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ITU Maritime Mobile -2 2011

ITU Maritime Mobile -2 2011

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The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 1997),

considering

a)

that the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS),

as amended, prescribes that ships subject to that Convention shall be fitted with Global

Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) equipment as appropriate;

b)

that non-SOLAS vessels are also being equipped with GMDSS equipment;

c)

that the transmission and relay of false distress alerts is a significant problem

within the GMDSS,

noting

that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed similar operational

procedures to cancel false distress alerts,

resolves

1

to urge administrations to take all necessary measures to avoid false distress

alerts and to minimize the unnecessary burden on rescue organizations which occurs;

2

to urge administrations to encourage the correct use of GMDSS equipment,

with particular attention to appropriate training;

3

to urge administrations to implement the operational procedures contained in

the Annex to this Resolution;

4

that administrations should take any consequential appropriate action in this

respect,

instructs the Secretary-General

to bring this Resolution to the attention of IMO.

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Maritime Manual

ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 349 (WRC-97)

Cancelling of false distress alerts

If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following steps shall be taken to

cancel the distress alert.

1

VHF digital selective calling

1)

Reset the equipment immediately;

2)

Set to channel 16; and

3)

Transmit a broadcast message to “All Stations” giving the ship’s name, call

sign and maritime mobile service identity (MMSI), and cancel the false

distress alert.

2

MF digital selective calling

1)

Reset the equipment immediately;

2)

Tune for radiotelephony transmission on 2182 kHz; and

3)

Transmit a broadcast message to “All Stations” giving the ship’s name, call

sign and MMSI, and cancel the false alert.

3

HF digital selective calling

1)

Reset the equipment immediately;

2)

Tune for radiotelephony on the distress and safety frequency in each band in

which a false distress alert was transmitted (see Appendix 15); and

3)

Transmit a broadcast message to “All Stations” giving the ship’s name, call

sign and MMSI, and cancel the false alert on the distress and safety frequency

in each band in which the false distress alert was transmitted.

4

Inmarsat ship earth station

Notify the appropriate rescue coordination centre that the alert is cancelled by sending a

distress priority message by way of the same coast earth station through which the false

distress alert was sent. Provide ship name, call sign and Inmarsat identity with the

cancelled alert message.

Part B – SECTION III – RES349

263

5

Emergency position indicating radiobeacon (EPIRB)

If for any reason an EPIRB is activated inadvertently, contact the appropriate rescue

coordination centre through a coast station or land earth station and cancel the distress

alert.

6

General

Notwithstanding the above, ships may use additional appropriate means available to

them to inform the appropriate authorities that a false distress alert has been transmitted

and should be cancelled.

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Maritime Manual

RESOLUTION 352 (WRC-03)

Use of the carrier frequencies 12290 kHz and 16420 kHz for

safety-related calling to and from rescue coordination centres

The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2003),

considering

a)

that this Conference modified No. 52.221A to allow safety-related calling to

and from rescue coordination centres on the carrier frequencies 12 290 kHz and

16 420 kHz;

b)

that this limited safety-related calling function on these carrier frequencies will

enhance the capability of those search and rescue organizations which maintain watch

on these distress and safety frequencies to call vessels not utilizing the Global Maritime

Distress and Safety System (GMDSS),

noting

a)

that regulation IV/4.8 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at

Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, requires that SOLAS ships, while at sea, be capable

of transmitting and receiving general radiocommunications to and from shore-based

radio systems or networks;

b)

that general communications may include safety-related communications

necessary for the safe operation of vessels,

further noting

that safety-related communications require adequate, effective and immediate access

and protection,

recognizing

a)

that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) notes that distress,

urgency and safety radiocommunications include, but are not limited to:

transmissions of maritime safety information;

distress calls and traffic;

acknowledgment and relaying of distress calls;

search and rescue coordination communications;

ship movement service communications;

Part B – SECTION III – RES352

265

communications related to the safe operation of ships;

communications related to navigation;

meteorological warnings;

meteorological observations;

ship position reports; and

medical emergencies (e.g. MEDICO/MEDIVAC);

b)

that distress, urgency and safety communications are defined in Articles 32

and33,

resolves

1

that the carrier frequencies 12290 kHz and 16420 kHz be used only for

distress, urgency and safety communications, and safety-related calling limited to that

to and from rescue coordination centres;

2

that safety-related calling be initiated only after determination that other

communications are not present on these frequencies;

3

that safety-related calling be minimized and not cause interference to distress,

urgency and safety communications,

invites administrations

to encourage the coast and ship stations under their jurisdiction to use digital selective

calling techniques,

instructs the Secretary-General

to bring this Resolution to the attention of the IMO.

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Maritime Manual

RESOLUTION 354 (WRC-07)

Distress and safety radiotelephony procedures for 2 182 kHz

The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2007),

noting

a)

that all ships subject to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at

Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, are required to be fitted for the Global Maritime

Distress and Safety System (GMDSS);

b)

that some vessels not subject to SOLAS, 1974, as amended, may not be

making use of the techniques and frequencies of GMDSS prescribed in Chapter VII and

may wish to continue using radiotelephony procedures for distress and safety

communications on 2182 kHz until such time as they are able to participate in the

GMDSS;

c)

that some administrations may have a need to maintain shore-based

radiotelephony distress and safety services on 2182 kHz so that vessels not subject to

SOLAS, 1974, as amended, and not yet using the techniques and frequencies of

GMDSS will be able to obtain assistance from these services until such time as they are

able to participate in GMDSS,

considering

that there needs to be some recognized guidance for the use of radiotelephony on

2182 kHz for distress and safety communications,

resolves

1

that ships, when in distress or when engaged in urgency or safety-related

communications on 2182 kHz, use the radiotelephony procedures contained in the

Annex to this Resolution;

2

that coast stations, in order to maintain communication with non-GMDSS

ships that are in distress or engaged in urgency or safety related communications on

2182 kHz, use the radiotelephony procedures contained in the Annex to this

Resolution.

Part B – SECTION III – RES354

267

ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 354 (WRC-07)

Distress and safety radiotelephony procedures for 2 182 kHz*

PART A1 – GENERAL

§ 1

The frequencies and techniques specified in this Resolution may be used in the

maritime mobile service for stations1

not required by national or international regulation

to fit GMDSS equipment and for communications between those stations and aircraft.

However, stations of the maritime mobile service, when additionally fitted with any of

the equipment used by stations operating in conformity with the provisions specified in

ChapterVII, should, when using that equipment, comply with the appropriate

provisions of that Chapter.

§ 2

1) No provision of this Resolution prevents the use by a mobile station or

mobile earth station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make

known its position, and obtain help.

2) No provision of this Resolution prevents the use by stations on board

aircraft or ships engaged in search and rescue operations, in exceptional circumstances,

of any means at their disposal to assist a mobile station or mobile earth station in

distress.

3) No provision of this Resolution prevents the use by a land station or coast

earth station, in exceptional circumstances, of any means at its disposal to assist a

mobile station or mobile earth station in distress (see also No. 4.16).

§ 3

In cases of distress, urgency or safety, communications by radiotelephony

should be made slowly and distinctly, each word being clearly pronounced to facilitate

transcription.

§ 4

The abbreviations and signals of Recommendation ITU-R M.1172 and the

Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code in Appendix 14 should be used where applicable2
.

_______________

*

Distress and safety communications include distress, urgency and safety calls and messages.

1

These stations may include rescue coordination centres. The term “Rescue Coordination

Centre” as defined in the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (1979) refers

to a unit responsible for promoting the efficient organization of search and rescue services and

for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.

2

The use of the Standard Marine Communication Phrases and, where language difficulties

exist, the International Code of Signals, both published by the International Maritime

Organization, is also recommended.

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Maritime Manual

§ 5

Distress, urgency and safety communications may also be made using digital

selective calling and satellite techniques and/or direct-printing telegraphy, in

accordance with the provisions specified in Chapter VII and relevant ITU-R

Recommendations.

§ 6

Mobile stations3

of the maritime mobile service may communicate for safety

purposes with stations of the aeronautical mobile service. Such communications shall

normally be made on the frequencies authorized, and under the conditions specified, in

Section I of Part A2 (see also § 2 1)).

§ 7

Mobile stations of the aeronautical mobile service may communicate for

distress and safety purposes with stations of the maritime mobile service in conformity

with the provisions of this Resolution.

§ 8

Any aircraft required by national or international regulations to communicate

for distress, urgency or safety purposes with stations of the maritime mobile service

shall be capable of transmitting and receiving class J3E emissions when using the

carrier frequency 2182 kHz or the carrier frequency 4125 kHz.

PART A2 – FREQUENCIES FOR DISTRESS AND SAFETY

Section I – Availability of frequencies

A – 2182 kHz

§ 1

1) The carrier frequency 2 182 kHz is an international distress frequency for

radiotelephony; it may be used by ship, aircraft and survival craft stations when

requesting assistance from the maritime services. It is used for distress calls and distress

traffic, for the urgency signal and urgency messages and for the safety signal. Safety

messages should be transmitted, when practicable, on a working frequency, after a

preliminary announcement on 2 182 kHz. The class of emission to be used for

radiotelephony on the frequency 2 182 kHz shall be J3E. Distress traffic on 2 182 kHz

following the reception of a distress call using digital selective calling should take into

account that some shipping in the vicinity may not be able to receive this traffic.

2) If a distress message on the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz has not been

acknowledged, the distress call and message may be transmitted again on a carrier

frequency of 4 125 kHz or 6 215 kHz, as appropriate.

_______________

3

Mobile stations communicating with the stations of the aeronautical mobile (R) service in

bands allocated to the aeronautical mobile (R) service shall conform to the provisions of the

Regulations which relate to that service and, as appropriate, any special arrangements between

the governments concerned by which the aeronautical mobile (R) service is regulated.

Part B – SECTION III – RES354

269

3) However, ship stations and aircraft which cannot transmit either on the

carrier frequency 2 182 kHz or on the carrier frequencies 4 125 kHz or 6 215 kHz may

use any other available frequency on which attention might be attracted.

4) Coast stations using the carrier frequency 2 182 kHz for distress purposes

and to send navigational warnings may transmit an audible alarm signal4

of short

duration for the purpose of attracting attention to the message which follows.

B – 4125 kHz

§ 2

1) The carrier frequency 4125 kHz is used to supplement the carrier

frequency 2182 kHz for distress and safety purposes and for call and reply. This

frequency is also used for distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony.

2) The carrier frequency 4125 kHz may be used by aircraft to communicate

with stations of the maritime mobile service for distress and safety purposes, including

search and rescue.

C – 6215 kHz

§ 3

The carrier frequency 6215 kHz is used to supplement the carrier frequency

2182 kHz for distress and safety purposes and for call and reply. This frequency is also

used for distress and safety traffic by radiotelephony.

Section II – Protection of distress and safety frequencies

A – General

§ 4

Test transmissions on any of the distress and safety frequencies described

above shall be kept to a minimum and, wherever practicable, be carried out on artificial

antennas or with reduced power.

§ 5

Before transmitting on any of the frequencies identified for distress and safety

communications, a station shall listen on the frequency concerned to make sure that no

distress transmission is being sent (see Recommendation ITU-R M.1171). This does not

apply to stations in distress.

_______________

4

Alarm signals may consist of transmissions of sinusoidal audio frequency tones 1 300 Hz,

2 200 Hz, or both. Different tone generation patterns may be used to signal the type of message

which follows, and an alarm signal ending in a 10-second continuous tone could be used to

identify a transmission by a coast station.

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Maritime Manual

B – 2182 kHz

§ 6

1) Except for transmissions authorized on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz

and on the frequencies 2174.5 kHz, 2177 kHz, 2187.5 kHz and 2189.5 kHz, all

transmissions on the frequencies between 2173.5 kHz and 2190.5 kHz are forbidden

(see also Appendix 15).

2) To facilitate the reception of distress calls, all transmissions on 2182 kHz

should be kept to a minimum.

Section III – Watch on distress frequencies

A – 2182 kHz

§ 7

1) Coast stations may maintain a watch on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz if

so directed by their Administration. Such assignments should be indicated in the List of

Coast Stations and Special Service Stations.

2) Ship stations not fitted with equipment compatible with the GMDSS are

encouraged to keep the maximum watch practicable on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz.

B – 4125 kHz, 6215 kHz

§ 8

Coast stations may maintain additional watch, as permitted, on the carrier

frequencies 4125 kHz and 6215 kHz. Such assignments should be indicated in the List

of Coast Stations and Special Service Stations.

PART A3 – DISTRESS COMMUNICATIONS

Section I – General

§ 1

The general provisions for distress communications are found in Section I of

Article32 (see Nos. 32.1,32.3, and 32.4).

Section II – Distress signal, call and message

§ 2

The radiotelephone distress signal, call and message are described in Section II

of Article 32 (see Nos. 32.13BA,32.9,32.13B,32.13C, and 32.13D).

Part B – SECTION III – RES354

271

Section III – Procedures

§ 3

After the transmission by radiotelephony of its distress message, the mobile

station may be requested to transmit suitable signals, followed by its call sign or other

identification, to permit direction-finding stations to determine its position. This request

may be repeated at frequent intervals if necessary.

§ 4

1) The distress message, preceded by the distress call, shall be repeated at

intervals until an answer is received.

2) The intervals shall be sufficiently long to allow time for replying stations,

in their preparations, to start their sending apparatus.

§ 5

When the mobile station in distress receives no answer to a distress message

sent on the distress frequency, the message may be repeated on any other available

frequency on which attention might be attracted.

Section IV – Transmission of a distress relay message by a station not itself in

distress

§ 6

The radiotelephone procedures for the transmission of a distress relay message

by a station not itself in distress are found in Section II of Article 32 (see Nos. 32.16 to

32.19A and 32.19D to 32.19F).

Section V – Receipt and acknowledgement of a distress message

§ 7

The procedures relating to the receipt and acknowledgement of a distress

message are found in Section II of Article 32(see Nos. 32.23,32.26, 32.28, 32.29,

32.30 and32.35).

Section VI – Distress traffic

§ 8

The radiotelephone procedures relating to the distress traffic are found in

Section IIIof Article 32 (see Nos. 32.39 to 32.42, 32.45 to 32.47, 32.49 to 32.52 and

32.54 to32.59).

§ 9

1) Every mobile station acknowledging receipt of a distress message shall,

on the order of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle, transmit the

following information in the order shown as soon as possible:

its name;

its position;

the speed at which it is proceeding towards, and the approximate time it will

take to reach, the mobile station in distress;

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Maritime Manual

additionally, if the position of the ship in distress appears doubtful, ship

stations should also transmit, when available, the true bearing of the ship in

distress.

2) Before transmitting the message specified in § 9 1), the station shall

ensure that it will not interfere with the emissions of other stations better situated to

render immediate assistance to the station in distress.

PART A4 – URGENCY AND SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS

Section I – Urgency communications

§ 1

The radiotelephone procedures for urgency communications are found in

Sections I and II of Article 33 (see Nos. 33.1 to 33.7 and 33.8, 33.8B to 33.9A and

33.11 to 33.16).

Section II – Safety communications

§ 2

The radiotelephone procedures for safety communications are found in

Sections I and IV of Article 33 (see Nos. 33.31, 33.31C, 33.32, 33.34 to 33.35 and

33.38B).

___________

SECTION IV

ITU-R Recommendations

incorporated by reference

(Extracts)

Note: In accordance with the decisions of WRC-2000, the editions of the Radio

Regulations (RR) use a new numbering scheme which consists, inter alia, in abolishing

the prefix “S” in front of the provision numbers, Article numbers and Appendix

numbers. However, since the Recommendations included in this Section were not

revised after 1999, the references made to the RR in these Recommendations refer to

the (simplified) Radio Regulations, edition of 1998 (references commencing with “S”)

which were provisionally applicable as from 1 January 1999, or to the former RR,

edition of 1994 (complemented by Volume 4, edition of 1996) (references without “S”).

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.489-2

275

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.489-2*

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VHF RADIOTELEPHONE

EQUIPMENT OPERATING IN THE MARITIME MOBILE

SERVICE IN CHANNELS SPACED BY 25 kHz

(1974-1978-1995)

Summary

The Recommendation describes the technical characteristics of VHF radiotelephone transmitters

and receivers (or transceivers) used in the maritime mobile service when operating in 25 kHz

channels of Appendix S18 [Appendix 18] of the Radio Regulations (RR). It also contains those

additional characteristics of transceivers required to operate digital selective calling.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

that Resolution No. 308 of the World Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva,

1979) stipulated that:

– all maritime mobile VHF radiotelephone equipment shall conform to 25 kHz standards by

1 January 1983;

b)

that RR Appendix S18 [Appendix 18] gives a table of transmitting frequencies which

is based upon the principle of 25 kHz channel separations for the maritime mobile service;

c)

that in Opinion 42, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has been

invited to advise the ITU Radiocommunication Sector of any methods of measurement

applicable to radio equipment used in land mobile services; and that such methods of

measurement may also be suitable for radio equipment used in maritime mobile services;

d)

that there is a need to specify the technical characteristics of VHF radiotelephone

equipment operating in the maritime mobile service in channels spaced by 25 kHz,

recommends

1

that the following characteristics should be met by VHF (metric) FM radiotelephone

equipment used for the maritime mobile services operating on the frequencies specified in RR

Appendix S18 [Appendix 18].

_______________

Note by the Secretariat: The references made to the Radio Regulations (RR) in this Recommendation refer

to the RR as revised by the World Radiocommunication Conference 1995. These elements of the RR will

come into force on 1 June 1998. Where applicable, the equivalent references in the current RR are also

provided in square brackets.

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Maritime Manual

1.1

General characteristics

1.1.1

The class of emission should be F3E/G3E.

1.1.2

The necessary bandwidth should be 16 kHz.

1.1.3

Only phase modulation (frequency modulation with a pre-emphasis characteristic of

6 dB/octave) should be used.

1.1.4

The frequency deviation corresponding to 100% modulation should approach ±5 kHz

as nearly as practicable. In no event should the frequency deviation exceed ±5 kHz. Deviation

limiting circuits should be employed such that the maximum frequency deviation attainable

should be independent of the input audio frequency.

1.1.5

Where duplex or semi-duplex systems are in use, the performance of the radio

equipment should continue to comply with all the requirements of this Recommendation.

1.1.6

The equipment should be designed so that frequency changes between assigned

channels can be carried out within 5 s.

