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Master in Petroleum Engineering 2007-2008

Definition, calculation and analysis of results for the application in well design, drilling and well control operations. Choke and Kill friction losses influence in Deep Water Wells.

Kick Tolerance

San Donato Milanese October the 23rd-24th 2008


Author Company Tutors

Gabriele Zaccaria

Giuseppe Lanzi Luca Carazza

Division
Dept.

Exploration & Production


WEDE/PERF

University Tutor

Francesca Verga

Master in Petroleum Engineering 2007-2008

Introduction Scope of the work Kick Tolerance Definition Kick Tolerance Calculation Kick Tolerance in Planning Phase Kick Tolerance in Drilling Phase

Kick Tolerance Parameters


Deep Water Environment Innovative Drilling Technologies Conclusions

Introduction
The importance of kick tolerance in well operations has recently increased due to its implications in well design, in drilling and well control.

These implications are still more evident in wells

currently drilled by oil


industry, for which more
complex planning and execution are required in comparison with the past.

Deep HPHT Well

Scope of the work


To study a simple method for the application of kick tolerance concept in an effective way both in well design and drilling phase.

The proposed method allows to know, to evaluate and to analyze the kick tolerance problem in order to make the drilling execution safer and more economical by reducing the probability to have an incident.

This document purpose is to improve knowledge about Kick Tolerance and represents a technical basis for the discussion on revision of STAP/PERF standard/procedure.

Kick Tolerance Definition


Kick Tolerance is defined as the maximum kick volume that can be taken into the wellbore and circulated out without fracturing the

formation at weak point (shoe), given a difference between pore


pressure and mud weight in use.

It is very important to recognise a kick and quick shut-in the well in

order to limit Kick Volume and to


carry out a successful control.

KickTOLERANCE CALCULATOR (Beta Version) KICK Tolerance Calculation


The maximum kick volume which can be circulated to surface without fracturing is function of:
DP OD (in) 5

CLOSE

CALCULATE

Shoe well phase geometrical configuration; Fracture Gradient (sg) Shoe Depth (m) 3200

2.15

Safety Factor (kgf/cm2)

15.0

drill string dimension;

A spreadsheet has been implemented in Hole Size (in) 8.5


Mud Weight (sg) 1.90 DC length (m) 200 0.3

order to obtain the kick tolerance volume.


DC OD (in) 6.75 formation, fracture, mud & influx gradients. Gas Gradient (sg)

TD (m)

5000

Pore Gradient at TD (sg)

2.00

MAASP (kgf/cm2)

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KICK TOLERANCE VOLUME (bbl)

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Kick Tolerance Calculation


The amount of influx volume that entering in well depends on:

underbalance between mud weight and pore pressure reservoir porosity and permeability influx type sensibility and reliability of detection equipment reaction time of well control crew type well shut in procedure time of BOP closure
The same kick tolerance between two wells may not mean that they share the same level of risk because it is important to consider how quickly an influx will grow!

Calculation Assumptions
It has been assumed: vertical well

single monophase gas bubble


two drill string diameters (BHA & DP) one open hole size constant ECD profile It has been neglected: gas velocity and its real distribution in the annulus P & T influence on mud weight and influx gradient gas composition, dispersion and solubility Drillers method has been used for the calculation. These assumptions assures a conservative (safer) kick tolerance.

Kick Tolerance Formula


Two mirror approaches have been performed in order to obtain a correlation linking kick tolerance volume to the corresponding pore gradient

or kick intensity.
(KI = PG MW) The correlation is biunique: by fixing bottom hole volume it is possible to obtain the corresponding increase of pore gradient. by fixing pore gradient it is possible to calculate the corresponding bottom hole kick tolerance volume.

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First Approach
FG H shoe PG H shoe (FG MW) 10 SF TD MW FG H shoe C HS DP (MW IG) Vi_BH Vi_BH TD C HS
DP

Second Approach
Vi_bh C HS
DP

H shoe (FG MW) 10 SF TD (PG MW) FG H shoe (MW IG) PG TD

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Kick Tolerance Plot


This correlation is very incisive, especially in its graphical form.
TD = 4000 m Hshoe = 3000 m
Kick Intensity (kg/l)

0,08 0,07 0,06 0,05 0,04 0,03 0,02 0,01 0,00 0 5 10 15

Kick Tolerance Plot

HS = 12 DP OD = 5 BHA OD = 8 BHAlength = 190 m DPlength = 810 m MW = 1.6 kg/l IG = 0.3 kg/l FG = 1,75 kg/l

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

Kick Tolerance Volume (bbl)

Zero Kick Tolerance Volume zero influx MAASP 10 PG MW TD

Max Kick Tolerance Volume Zero underbalance swab case

PG

MW

KI

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KT in Planning Phase
During the casing seat design, MAASP and Differential Pressure criteria are used to select casing setting points.

