Onshore Drilling

 Definition: drilling on the land  Two main types: 1) Percussion. or cable tool drilling 2) Rotary drilling .

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 First drilling method employed to dig wells into the earth. low pressure wells.  Still in use particularly for shallow. .

A heavy cutting tool called a bit is attached to a cable and a pulley system The cable hangs from the top of a four legged framework tower called derrick .

those cuttings have to be wetted down and bailed out of the hole. The cable raises and drops the bit over and over again. punching a hole into the ground.  Periodically. . shattering the rocks into small cuttings.

 Cheap  Easy for one person to use  Gentle method of well drilling  Water is the only media required for cuttings removal .

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. which may be under high pressure. Method used to drill deeper wells.  It consists of a drilling system in which the drill bit rotates and cuts into rock.

Circulating equipment . Hoisting equipment 3. Prime movers 2.1. Rotating equipment 4.

. Pieces of equipment that provide the power to the entire rig: diesel engines. natural gas or gasoline engines.

cables. pulleys… . Main task: lower and raise the subsurface equipment into or out of the well: derrick.

 Different types of drill bits. each designed for different types of rock and drilling conditions. . Components that actually serve to rotate the drill bit.

Controlling well pressure 3. Coating the walls of the well with a mud type cake . Removing debris and cuttings 4. Cooling and lubricating the drill bit 2.Consists of liquid drilling fluid known as mud: Objectives: 1.

through the bit. contains clay and chemicals mixed with water. .  Throughout the rotary drilling process. the drilling mud is continuously forced to the bottom of the hole. This special mud. and back up to the surface.

 Fast  Most rock formations can be drilled  Possible to drill to depths of over 40 meters  Water and mud support unstable formations .

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