S.Balasubramanian et al.

/ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Grey Relational Analysis to determine optimum process parameters for Wire Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM).
Department of mechanical engineering KLN College of engineering,Potapalayam,Madurai-630611. India.

Principal KLN College of Engineering,Potapalayam,Madurai-630611. India. Abstract This paper presents an effective approach to optimize process parameters for Wire electro discharge machining (WEDM).WEDM is extensively used in tool and die industries. Precision and intricate machining are the strengths. While machining time and surface quality still remains as major challenges. The main objective of this study is to obtain higher material removal rate (MRR) and lower surface roughness (SR). Ton, T off, Applied current, Gap voltage, Wire tension and wire feed rate are the six control factors taken each at various levels. Since the process has multiple performance characteristics, the grey relational analysis is used. The grey relational grade normalizes the contradicting performance indices. From eight experiments based on the orthogonal array of L8 the best combination of parameters were found. Compared with Taguchi’s method the proposed method is more scientific. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method in this study effectively improves the machining performance of WEDM process. Key words: orthogonal array; Grey relational analysis; optimization. 1. Introduction 1.1 Wire EDM Wire Electro Discharge machining (WEDM) is one of the important non-traditional machining processes which are used for machining difficult to machine materials like composites and inter-metallic materials. Intricate profiles used in prosthetics, bio-medical applications can also be done in WEDM. WEDM involves complex physical and chemical process including heating and cooling. The electrical discharge energy affected by the spark plasma intensity and the discharging time will determine the crater size, which in turn will influence the machining efficiency and surface quality [1] With the introduction and increased use of newer and harder materials like titanium, hardened steel, high strength temperature resistant alloys, fiber-reinforced composites and ceramics in aerospace, nuclear, missile, turbine, automobile, tool and die making industries, a different class of machining process has been emerged. Better finish, low tolerance, higher production rate, miniaturization etc are also the present demands of the manufacturing industries. Surface roughness is a key factor in the machining process while considering machining performance. Surface roughness is a measure of the technological quality of a factor that greatly influences manufacturing cost and quality. On the other hand, material removal rate (MRR) which indicates the processing time of the work piece is another important factor that greatly influences production rate and cost. Proper selection of process parameters is essential to obtain good surface finish and higher MRR. 1.2 Literature survey For determining the optimal parametric settings, lot of work has been done in the engineering design. But mostly all of them concentrated on a single response problem. However, the WEDM processes are having several important performance characteristics like MRR, SR, etc. The optimal parametric settings with respect

ISSN: 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 1 Jan 2011


or when the directions of the target in the sequences are different. In that study. Hence in this paper the grey relational grade combined with Taguchi’s loss function has been introduced. dual response approach. respectively. Optimal machining parameters setting for WEDM still has some difficulty. The selection of the best combination of the process parameters for an optimal machining performance involves analytical and statistical methods. A System for which the relevant information is completely known is a ‘white’ system. These approaches are difficult to implement by individuals with little background in mathematics/statistics and so are of little practical use. Generally it is taken as 0.maxi y ij and mini yij are the maximum and minimum values of ith performance characteristic for alternate j . grey relational co-efficient (GRC) is calculated as  IJ  o min i min j X j  X ij   max i X j o o o o_ X ij X j  X ij   max i X i  X ij (3) Xj is the ideal normalized result for the jth performance characteristic.Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) a normalization evaluation technique is extended to solve the complicated multi-performance characteristics optimization effectively. Scott et al [2] have presented a formulation and solution of a multi objective optimization problem for the selection of the best parameter settings on a WEDM machine. The formulae are Larger the better value X ij  Smaller the better value Yij  min i Yij max i Yij  min i Yij (1) X ij  max i y ij  y ij max i y ij  min i y ij (2) Where yij is the ith performance characteristic in the jth experiment . 1 Jan 2011 .S. while a system for which the relevant information is completely unknown is a ‘black’ system.1 Data Pre-Processing Data Pre-Processing is normally required. Lin [3] presented the use of grey relational grade to the machining parameter optimization of the EDM process. 3 No. genetic algorithm. a factorial design model has been used to predict the measures of performance as a function of a variety of machining parameters. The grey theory is based on the random uncertainty of small samples which developed into an evaluation technique to solve certain problems of system that are complex and having incomplete information. By normalizing. simulated annealing. Grey Relational Grade (GRG) γi = 1/n Σ WK ζ ij j=1 n (4) 96 ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 2. The measures of performance for the model were MRR and surface quality. ζ is the distinguishing or identification co-efficient.Balasubramanian et al. It is also necessary when the sequence scatter range is too large. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) to different performance characteristics are different. since the range and unit in one data sequence may differ from others. Any system between these limits is a ‘grey’ system having poor and limited information [5]. Ramakrishnan et al [4] also lacks the way to convert multiple objectives into a single objective format though the method is relatively simple. The ideal normalized value is the maximum of the normalized S/N ratio since large normalized S/N ratio is preferred.5. Grey Relational Analysis The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) associated with the Taguchi method represents a rather new approach to optimization. The grey relational grade (GRG) is obtained by averaging the grey relational co-efficient corresponding to each performance measure. 2. linear or non linear or dynamic programming. It may be noted that most of the prevailing approaches have used complex mathematical or statistical methods such as ANN.