1.1.7

Emissions should be vertically polarized at the source.

1.1.8

Stations using digital selective calling shall have the following capabilities:

a) sensing to determine the presence of a signal on 156.525 MHz (channel 70); and

b) automatic prevention of the transmission of a call, except for distress and safety calls, when

the channel is occupied by calls.

1.2

Transmitters

1.2.1

The frequency tolerance for coast station transmitters should not exceed 5 parts in 106
,

and that for ship station transmitters should not exceed 10 parts in 106
.

1.2.2

Spurious emissions on discrete frequencies, when measured in a non-reactive load

equal to the nominal output impedance of the transmitter, should be in accordance with the

provisions of RR Appendix S3 [Appendix 8].

1.2.3

The carrier power for coast stations should not normally exceed 50 W.

1.2.4

The carrier power for ship station transmitters should not exceed 25 W. Means should

be provided to readily reduce this power to 1 W or less for use at short ranges, except for digital

selective calling equipment operating on 156.525 MHz (channel 70) in which case the power

reduction facility is optional (see also Recommendation ITU-R M.541 recommends 3.7).

1.2.5

The upper limit of the audio-frequency band should not exceed 3 kHz.

1.2.6

The cabinet radiated power should not exceed 25 µW. In some radio environments,

lower values may be required.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.489-2

277

1.3

Receivers

1.3.1

The reference sensitivity should be equal to or less than 2.0 µV, e.m.f., for a given

reference signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the receiver.

1.3.2

The adjacent channel selectivity should be at least 70 dB.

1.3.3

The spurious response rejection ratio should be at least 70 dB.

1.3.4

The radio frequency intermodulation rejection ratio should be at least 65 dB.

1.3.5

The power of any conducted spurious emission, measured at the antenna terminals,

should not exceed 2.0 nW at any discrete frequency. In some radio environments lower values

may be required.

1.3.6

The effective radiated power of any cabinet radiated spurious emission on any

frequency up to 70 MHz should not exceed 10 nW. Above 70 MHz, the spurious emissions

should not exceed 10 nW by more than 6 dB/octave in frequency up to 1000 MHz. In some

radio environments, lower values may be required;

2

that reference should also be made to Recommendations ITU-R SM.331 and ITU-R

SM.332 and to the relevant IEC publications on methods of measurement.

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Maritime Manual

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.492-6

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR THE USE OF DIRECT-PRINTING

TELEGRAPH EQUIPMENT IN THE MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE

(Question ITU-R 5/8)

(1974-1978-1982-1986-1990-1992-1995)

Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

Summary

The Recommendation provides in Annex 1 operational procedures for the use of direct-printing

telegraph equipment in communication between a ship and a coast station in the selective ARQ-

mode on a fully automated or semi-automated basis and to a number of ship stations or a single

ship in the broadcast FEC-mode. It also specifies interworking between equipments in

accordance with technical characteristics given in Recommendations ITU-R M.476 and

ITU-R M.625. Appendix 1 contains procedures for setting up of calls.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

that narrow-band direct-printing telegraph services are in operation using equipment as

described in Recommendations ITU-R M.476, ITU-R M.625 and ITU-R M.692;

b)

that an improved narrow-band direct-printing telegraph system providing automatic

identification and capable of using the 9-digit ship station identity is described in

Recommendation ITU-R M.625;

c)

that the operational procedures necessary for such services should be agreed upon;

d)

that, as far as possible, these procedures should be similar for all services and for all

frequency bands (different operational procedures may be required in frequency bands other

than the HF and MF bands);

e)

that a large number of equipments complying with Recommendation ITU-R M.476

exist;

f)

that interworking between equipments in accordance with Recommendations

ITU-R M.476 and ITU-R M.625 is required, at least for a transitionary period,

recommends

1

that the operational procedures given in Annex 1 be observed for the use of narrow-

band direct-printing telegraph equipment in accordance with either Recommendation

ITU-R M.476 or ITU-R M.625 in the MF and HF bands of the maritime mobile service;

2

that when using direct-printing telegraphy or similar systems in any of the frequency

bands allocated to the maritime mobile service, the call may, by prior arrangement, be made on a

working frequency available for such systems.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

279

ANNEX 1

Operational procedures

1

Mode A (ARQ)

1.1

Methods used for setting up narrow-band direct-printing telegraph communications

between a ship station and a coast station in the ARQ-mode should be on a fully automatic or

semi-automatic basis, insofar that a ship station should have direct access to a coast station on a

coast station receiving frequency and a coast station should have direct access to a ship station

on a coast station transmitting frequency.

1.2

However, where necessary, prior contact by Morse telegraphy, radiotelephony or other

means is not precluded.

1.3

Through connection to a remote teleprinter station over a dedicated circuit or to a

subscriber of the international telex network may be achieved by manual, semi-automatic or

automatic means.

NOTE 1 – Before an international automatic service can be introduced, agreement has to be

reached on a numbering plan, traffic routing and charging. This should be considered by both

the ITU-T and the ITU-R.

NOTE 2 – Recommendations ITU-R M.476 (see § 3.1.5) and ITU-R M.625 (see § 3.8) make

provision for automatic re-establishment of radio circuits by rephasing in the event of

interruption. However, it has been reported that this procedure has, in some countries, resulted in

technical and operational problems when radio circuits are extended into the public switched

network or to certain types of automated switching or store-and-forward equipments. For this

reason, some coast stations do not accept messages if the rephasing procedure is used.

NOTE 3 – When a connection is set up in the ARQ mode with the international telex network

via a coast station, where practicable the general requirements specified in ITU-T

Recommendation U.63 should be met.

1.4

When, by prior arrangement, unattended operation is required for communication from

a coast station to a ship station, or between two ship stations, the receiving ship station should

have a receiver tuned to the other station’s transmitting frequency and a transmitter tuned or a

transmitter capable of being tuned automatically to the appropriate frequency and ready to

transmit on this frequency.

1.5

For unattended operation a ship station should be called selectively by the initiating

coast or ship station as provided for by Recommendations ITU-R M.476 and ITU-R M.625. The

ship station concerned could have available traffic stored ready for automatic transmission on

demand of the calling station.

1.6

At the “over” signal, initiated by the calling station, any available traffic in the ship’s

traffic store could be transmitted.

1.7

At the end of the communication, an “end of communication” signal should be

transmitted, whereupon the ship’s equipment should automatically revert to the “stand-by”

condition.

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Maritime Manual

1.8

A “free channel” signal may be transmitted by a coast station where necessary to

indicate when a channel is open for traffic. The “free channel” signals should preferably be

restricted to only one channel per HF band and their duration should be kept as short as possible.

In accordance with Article 18 of the Radio Regulations and recognizing the heavy loading of the

frequencies available for narrow-band direct printing in the HF bands, “free channel” signals

should not be used in future planned systems.

1.9

The format of the “free channel” signal should be composed of signals in the 7-unit

error detecting code as listed in § 2 of Annex 1 to Recommendation ITU-R M.476 and § 2 of

Annex 1 to Recommendation ITU-R M.625. Three of these signals should be grouped into a

block, the middle signal being the “signal repetition” (RQ), the first signal of the block being

any of the signals VXKMCF TBOZA and the third signal of the block being any of the signals

VMPCYFS OIRZDA (see Recommendation ITU-R M.491). These signals should be indicated

in the ITU List of Coast Stations.

Selections of new signals should preferably be chosen to correspond to the first two digits of that

coast station’s 4-digit identification number. If this is not possible because the characters needed

are not listed above, or if this is not desired because this combination is already in use by

another coast station, it is preferred that a combination of characters be selected from those listed

above in the second part of each row, i.e. TBOZA for the first signal and OIRZDA for the third

signal of the free channel block. The signals in the block are transmitted at a modulation rate of

100 Bd and the blocks are separated by pauses of 240 ms. For manual systems this “free

channel” signal should be interrupted either by a period of no signal or by a signal or signals,

that would enable an operator to recognize the “free channel” condition by ear. An aurally

recognizable signal, e.g. a Morse signal, may be used alone as the “free channel” signal in

manual systems. At least 8 blocks of the 7-unit signal should be transmitted before interruption.

1.10

In the case of single frequency operation, as described in Recommendation

ITU-R M.692, the free channel signal should be interrupted by listening periods of at least 3 s.

1.11

General operational procedures for setting up calls between ship stations and between

ship stations and coast stations are given below and specific procedures are given in Appendix 1.

1.12 Manual procedures

1.12.1 Ship to coast station

1.12.1.1 The operator of the ship station establishes communication with the coast station by

A1A Morse telegraphy, telephony or by other means using normal calling procedures. The

operator then requests direct-printing communication, exchanges information regarding the

frequencies to be used and, when applicable, gives the ship station the direct-printing selective

call number assigned in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476 or ITU-R M.625 as

appropriate, or the ship station identity assigned in accordance with the Preface to List VII A.

1.12.1.2 The operator of the coast station then establishes direct-printing communication on the

frequency agreed, using the appropriate identification of the ship.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

281

1.12.1.3 Alternatively the operator of the ship station, using the direct-printing equipment, calls

the coast station on a predetermined coast station receive frequency using the identification of

the coast station assigned in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476 or ITU-R M.625

as appropriate, or the coast station identity assigned in accordance with the Preface to

List VII A.

1.12.1.4 The operator of the coast station then establishes direct-printing communication on the

corresponding coast station transmit frequency.

1.12.2 Coast station to ship

1.12.2.1 The operator of the coast station calls the ship station by A1A Morse telegraphy,

telephony or other means, using normal calling procedures.

1.12.2.2 The operator of the ship station then applies the procedures of § 1.12.1.1 or§ 1.12.1.3.

1.12.3 Intership

1.12.3.1 The operator of the calling ship station establishes communication with the called ship

station by A1A Morse telegraphy, telephony, or by other means, using normal calling

procedures. The operator then requests direct-printing communication, exchanges information

regarding the frequencies to be used and, when applicable, gives the direct-printing selective call

number of the calling ship station assigned in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476

or ITU-R M.625 as appropriate, or the ship station identity assigned in accordance with the

Preface to List VII A.

1.12.3.2 The operator of the called ship station then establishes direct-printing communication

on the frequency agreed, using the appropriate identification of the calling ship.

1.13 Procedures for automatic operation

1.13.1 Ship to coast station

1.13.1.1 The ship station calls the coast station on a predetermined coast station receive

frequency, using the direct-printing equipment and the identification signal of the coast station

assigned in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476 or ITU-R M.625 as appropriate, or

the coast station identity assigned in accordance with the Preface to List VII A.

1.13.1.2 The coast station’s direct-printing equipment detects the call and the coast station

responds directly on the corresponding coast station transmit frequency, either automatically or

under manual control.

1.13.2 Coast station to ship

1.13.2.1 The coast station calls the ship station on a predetermined coast station transmit

frequency, using the direct-printing equipment and the ship station direct-printing selective call

number assigned in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476 or ITU-R M.625 as

appropriate, or the ship station identity assigned in accordance with the Preface to List VII A.

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1.13.2.2 The ship station’s direct-printing equipment tuned to receive the predetermined coast

station transmit frequency detects the call, whereupon the reply is given in one of the following

ways:

a) the ship station replies either immediately on the corresponding coast station receive

frequency or at a later stage, using the procedure of § 1.12.1.3;or

b) the ship station’s transmitter is automatically started on the corresponding coast station

receive frequency and the direct-printing equipment responds by sending appropriate

signals to indicate readiness to receive traffic automatically.

1.14 Message format

1.14.1 Where the appropriate facilities are provided by the coast station, traffic may be

exchanged with the telex network:

a) in a conversational mode where the stations concerned are connected directly, either

automatically or under manual control;or

b) in a store-and-forward mode where traffic is stored at the coast station until the circuit to

the called station can be set up, either automatically or under manual control.

1.14.2 In the shore-to-ship direction, the message format should conform to normal telex

network practice (see also Appendix 1, § 2).

1.14.3 In the ship-to-shore direction, the message format should conform to the operational

procedures specified in Appendix 1, § 1.

2

Mode B (FEC)

2.1

Messages may, by prior arrangement, be sent in the B mode from a coast station or a

ship station to a number of ships or to a single ship, preceded if desired by the selective call code

of the ship(s) concerned where:

2.1.1

a receiving ship station is not permitted or not able to use its transmitter, or

2.1.2

communications are intended for more than one ship, or

2.1.3

unattended reception of the B mode is required and automatic acknowledgement is not

necessary.

In such cases, the ship station receivers should be tuned to the appropriate coast or ship station

transmitting frequency.

2.2

All B mode messages should start with “carriage return” and “line feed” signals.

2.3

When the ship station receives phasing signals in the B mode, its teleprinter should

start automatically and should stop automatically when reception of the emission ceases.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

283

2.4

Ship stations may acknowledge the reception of B mode messages by A1A Morse

telegraphy, telephony or by other means.

3

Inter-working between equipments in accordance with Recommenda-

tions ITU-R M.476 and ITU-R M.625

3.1

Recommendation ITU-R M.625 provides for automatic inter-working with equipment

which is in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476. The criteria for determining

whether one or both stations are of the Recommendation ITU-R M.476 type are the length of the

call signal and the composition of the call blocks.

3.2

If both stations have equipment in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.625,

automatic station identification is a part of the automatic call set-up procedures. However, if one

or both stations have equipment in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.476, no

automatic station identification takes place. For this reason, and because Recommendation

ITU-R M.625 accommodates the use of the 9-digit ship station identity for the direct-printing

equipment call signal, it is desirable that all new equipment be in accordance with

Recommendation ITU-R M.625 at the earliest practicable time.

3.3

In order to attain full compatibility with the large number of existing equipment, it will

be necessary to assign both a 9-digit and a 5- (or 4-) digit identity (i.e. 7- and 4-signal call

signals) to such new stations. Ship and coast station lists should contain both signals.

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APPENDIX 1

1

Procedure for setting up a call in the ship-to-coast station direction

< ≡ ↓ GA ↑ + ?

1

2

3

4

< ≡ ↓ΚΚΚΚ(7)

< ≡ ↓ GA ↑ + ?

<≡↓MSG↑+?(5)

<≡↓QRC↑+?

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

?(3)

(2)

< ≡ ↓ TLX ↑ xy +

< ≡ ↓ DIRTLX ↑ xy +

<≡ ↓ MSG ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ TGM ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ URG ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ RTL ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ OPR ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ WX ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ NAV ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ STA ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ POS ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ FREQ ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ SVC ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ MAN ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ MED ↑ +
< ≡ ↓ OBS ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ HELP ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ HELP... ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ AMV ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ BRK ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ MULTLX ↑ xy/xy/xy +

< ≡ ↓ STS ↑ x +

< ≡ ↓ VBTLX ↑ xy +

< ≡ ↓ FAX ↑ xy +

< ≡ ↓ TEL ↑ xy +

< ≡ ↓ DATA ↑ xy +

< ≡ ↓ RPT ↑ ×... +

< ≡ ↓ TST ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ TRF ↑ +

< ≡ ↓ INF ↑ +

<≡ “Message reference charged

time, etc.”(8)

Coast station

Ship station

Ship initiates the call

Go to step 4 or

end of communication

N

ote 2 applies

Exchange answer-backs(1)

Step

Exchange answer-backs(1)

Ship transmits its

AAIC, followed by + ?(3)

(4)

Message procedure(6)

(2.1) or

(2.2) or

(2.3) or

(2.4) or

(2.5) or

(2.6) or

(2.7) or

(2.8) or

(2.9) or

(2.10) or

(2.11) or

(2.12) or

(2.13) or

(2.14) or

(2.15) or

(2.16) or

(2.17) or

(2.18) or

(2.19) or

(2.20) or

(2.21) or

(2.22) or

(2.23) or

(2.24) or

(2.25) or

(2.26) or

(2.27) or

(2.28) or

(2.29) or

(2.30)

D01

FIGURE ...[D01] = 20 CM

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

285

2

Procedure for setting up a call in the coast-to-ship station direction

Operation in the direction coast station to ship may need to be in the store-and-forward mode

owing to the fact that radio propagation conditions may not allow the setting up of a call at the

intended time.

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

←≡ ↓ GA ↑ + ?

Go to step 3
or

Coast station

Ship station

Step

Exchange answer-backs(1)

Message procedure

If ship has traffic for coast station go to step 4 of Part 1

or

End of communication

Coast station initiates

call

Exchange answer-backs(1)

D02

FIGURE 1...[D02] = 9 CM

Notes relative to § 1 and 2:

(1)

a) In automatic operation the answer-back exchange is initiated and controlled by the coast

station. For calls set up by the ship station the answer-back exchange in manual operation may

be initiated by the ship station.

For calls set up by the coast station the answer-back exchange in manual operation is initiated

by the coast station, thereby defining the order in which the exchange takes place.

b) Answer-back code as defined in ITU-T Recommendations F.130 for ship stations and F.60 for

coast stations.

(2)

A coast station need not provide all of the facilities indicated. However, where specific facilities are

provided, the facility codes indicated should be used. The facility “HELP” should always be

available.

(2.1)

MSG indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive any messages held for it at the

coast station.

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(2.2)

TLX ↑ xy indicates that the following message is for immediate connection to a store-and-forward

facility located at the coast station.

y indicates the subscriber’s national telex number.

x is used where applicable to indicate the country code (ITU-T Recommendation F.69) preceded by

0 (when applicable). (Where the store-and-forward system is remote from the coast station, TLX

alone may be used.)

TLXA may optionally be used instead of TLX which indicates that ship wishes to be advised (using

the normal shore-to-ship procedures) when the message has been delivered to the indicated telex

number.

(2.3)

DIRTLX ↑ xy indicates that a direct telex connection is required.

y indicates the subscriber’s national telex number.

x is used where applicable to indicate the country code (ITU-T Recommendation F.69) preceded by

0 (when applicable).

RDL + may optionally be used to indicate that the last DIRTLX ↑ xy telex number should be

redialled.

(2.4)

TGM indicates that the following message is a radio telegram.

(2.5)

URG indicates that the ship station needs to be connected immediately to a manual assistance

operator and an audible alarm may be activated. This code should only be used in case of

emergency.

(2.6)

RTL indicates that the following message is a radio telex letter.

(2.7)

OPR indicates that connection to a manual assistance operator is required.

(2.8)

WX indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive weather information.

(2.9)

NAV indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive navigational warnings.

