. the tone shifts dramatically in the other direction. etc. with sense making.similar thoroughness. yet it will come. “[W]e defy augury. with storytelling. whose own barely-limned plot is extremely similar to Hamlet's (his identically-named father dead. Does “it” refer to his plan to kill Claudius? – “If I will kill him now. so be it. His death thus demonstrates the value of introspection over action. In this final Act.] If it be now. if it be not now. when his friend seems concerned that he is walking into the trap set by Claudius and Laertes. or Old Hamlet. The entire gory episode seems to be a playing-out of Hamlet‟s new understanding of the world – death strikes randomly.” Hamlet rejects “augury” – that is.. He is a man of action. His gaze is focused on some spiritual realm beyond the pettiness of Danish political intrigue.

And. revolves all but resolves nothing. and gives him a soldier‟s funeral. it seems that Fortinbras is the anti-Hamlet – a man who can only understand others in light of his own simple and straight-forward mind. searches many questions.rhtml  thecutestliterature. but Hamlet‟s regime of the mind and the possibilities of subjectivity. Though we know very little of him. he explores the world from many perspectives./hamlet-grave-digger-scene . In an exact opposite way. Fortinbras‟ arrival marks the end of the true reign of in declaring his intention to take the throne of Denmark for his own. Fortinbras misunderstands the dead › Books  www. because he was a prince.sparknotes. so he is given a soldier‟s burial. Hamlet.html  The World of English Literature Hamlet The Grave Digger Scene. was probably a soldier.. as a final irony. Bibliography  Hamlet Study Guide Summary and Analysis of Act 5 GradeSaver.html  www. not Claudius‟ petty and incompetent Hamlet finds a universe of variety within his own mind.

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