MAASP

( FG MW ) H shoe 10

Differential Pressure

MW

PG H 10

M.A.A.S.P. =Maximum Allowable Annular Shut in Casing Pressure

D E P T H

Fracture Gradient

m
Pore Gradient PRESSURE GRADIENT kg/cm2/10m

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KT in Planning Phase
Kick Tolerance limits are fixed basing on diameter of the drilled open hole.
Hole Size (inch) 12.25 8.5 12.25 8.5 Kick Tolerance Volume (bbl) > 50 > 35 > 25

The lower value (25 bbl) is usually composed by :

The minimum noticeable pit gain (15 bbl) The estimated pit gain that will occur to when
the well is finally shut in (10 bbl)

These values help the drilling engineer to verify the casing shoe depth.
The maximum pit gain used in the calculation is critical and must be selected as appropriate given existing field operating practices, rig equipment, and the skills of the rig personnel.

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KT in Planning Phase
The requested kick tolerance volume limits have to satisfy the planned

casing shoe depths.

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KT in Planning Phase
KICK TOLERANCE APPLICATION EXAMPLE
9 5/8 CSG

Hshoe = 3200 m
Kick Intensity (kg/l)

0,04

0,03

FG = 2.15 kg/l

DP 5

0,02

MW = 2.10 kg/l
8 Hole Size

0,01

0,00

200 m DC 6

Kick Tolerance Volume (bbl)

TD = 5000 m

PG = 2.05 kg/l

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KT in Planning Phase
2,20 2,15

Pore Gradient (kg/l)

2,10 2,05 2,00 1,95 1,90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

MW=1.90 k g/l MW=1.95 k g/l MW=2.00 k g/l MW=2.05 k g/l MW=2.10 k g/l

Hshoe= 3200 m FG = 2.15 kg/l DP 5

8 Hole Size

Kick Tolerance Volume (bbl)

200 m DC 6
0,25

Kick Intensity (kg/l)

TD = 4000 m PG = 1.85 kg/l


Mud Weight Kick Intensity
kg/l 1.90 1.95 2.00 kg/l 0.100 0.056 0.012

0,20
MW=1.90 k g/l

0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Kick Tolerance Volume (bbl)

MW=1.95 k g/l MW=2.00 k g/l MW=2.05 k g/l MW=2.10 k g/l

SIDPP
kg/cm2 40.0 22.4 4.80

PG*
kg/l 2.000 2.006 2.012

PG*-PG
kg/l 0.150 0.156 0.162

BHP
kg/cm2 60.0 62.4 64.8

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KT in Drilling Phase
Following the example of many drillings contractors procedures, if kick tolerance assume a value lower than the following limits, it is necessary to inform a

competent authority that will decide how to carry on the operations.


Floater Well Type > 50 bbls 25 - 50 bbls < 25 bbls
OIM and Rig Manager Performance Informed Operations Managers Performance Informed

Bottom Supported

Development

Exploration Exploration Development & Appraisal & Appraisal

Division Manager Approval or Business Unit Director of Operations Performance Approval

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Kick Identification Chart


During the drilling phase it is possible to identify the influx type

In case of HPHT wells, gas could be in a liquid state until it reaches the bubble point, therefore the gas detection is more difficult.

Kick Identification Chart


120 100

IG

MW

( SICP SIDPP) 10 Hi

(SICP-SIDPP) (kg/cm

)
80

Gas Kick
60

Gas Kick Oil Kick Oil Kick Water Kick

40
20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

MAASP

Water Kick

Pit Gain (bbl)

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KT in Drilling Phase
Knowing pit gain and SIDPP, the same diagram used in the planning phase, allows to estimate if or kick volume can be circulated out or bullheaded back

immediately into formation avoiding potential underground blowout phenomena.