The constants for surf coder through out the measurements were standard ISO 97R. 1 Jan 2011 97 .8 mm cut-off. 3. The weight of the work piece has been measured in a precision digital balance meter (Model: DHD-200 Macro single pan DIGITAL reading electrically operated analytical balance made by Dhona Instruments) which can measure up to the accuracy of 1/104 grams and this gives the desired accuracy. The material used is Inconel 718 alloy and brass wire of 0. least count of 0. The grey relational grade also indicates the degree of influence that the comparability sequence could explain over the reference sequence [6. MRR has been calculated by averaging 3 repetitions for each combination.For each combination . MRR  Wi  W f t mm 3 min (5) Where Wi is the initial weight of the work piece in grams. then the value of grey relational grade is equal to 1. 3 No. Wf is the final weight of the work piece in grams ‘t’ is the machining time in minutes. The surface roughness is measured in Ra by using surf coder SE 1200 surface roughness instrument. ‘  ’is the density of the material. Experimental Setup The experiments were performed on ‘Electronica’ “Eco cut” model.Balasubramanian et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Here WK denotes the normalized weight factor and taken as 1.S. Six parameters were selected and the remaining process parameters are kept constant throughout the study.6 4 8 6 5 Level 2 15 2. The results have been tabulated in Table 3 and 4. Material removal rate (MRR) has been calculated from the difference of weight of work piece before and after the experiment.8 6 12 7 6 Level 3 3. a total of 3 readings were taken at random to get the Ra value. The constant parameters are flushing pressure of 10 lpm. and de-ionized water is used as di-electric. servo feed of 2030 mpm.8]. If the two sequences are identical.25 mm diameter is used as electrode. Table 1 Machining Parameters Factor A B C D E F Parameter Gap Voltage V Pulse on time μs Pulse off time μs Applied Current A Wire tension N Wire feed rate m/min Level 1 10 1.7.001μm .1 Machining Parameter selection and performance evaluation To perform the experimental design. Figure 1 : Photograph of the machine 3. the levels of machining parameters are selected as in Table 1. 0.2 8 - Level 4 4. The grey relational grade γi represents the level of correlation between the reference sequence and the comparability sequence.4 10 - ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol.

the S/N ratios for surface roughness and MRR are computed using equations (8).number of repetition. For lower the better. Analysis and Discussion of Experimental Results In the WEDM. For data pre-processing in the grey relational analysis process. lower surface roughness and higher material removal rate are the indications of better performance. surface roughness is taken as the ‘smaller the better’ and material removal rate is taken as the ‘larger the better’. optimization of multiple performance characteristics it cannot be used straight away as in the case of single performance [11]. The loss function Lij for higher the better is n Lij = 1/n Σ 1/Y2ijk (6 ) K=1 n . 1 Jan 2011 98 . The concept of the Taguchi method is that the parameter design is performed to reduce the sources of variation on the quality [9. Initially. Taguchi recommends the use of the loss function to measure the performance characteristic deviating from the desired value. Using equations (9) the S/N ratios are normalized and shown in Table 3 and 4. However. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Table 2 OA 8 layout Treatment condition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 B 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 D 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 E 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 F 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4. Grey Based Taguchi Method The integrated Grey based Taguchi method combines the algorithm of Taguchi method and grey relational analysis to determine the optimum process parameters with multiple performance characteristics.10 log ( Lij ) (8) The S/N ratio value can be considered for the optimization of single response problems. Yijk – experimental value of the ith performance in the jth experiment at the kth tests. 4.1 Taguchi method The significance of the Taguchi method is to 1) Find controllable factors and levels during product design or process improvement 2) Acquire the best factor level combination through orthogonal array design and 3) Reduce quality loss and costs.The normalization of S/N values can be done by the following equation ηij NSN = --------------(9) √ Σ ηij i=1 n 5. Lij = 1/n Σ Y2ijk K=1 n (7) The S/N ratio for both LB and HB is given by ηij = . K – number of tests. This is further converted to S/N ratio. 3 No.Balasubramanian et al. ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 10]. L8 orthogonal array (OA) is used for the design of experiments.S.