(2.10)

STA indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive a status report of all store-and-

forward messages which have been sent by that ship station, but which the ship station has not

already received on retransmitted or non-delivered information (see also (6

)). STA ↑ x may also be

used where the ship station needs to immediately receive a status report of such a message where x

indicates the message reference provided by the coast station.

(2.11)

POS indicates that the following message contains the ship’s position. Some administrations use

this information to assist in the subsequent automatic transmission or reception of messages (e.g.

for calculating the optimum traffic frequency and/or the appropriate directional antennas to use).

(2.12)

FREQ indicates that the following message indicates the frequency on which the ship is keeping

watch.

(2.13)

SVC indicates that the following message is a service message (for subsequent manual attention).

(2.14)

MAN indicates that the following message is to be stored and manually forwarded to a country

which cannot be accessed automatically.

(2.15)

MED indicates that an urgent medical message follows.

(2.16)

OBS indicates that the following message is to be sent to the meteorological organization.

(2.17)

HELP indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive a list of available facilities within

the system.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.492-6

287

(2.18)

If information is needed on the application of procedures for individual facilities at a coast station,

request for further details concerning the specific procedure can be obtained by the facility code

HELP followed by the appropriate facility code for which the information is needed, e.g.:

<≡↓HELP DIRTLX ↑ + indicates that the ship station needs information on the procedures

(action by ship operator) for ordering a dialogue-mode connection with a telex network subscriber

via the coast station.

(2.19)

AMV indicates that the following message is to be sent to the AMVER organization.

(2.20)

BRK indicates that the use of the radio path is to be immediately discontinued (for use where the

ship’s operator can only use a teleprinter for controlling the ARQ equipment).

(2.21)

MULTLX ↑ xy/xy/xy+ indicates that the following message is a multiple address message for

immediate connection to a store-and-forward facility located at the coast station.

y indicates the subscriber’s national telex number.

x is used where applicable to indicate the country code (ITU-T Recommendation F.69) preceded by

0 (when applicable).

Each separate xy indicates a different telex number to which the same message should be

forwarded. At least two separate telex numbers should be included.

MULTLXA may optionally be used instead of MULTLX which indicates that the ship wishes to be

advised (using the normal shore-to-ship procedures) when the messages have been delivered to the

indicated telex numbers.

(2.22)

STS ↑ x + indicates that the following message is for transmission to a ship using a store-and-

forward facility located at the coast station. x indicates the addressed ship’s 5- or 9-digit identity

number.

(2.23)

INF indicates that the ship station needs to immediately receive information from the coast station’s

database. Some administrations provide a variety of different database information in which case

INF returns a directory listing and a subsequent facility code is used to select the desired

information.

(2.24)

VBTLX ↑ xy indicates that the following message should be dictated, by the coast station, to a

voicebank (voice messaging) telephone number for subsequent retrieval by the addressee, and that

a copy of the message should be forwarded to telex number xy. The voicebank telephone number

should be included in the first line of the message text.

(2.25)

FAX ↑ xy indicates that the following message should be forwarded, via the PSTN, by facsimile to

the telephone number xy.

(2.26)

TEL ↑ xy indicates that the following message should be telephoned, by the coast station, to the

telephone number xy.

(2.27)

DATA ↑ xy indicates that the following message should be forwarded by the coast station using

data facilities to the subscriber number xy (via the PSTN).

(2.28)

RPT ↑ xy… indicates that the ship needs to receive, using the ARQ mode, a specific identified

message (e.g., earlier transmitted in the FEC mode), if still available for automatic retransmission.

x… is used as the message identifier.

(2.29)

TST indicates that the ship needs to receive an automatically transmitted test text (e.g. “the quick

brown fox …”).

(2.30)

TRF indicates that the ship needs to receive information, automatically transmitted, on tariffs

currently applicable to the coast station.

(3)

The symbol “?” is not necessary where the coast station is automatic. It is normally required only

for manual systems.

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(4)

In cases where the coast station requires information about the relevant Accounting Authority

Identification Code (AAIC), this information should be provided by the ship operator on receipt of

the combination < ≡↓ QRC ↑ + from the coast station.

Some coast stations may request additional information, e.g. ship’s name, call sign, etc.

(5)

This sequence may be preceded where necessary by suitable prompts or facility selection

information and, if appropriate, any consequent ship station reply, or may be deleted where not

applicable (e.g. where facility codes WX, NAV, STA, MSG or HELP are input at step 4). Where

facility code DIRTLX ↑ xy was input at step 4, this sequence may be replaced by the distant end

answer-back or by any service signal (e.g. NC, OCC, etc.) received from the telex network.

(6)

Message procedures depend on which facility is used:

For TLX where the store-and-forward system is remote from the coast station, ITU-T

Recommendation F.72 may apply. Where the store-and-forward system is located at the coast

station, the complete information content of the message sent at this step will be forwarded to the

subscriber whose telex number is given by xy.

For DIRTLX, see ITU-T Recommendation F.60.

For TGM, see ITU-T Recommendations F.1and F.31.

For SVC and MED, the message will normally be plain text and no specific message procedure is

required.

For RTL, the message will be plain text but should include the postal address of the addressee.

For STA, the appropriate status information is returned to the ship in accordance with ITU-T

Recommendation F.72, § 11.3 and 11.4.

For POS and FREQ, specific national procedures may apply.

(7)

This sequence of 4 K’s “KKKK” (4 combination No. 11 signals in the letter case) indicates that any

network connection should be cleared but that the radio path should be maintained and that the

procedure should immediately proceed to step 11. This sequence may be used elsewhere in the

procedure in which case the procedure reverts to step 3.

(8)

This step is optional and may not apply to all facilities.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

289

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.541-9

Operational procedures for the use of digital selective-calling

equipment in the maritime mobile service

(1978-1982-1986-1990-1992-1994-1995-1996-1997-2004)

Summary

The Recommendation contains the operational procedures for digital selective-calling

(DSC) equipment whose technical characteristics are given in Recommendation

ITU-R M.493. The Recommendation contains five annexes. In Annexes 1 and 2 the

provisions and procedures are described for distress, urgency and safety calls and for

routine calls, respectively. In Annexes 3 and 4 the operational procedures for ships and

for coast stations are described and Annex 5 lists the frequencies to be used for DSC.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

that digital selective-calling (DSC) will be used as described in

Recommendation ITU-R M.493;

b)

that the requirements of Chapter IV of the International Convention for the

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, for the Global Maritime Distress and

Safety System (GMDSS) are based on the use of DSC for distress alerting and calling

and that operational procedures are necessary for the use of that system;

c)

that, as far as is practicable, operational procedures in all frequency bands and

for all types of communications should be similar;

d)

that DSC may provide a useful supplementary means of transmitting a distress

alert in addition to the provisions of transmitting the distress alert by existing methods

and procedures in the Radio Regulations (RR);

e)

that conditions when alarms have to be actuated should be specified,

recommends

1

that the technical characteristics of equipment used for DSC in the maritime

mobile service should be in conformity with the relevant ITU-R Recommendations;

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Maritime Manual

2

that the operational procedures to be observed in the MF, HF and VHF bands

for DSC should be in accordance with Annex 1 for distress and safety calls and

Annex 2 for other calls;

3

that provisions should be made at stations equipped for DSC for:

3.1

the manual entry of address, type of call, category and various messages into

a DSC sequence;

3.2

the verification and if necessary the correction of such manually formed

sequences;

3.3

a specific aural alarm and visual indication to indicate receipt of a distress or

urgency call or a call having distress category. It should not be possible to disable this

alarm and indication. Provisions should be made to ensure that they can be reset only

manually;

3.4

aural alarm(s) and visual indication for calls other than distress and urgency.

The aural alarm(s) may be capable of being disabled;

3.5

such visual indicators to indicate:

3.5.1 type of received call address (to all stations, to a group of stations,

geographical, individual);

3.5.2 category;

3.5.3 identity of calling station;

3.5.4 numerical or alpha-numerical type of information, e.g. frequency information

and telecommand;

3.5.5 type of “end of sequence” character;

3.5.6 detection of errors, if any;

3.6

monitoring the DSC channel to determine the presence of a signal and, except

for distress, urgency, and non-test safety calls, provide facilities for automatically

preventing the transmission of a DSC call until the channel is free;

4

that the equipment should be simple to operate;

5

that the operational procedures given in Annexes 3 and 4, which are based on

the relevant procedures from Annexes 1 and 2 and from the RR, be used as guidance for

ships and coast stations;

6

that the frequencies used for distress and safety purposes using DSC are those

contained in Annex 5 to this Recommendation (see RR Appendix 15).

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

291

NOTE 1 – The following definitions are used throughout this Recommendation:

Single frequency: the same frequency is used for transmission and reception.

Paired frequencies: frequencies which are associated in pairs; each pair consisting of

one transmitting and one receiving frequency.

International DSC frequencies: those frequencies designated in the RR for exclusive

use for DSC on an international basis.

National DSC frequencies: those frequencies assigned to individual coast stations or a

group of stations on which DSC is permitted (this may include working frequencies as

well as calling frequencies). The use of these frequencies must be in accordance with

the RR.

Automatic DSC operation at a ship station: a mode of operation employing automatic

tunable transmitters and receivers, suitable for unattended operation, which provide for

automatic call acknowledgements upon reception of a DSC and automatic transfer to

the appropriate working frequencies.

Call attempt: one or a limited number of call sequences directed to the same stations on

one or more frequencies and within a relatively short time period (e.g. a few minutes).

A call attempt is considered unsuccessful if a calling sequence contains the symbol RQ

at the end of the sequence and no acknowledgement is received in this time interval.

Annex 1

Provisions and procedures for distress, urgency and safety calls

1

Introduction

The terrestrial elements of the GMDSS adopted by the 1988 Amendments to the

International Convention for SOLAS, 1974, are based on the use of DSC for distress

and safety communications.

1.1

Method of calling

The provisions of RR Chapter VII are applicable to the use of DSC in cases of distress,

urgency or safety.

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2

DSC distress alert

The DSC distress alert provides for alerting, self-identification, ship’s position

including time, and nature of distress as defined in the RR (See RR Chapter VII).

3

Procedures for DSC distress alerts

3.1

Transmission by a mobile unit in distress

3.1.1 The DSC equipment should be capable of being preset to transmit the distress

alert on at least one distress alerting frequency.

3.1.2 The distress alert shall be composed in accordance with Recommendation

ITU-R M.493; the ship’s position information, the time at which it was taken and the

nature of distress should be entered as appropriate. If the position of the ship cannot be

entered, then the position information signals shall be transmitted automatically as the

digit 9 repeated ten times. If the time cannot be included, then the time information

signals shall be transmitted automatically as the digit 8 repeated four times.

3.1.3 Distress alert attempt

At MF and HF a distress alert attempt may be transmitted as a single frequency or a

multi-frequency call attempt. At VHF only single frequency call attempts are used.

3.1.3.1 Single frequency call attempt

A distress alert attempt should be transmitted as 5 consecutive calls on one frequency.

To avoid call collision and the loss of acknowledgements, this call attempt may be

transmitted on the same frequency again after a random delay of between 3½ and

4½ min from the beginning of the initial call. This allows acknowledgements arriving

randomly to be received without being blocked by retransmission. The random delay

should be generated automatically for each repeated transmission, however it should be

possible to override the automatic repeat manually.

At MF and HF, single frequency call attempts may be repeated on different frequencies

after a random delay of between 3½ and 4½ min from the beginning of the initial call.

However, if a station is capable of receiving acknowledgements continuously on all

distress frequencies except for the transmit frequency in use, then single frequency call

attempts may be repeated on different frequencies without this delay.

3.1.3.2 Multi-frequency call attempt

A distress alert attempt may be transmitted as up to 6 consecutive (see Note 1) calls

dispersed over a maximum of 6 distress frequencies (1 at MF and 5 at HF). Stations

transmitting multi-frequency distress alert attempts should be able to receive

acknowledgements continuously on all frequencies except for the transmit frequency in

use, or be able to complete the call attempt within 1 min.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

293

Multi-frequency call attempts may be repeated after a random delay of between 3½ and

4½ min from the beginning of the previous call attempt.

NOTE 1 – A VHF call may be transmitted simultaneously with an MF/HF call.

3.1.4 Distress

In the case of distress the operator should:

3.1.4.1 enter the desired mode of the subsequent communication and if time

permits, enter the ship’s position and time (see Note 1) it was taken and the nature of

distress (see Note 1);

NOTE 1 – If these are not provided automatically.

3.1.4.2 select the distress frequency(ies) to be used (see Note 1 of § 3.1.4.1);

3.1.4.3 activate the distress alert attempt by a dedicated distress button.

3.2

Reception

The DSC equipment should be capable of maintaining a reliable watch on a 24-hour

basis on appropriate DSC distress alerting frequencies.

3.3

Acknowledgement of distress alerts

Acknowledgements of distress alerts should be initiated manually.

Acknowledgements should be transmitted on the same frequency as the distress alert

was received.

3.3.1 Distress alerts should normally be acknowledged by DSC only by appropriate

coast stations. Coast stations should, in addition, set watch on radiotelephony and, if the

“mode of subsequent communication” signal in the received distress alert indicates

teleprinter, also on narrow-band direct-printing (NBDP) (see Recommendation ITU-R

M.493). In both cases, the radiotelephone and NBDP frequencies should be those

associated with the frequency on which the distress alert was received.

3.3.2 Acknowledgements by coast stations of DSC distress alerts transmitted on MF

or HF should be initiated with a minimum delay of 1 min after receipt of a distress alert,

and normally within a maximum delay of 2¾ min. This allows all calls within a single

frequency or multi-frequency call attempt to be completed and should allow sufficient

time for coast stations to respond to the distress alert. Acknowledgements by coast

stations on VHF should be transmitted as soon as practicable.

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3.3.3 The acknowledgement of a distress alert consists of a single DSC

acknowledgement call which should be addressed to “all ships” and include the

identification (see Recommendation ITU-R M.493) of the ship whose distress alert is

being acknowledged.

3.3.4 Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship should set watch on an

associated radiotelephone distress and safety traffic frequency and acknowledge the call

by radiotelephony.

If a ship station continues to receive a DSC distress alert on an MF or VHF channel, a

DSC acknowledgement should be transmitted to terminate the call only after consulting

with a Rescue Coordination Centre or a Coast Station and being directed to do so.

3.3.5 The automatic repetition of a distress alert attempt should be terminated

automatically on receipt of a DSC distress acknowledgement.

3.3.6 When distress, urgency, and safety traffic cannot be successfully conducted

using radiotelephony, an affected station may indicate its intention to conduct

subsequent communications on the associated frequency for NBDP telegraphy.

3.4

Distress relays

Distress relay calls should be initiated manually.

3.4.1 A distress relay call should use the telecommand signal “distress relay” in

accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.493 and the calling attempt should follow

the procedures described in § 3.1.3 to 3.1.3.2 for distress alerts, except that the alert is

sent manually as a single call on a single frequency.

3.4.2 Any ship, receiving a distress alert on an HF channel which is not

acknowledged by a coast station within 5 min, should transmit a distress relay call to

the appropriate coast station.

3.4.3 Distress relay calls transmitted by coast stations, or by ship stations addressed

to more than one vessel, should be acknowledged by ship stations using radiotelephony.

Distress relay calls transmitted by ship stations should be acknowledged by a coast

station transmitting a “distress relay acknowledgement” call in accordance with the

procedures for distress acknowledgements given in § 3.3 to 3.3.3.

4

Procedures for DSC urgency and safety calls

4.1

DSC, on the distress and safety calling frequencies, should be used by coast

stations to advise shipping, and by ships to advise coast stations and/or ship stations, of

the impending transmission of urgency, vital navigational and safety messages, except

where the transmissions take place at routine times. The call should indicate the

working frequency which will be used for the subsequent transmission of an urgent,

vital navigational or safety message.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

295

4.2

The announcement and identification of medical transports should be carried

out by DSC techniques, using appropriate distress and safety calling frequencies. Such

calls should use the category “urgency”, and telecommand “medical transport” and be

addressed to all ships at VHF and Geographic Area at MF/HF.

4.3

The operational procedures for urgency and safety calls should be in

accordance with the relevant parts of Annex 3, § 2.1 or 2.2 and 3.1. or 3.2.

5

Testing the equipment used for distress and safety calls

Testing on the exclusive DSC distress and safety calling frequencies should be avoided

as far as possible by using other methods. VHF, MF and HF test calls should be in

accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.493 (see Table 4.7) and the call may be

acknowledged by the called station. Normally there would be no further communication

between the two stations involved.

Annex 2

Provisions and procedures for routine calls

1

Frequency/channels

1.1

As a rule, paired frequencies should be used at HF and MF, in which case an

acknowledgement is transmitted on the frequency paired with the frequency of the

received call. In exceptional cases for national purposes a single frequency may be

used. If the same call is received on several calling channels, the most appropriate shall

be chosen to transmit the acknowledgement. A single frequency channel should be used

at VHF.

1.2

International calling

The paired frequencies listed in RR Appendix 17, Part A and in Annex 5 of this

Recommendation should be used for international DSC calling.

1.2.1 At HF and MF international DSC frequencies should only be used for shore-

to-ship calls and for the associated call acknowledgements from ships fitted for

automatic DSC operation where it is known that the ships concerned are not listening to

the coast station’s national frequencies.

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Maritime Manual

1.2.2 All ship-to-shore DSC calling at HF and MF should preferably be done on the

coast station’s national frequencies.

1.3

National calling

Coast stations should avoid using the international DSC frequencies for calls that may

be placed using national frequencies.

1.3.1 Ship stations should keep watch on appropriate national and international

channels. (Appropriate measures should be taken for an even loading of national and

international channels.)

1.3.2 Administrations are urged to find methods and negotiate terms to improve the

utilization of the DSC channels available, e.g.:

coordinated and/or joint use of coast station transmitters;

optimizing the probability of successful calls by providing information to ships

on suitable frequencies (channels) to be watched and by information from

ships to a selected number of coast stations on the channels watched on-board.

1.4

Method of calling

1.4.1

The procedures set out in this section are applicable to the use of DSC

techniques, except in cases of distress, urgency or safety, to which the provisions of RR

Chapter VII are applicable.

1.4.2

The call shall contain information indicating the station or stations to which

the call is directed, and the identification of the calling station.