Kick Tolerance
KICK CIRCULATION WITH DRILLERS OR WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD
SIDPP (kg/cm2)
120

100

UNDERGROUND BLOWOUT

BULLHEADING

80

60

FRACTURING LINE
40

20

WITHIN KICK TOLERANCE


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

Kick Volume (bbl)

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Kick Tolerance Parameters


Increase FG: - Formation Strengtheners - Cement Squeeze - Repeat LOT - Increase MW - Use ECD

Minimize SF by reducing choke operator error thank to drill crew training

Vi _ shoe

H i _ max CHS

DP

( H shoe ( FG MW ) 10 SF ) TD ( PG MW ) CHS ( MW IG )

DP

Vi _ BH

Vi _ shoe Pfrac Pp
Improve FG estimation

Use W&W method to limit casing pressure and to reduce the force generated by pore pressure

- Improve IG estimation knowing SICP and SIDPP - Knowledge of reservoir characteristics

Reduce open hole total depth by adding a casing

Early kick detection and hard well shut-in to minimize influx volume

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Deep Water Environment


Scarabeo 7 The continuous research into of new hydrocarbons reservoir increasing

water depths means new challenges due

to the environment in which to work and


to the equipment used for deep water.

Dual Activity
Off line

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Choke and Kill lines effect


In deepwater, Choke and Kill line friction is an important factor, particularly when the threshold between mud density and fracture gradient is really narrow. Pressure losses in these lines are relatively high even at low circulation rates because of the considerable

length and small diameter.

They reduce the MAASP and in some instances the margin to circulate out the kick becomes is very low.

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Choke and Kill lines effect


Original Mud: Kill Weight Mud: Weight (sg) 1,5 2,0 PV (cP) 30 30 YP (lbf/100sqft) 20 20 Mud SCR Range (bbl/min) Minimum: 1 Maximum: 5

TD = 4000 m Hshoe = 3000 m HS = 12 DP OD = 5 BHA OD = 8 BHAlength = 190 m

CHOKE LINE DIMENSION:


Length (m) 2000 0 ID (inch) 3 0

Section 1: Section 2:

Choke Line Pressure Loss: Mud SCR (bbl/min) 1 2 3 4 5 Pressure Loss (psi) Original Mud Kill Mud 222 222 250 250 304 378 503 625 744 923

DPlength = 810 m MW = 1.5 kg/l PG = 1.55 kg/cm2/10m IG = 0.3 kg/l FG = 1.75 kg/cm2/10m

ANNULUS DIMENSION:
Length Casing ID (m) (inch) 3200 9,625 Off-shore 4000 8,500 String OD (inch) 5 (including 5 40 kg/cm2

choke effect)
= 46 bbl

MAASP =

Annulus Pressure Loss: Kick Tolerance Volume Mud SCR Pressure Loss (psi) Original (bbl/min) Mud Kill Mud 1 617 617 2 633 633

On-shore (without choke effect) MAASP = 75 kg/cm2 Kick Tolerance Volume = 155 bbl

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Innovative drilling technologies


In challenging Deep HPHT wells, where kick tolerance is very narrow or doesnt exist at all, it is necessary to use innovative technologies in order

to be able to drill on.

Managed

Pressure Drilling (MPD)

ENI Near Balance Drilling (ENBD)

They allow to manage the bottom hole pressure properly.

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Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD)


MPD technology is the use of a closed, pressurizable mud returns system that provides
RBOP

the ability to drill ahead and make jointed-pipe


connections while maintaining the appropriate annular pressure profile.

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ENI Near Balance Drilling (ENBD)


ENBD allows walking the line between pore pressure and fracture gradient, through precise and safe control of the annular pressure profile, during drilling. ENBD integrates the advantages both of Continuous Circulation and Managed Pressure Drilling. Application of a continuous circulation device may give great benefit, especially in combination with annular back-pressure.

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Conclusions
Kick Tolerance is an important concept that can be applied both in drilling

operations and in casing program design.

Application of kick tolerance concept is especially helpful in wells

currently drilled by oil industry, for which more complex planning and
execution are required.

Considering Kick Tolerance made drilling execution safer and more

economical by reducing the probability to have an incident.

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Conclusions
A correlation linking kick tolerance volume to the corresponding kick intensity has been drawn.

During the planning phase, a diagram can be used in order to verify if


planned casing setting depth and mud weight are suitable to assure the minimum
kick tolerance requirements.

During the drilling phase, knowing pit gain and SIDPP, the same diagram
allows to estimate if or kick volume can be circulated out or bullheaded back immediately into formation avoiding potential underground blowout phenomena.

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Conclusions
It is important monitoring the kick tolerance in real time, by updating the calculation every time there is a variation of the parameters which influence its

value.

An analysis has also been carried out on the parameters that influence
kick tolerance. Based on it, some indications have been suggested in order to
optimize the parameters.

In deepwater, Choke and Kill line friction is an important factor, particularly when the threshold between mud density and casing shoe fracture gradient is really narrow.

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Acknowledgements
I would thank Eni E&P Division Management for permission to present this work and related results and WEDE/PERF colleagues for the technical support and needed assistance.