648x10-4 Table 5 :Grey Relational co-efficient and Grey Relational Grades Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GRC Surface roughness 0.7 Ra (3) 2.6250 0.Balasubramanian et al.2 2.5651 0.8429 GRC Material Removal rate 0.8268 -6.3750 0.7347 1.1250 Table 4: Computed and Normalized S/N ratio values for material removal rate Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MRR (1) 26 29 32 31 30 29 36 33 MRR (2) 25 27 30 35 36 28 32 34 MRR (3) 28 28 34 32 32 31 34 30 Lij S/N ratio Material Removal Rate ηij 28.8194 0.4 2.61 6.7 2.3 -7.S.99 1.00 6.38 28.9067 -2.168x10 -3 -4 -4 -4 -3 -4 9.2 2.0000 0.24 30.9 0.6 30.5000 0.4 2.15 Normalized S/N ratio Material Removal rate 1.49 -8. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) Table 3: Computed and Normalized S/N ratio values for surface roughness Experiment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ra (1) 2.5 2. 3 No.25 2.3 2.842x10 9.5266 -4.4 2.6 2.0000 0.4 2.9574 -1.6 S/N ratio Surface roughness ηij -7.8483 1.8029 0.2476 0.4 Ra (2) 2.06 30.32 30. 1 Jan 2011 99 .8372 1.93 30.7476 0.85 -7.6875 1.2764 -2.19 Normalized S/N ratio Surface roughness 0.4854 0.7 2.6875 1.94 0.7687 0.7 6.0000 0.1 2.2 29.3 2.8371 0.6 Lij 5.7553 0.7973 1.0625 0.44 -6.61 5.7687 0.84 0.7973 GRG 0.8 2.877 0.99 -7.8 6.5 2.444x10 9.3750 0.0 0.98 GRC Surface roughness 0.000 0.5 2.4229 1.1 5.6 2.89 0.0000 0.0625 0.32 -8.7222 0.2780 -6.8371 0.2476 0.37 5.4611 Rank 8 2 4 1 3 6 5 7 S/N ratio for GRG -9.6250 0.2 2.3 2.5 2.7921 1.71x10 1.4229 1.3437 0.0000 0.7683 1.0000 0.7553 0.278x10 9.53x10 8.0205 -6.8194 0.8459 1.000 0.3 -8.1250 GRC Material Removal rate 0.45x10-3 1.7240 ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol.8704 1.

63 Max-Min 0. It can be noted that the order of strength of the effects of control factors on the GRG value is B. B4. The experiment calculates the best factor combination and the predicted values are closer to the observed values.09 0.62 Level 2 0.53 0. & D. F. As a higher GRG value implies a better quality level. Conclusion To sum up the conclusion drawn from the research: 1.53 Level 4 0. thus simplifying the analysis. If the predicted and observed S/N ratio values for different responses are close to each other. The results show that the optimal condition based on the method can offer better overall quality.01 0. To predict the anticipated improvement under the chosen optimal conditions.5 0. the multiple objective optimization problems have been transformed into a single equivalent objective function optimization problem using this approach.76 0.01 0.7 0.4 0.53 Level 3 0. 4.0 Results and Discussion Now.36 0. 7.61 0. B4. A. C. 3 No.1 0 A1A2 B1B2B3B4 C1C2C3C4 D1D2 E1E2 F1F2 Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Figure 2 Graphical representation of GRG Using the grey relational grade value. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) By using the equation (3) the Grey Relational co-efficient is calculated.57 0. The higher grey relational grade is said to be close to the optimal. 5. 1 Jan 2011 100 . C4. 8. This approach easily converts the multiple performance characteristics into the GRG. The experiment uses L8 orthogonal arrays.40 0. The experiment uses GRA approach based on the orthogonal experimental design.09 0. With the help of the response tables and response graph. To other related experiments. The grey relational grade can be calculated by using equation (4) which is the overall representative of both the responses which shown in table 5. the optimal condition is A2.58 0.53 0. the S/N ratio values for MRR and SR are calculated using the model for optimal condition. the effectiveness of the optimal condition can then be ensured. E1 and F1. after validation. the average value for each factor with respect to each level has been calculated and tabulated in Table 6.52 0. 3. D2.8 0.6 0. D2. C4.2 0. The value for ζ is taken as 0.62 0. The result of the confirmation tests resulted in the improvement of 0. the optimal parameter combination has been determined as A2. the final step is to predict and validate the improvement of the performance measures using the optimal level.5 since both the output parameters are of equal importance.57 0. 2.3 0. Table 6: Response table for GRG Factors A B C D E F Level 1 0.Balasubramanian et al.1134in GRG. ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol.58 0.62 0. E1 and F1. From which conclusions may be drawn. this method is simple.S. Confirmation tests Once the optimal level of the process parameters is identified.10 0. The mean response table for overall grey relational grade is shown in Table 6 and is shown in figure (2) graphically. E. 6.

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