1.4.3

The call should also contain information indicating the type of communication

to be set up and may include supplementary information such as a proposed working

frequency or channel; this information shall always be included in calls from coast

stations, which shall have priority for that purpose.

1.4.4

An appropriate digital selective calling channel chosen in accordance with the

provisions of RR Nos. 52.128 to 52.137 or Nos. 52.145 to 52.153, as appropriate, shall

be used for the call.

2

Operating procedures

The technical format of the call sequence shall be in conformity with the relevant

ITU-R Recommendations.

The reply to a DSC requesting an acknowledgement shall be made by transmitting an

appropriate acknowledgement using DSC techniques.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

297

Acknowledgements may be initiated either manually or automatically. When an

acknowledgement can be transmitted automatically, it shall be in conformity with the

relevant ITU-R Recommendations.

The technical format of the acknowledgement sequence shall be in conformity with the

relevant ITU-R Recommendations.

For communication between a coast station and a ship station, the coast station shall

finally decide the working frequency or channel to be used.

The forwarding traffic and the control for working for radiotelephony shall be carried

out in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.1171.

A typical DSC calling and acknowledgement sequence contains the following signals

(see Recommendation ITU-R M.493).

Composition of a typical routine DSC calling and acknowledgement sequence

2.1

Coast station initiates call to ship station (see Note 1)

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the procedures below in flow chart and by time sequence

diagram respectively.

NOTE 1 – See Recommendations ITU-R M.689 and ITU-R M.1082 for further details of

procedures applicable only to the semi-automatic/automatic services.

2.1.2 If a direct connection exists between the calling subscriber and the coast

station, the coast station asks the calling subscriber for the approximate position of the

ship.

Signal

Method of composition

– format specifier

operator selected

– address

operator entered

– category (routine)

automatically selected

– self-identification

pre-programmed

– telecommand information

seleccionada por el operador

– frequency information (if appropriate)

operator selected or entered

– telephone number (semi-

automatic/automatic

ship-to-shore connections only)

operator entered

– end of sequence signal

automatically selected.

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Maritime Manual

2.1.3 If the ship’s position cannot be indicated by the caller, the coast station

operator tries to find the location in the information available at the coast station.

2.1.4 The coast station checks to see whether the call would be more appropriate

through another coast station (see § 1.3.2).

2.1.5 The coast station checks to see whether the transmission of a DSC is

inappropriate or restricted (e.g. ship not fitted with DSC or barred).

2.1.6 Assuming a DSC is appropriate the coast station composes the calling

sequence as follows:

selects format specifier,

enters address of the ship,

selects category,

selects telecommand information,

inserts working frequency information in the message part of the sequence, if

appropriate,

usually selects “end of sequence” signal “RQ”. However, if the coast station

knows that the ship station cannot respond or the call is to a group of ships the

frequency is omitted and the end of sequence signal should be 127, in which

case the following procedures (§ 2.1.13 to 2.1.15) relating to an

acknowledgement are not applicable.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

299

0541-01

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.1.4
2.1.5

2.1.6
2.1.7

2.1.8

2.1.8.1

2.1.12

2.1.9

2.1.8.1

2.1.14

2

2.1.13.2

2.1.13.2

2.1.14.2

2.1.13.4

2.1.13.3

2.1.14

1

2.1.13

2.1.13.3
2.1.13.4

2.1.13.1

2.1.13.1
2.1.13.3/4

2.1.13.1
2.1.13.3/4

2.1.13.1

2.1.14

2.1.8.2

2.1.11

1/10 min
6/24 h

2.1.13.4

2.1.14

Autom.

2.1.15

2.1.8.1

SHORE
(coast station)

Ask caller for
position of ship
if a direct
connection exists

No

Position?

Yes

Try to find
the position
of ship

Is call
appropriate?

No

Compose and
verify a calling
sequence

Select calling
frequency

Monitor the
selected calling
frequency

Yes

Busy?

Transmit
the calling
sequence

Does
transmitted
sequence contain
RQ?

No

Yes

Monitor
receiving
channel

Yes

Is ack.
received?

No

Check
transmission
interval

No

Is
interval long
enough?

Yes

Yes

Is ship
on working
channel?

No

No

Has call
attempt been
completed?

Check the
number of
call attempts

Can call
attempt be
repeated?

Yes

No

Contact with
caller if
necessary

END

Wait for a
call from ship
station

END

Contact ship
station on working
channel agreed

Yes

No

Is the
ship able to comply
immediately?

See Fig. 3

SHIP

Record and
indicate
message
received

With
acknowledgement
RQ?

No

Yes

TX
autom. or
manu.?

Automatic
composition of
acknowledgement
sequence

Check
transmission
interval

Is
interval long
enough?

Transmit
automatically the

acknowledgement

Yes

With
“unable to
comply”

No

Contact coast
station on
working channel
agreed

Is
contact success-
ful?

Yes

END

Monitor working
channel proposed
if appropriate

Manual

Can
acknowledgement
be transmitted
within 5 min of
receipt?

Yes

Compose and
verify an
acknowledgement
sequence

No

Compose and
verify a calling
sequence

See
Fig. 3

FIGURE 1

Flow chart of operational procedures for calling in the shore-to-ship direction

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

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Maritime Manual

0541-02

t

1

t

4

t

1

t

3

t

1

t

2

t

1

t

5

t

1

t

3

t

1

t

4

t

1

t

2

t

1

t

5

t

1

t

3

TX

RX

RXTX

f1

fl′

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1,T2,f1,BQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1(104)

T2,f1,BQ

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1(104),

T2(103),f1,BQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1,T2,f1,BQ

Coast
station

Ship
station

Working
frequencies

Contact on

working

frequencies

a) Automated transmitter (able to comply)

b) Automated transmitter (unable to comply)

Contact on

working

frequencies

Contact on

working

frequencies

c) Ship transmitter not automated. Ship makes a delayed (>5 min) response to coast station

and encounters queue on working frequency

: transmission time of a DSC sequence

: interval between the DSC reception at the

ship and transmission from the ship after

the operator’s appearance in the radio

room (from several minutes up to several hours)

: transition time from calling to working frequency
including, if necessary, the time for working

channel clearing (queue waiting time)

: as defined in § 2.1.13.2

: time for coast station to prepare acknowledge-

ment (see § 2.2.6)

1

2

3

4

5

FIGURE 2

Examples of timing diagrams for calling in shore-to-ship direction

t

t

t

t

t

F

I

C

T1

T2

f1, f1′

RQ, BQ

A

: format specifier

: called station address

: calling station
self-identification

: category

: first telecommand signal, (104) indicates

unable to comply

: second telecommand signal,

(103) indicates queue

: working frequencies

: end of sequence signals

suffix (c) or (s) indicates coast
station or ship station respectively

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

301

2.1.7 The coast station verifies the calling sequence.

The call shall be transmitted once on a single appropriate calling channel or frequency

only. Only in exceptional circumstances may a call be transmitted simultaneously on

more than one frequency.

2.1.8 The coast station operator chooses the calling frequencies which are most

suitable for the ship’s location.

2.1.8.1 After checking as far as possible that there are no calls in progress, the coast

station operator initiates the transmission of the sequence on one of the frequencies

chosen. Transmission on any one frequency should be limited to no more than 2 call

sequences separated by intervals of at least 45 s to allow for reception of an

acknowledgement from the ship.

2.1.8.2 If appropriate, a “call attempt” may be transmitted, which may include the

transmission of the same call sequence on other frequencies (if necessary with a change

of working frequency information to correspond to the same band as the calling

frequency) made in turn at intervals of not less than 5 min, following the same pattern

as in § 2.1.8.1.

2.1.9 If an acknowledgement is received further transmission of the call sequence

should not take place.

The coast station shall then prepare to transmit traffic on the working channel or

frequency it has proposed.

2.1.10 The acknowledgement of the received call should only be transmitted upon

receipt of a calling sequence which terminates with an acknowledgement request.

2.1.11 When a station called does not reply, the call attempt should not normally be

repeated until after an interval of at least 15 min. The same call attempt should not be

repeated more than five times every 24 h. The aggregate of the times for which

frequencies are occupied in one call attempt, should normally not exceed 1 min.

The following procedures apply at the ship:

2.1.12 Upon receipt of a calling sequence at the ship station, the received message

should be displayed.

2.1.13 When a received call sequence contains an end of sequence signal “RQ”, an

acknowledgement sequence should be composed and transmitted.

The format specifier and category information should be identical to that in the received

calling sequence.

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Maritime Manual

2.1.13.1 If the ship station is not equipped for automatic DSC operation, the ship’s

operator initiates an acknowledgement to the coast station after a delay of at least 5 s

but no later than 4½ min of receiving the calling sequence, using the ship-to-shore

calling procedures detailed in § 2.2. However the transmitted sequence should contain

a “BQ” end of sequence signal in place of the “RQ” signal.

If such an acknowledgement cannot be transmitted within 5 min of receiving the calling

sequence then the ship station should instead transmit a calling sequence to the coast

station using the ship-to-shore calling procedure detailed in § 2.2.

2.1.13.2 If the ship is equipped for automatic DSC operation, the ship station

automatically transmits an acknowledgement with an end of sequence signal “BQ”. The

start of the transmission of this acknowledgement sequence should be within 30 s for

HF and MF or within 3 s for VHF after the reception of the complete call sequence.

2.1.13.3 If the ship is able to comply immediately the acknowledgement sequence

should include a telecommand signal which is identical to that received in the calling

sequence indicating that it is able to comply.

If no working frequency was proposed in the call, the ship station should include a

proposal for a working frequency in its acknowledgement.

2.1.13.4 If the ship is not able to comply immediately the acknowledgement

sequence should include the telecommand signal 104 (unable to comply), with a second

telecommand signal giving additional information (see Recommendation

ITU-R M.493).

At some later time when the ship is able to accept the traffic being offered, the ship’s

operator initiates a call to the coast station using the ship-to-shore calling procedures

detailed in § 2.2.

2.1.14 If a call is acknowledged indicating ability to comply immediately and

communication between coast station and ship station on the working channel agreed is

established, the DSC call procedure is considered to be completed.

2.1.15 If the ship station transmits an acknowledgement which is not received by the

coast station then this will result in the coast station repeating the call (in accordance

with § 2.1.11). In this event the ship station should transmit a new acknowledgement. If

no repeated call is received the ship station should transmit an acknowledgement or

calling sequence in accordance with § 2.1.13.1.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

303

2.2

Ship station initiates call to coast station (see Note 1)

Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the procedures below in flow chart and by time sequence

diagram respectively.

This procedure should also be followed both as a delayed response to a call received

earlier from the coast station (see § 2.1.13.1) and to initiate traffic from the ship station.

NOTE 1 – See Recommendations ITU-R M.689 and ITU-R M.1082 for further details of

procedures applicable only to the semi-automatic/automatic services.

2.2.1 The ship composes the calling sequence as follows:

operator selects the format specifier,

operator enters address,

automatically selected category,

pre-programmed self-identification,

operator selects the telecommand information,

operator inserts (selects or enters) working frequency, or enters position (for

MF/HF only) information in the message part of the sequence if appropriate,

operator enters telephone number required (semi-automatic/automatic

connections only),

automatically selected “end of sequence” signal RQ.

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Maritime Manual

0541-03

2.2.1/2.2.2

1

2.1.13.1

2.2.3

2.2.4

2.1.13.1

2

2.2.4

2.2.5/2.2.9

2.1.13.4

2.2.6

2.2.6

2.2.8

2.2.8

2.2.7

2.2.5

SHIP

Compose and
verify a calling
sequence

See
Fig. 1

Select
calling
frequency

Monitor
the calling
frequency

Busy?

Yes

Yes

No

Is
this a calling
sequence?

See Fig. 1

Transmit the

acknowledgement

sequence

Transmit
the calling
sequence

Check
receiving
channel

Is
acknowledgement
received?

Yes

Check
transmission
interval

Is
interval long
enough?

No

Yes

Is
another attempt
required?

Yes

No

No

Yes

With
“unable to
comply”?

SHORE
(coast station)

Record and
indicate
message
received

Compose and
verify an
acknowledgement
sequence

Select

acknowledgement
frequency

Delay if
necessary
(manual
connections)

Transmit the
acknowledgement

sequence

Contact ship
station on
working channel
agreed

END

END

Contact coast
station on
working channel
agreed

Yes

Yes

No

No

Is alternative
frequency
proposed?

Is alternative
frequency
acceptable?

Ship transmit call
indicating “unable
to comply”

FIGURE 3

Flow chart of operational procedures for calling in the ship-to-shore direction

No

No

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

305

0541-04

t

1

t5

t

3

t

1

t

1

t

5

t

3

t

1

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1(104),

T2(103),f1,BQ

F,A(c),C,I(s),T1,T2,f1,RQ

F,A(s),C,I(c),T1,T2,f1,BQ

TX

RX

RX

TX

f1

f1′

Contact on

working

frequencies

Contact on

working

frequencies

a) Able to comply immediately

b) Queue exists on working frequency

FIGURE 4

Examples of timing diagrams for calling in ship-to-shore direction

Coast
station

Ship
station

Working
frequencies

: transmission time of a DSC sequence

: transition time from calling to working frequency including, if necessary, the time for

working channel clearing (queue waiting time)

: time for coast station to prepare acknowledgement (see § 2.2.6)

: format specifier

: called station address

t

1
t3

t

5

F

A

: calling station

self-identification

: category

: first telecommand signal, (104) indicates unable to comply

: second telecommand signal, (103) indicates queue

: working frequencies

: end of sequence signals

suffix (c) or (s) indicates coast station

or ship station respectively

I

C

T1

T2

f1, f1'

RQ, BQ

2.2.2 The ship verifies the calling sequence.

2.2.3 The ship selects the single most appropriate calling frequency preferably using

the coast station’s nationally assigned calling channels, for which purpose it shall send

a single calling sequence on the selected frequency.

2.2.4 The ship initiates the transmission of the sequence on the frequency selected

after checking as far as possible that there are no calls in progress on that frequency.

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Maritime Manual

0541-05

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(3)

(3)

(4)

(2)

(5)

SHORE
(coast station)
or SHIP

Calling

Calling/
acknowledgement

Select
acknowledgement
BQ as EOS signal

Unable
to comply?

Yes

No

No

Alternative
frequency proposal?

Yes

Enter frequency
proposal

Select 1st telecommand
“unable to comply” (104)
and 2nd telecommand
as appropriate

Select
telecommand
information

Select
category

Enter

address

Select format
specifier

2.1.6 (Coast)
2.2.1 (Ship)

With
frequency?

No

Yes

Select frequency
of working
channel

No

Semi-
automatic/automatic
ship-to-shore
connection

Yes

Enter telephone
number

END

Queue?

No

Yes

Enter
telecommands
104 and 103

Select
telecommand
information

FIGURE 5

Composition procedures for calling and acknowledgement sequences

(for calls other than distress and safety)

Normally acknowledgement RQ may automatically be selected as an EOS signal of a calling

sequence to an individual station.

The format specifier and the category are automatically transferred from the received

call.The self-ID in the received sequence is automatically transferred into the

address part of acknowledgement sequence by selecting acknowledgement BQ.

The frequency information is automatically transferred from the received call.

This procedure is only for coast stations.

When able to comply, and no queue exists, then the telecommand information is

automatically transferred from the received call.

“Routine” or
“ship business
priority”

Select EOS

signal(1)

Acknowledgement 2.1.13 (Ship)

2.2.6 (Coast)

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

307

2.2.5 If a called station does not reply, the call sequence from the ship station should

not normally be repeated until after an interval of at least 5 min for manual connections,

or 5 s or 25 s in the case of semi-automatic/automatic VHF or MF/HF connections

respectively. These repetitions may be made on alternative frequencies if appropriate.

Any subsequent repetitions to the same coast station should not be made until at least

15 min have elapsed.

2.2.6 The coast station should transmit an acknowledgement sequence (after

checking as far as possible that there are no calls in progress on the frequency selected),

after a delay of at least 5 s but not later than 4½ min for manual connections, or, within

3 s for semi-automatic/automatic connections, containing the format specifier, the

address of the ship, the category, the coast station self-identification and:

if able to comply immediately on the working frequency suggested, the same

telecommand and frequency information as in the call request;

if no working frequency was suggested by the ship station then the

acknowledgement sequence should include a channel/frequency proposal;

if not able to comply on the working frequency suggested but able to comply

immediately on an alternative frequency, the same telecommand information

as in the call request but an alternative working frequency;

if unable to comply immediately the telecommand signal 104 with a second

telecommand signal giving additional information. For manual connections

only, this second telecommand signal may include a queue indication.

The end of sequence signal BQ should also be included.

2.2.7 For manual connections, if a working frequency is proposed in accordance

with § 2.2.6 but this is not acceptable to the ship station, then the ship station should

immediately transmit a new call requesting an alternative frequency.

2.2.8 If an acknowledgement is received further transmission of the call sequence

should not take place. On receipt of an acknowledgement which indicates ability to

comply, the DSC procedures are complete and both coast station and ship station

should communicate on the working frequencies agreed with no further exchange of

DSC calls.

2.2.9 If the coast station transmits an acknowledgement which is not received at the

ship station then the ship station should repeat the call in accordance with § 2.2.5.

2.3

Ship station initiates call to ship station

The ship-to-ship procedures should be similar to those given in § 2.2, where the

receiving ship station complies with the procedures given for coast stations, as

appropriate, except that, with respect to § 2.2.1, the calling ship should always insert

working frequency information in the message part of the calling sequence.

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Maritime Manual

Annex 3

Operational procedures for ships for DSC communications

on MF, HF and VHF

Introduction

Procedures for DSC communications on MF and VHF are described in § 1 to 5 below.

The procedures for DSC communications on HF are in general the same as for MF and

VHF. Special conditions to be taken into account when making DSC communications

on HF are described in § 6 below.

1

Distress

1.1

Transmission of DSC distress alert

A distress alert should be transmitted if, in the opinion of the Master, the ship or a

person is in distress and requires immediate assistance.

A DSC distress alert should as far as possible include the ship’s last known position and

the time (in UTC) when it was valid. The position and the time may be included

automatically by the ship’s navigational equipment or may be inserted manually.

The DSC distress alert is transmitted as follows:

tune the transmitter to the DSC distress channel (2187.5 kHz on MF,

channel 70 on VHF (see Note 1)).

NOTE 1 – Some maritime MF radiotelephony transmitters shall be tuned to a

frequency 1700 Hz lower than 2187.5 kHz, i.e. 2185.8 kHz, in order to transmit the

DSC distress alert on 2 187.5 kHz;

if time permits, key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard

– the nature of distress,

– the ship’s last known position (latitude and longitude),

– the time (in UTC) the position was valid,

– type of subsequent distress communication (telephony),

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions;

transmit the DSC distress alert;

prepare for the subsequent distress traffic by tuning the transmitter and the

radiotelephony receiver to the distress traffic channel in the same band, i.e.

2182 kHz on MF, channel 16 on VHF, while waiting for the DSC distress

acknowledgement.

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1.2

Actions on receipt of a distress alert

Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship should normally not

acknowledge the distress alert by DSC since acknowledgement of a DSC distress alert

by use of DSC is normally made by coast stations only (see Annex 1 § 3.3.4 and

Annex 3 § 6.1.4).

If a ship station continues to receive a DSC distress alert on an MF or VHF channel, a

DSC acknowledgement should be transmitted to terminate the call only after consulting

with a Rescue Coordination Centre or a Coast Station and being directed to do so.

Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship should also defer the

acknowledgement of the distress alert by radiotelephony for a short interval, if the ship

is within an area covered by one or more coast stations, in order to give the coast station

time to acknowledge the DSC distress alert first.

Ships receiving a DSC distress alert from another ship shall:

watch for the reception of a distress acknowledgement on the distress channel

(2 187.5 kHz on MF and channel 70 on VHF);

prepare for receiving the subsequent distress communication by tuning the

radiotelephony receiver to the distress traffic frequency in the same band in

which the DSC distress alert was received, i.e. 2182 kHz on MF, channel 16

on VHF;

acknowledge the receipt of the distress alert by transmitting the following by

radiotelephony on the distress traffic frequency in the same band in which the

DSC distress alert was received, i.e. 2182 kHz on MF, channel 16 on VHF:

– “MAYDAY”,

– the 9-digit identity of the ship in distress, repeated 3 times,

– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity or the call sign or other identification of own ship,

repeated 3 times,

– “RECEIVED MAYDAY”.

1.3

Distress traffic

On receipt of a DSC distress acknowledgement the ship in distress should commence

the distress traffic by radiotelephony on the distress traffic frequency (2182 kHz on

MF, channel 16 on VHF) as follows:

“MAYDAY”,

“this is”,

the 9-digit identity and the call sign or other identification of the ship,

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the ship’s position in latitude and longitude or other reference to a known

geographical location,

the nature of distress and assistance wanted,

any other information which might facilitate the rescue.

1.4

Transmission of a DSC distress relay call

In no case is a ship permitted to transmit an all ships DSC distress relay call on receipt

of a DSC distress alert on either VHF or MF channels. If no aural watch is present on

the relative channel (2 182 kHz on MF, channel 16 on VHF), the coast station should be

contacted by sending an individual DSC distress relay call.

1.4.1 Transmission of a DSC distress relay call on behalf of someone else

A ship knowing that another ship is in distress shall transmit a DSC distress relay call

if:

the ship in distress is not itself able to transmit the distress alert,

the Master of the ship considers that further help is necessary.

The DSC distress relay call is transmitted as follows:

tune the transmitter to the DSC distress channel (2187.5 kHz on MF,

channel 70 on VHF),

select the distress relay call format on the DSC equipment,

key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:

– All Ships Call (VHF). Geographic Area Call (MF/HF) or the 9-digit

identity of the appropriate coast station,

– the 9-digit identity of the ship in distress, if known,

– the nature of distress,

– the latest position of the ship in distress, if known,

– the time (in UTC) the position was valid (if known),

– type of subsequent distress communication (telephony);

transmit the DSC distress relay call;

prepare for the subsequent distress traffic by tuning the transmitter and the

radiotelephony receiver to the distress traffic channel in the same band, i.e.

2 182 kHz on MF and channel 16 on VHF, while waiting for the DSC distress

acknowledgement.

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1.5

Acknowledgement of a DSC distress relay call received from a coast

station

Coast stations, after having received and acknowledged a DSC distress alert, may if

necessary, retransmit the information received as a DSC distress relay call, addressed to

all ships (VHF only), all ships in a specific geographical area (MF/HF only), or a

specific ship.

Ships receiving a distress relay call transmitted by a coast station shall not use DSC to

acknowledge the call, but should acknowledge the receipt of the call by radiotelephony

on the distress traffic channel in the same band in which the relay call was received, i.e.

2182 kHz on MF, channel 16 on VHF.

Acknowledge the receipt of the distress relay call by transmitting the following by

radiotelephony on the distress traffic frequency in the same band in which the DSC

distress relay call was received:

“MAYDAY” RELAY,

the 9-digit identity or the call sign or other identification of the calling coast

station,

“this is”,

the 9-digit identity or call sign or other identification of own ship,

“RECEIVED MAYDAY RELAY”.

1.6

Acknowledgement of a DSC distress relay call received from another ship

Ships receiving a distress relay call from another ship shall follow the same procedure

as for acknowledgement of a distress alert, i.e. the procedure given in § 1.2 above.

1.7

Cancellation of an inadvertent distress alert

A station transmitting an inadvertent distress alert shall cancel the distress alert using

the following procedure:

1.7.1 Immediately cancel the distress alert aurally over the telephony distress traffic

channel associated with each DSC channel on which the “distress alert” was

transmitted.

1.7.2 Monitor the telephony distress traffic channel associated with the DSC channel

on which the distress was transmitted, and respond to any communications concerning

that distress alert as appropriate.

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2

Urgency

2.1

Transmission of urgency messages

Transmission of urgency messages shall be carried out in two steps:

announcement of the urgency message,

transmission of the urgency message.

The announcement is carried out by transmission of a DSC urgency call on the DSC

distress calling channel (2187.5 kHz on MF, channel 70 on VHF).

The urgency message is transmitted on the distress traffic channel (2182 kHz on MF,

channel 16 on VHF).

The DSC urgency call may be addressed to all stations at VHF, or a geographic area at

MF/HF, or to a specific station. The frequency on which the urgency message will be

transmitted shall be included in the DSC urgency call.

The transmission of an urgency message is thus carried out as follows:

Announcement:

tune the transmitter to the DSC distress calling channel (2187.5 kHz on MF,

channel 70 on VHF);

select the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (all ships (VHF

only), geographical area (MF/HF only) or individual);

key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:

– specific area or 9-digit identity of the specific station, if appropriate,

– the category of the call (urgency),

– the frequency or channel on which the urgency message will be

transmitted,

– the type of communication in which the urgency message will be given

(radiotelephony),

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions;

transmit the DSC urgency call.

Transmission of the urgency message:

tune the transmitter to the frequency or channel indicated in the DSC urgency

call;

transmit the urgency message as follows:

– “PAN PAN”, repeated 3 times,

– “ALL STATIONS” or called station, repeated 3 times,

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– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity and the call sign or other identification of own ship,

– the text of the urgency message.

2.2

Reception of an urgency message

Ships receiving a DSC urgency call announcing an urgency message addressed to more

than one station shall NOT acknowledge the receipt of the DSC call, but should tune

the radiotelephony receiver to the frequency indicated in the call and listen to the

urgency message.

3

Safety

3.1

Transmission of safety messages

Transmission of safety messages shall be carried out in two steps:

announcement of the safety message,

transmission of the safety message.

The announcement is carried out by transmission of a DSC safety call on the DSC

distress calling channel (2187.5 kHz on MF, channel 70 on VHF).

The safety message is normally transmitted on the distress and safety traffic channel in

the same band in which the DSC call was sent, i.e. 2182 kHz on MF, channel 16

on VHF.

The DSC safety call may be addressed to all ships (VHF only), ships in a specific

geographical area (MF/HF only), or to a specific station.

The frequency on which the safety message will be transmitted shall be included in the

DSC call.

The transmission of a safety message is thus carried out as follows:

Announcement:

tune the transmitter to the DSC distress calling channel (2187.5 kHz on MF,

channel 70 on VHF);

select the appropriate calling format on the DSC equipment (all ships (VHF

only), geographical area (MF/HF only), or individual);

key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:

– specific area or 9-digit identity of specific station, if appropriate,

– the category of the call (safety),

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– the frequency or channel on which the safety message will be transmitted,

– the type of communication in which the safety message will be given

(radiotelephony),

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions;

transmit the DSC safety call.

Transmission of the safety message:

tune the transmitter to the frequency or channel indicated in the DSC safety

call;

transmit the safety message as follows:

– “SECURITE”, repeated 3 times,

– “ALL STATIONS” or called station, repeated 3 times,

– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity and the call sign or other identification of own ship,

– the text of the safety message.

3.2

Reception of a safety message

Ships receiving a DSC safety call announcing a safety message addressed to more than

one station shall NOT acknowledge the receipt of the DSC safety call, but should tune

the radiotelephony receiver to the frequency indicated in the call and listen to the safety

message.

4

Public correspondence

4.1

DSC channels for public correspondence

4.1.1 VHF

The VHF DSC channel 70 is used for DSC for distress and safety purposes as well as

for DSC for public correspondence.

4.1.2 MF

International and national DSC channels separate from the DSC distress and safety

calling channel 2187.5 kHz are used for digital selective-calling on MF for public

correspondence.

Ships calling a coast station by DSC on MF for public correspondence should

preferably use the coast station’s national DSC channel.

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The international DSC channel for public correspondence may as a general rule be used

between ships and coast stations of different nationality. The ships transmitting

frequency is 2189.5 kHz, and the receiving frequency is 2177 kHz.

The frequency 2177 kHz is also used for DSC between ships for general

communication.

4.2

Transmission of a DSC call for public correspondence to a coast station or

another ship

A DSC call for public correspondence to a coast station or another ship is transmitted as

follows:

tune the transmitter to the relevant DSC channel;

select the format for calling a specific station on the DSC equipment;

key in or select on the DSC equipment keyboard:

– the 9-digit identity of the station to be called,

– the category of the call (routine),

– the type of the subsequent communication (normally radiotelephony),

– a proposed working channel if calling another ship. A proposal for a

working channel should NOT be included in calls to a coast station; the

coast station will in its DSC acknowledgement indicate a vacant working

channel,

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions;

transmit the DSC call.

4.3

Repeating a call

A DSC call for public correspondence may be repeated on the same or another DSC

channel, if no acknowledgement is received within 5 min.

Further call attempts should be delayed at least 15 min, if acknowledgement is still not

received.

4.4

Acknowledgement of a received call and preparation for reception of the

traffic

On receipt of a DSC call from a coast station or another ship, a DSC acknowledgement

is transmitted as follows:

tune the transmitter to the transmit frequency of the DSC channel on which the

call was received,

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select the acknowledgement format on the DSC equipment,

transmit an acknowledgement indicating whether the ship is able to

communicate as proposed in the call (type of communication and working

frequency),

if able to communicate as indicated, tune the transmitter and the

radiotelephony receiver to the indicated working channel and prepare to

receive the traffic.

4.5

Reception of acknowledgement and further actions

When receiving an acknowledgement indicating that the called station is able to receive

the traffic, prepare to transmit the traffic as follows:

tune the transmitter and receiver to the indicated working channel;

commence the communication on the working channel by:

– the 9-digit identity or call sign or other identification of the called station,

– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity or call sign or other identification of own ship.

It will normally rest with the ship to call again a little later in case the

acknowledgement from the coast station indicates that the coast station is not able to

receive the traffic immediately.

In case the ship, in response to a call to another ship, receives an acknowledgement

indicating that the other ship is not able to receive the traffic immediately, it will

normally rest with the called ship to transmit a call to the calling ship when ready to

receive the traffic.

5

Testing the equipment used for distress and safety

Testing on the exclusive DSC distress and safety calling frequency 2187.5 kHz should

be avoided as far as possible by using other methods.

Test calls should be transmitted by the ship station and acknowledged by the called

station. Normally there would be no further communication between the two stations

involved.

A VHF and MF test call to a station is transmitted as follows:

tune the transmitter to the DSC distress and safety calling frequency (i.e.

channel 70 and 2187.5 kHz),

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

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key in or select the format for the test call on the DSC equipment in

accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions,

key in the 9-digit identity of the station to be called,

transmit the DSC call after checking as far as possible that no calls are in

progress on the frequency,

wait for acknowledgement.

6

Special conditions and procedures for DSC communication on HF

General

The procedures for DSC communication on HF are – with some additions described in

§ 6.1 to 6.3 below – equal to the corresponding procedures for DSC communications on

MF/VHF.

Due regard to the special conditions described in § 6.1 to 6.3 should be given when

making DSC communications on HF.

6.1

Distress

6.1.1 Transmission of DSC distress alert

DSC distress alert should be sent to coast stations – e.g. in A3 and A4 sea areas on HF –

and on MF and/or VHF to other ships in the vicinity.

The DSC distress alert should as far as possible include the ship’s last known position

and the time (in UTC) it was valid. If the position and time is not inserted automatically

from the ship’s navigational equipment, it should be inserted manually.

Ship-to-shore distress alert

Choice of HF band

Propagation characteristics of HF radio waves for the actual season and time of the day

should be taken into account when choosing HF bands for transmission of DSC distress

alert.

As a general rule the DSC distress channel in the 8 MHz maritime band (8414.5 kHz)

may in many cases be an appropriate first choice.

Transmission of the DSC distress alert in more than one HF band will normally

increase the probability of successful reception of the alert by coast stations.

DSC distress alert may be sent on a number of HF bands in two different ways:

a)

either by transmitting the DSC distress alert on one HF band, and waiting a

few minutes for receiving acknowledgement by a coast station;

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if no acknowledgement is received within 3 min, the process is repeated by

transmitting the DSC distress alert on another appropriate HF band etc.;

b)

or by transmitting the DSC distress alert at a number of HF bands with no, or

only very short, pauses between the calls, without waiting for

acknowledgement between the calls.

It is recommended to follow procedure a) in all cases, where time permits to do so; this

will make it easier to choose the appropriate HF band for commencement of the

subsequent communication with the coast station on the corresponding distress traffic

channel.

Transmitting the DSC distress alert (see Note 1):

tune the transmitter to the chosen HF DSC distress channel (4207.5, 6312,

8414.5, 12577, 16804.5 kHz) (see Note 2);

follow the instructions for keying in or selection of relevant information on the

DSC equipment keyboard as described in § 1.1;

transmit the DSC distress alert.

NOTE 1 – Ship-to-ship distress alert should normally be made on MF and/or VHF, using the

procedures for transmission of DSC distress alert on MF/VHF described in § 1.1.

NOTE 2 – Some maritime HF transmitters shall be tuned to a frequency 1700 Hz lower than the

DSC frequencies given above in order to transmit the DSC distress alert on the correct

frequency.

In special cases, for example in tropical zones, transmission of DSC distress alert on HF

may, in addition to ship-to-shore alerting, also be useful for ship-to-ship alerting.

6.1.2 Preparation for the subsequent distress traffic

After having transmitted the DSC distress alert on appropriate DSC distress channels

(HF, MF and/or VHF), prepare for the subsequent distress traffic by tuning the

radiocommunication set(s) (HF, MF and/or VHF as appropriate) to the corresponding

distress traffic channel(s).

Where multiple frequency call attempts are transmitted the corresponding distress

traffic frequency should be 8 291 kHz.

If method b) described in § 6.1.1 has been used for transmission of DSC distress alert

on a number of HF bands:

take into account in which HF band(s) acknowledgement has been

successfully received from a coast station;

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if acknowledgements have been received on more than one HF band,

commence the transmission of distress traffic on one of these bands, but if no

response is received from a coast station then the other bands should be used

in turn.

The distress traffic frequencies are (see RR Appendix 15, Table 15-1):

HF (kHz):

Telephony

4125

6215

8291

12290

16420

Telex

4177.5

6268

8376.5

12520

16695

MF (kHz):

Telephony

2182

Telex

2174.5

VHF: Channel 16 (156.800 MHz).

6.1.3 Distress traffic

The procedures described in § 1.3 are used when the distress traffic on MF/HF is

carried out by radiotelephony.

The following procedures shall be used in cases where the distress traffic on MF/HF is

carried out by radiotelex:

The forward error correcting (FEC) mode shall be used;

all messages shall be preceded by:

– at least one carriage return,

– line feed,

– one letter shift,

– the distress signal MAYDAY;

The ship in distress should commence the distress telex traffic on the

appropriate distress telex traffic channel as follows:

– carriage return, line feed, letter shift,

– the distress signal “MAYDAY”,

– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity and call sign or other identification of the ship,

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– the ship’s position if not included in the DSC distress alert,

– the nature of distress,

– any other information which might facilitate the rescue.

6.1.4 Actions on reception of a DSC distress alert on HF from another ship

Ships receiving a DSC distress alert on HF from another ship shall not acknowledge the

alert, but should:

watch for reception of a DSC distress acknowledgement from a coast station;

while waiting for reception of a DSC distress acknowledgement from a coast

station:

prepare for reception of the subsequent distress communication by tuning the

HF radiocommunication set (transmitter and receiver) to the relevant distress

traffic channel in the same HF band in which the DSC distress alert was

received, observing the following conditions:

– if radiotelephony mode was indicated in the DSC distress alert, the HF

radiocommunication set should be tuned to the radiotelephony distress

traffic channel in the HF band concerned;

– if telex mode was indicated in the DSC distress alert, the HF

radiocommunication set should be tuned to the radiotelex distress traffic

channel in the HF band concerned. Ships able to do so should additionally

watch the corresponding radiotelephony distress channel;

– if the DSC distress alert was received on more than one HF band, the

radiocommunication set should be tuned to the relevant distress traffic

channel in the HF band considered to be the best one in the actual case. If

the DSC distress alert was received successfully on the 8 MHz band, this

band may in many cases be an appropriate first choice;

– if no distress traffic is received on the HF channel within 1 to 2 min, tune

the HF radiocommunication set to the relevant distress traffic channel in

another HF band deemed appropriate in the actual case;

– if no DSC distress acknowledgement is received from a coast station

within 5 min, and no distress communication is observed going on

between a coast station and the ship in distress:

– inform a Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) via appropriate

radiocommunications means,

− transmit a DSC distress relay call.

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6.1.5 Transmission of DSC distress relay call

In case it is considered appropriate to transmit a DSC distress relay call:

distress relay calls on HF should be initiated manually;

tune the transmitter(s) to the relevant DSC distress channel, following the

procedures described in § 6.1.1 above (except the call is sent manually as a

single call on a single frequency);

follow the instructions for keying in or selection of call format and relevant

information on the DSC equipment keyboard as described in § 1.4;

transmit the DSC distress relay call.

6.1.6 Acknowledgement of a HF DSC distress relay call received from a coast

station

Ships receiving a DSC distress relay call from a coast station on HF, addressed to all

ships within a specified area, should NOT acknowledge the receipt of the relay alert by

DSC, but by radiotelephony on the telephony distress traffic channel in the same

band(s) in which the DSC distress relay call was received.

6.2

Urgency

Transmission of urgency messages on HF should normally be addressed:

either to all ships within a specified geographical area,

or to a specific coast station.

Announcement of the urgency message is carried out by transmission of a DSC call

with category urgency on the appropriate DSC distress channel.

The transmission of the urgency message itself on HF is carried out by radiotelephony

or radiotelex on the appropriate distress traffic channel in the same band in which the

DSC announcement was transmitted.

6.2.1 Transmission of DSC announcement of an urgency message on HF

choose the HF band considered to be the most appropriate, taking into account

propagation characteristics for HF radio waves at the actual season and time of

the day; the 8 MHz band may in many cases be an appropriate first choice;

tune the HF transmitter to the DSC distress channel in the chosen HF band;

key in or select call format for either geographical area call or individual call

on the DSC equipment, as appropriate;

in case of area call, key in specification of the relevant geographical area;

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follow the instructions for keying in or selection of relevant information on the

DSC equipment keyboard as described in § 2.1, including type of

communication in which the urgency message will be transmitted

(radiotelephony or radiotelex);

transmit the DSC call; and

if the DSC call is addressed to a specific coast station, wait for DSC

acknowledgement from the coast station. If acknowledgement is not received

within a few minutes, repeat the DSC call on another HF frequency deemed

appropriate.

6.2.2 Transmission of the urgency message and subsequent action

tune the HF transmitter to the distress traffic channel (telephony or telex)

indicated in the DSC announcement;

if the urgency message is to be transmitted using radiotelephony, follow the

procedure described in § 2.1;

if the urgency message is to be transmitted by radiotelex, the following

procedure shall be used:

– use the forward error correcting (FEC) mode unless the message is

addressed to a single station whose radiotelex identity number is known;

– commence the telex message by:

– at least one carriage return, line feed, one letter shift,

– the urgency signal “PAN PAN”,

– “this is”,

– the 9-digit identity of the ship and the call sign or other identification

of the ship,

– the text of the urgency message.

Announcement and transmission of urgency messages addressed to all HF equipped

ships within a specified area may be repeated on a number of HF bands as deemed

appropriate in the actual situation.

6.3

Safety

The procedures for transmission of DSC safety announcement and for transmission of

the safety message are the same as for urgency messages, described in § 6.2, except

that:

in the DSC announcement, the category SAFETY shall be used,

in the safety message, the safety signal “SECURITE” shall be used instead of

the urgency signal “PAN PAN”.

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Annex 4

Operational procedures for coast stations for DSC

communications on MF, HF and VHF

Introduction

Procedures for DSC communications on MF and VHF are described in § 1 to 5 below.

The procedures for DSC communications on HF are in general the same as for MF and

VHF. Special conditions to be taken into account when making DSC communications

on HF are described in § 6 below.

1

Distress (see Note 1)

1.1

Reception of a DSC distress alert

The transmission of a distress alert indicates that a mobile unit (a ship, aircraft or other

vehicle) or a person is in distress and requires immediate assistance. The distress alert is

a digital selective call using a distress call format.

Coast stations in receipt of a distress alert shall ensure that it is routed as soon as

possible to an RCC. The receipt of a distress alert is to be acknowledged as soon as

possible by the appropriate coast station.

NOTE 1 – These procedures assume that the RCC is sited remotely from the DSC coast station;

where this is not the case, appropriate amendments should be made locally.

1.2

Acknowledgement of a DSC distress alert

The coast station shall transmit the acknowledgement on the distress calling frequency

on which the call was received and should address it to all ships. The acknowledgement

shall include the identification of the ship whose distress alert is being acknowledged.

The acknowledgement of a DSC distress alert is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the frequency on which the distress alert

was received;

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1):

– distress alert acknowledgement,

– 9-digit identity of the ship in distress,

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– nature of distress,

– distress coordinates,

– the time (in UTC) when the position was valid.

NOTE 1 – Some or all of this information might be included automatically by

the equipment;

transmit the acknowledgement;

prepare to handle the subsequent distress traffic by setting watch on

radiotelephony and, if the “mode of subsequent communication” signal in the

received distress alert indicates teleprinter, also on NBDP, if the coast station

is fitted with NBDP. In both cases, the radiotelephone and NBDP frequencies

should be those associated with the frequency on which the distress alert was

received (on MF 2182 kHz for radiotelephony and 2174.5 kHz for NBDP, on

VHF 156.8 MHz/channel 16 for radiotelephony; there is no frequency for

NBDP on VHF).

1.3

Transmission of a DSC distress relay call

Coast stations shall initiate and transmit a distress relay call in any of the following

cases:

when the distress of the mobile unit has been notified to the coast station by

other means and a broadcast alert to shipping is required by the RCC; and

when the person responsible for the coast station considers that further help is

necessary (close cooperation with the appropriate RCC is recommended under

such conditions).

In the cases mentioned above, the coast station shall transmit a shore-to-ship distress

relay call addressed, as appropriate, to all ships (VHF only), to a geographical area

(MF/HF only) or to a specific ship.

The distress relay call shall contain the identification of the mobile unit in distress, its

position and other information which might facilitate rescue.

The distress relay call is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the frequency for DSC distress alerts

(2187.5 kHz on MF, 156.525 MHz/channel 70 on VHF);

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1 of § 1.2 of this Annex):

– distress relay call,

– the format specifier (all ships (VHF only), geographical area (MF/HF

only), or individual station),

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– if appropriate, the address of the ship, or geographical area,

– 9-digit identity of the ship in distress, if known,

– nature of distress,

– distress coordinates,

– the time (in UTC) when the position was valid;

transmit the distress relay call;

prepare for the reception of the acknowledgements by ship stations and for

handling the subsequent distress traffic by switching over to the distress traffic

channel in the same band, i.e. 2182 kHz on MF, 156.8 MHz/channel 16

on VHF.

1.4

Reception of a distress relay call

If the distress relay call is received from a ship station, coast stations on receipt of the

distress relay call shall ensure that the call is routed as soon as possible to an RCC. The

receipt of the distress relay call is to be acknowledged as soon as possible by the

appropriate coast station using a DSC distress relay acknowledgement addressed to the

ship station. If the distress relay call is received from a coast station, other coast stations

will normally not have to take further action.

2

Urgency

2.1

Transmission of a DSC announcement

The announcement of the urgency message shall be made on one or more of the distress

and safety calling frequencies using DSC and the urgency call format.

The DSC urgency call may be addressed to all ships (VHF only), to a geographical area

(MF/HF only), or to a specific ship. The frequency on which the urgency message will

be transmitted after the announcement shall be included in the DSC urgency call.

The DSC urgency call is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the frequency for DSC distress calls

(2187.5 kHz on MF, 156.525 MHz /channel 70 on VHF);

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1 of § 1.2 of this Annex):

– the format specifier (all ships call (VHF), geographical area (MF/HF

only), or individual station),

– if appropriate, the address of the ship, or geographical area,

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– the category of the call (urgency),

– the frequency or channel on which the urgency message will be

transmitted,

– the type of communication in which the urgency message will be

transmitted (radiotelephony);

transmit the DSC urgency call.

After the DSC announcement, the urgency message will be transmitted on the

frequency indicated in the DSC call.

3

Safety

3.1

Transmission of a DSC announcement

The announcement of the safety message shall be made on one or more of the distress

and safety calling frequencies using DSC and the safety call format.

The DSC safety call may be addressed to all ships (VHF only), to a geographical area

(MF/HF only), or to a specific ship. The frequency on which the safety message will be

transmitted after the announcement shall be included in the DSC safety call.

The DSC safety call is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the frequency for DSC distress alerts

(2187.5 kHz on MF, 156.525 MHz/channel 70 on VHF);

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1 of § 1.2 of this Annex):

– the format specifier (all ships call (VHF only), geographical area (MF/HF

only), or individual station),

– if appropriate, the address of the ship, or geographical area,

– the category of the call (safety),

– the frequency or channel on which the safety message will be transmitted,

– the type of communication in which the safety message will be

transmitted (radiotelephony);

transmit the DSC safety call.

After the DSC announcement, the safety message will be transmitted on the frequency

indicated in the DSC call.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

327

4

Public correspondence

4.1

DSC frequencies/channels for public correspondence

4.1.1 VHF

The frequency 156.525 MHz/channel 70 is used for DSC for distress and safety

purposes. It may also be used for calling purposes other than distress and safety, e.g.

public correspondence.

4.1.2 MF

For public correspondence national and international frequencies are used which are

different from the frequencies used for distress and safety purposes.

When calling ship stations by DSC, coast stations should use for the call, in the order of

preference:

a national DSC channel on which the coast station is maintaining watch;

the international DSC calling channel, with the coast station transmitting on

2177 kHz and receiving on 2189.5 kHz. In order to reduce interference on this

channel, it may be used as a general rule by coast stations to call ships of

another nationality, or in cases where it is not known on which DSC

frequencies the ship station is maintaining watch.

4.2

Transmission of a DSC call to a ship

The DSC call is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the appropriate calling frequency;

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1 of § 1.2 of this Annex):

– the 9-digit identity of the ship to be called,

– the category of the call routine,

– the type of subsequent communication (radiotelephony),

– working frequency information;

after checking as far as possible that there are no calls in progress, transmit the

DSC call.

4.3

Repeating a call

Coast stations may transmit the call twice on the same calling frequency with an

interval of at least 45 s between the two calls, provided that they receive no

acknowledgement within that interval.

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If the station called does not acknowledge the call after the second transmission, the call

may be transmitted again on the same frequency after a period of at least 30 min or on

another calling frequency after a period of at least 5 min.

4.4

Preparation for exchange of traffic

On receipt of a DSC acknowledgement with the indication that the called ship station

can use the proposed working frequency, the coast station transfers to the working

frequency or channel and prepares to receive the traffic.

4.5

Acknowledgement of a received DSC call

Acknowledgements shall normally be transmitted on the frequency paired with the

frequency of the received call. If the same call is received on several calling channels,

the most appropriate channel shall be chosen for transmission of the acknowledgement.

The acknowledgement of a DSC call is transmitted as follows:

use a transmitter which is tuned to the appropriate frequency;

in accordance with the DSC equipment manufacturer’s instructions, key in or

select on the DSC equipment keyboard (see Note 1 of § 1.2 of this Annex):

– the format specifier (individual station),

– 9-digit identity of the calling ship,

– the category of the call routine,

– if able to comply immediately on the working frequency suggested by the

ship station, the same frequency information as in the received call,

– if no working frequency was suggested by the calling ship station, then

the acknowledgement should include a channel/frequency proposal,

– if not able to comply on the working frequency suggested, but able to

comply immediately on an alternative frequency, the alternative working

frequency,

– if unable to comply immediately the appropriate information in that

regard;

transmit the acknowledgement (after checking as far as possible that there are

no calls in progress on the frequency selected) after a delay of at least

5 seconds, but not later than 4½ minutes.

After having transmitted the acknowledgement, the coast station transfers to the

working frequency or channel and prepares to receive the traffic.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

329

5

Testing the equipment used for distress and safety calls

Perform VHF, MF and HF test calls in accordance with Recommendation

ITU-R M.493, Table 4.7.

Acknowledgement of a DSC test call

The coast station should acknowledge test calls.

6

Special conditions and procedures for DSC communication on HF

General

The procedures for DSC communication on HF are – with some additions described in

§ 6.1 to 6.3 below – equal to the corresponding procedures for DSC communications on

MF/VHF.

Due regard to the special conditions described in § 6.1 to 6.3 should be given when

making DSC communications on HF.

6.1

Distress

6.1.1 Reception and acknowledgement of a DSC distress alert on HF

Ships in distress may in some cases transmit the DSC distress alert on a number of HF

bands with only short intervals between the individual calls.

The coast station shall transmit DSC acknowledgement on all HF DSC distress

channels on which the DSC distress alert was received in order to ensure as far as

possible that the acknowledgement is received by the ship in distress and by all ships

which received the DSC distress alert.

6.1.2 Distress traffic

The distress traffic should, as a general rule, be initiated on the appropriate distress

traffic channel (radiotelephony or NBDP) in the same band in which the DSC distress

alert was received.

For distress traffic by NBDP the following rules apply:

all messages shall be preceded by at least one carriage return, line feed, one

letter shift and the distress signal MAYDAY;

FEC broadcast mode should be used.

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6.1.3 Transmission of DSC distress relay call on HF

HF propagation characteristics should be taken into account when choosing HF band(s)

for transmission of DSC distress relay call.

IMO Convention ships equipped with HF DSC for distress and safety purposes are

required to keep continuous automatic DSC watch on the DSC distress channel in the

8 MHz band and on at least one of the other HF DSC distress channels.

In order to avoid creating on board ships uncertainty regarding on which band the

subsequent establishment of contact and distress traffic should be initiated, the HF DSC

distress relay call should be transmitted on one HF band at a time and the subsequent

communication with responding ships be established before eventually repeating the

DSC distress relay call on another HF band.

6.2

Urgency

6.2.1 Transmission of urgency announcement and message on HF

For urgency messages by NBDP the following apply:

the urgency message shall be preceded by at least one carriage return, line

feed, one letter shift, the urgency signal PAN PAN and the identification of the

coast station;

FEC broadcast mode should normally be used.

ARQ mode should be used only when considered advantageous to do so in the

actual situation and provided that the radiotelex number of the ship is known.

6.3

Safety

6.3.1 Transmission of safety announcements and messages on HF

For safety messages by NBDP the following apply:

the safety message shall be preceded by at least one carriage return, line feed,

one letter shift, the safety signal SECURITE and the identification of the coast

station;

FEC broadcast mode should normally be used.

ARQ mode should be used only when considered advantageous to do so in the

actual situation and provided that the radiotelex number of the ship is known.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.541-9

331

Annex 5

Frequencies used for DSC

1

The frequencies used for distress, urgency, and safety purposes using DSC are

as follows (RR Appendix 15):

2187.5

kHz

4207.5

kHz

6312

kHz

8414.5

kHz

12577

kHz

16804.5

kHz

156.525 MHz (Note 1)

NOTE 1 – The frequency 156.525 MHz may also be used for DSC purposes other than distress,

urgency, and safety.

2

The frequencies assignable on an international basis to ship and coast stations

for DSC, for purposes other than distress, urgency, and safety, are as follows (see

Note 2):

2.1

Ship stations (see Note 2)

458.5

kHz

2 177 (Note 3)

2 189.5

kHz

4 208

4 208.5

4 209

kHz

6 312.5

6 313

6 313.5

kHz

8 415

8 415.5

8 416

kHz

12 577.5

12 578

12 578.5

kHz

16 805

16 805.5

16 806

kHz

18 898.5

18 899

18 899.5

kHz

22 374.5

22 375

22 375.5

kHz

25 208.5

25 209

25 209.5

kHz

156.525 MHz

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Maritime Manual

2.2

Coast stations (see Note 2)

455.5

kHz

2 177

kHz

4 219.5

4 220

4 220.5

kHz

6 331

6 331.5

6 332

kHz

8 436.5

8 437

8 437.5

kHz

12 657

12 657.5

12 658

kHz

16 903

16 903.5

16 904

kHz

19 703.5

19 704

19 704.5

kHz

22 444

22 444.5

22 445

kHz

26 121

26 121.5

26 122

kHz

156.525 MHz

NOTE 2 – The following (kHz) paired frequencies (for ship/coast stations) 4208/4219.5,

6312.5/6331, 8415/8436.5, 12577.5/12657, 16805/16903, 18898.5/19703.5, 22374.5/22444

and 25208.5/26121 are the first choice international frequencies for DSC (See RR Appendix 17,

Part A, footnote j) and l)).

NOTE 3 – The frequency 2177 kHz is available to ship stations for intership calling only.

3

In addition to the frequencies listed in § 2 above, appropriate working

frequencies in the following bands may be used for DSC (see RR Chapter II, Article 5):

415-526.5

kHz

(Regions 1 and 3)

415-525

kHz

(Region 2)

1 606.5-3 400

kHz

(Regions 1 and 3)

1 605.5-3 400

kHz

(Region 2) (For the band 1 605-1 625 kHz, see RR

No. 5.89)

4 000-27 500

kHz

156-174

MHz

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

333

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1171*

RADIOTELEPHONY PROCEDURES IN THE

MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE

(1995)

Rec. ITU-R M.1171

ANNEX 1

Section I. Introduction

§ 1.

Radiotelephone stations should, as far as possible, be equipped with devices for

instantaneous switching from transmission to reception and vice versa. This equipment is

necessary for all stations participating in communication between ships and subscribers of the

land telephone system.

§ 2.

(1) Stations equipped for radiotelephony may transmit and receive radiotelegrams by

means of radiotelephony. Coast stations providing such service and open for public

correspondence shall be indicated in the List of Coast Stations.

(2) To facilitate radiocommunications the service abbreviations given in

Recommendation ITU-R M.1172 may be used.

Section II. Calls by Radiotelephony

§ 3.

The provisions of this Section relating to the intervals between calls are not applicable

to a station operating under conditions involving distress, urgency or safety.

§ 4.

(1) As a general rule, it rests with the ship station to establish communication with

the coast station. For this purpose the ship station may call the coast station only when it comes

within the service area of the latter, that is to say, that area within which, by using an appropriate

frequency, the ship station can be heard by the coast station.

(2) However, a coast station having traffic for a ship station may call this station if it

has reason to believe that the ship station is keeping watch and is within the service area of the

coast station.

_______________

Note by the Secretariat: The references made to the Radio Regulations (RR) in this Recommendation refer

to the RR as revised by the World Radiocommunication Conference 1995. These elements of the RR will

come into force on 1 June 1998. Where applicable, the equivalent references in the current RR are also

provided in square brackets.

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Maritime Manual

§ 5.

(1) In addition, each coast station shall, so far as practicable, transmit its calls in the

form of “traffic lists” consisting of the call signs or other identification in alphabetical order of

all ship stations for which it has traffic on hand. These calls shall be made at specified times

fixed by agreement between the administrations concerned and at intervals of not less than two

hours and not more than four hours during the working hours of the coast station.

(2) Coast stations shall transmit their traffic lists on their normal working frequencies

in the appropriate bands. The transmission shall be preceded by a general call to all stations.

(3) The general call to all stations announcing the traffic lists may be sent on a

calling frequency in the following form:

– “Hello all ships” or CQ (spoken as CHARLIE QUEBEC) not more than three

times;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– “ . . . Radio” not more than three times;

– “Listen for my traffic list on . . . kHz”.

In no case may this preamble be repeated.

(4) However, in the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz when the conditions for

establishing contact are good, the call described in § 5.(3) above may be replaced by:

– “Hello all ships” or CQ (spoken as CHARLIE QUEBEC), once;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– “ . . . Radio”, twice;

– “Listen for my traffic list on channel . . . ”.

In no case may this preamble be repeated.

(5) The provisions of § 5.(3) are obligatory when 2182 kHz or 156.8 MHz is used.

(6) The hours at which coast stations transmit their traffic lists and the frequencies

and classes of emission which they use for this purpose shall be stated in the List of Coast

Stations.

(7) Ship stations should as far as possible listen to the traffic lists transmitted by coast

stations. On hearing their call sign or other identification in such a list they must reply as soon as

they can do so.

(8) When the traffic cannot be sent immediately, the coast station shall inform each

ship station concerned of the probable time at which working can begin, and also, if necessary,

the frequency and class of emission which will be used.

§ 6.

When a coast station receives calls from several ship stations at practically the same

time, it decides the order in which these stations may transmit their traffic. Its decision shall be

based on the priority (see RR No. S53.1 [No. 4441]) of the radiotelegrams or radiotelephone

calls that the ship stations have on hand and on the need for allowing each calling station to clear

the greatest possible number of communications.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

335

§ 7.

(1) When a station called does not reply to a call sent three times at intervals of two

minutes, the calling shall cease.

(2) However, when a station called does not reply, the call may be repeated at three-

minute intervals.

(3) In areas where reliable VHF communication with a called coast station is

practicable, the calling ship station may repeat the call as soon as it is ascertained that traffic has

been terminated at the coast station.

(4) In the case of a communication between a station of the maritime mobile service

and an aircraft station, calling may be renewed after an interval of five minutes.

(5) Before renewing the call, the calling station shall ascertain that the station called

is not in communication with another station.

(6) If there is no reason to believe that harmful interference will be caused to other

communications in progress, the provisions of § 7.(4) above are not applicable. In such cases the

call, sent three times at intervals of two minutes, may be repeated after an interval of not less

than three minutes.

(7) However, before renewing the call, the calling station shall ascertain that further

calling is unlikely to cause interference to other communications in progress and that the station

called is not in communication with another station.

(8) Ship stations shall not radiate a carrier wave between calls.

§ 8.

When the name and address of the administration or private operating agency

controlling a ship station are not given in the appropriate list of stations or are no longer in

agreement with the particulars given therein, it is the duty of the ship station to furnish as a

matter of regular procedure, to the coast station to which it transmits traffic, all the necessary

information in this respect.

§ 9.

(1) The coast station may, by means of the abbreviation TR (spoken as TANGO

ROMEO), ask the ship station to furnish it with the following information:

a) position and, whenever possible, course and speed;

b) next port of call.

(2) The information referred to in § 9.(1) above, preceded by the abbreviation TR,

should be furnished by ship stations, whenever this seems appropriate, without prior request

from the coast station. The provision of this information is authorized only by the master or the

person responsible for the ship.

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Maritime Manual

Section III. Method of Calling, Reply to Calls and

Signals Preparatory to Traffic when Using Calling

Methods Other than Digital Selective Calling

A. Method of Calling

§ 10.

(1) The call consists of:

– the call sign or other identification of the station called, not more than three

times;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– the call sign or other identification of the calling station, not more than three

times.

(2) However, in the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz when the conditions for

establishing contact are good, the call described in § 10.(1) above may be replaced by:

– the call sign of the station called, once;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– the call sign or other identification of the calling station, twice.

(3) When calling a VHF coast station operating on more than one channel, a ship

station calling on a working channel should include the number of that channel in the call.

(4) When contact is established, the call sign or other identification may thereafter be

transmitted once only.

(5) When the coast station is fitted with equipment for selective calling in accordance

with Recommendation ITU-R M.541, and the ship station is fitted with equipment for receiving

such selective calls, the coast station shall call the ship by transmitting the appropriate code

signals. The ship station shall call the coast station by speech in the manner given in § 10.(1)

(see also Annex 2 to Recommendation ITU-R M.257).

§ 11.

Calls for internal communications on board ship when in territorial waters shall consist

of:

a) From the master station:

– the name of the ship followed by a single letter (ALFA, BRAVO,

CHARLIE, etc.) indicating the sub-station not more than three times;

– the words THIS IS;

– the name of the ship followed by the word CONTROL;

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

337

b) From the sub-station:

– the name of the ship followed by the word CONTROL not more than three

times;

– the words THIS IS;

– the name of the ship followed by a single letter (ALFA, BRAVO,

CHARLIE, etc.) indicating the sub-station.

B. Frequency to Be Used for Calling

and for Preparatory Signals

B1. Bands Between 1605 kHz and 4000 kHz

§ 12.

(1) A radiotelephone ship station calling a coast station should use for the call, in

order of preference:

a) a working frequency on which the coast station is keeping watch;

b) the carrier frequency 2182 kHz;

c) in Regions 1 and 3 and in Greenland, the carrier frequency 2191 kHz (assigned

frequency 2192.4 kHz) when a carrier frequency of 2182 kHz is being used for

distress;

d) in Region 2 except for Greenland, the carrier frequency 2191 kHz as a

supplementary calling frequency in those areas of heavy usage of 2182 kHz.

(2) A radiotelephone ship station calling another ship station should use for the call:

a) the carrier frequency 2182 kHz;

b) an intership frequency, whenever and wherever traffic density is high and prior

arrangements can be made.

(3) Subject to the provisions of § 12.(6), coast stations shall, in accordance with the

requirements of their own country, call ship stations of their own nationality either on a working

frequency or, when calls to individual ships are made, on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz.

(4) However, a ship station which keeps watch simultaneously on the carrier

frequency 2182 kHz and a working frequency should be called on the working frequency.

(5) As a general rule, coast stations should call radiotelephone ship stations of

another nationality on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz.

(6) Coast stations may call ship stations equipped to receive selective calls in

accordance with Recommendations ITU-R M.257 and ITU-R M.541.

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Maritime Manual

B2. Bands Between 4000 kHz

and 27500 kHz

§ 13.

(1) A ship station calling a coast station by radiotelephony shall use either one of the

calling frequencies mentioned in RR No. S52.221 [No. 4375] or the working frequency

associated with that of the coast station, in accordance with RR Appendix S17, Part B Section I,

[Appendix 16, Section A].

(2) A coast station calling a ship station by radiotelephony shall use one of the calling

frequencies mentioned in RR No. S52.222 [No. 4376], one of its working frequencies shown in

the List of Coast Stations, or the carrier frequency 4125 kHz or 6215 kHz, in accordance with

the provisions of RR Nos. S52.221.2 and S52.221.3 [Nos. 4375.2 and 4375.3].

(3) The preliminary operations for the establishment of radiotelephone

communications may also be carried out by radiotelegraphy using the procedure appropriate to

radiotelegraphy (see Recommendation ITU-R M.1170 § 17).

(4) The provisions of § 13.(1) and § 13.(2) do not apply to communications between

ship stations and coast stations using the simplex frequencies specified in RR Appendix S17,

Part B, Section I [Appendix 16, Section B].

B3. Bands Between 156 MHz and 174 MHz

§ 14.

(1) In the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz, intership and coast station to ship

calling should, as a general rule, be made on 156.8 MHz. However, coast station to ship calling

may be conducted on a working channel or on a two-frequency calling channel which has been

implemented in accordance with RR No. S52.236 [No. 4391]. Except for distress, urgency or

safety communications, when 156.8 MHz should be used, ship to coast station calling should,

whenever possible, be made on a working channel or on a two-frequency calling channel which

has been implemented in accordance with RR No. S52.236 [No. 4391]. Ships wishing to

participate in a port operations service or ship movement service should call on a port operations

or ship movement working frequency, indicated in heavy type in the List of Coast Stations.

(2) When 156.8 MHz is being used for distress, urgency or safety communications, a

ship station desiring to participate in the port operations service may establish contact on

156.6 MHz, or another port operations frequency indicated in heavy type in the List of Coast

Stations.

B4. Procedure for Calling a Station

Providing Pilot Service

§ 15.

A radiotelephone ship station calling a station providing pilot service should use for

the call, in order of preference:

a) an appropriate channel in the bands between 156 MHz and 174 MHz;

b) a working frequency in the bands between 1605 kHz and 4000 kHz;

c) the carrier frequency 2182 kHz, and then only to determine the working

frequency to be used.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

339

C. Form of Reply to Calls

§ 16.

The reply to calls consists of:

– the call sign or other identification of the calling station, not more than three

times;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– the call sign or other identification of the station called, not more than three times.

D. Frequency for Reply

D1. Bands Between 1605 kHz and 4000 kHz

§ 17.

(1) When a ship station is called on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz, it should reply

on the same carrier frequency unless another frequency is indicated by the calling station.

(2) When a ship station is called by selective calling in accordance with

Recommendation ITU-R M.257 it shall reply on a frequency on which the coast station keeps

watch.

(3) When a ship station is called on a working frequency by a coast station of the

same nationality, it shall reply on the working frequency normally associated with the frequency

used by the coast station for the call.

(4) When calling a coast station or another ship station, a ship station shall indicate

the frequency on which a reply is required if this frequency is not the normal one associated with

the frequency used for the call.

(5) A ship station which frequently exchanges traffic with a coast station of another

nationality may use the same procedure for reply as ships of the nationality of the coast station,

where this has been agreed by the administrations concerned.

(6) As a general rule a coast station shall reply:

a) on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz to calls made on the carrier frequency

2182 kHz, unless another frequency is indicated by the calling station;

b) on a working frequency to calls made on a working frequency;

c) on a working frequency to calls made in Regions 1 and 3 and in Greenland on the

carrier frequency 2191 kHz (assigned frequency 2192.4 kHz).

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Maritime Manual

D2. Bands Between 4000 kHz

and 27500 kHz

§ 18.

(1) A ship station called by a coast station shall reply either on one of the calling

frequencies mentioned in RR No. S52.221 [No. 4375] or on the working frequency associated

with that of the coast station, in accordance with RR Appendix S17, Part B, Section I

[Appendix 16, Section A].

(2) A coast station called by a ship station shall reply on one of the calling

frequencies mentioned in RR No. S52.222 [No. 4376], or on one of its working frequencies

shown in the List of Coast Stations.

(3) When a station is called on the carrier frequency 4125 kHz it should reply on the

same frequency unless another frequency is indicated for that purpose by the calling station.

(4) When a station is called on the carrier frequency 6215 kHz it should reply on the

same frequency unless another frequency is indicated for that purpose by the calling station.

(5) The provisions of § 18.(1) and§ 18.(2) do not apply to communication between

ship stations and coast stations using the simplex frequencies specified in RR Appendix S17,

Part B, Section I [Appendix 16, Section B].

D3. Bands Between 156 MHz and 174 MHz

§ 19.

(1) When a station is called on 156.8 MHz it should reply on the same frequency

unless another frequency is indicated by the calling station.

(2) When a coast station open to public correspondence calls a ship either by speech

or by selective calling in accordance with Annex 2 to Recommendation ITU-R M.257, using a

two-frequency channel, the ship station shall reply by speech on the frequency associated with

that of the coast station; conversely, a coast station shall reply to a call from a ship station on the

frequency associated with that of the ship station.

E. Indication of the Frequency to Be Used for Traffic

E1. Bands Between 1605 kHz and 4000 kHz

§ 20.

If contact is established on the carrier frequency 2182 kHz, coast and ship stations

shall transfer to working frequencies for the exchange of traffic.

E2. Bands Between 4000 kHz

and 27500 kHz

§ 21.

After a ship station has established contact with a coast station, or another ship station,

on the calling frequency of the band chosen, traffic shall be exchanged on their respective

working frequencies.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

341

E3. Bands Between 156 MHz and 174 MHz

§ 22.

(1) Whenever contact has been established between a coast station in the public

correspondence service and a ship station either on 156.8 MHz or on a two-frequency calling

channel (see RR No. S52.237 [No. 4392]), the stations shall transfer to one of their normal pairs

of working frequencies for the exchange of traffic. The calling station should indicate the

channel to which it is proposed to transfer by reference to the frequency in MHz or, preferably,

to its channel designator.

(2) When contact on 156.8 MHz has been established between a coast station in the

port operations service and a ship station, the ship station should indicate the particular service

required (such as navigational information, docking instructions, etc.) and the coast station shall

then indicate the channel to be used for the exchange of traffic by reference to the frequency in

MHz, or, preferably, to its channel designator.

(3) When contact on 156.8 MHz has been established between a coast station in the

ship movement service and a ship station, the coast station shall then indicate the channel to be

used for the exchange of traffic by reference to the frequency in MHz or, preferably, to its

channel designator.

(4) A ship station, when it has established contact with another ship station on

156.8 MHz, should indicate the intership channel to which it is proposed to transfer for the

exchange of traffic by reference to the frequency in MHz or, preferably, to its channel

designator.

(5) However, a brief exchange of traffic not to exceed one minute concerning the

safety of navigation need not be transmitted on a working frequency when it is important that all

ships within range receive the transmission.

(6) Stations hearing a transmission concerning the safety of navigation shall listen to

the message until they are satisfied that the message is of no concern to them. They shall not

make any transmission likely to interfere with the message.

F. Agreement on the Frequency to Be Used for Traffic

§ 23.

(1) If the station called is in agreement with the calling station, it shall transmit:

a) an indication that from that moment onwards it will listen on the working

frequency or channel announced by the calling station;

b) an indication that it is ready to receive the traffic of the calling station.

(2) If the station called is not in agreement with the calling station on the working

frequency or channel to be used, it shall transmit an indication of the working frequency or

channel proposed.

(3) For communications between a coast station and a ship station, the coast station

shall finally decide the frequency or channel to be used.

(4) When agreement is reached regarding the working frequency or channel which

the calling station shall use for its traffic, the station called shall indicate that it is ready to

receive the traffic.

342

Maritime Manual

G. Indication of Traffic

§ 24.

When the calling station wishes to exchange more than one radiotelephone call, or to

transmit one or more radiotelegrams, it should indicate this when contact is established with the

station called.

H. Difficulties in Reception

§ 25.

(1) If the station called is unable to accept traffic immediately, it should reply to the

call as indicated in § 16 followed by “Wait . . . minutes” (or S

A spoken as ALFA SIERRA . . .

(minutes) in case of language difficulties), indicating the probable duration of waiting time in

minutes. If the probable duration exceeds ten minutes the reason for the delay shall be given.

Alternatively the station called may indicate, by any appropriate means, that it is not ready to

receive traffic immediately.

(2) When a station receives a call without being certain that such a call is intended

for it, it shall not reply until the call has been repeated and understood.

(3) When a station receives a call which is intended for it, but is uncertain of the

identification of the calling station, it shall reply immediately asking for a repetition of the call

sign or other identification of the calling station.

Section IV. Forwarding (Routing) of Traffic

A. Traffic Frequency

§ 26.

(1) Every station should transmit its traffic (radiotelephone calls or radiotelegrams)

on one of its working frequencies in the band in which the call has been made.

(2) In addition to its normal working frequency, printed in heavy type in the List of

Coast Stations, a coast station may use one or more supplementary frequencies in the same band,

in accordance with the provisions of RR Article S52 [Article 60].

(3) The use of frequencies reserved for calling shall be forbidden for traffic, except

distress traffic (see RR Appendix S13 [Chapter IX]).

(4) After contact has been established on the frequency to be used for traffic, the

transmission of a radiotelegram or radiotelephone call shall be preceded by:

– the call sign or other identification of the station called;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– the call sign or other identification of the calling station.

(5) The call sign or other identification need not be sent more than once.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1171

343

B. Establishment of Radiotelephone Calls

and Transmission of Radiotelegrams

B1. Establishment of Radiotelephone Calls

§ 27.

(1) In setting up a radiotelephone call, the coast station should establish connection

with the telephone network as quickly as possible. In the meantime, the ship station shall

maintain watch on the appropriate working frequency as indicated by the coast station.

(2) However, if the connection cannot be quickly established, the coast station shall

inform the ship station accordingly. The latter station shall then either:

a) maintain watch on the appropriate frequency until an effective circuit can be

established; or

b) contact the coast station later at a mutually agreed time.

(3) When a radiotelephone call has been completed, the procedure indicated in

§ 29.(3) shall be applied unless further calls are on hand at either station.

B2. Transmission of Radiotelegrams

§ 28.

(1) The transmission of a radiotelegram should be made as follows:

– radiotelegram begins: from . . . (name of ship or aircraft);

– number . . . (serial number of radiotelegram);

– number of words . . . ;

– date . . . ;

– time . . . (time radiotelegram was handed in aboard ship or aircraft);

– service indicators (if any);

– address . . . ;

– text . . . ;

– signature . . . (if any);

– radiotelegram ends, over.

(2) As a general rule, radiotelegrams of all kinds transmitted by ship stations shall be

numbered in a daily series; number 1 shall be given to the first radiotelegram sent each day to

each separate station.

(3) A series of numbers which has begun in radiotelegraphy should be continued in

radiotelephony and vice versa.

(4) Each radiotelegram should be transmitted once only by the sending station.

However, it may, when necessary, be repeated in full or in part by the receiving or the sending

station.

344

Maritime Manual

(5) In transmitting groups of figures, each figure shall be spoken separately and the

transmission of each group or series of groups shall be preceded by the words “in figures”.

(6) Numbers written in letters shall be spoken as they are written, their transmission

being preceded by the words “in letters”.

B3. Acknowledgement of Receipt

§ 29.

(1) The acknowledgement of receipt of a radiotelegram or a series of radiotelegrams

shall be given by the receiving station in the following manner:

– the call sign or other identification of the sending station;

– the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as DELTA ECHO in case of language

difficulties);

– the call sign or other identification of the receiving station;

– “Your No. . . . received, over” (or R spoken as ROMEO . . . (number), K spoken

as KILO in case of language difficulties); or

`

– “Your No. . . . to No. . . . received, over” (or R spoken as ROMEO . . . (numbers),

K spoken as KILO in case of language difficulties).

(2) The radiotelegram, or series of radiotelegrams, shall not be considered as cleared

until this acknowledgement has been received.

(3) The end of work between two stations shall be indicated by each of them by

means of the word “Out” (or VAspoken as VICTOR ALFA in case of language difficulties).

Section V. Duration and Control of Working

§ 30.

(1) In communications between coast stations and ship stations, the ship station shall

comply with the instructions given by the coast station in all questions relating to the order and

time of transmission, to the choice of frequency, and to the duration and suspension of work.

(2) In communications between ship stations, the station called controls the working

in the manner indicated in § 30.(1) above. However, if a coast station finds it necessary to

intervene, the ship stations shall comply with the instructions given by the coast station.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1173

345

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1173*

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE-SIDEBAND TRANSMITTERS

USED IN THE MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE FOR RADIOTELEPHONY IN

THE BANDS BETWEEN 1606.5 kHz (1605 kHz REGION 2) AND 4000 kHz

AND BETWEEN 4000 kHz AND 27500 kHz

(1995)

Rec. ITU-R M.1173

ANNEX 1

Technical characteristics of single-sideband transmitters used in

the maritime mobile service for radiotelephony in the bands

between 1606.5 kHz (1605 kHz Region 2) and 4000 kHz

and between 4000 kHz and 27500 kHz

1

Power of the carrier:

For class J3E emissions the power of the carrier shall be at least 40 dB below the peak

envelope power.

2

Coast and ship stations shall use only the upper sideband.

3

The transmitter audio-frequency band shall be 350 Hz to 2700 Hz with a permitted

amplitude variation of 6 dB.

4

The carrier frequencies shall be maintained within the tolerances specified in

Recommendation ITU-R SM.1137.

5

The unwanted frequency modulation of the carrier shall be sufficiently low to prevent

harmful distortion.

_______________

Note by the Secretariat: The references made to the Radio Regulations (RR) in this Recommendation refer

to the RR as revised by the World Radiocommunication Conference 1995. These elements of the RR will

come into force on 1 June 1998. Where applicable, the equivalent references in the current RR are also

provided in square brackets.

346

Maritime Manual

6

When class H3E or J3E emissions are used, the power of any unwanted emission

supplied to the antenna transmission line on any discrete frequency shall, when the transmitter is

driven to full peak envelope power, be in accordance with the following Tables:

a) Transmitters installed before 2 January 1982:

Transmitters using suppressed carrier emission may, as far as concerns out-of-band

emissions 2

and those spurious emissions 3

which are a result of the modulation process but do

not fall in the spectrum of out-of-band emissions 2

, be tested for compliance with this regulation

by means of a two-tone-audio input signal with a frequency separation between the tones such

that all intermodulation products occur at frequencies at least 1.6 kHz removed from the

assigned frequency 4
.

b) Transmitters installed after 1 January 1982:

Transmitters using suppressed carrier emission may, as far as concerns out-of-band

emissions 2

and those spurious emissions 3

which are a result of the modulation process but do

not fall in the spectrum of out-of-band emissions 2

, be tested for compliance with this regulation

by means of a two-tone-audio input signal with a frequency separation between the tones such

that all intermodulation products occur at frequencies at least 1.5 kHz removed from the

assigned frequency 4
.

_______________

1

Unwanted emission: see RR No. S1.146 [No. 140].

2

Out-of-band emission: see RR No. S1.144 [No. 138].

3

Spurious emission: see RR No. S1.145 [No. 139].

4

The assigned frequency is 1 400 Hz higher than the carrier frequency: see RR No. S.52.177 [No. 4325].

Separation∆ between the frequency
of the unwanted emission1
and the assigned frequency4
(kHz)

Minimum attenuation below
peak envelope power

1.6 <∆≤ 4.8

28 dB

4.8 <∆≤ 8

38 dB

8 <∆

43 dB without the unwanted emission power
exceeding the power of 50 mW

Separation∆ between the frequency
of the unwanted emission1
and the assigned frequency4
(kHz)

Minimum attenuation below
peak envelope power

1.5 <∆≤ 4.5

31 dB

4.5 <∆≤ 7.5

38 dB

7.5 <∆

43 dB without the unwanted emission power
exceeding the power of 50 mW

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1174-2

347

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1174-2

Technical characteristics of equipment used for on-board

vessel communications in the bands

between 450 and 470 MHz

(1995-1998-2004)

Annex 1

Technical characteristics of equipment used for on-board

vessel communications in the bands

between 450 and 470 MHz

1

The equipment should be fitted with sufficient channels for satisfactory

operation in the area of intended use.

2

The effective radiated power should be limited to the maximum required for

satisfactory operations, but should in no case exceed 2 W. Wherever practicable the

equipment should be fitted with a suitable device to reduce readily the output power by

at least 10 dB.

3

In the case of equipment installed at a fixed point on the ship, the height of its

antenna should not be more than 3.5 m above the level of the bridge.

348

Maritime Manual

25 kHz channels

12.5 kHz channels

4

Only frequency modulation with a

pre-emphasis of 6 dB/octave (phase

modulation) should be used.

Only frequency modulation with a

pre-emphasis of 6 dB/octave (phase

modulation) should be used.

5

The frequency deviation

corresponding to 100% modulation

should approach ±

5 kHz as nearly

as practicable. In no event should

the frequency deviation exceed

±

5 kHz.

The frequency deviation corresponding

to 100% modulation should approach

±

2.5 kHz as nearly as practicable. In no

event should the frequency deviation

exceed ±2.5 kHz.

6

The frequency tolerance should be

5 parts in 106
.

The frequency tolerance should be

2.5 parts in 106
.

7

The audio-frequency band should

be limited to 3000 Hz.

The audio-frequency band should be

limited to 2550 Hz.

8

Control, telemetry and other non-voice signals such as paging, should be

coded in such a manner as to minimize the possibility of false response to interfering

signals.The frequencies specified in RR No. 5.287 for on-board communications may

be used for single frequency and two-frequency simplex operation.

9

When used in the duplex mode the base transmitter frequency should be

selected from the lower range for improved operability.

10

If the use of a repeater station is required on board a ship, the following

frequency pairs should be used (see RR No. 5.287 and 5.288):

457.525 MHz and 467.525 MHz

457.550 MHz and 467.550 MHz

457.575 MHz and 467.575 MHz

457.5375 MHz and 467.5375 MHz

457.5625 MHz and 467.5625 MHz.

Part B – SECTION IV – Rec. ITU-R M.1174-2

349

11

Frequencies

The frequencies specified in RR No. 5.287 (subject to national regulations) may be

used:

For 25 or 12.5 kHz channel spacing:

457.525 MHz

457.550 MHz

457.575 MHz

467.525 MHz

467.550 MHz

467.575 MHz.

For equipment designed to operate with 12.5 kHz channel spacing the additional

frequencies referred to in RR No. 5.287 are:

457.5375 MHz

457.5625 MHz

467.5375 MHz

467.5625 MHz.

_______________

PART C

Extracts from other ITU-R

Recommendations

(M and SM Series)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

353

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.493-13

Digital selective-calling system for use

in the maritime mobile service

(1974-1978-1982-1986-1990-1992-1994-1995-1997-1997-2000-2004-2007-2009)

Annex 1

General purpose equipment characteristics

1

General

1.1

The system is a synchronous system using characters composed from a ten-bit

error-detecting code as listed in Table 1.

1.1.1 The first seven bits of the ten-bit code of Table 1 are information bits. Bits 8, 9

and 10 indicate, in the form of a binary number, the number of B elements that occur

in the seven information bits, a Y element being a binary number 1 and a B element

a binary number 0. For example, a BYY sequence for bits 8, 9 and 10 indicates

3 (0 × 4 + 1 × 2 + 1 × 1) B elements in the associated seven information bit sequence;

and a YYB sequence indicates 6 (1 × 4 + 1 × 2 + 0 × 1) B elements in the associated

seven information bit sequence. The order of transmission for the information bits is

least significant bit first but for the check bits it is most significant bit first.

1.2

Time diversity is provided in the call sequence as follows:

1.2.1 Apart from the phasing characters, each character is transmitted twice in a

time-spread mode; the first transmission (DX) of a specific character is followed by the

transmission of four other characters before the re-transmission (RX) of that specific

character takes place, allowing for a time-diversity reception interval of:

1.2.1.1 400 ms for HF and MF channels, and

1.2.1.2 331/3 ms for VHF radio-telephone channels.

1.3

The classes of emission, frequency shifts and modulation rates are as follows:

1.3.1 F1B or J2B 170 Hz and modulation rate of 100 Bs (bit/s) ± 30 × 106

for use on

HF and MF DSC calling channels. When frequency-shift keying is effected by applying

audio signals to the input of single-sideband transmitters (J2B), the centre of the audio-

frequency spectrum offered to the transmitter is 1 700 Hz. When a DSC call is

354

Maritime Manual

transmitted on HF and MF working channels for public correspondence, the class of

emission is J2B. In this case, audio tones with frequencies 1 700 Hz ± 85 Hz and

modulation rate 100 Bs (bit/s) ± 30 × 106

are used in order for the DSC call to be

transmitted.

1.3.2 Frequency modulation with a pre-emphasis of 6 dB/octave (phase modulation)

with frequency-shift of the modulating sub-carrier for use on VHF channels:

frequency-shift between 1 300 and 2 100 Hz; the sub-carrier being at 1 700 Hz;

the frequency tolerance of the 1 300 and 2 100 Hz tones is ± 10 Hz;

the modulation rate is 1 200 B s (bit/s) ± 30 × 106
;

the index of modulation is 2.0 ± 10%.

1.3.3 The radio-frequency tolerances of new designs of both transmitters and

receivers in the MF and HF bands should be:

coast station: ± 10 Hz,

ship station: ± 10 Hz,

receiver bandwidth: should not exceed 300 Hz.

1.4

The higher frequency corresponds to the B-state and the lower frequency

corresponds to the Y-state of the signal elements.

1.5

The information in the call is presented as a sequence of seven-bit

combinations constituting a primary code.

1.5.1 The seven information bits of the primary code express a symbol number

from 00 to 127, as shown in Table 1, and where:

1.5.1.1 the symbols from 00 to 99 are used to code two decimal figures according to

Table 2;

1.5.1.2 the symbols from 100 to 127 are used to code service commands (see Table 3).

1.6

Where the distress alert repetitions described in § 11 apply, the following

conditions are considered necessary:

1.6.1 the transmitter encoder must provide repetitive transmission of the call

sequence in accordance with § 11; and

1.6.2 the receiver decoder should provide maximum utilization of the received

signal, including use of the error-check character and by using an iterative decoding

process with adequate memory provision.

1.7

When the transmission of a DSC distress alert is automatically repeated, ships’

DSC equipments must be capable of automatically receiving a subsequent distress

acknowledgement (see Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, § 3.1.3.1, 3.1.3.2

and 3.3.5).

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

355

TABLE 1

Ten-bit error-detecting code

Symbol

No.

Emitted signal

and bit position

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Symbol

No.

Emitted signal

and bit position

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Symbol

No.

Emitted signal

and bit position

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

BBBBBBBYYY

YBBBBBBYYB

BYBBBBBYYB

YYBBBBBYBY

BBYBBBBYYB

YBYBBBBYBY

BYYBBBBYBY

YYYBBBBYBB

BBBYBBBYYB

YBBYBBBYBY

BYBYBBBYBY

YYBYBBBYBB

BBYYBBBYBY

YBYYBBBYBB

BYYYBBBYBB

YYYYBBBBYY

BBBBYBBYYB

YBBBYBBYBY

BYBBYBBYBY

YYBBYBBYBB

BBYBYBBYBY

YBYBYBBYBB

BYYBYBBYBB

YYYBYBBBYY

BBBYYBBYBY

YBBYYBBYBB

BYBYYBBYBB

YYBYYBBBYY

BBYYYBBYBB

YBYYYBBBYY

BYYYYBBBYY

YYYYYBBBYB

BBBBBYBYYB

YBBBBYBYBY

BYBBBYBYBY

YYBBBYBYBB

BBYBBYBYBY

YBYBBYBYBB

BYYBBYBYBB

YYYBBYBBYY

BBBYBYBYBY

YBBYBYBYBB

BYBYBYBYBB

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

YYBYBYBBYY

BBYYBYBYBB

YBYYBYBBYY

BYYYBYBBYY

YYYYBYBBYB

BBBBYYBYBY

YBBBYYBYBB

BYBBYYBYBB

YYBBYYBBYY

BBYBYYBYBB

YBYBYYBBYY

BYYBYYBBYY

YYYBYYBBYB

BBBYYYBYBB

YBBYYYBBYY

BYBYYYBBYY

YYBYYYBBYB

BBYYYYBBYY

YBYYYYBBYB

BYYYYYBBYB

YYYYYYBBBY

BBBBBBYYYB

YBBBBBYYBY

BYBBBBYYBY

YYBBBBYYBB

BBYBBBYYBY

YBYBBBYYBB

BYYBBBYYBB

YYYBBBYBYY

BBBYBBYYBY

YBBYBBYYBB

BYBYBBYYBB

YYBYBBYBYY

BBYYBBYYBB

YBYYBBYBYY

BYYYBBYBYY

YYYYBBYBYB

BBBBYBYYBY

YBBBYBYYBB

BYBBYBYYBB

YYBBYBYBYY

BBYBYBYYBB

YBYBYBYBYY

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

BYYBYBYBYY

YYYBYBYBYB

BBBYYBYYBB

YBBYYBYBYY

BYBYYBYBYY

YYBYYBYBYB

BBYYYBYBYY

YBYYYBYBYB

BYYYYBYBYB

YYYYYBYBBY

BBBBBYYYBY

YBBBBYYYBB

BYBBBYYYBB

YYBBBYYBYY

BBYBBYYYBB

YBYBBYYBYY

BYYBBYYBYY

YYYBBYYBYB

BBBYBYYYBB

YBBYBYYBYY

BYBYBYYBYY

YYBYBYYBYB

BBYYBYYBYY

YBYYBYYBYB

BYYYBYYBYB

YYYYBYYBBY

BBBBYYYYBB

YBBBYYYBYY

BYBBYYYBYY

YYBBYYYBYB

BBYBYYYBYY

YBYBYYYBYB

BYYBYYYBYB

YYYBYYYBBY

BBBYYYYBYY

YBBYYYYBYB

BYBYYYYBYB

YYBYYYYBBY

BBYYYYYBYB

YBYYYYYBBY

BYYYYYYBBY

YYYYYYYBBB

B = 0

Y = 1

Order of bit transmission: bit 1 first.

356

Maritime Manual

TABLE 2

Packing table for decimal numbers into ten-bit characters

TABLE 3

Use of symbol Nos. 100 to 127

The digits for the

Thousands

of millions

D2

Hundreds

of millions

D1

Tens of

millions

D2

Millions

D1

Hundreds of

thousands

D2

Tens of

thousands

D1

Thousands

D2

Hundreds

D1

Tens

D2

Units

D1

Character 5

Character 4

Character 3

Character 2

Character 1

NOTE 1 – Character 1 is the last character transmitted.

The digit sequence D2-D1 varies from 00 to 99 inclusive in each character (character 1 to 5 inclusive). The character that

represents a particular two-decimal figure is transmitted as the symbol number (see Table 1) that is identical to that particular

two-decimal figure.

When the number consists of an odd number of decimal digits, a zero shall be added in front of the most significant position

to provide an integral number of ten-bit characters.

Symbol

No.

Phasing

and unique

functions

Format specifier(1)

Category(1)

Nature of

distress(1)

First

telecommand(1)

Second

telecommand(1)

100

Routine

Fire,

explosion

F3E/G3E

All modes TP

No reason given(2)

101

Flooding

F3E/G3E

duplex TP

Congestion at

maritime switching

centre

102

Geographical

area

Collision

Busy(2)

103

(3)

(3)

Grounding

Polling

Queue indication(2)

104

Phasing

RX-0

position

Listing, in

danger of

capsizing

Unable to

comply

Station barred(2)

105

Phasing

RX-1

position

Sinking

End of call(4)

No operator

available(2)

106

Phasing

RX-2

position

(6)

Disabled and

adrift

Data

Operator temporarily

unavailable(2)

107

Phasing

RX-3

position

Undesignated

distress

Equipment disabled(2)

108

Phasing

RX-4

position

Safety

Abandoning

ship

Unable to use

proposed channel(2)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

357

TABLE 3 (cont.)

Symbol

No.

Phasing

and unique

functions

Format specifier(1)

Category(1)

Nature of

distress(1)

First

telecommand(1)

Second

telecommand(1)

109

Phasing

RX-5

position

Piracy/armed

robbery attack

J3E TP

Unable to use

proposed mode(2)

110

Phasing

RX-6

position

(5)

Urgency

Man

overboard

Distress

acknowledgeme

nt

Ships and aircraft of

States not parties to an

armed conflict

111

Phasing

RX-7

position

(6)

Medical transports

(as defined in 1949

Geneva Conventions

and additional

Protocols)

112

Distress

Distress

EPIRB

emission

Distress relay

Pay-phone/public call

office

113

F1B/J2B

TTY-FEC

Facsimile/data

according to

Recommendation

ITU-R M.1081

114

Ships having

common interest

115

F1B/J2B

TTY-ARQ

(6)

116

All ships(7)

(6)

(6)

117

Ack. RQ

(EOS)

(6)

(6)

118

Test

(6)

119

(6)

(6)

120

Individual stations

(6)

(6)

121

Reserved for

national

non-calling

purposes e.g.

Report

ITU-R M.1159

Ship position

or location

registration

updating

(6)

122

Ack. BQ

(EOS)

(6)

(6)

123

Individual station

semi-automatic/

automatic service

(6)

(6)

124

(5)

(6)

(6)

358

Maritime Manual

TABLE 3 (end)

2

Technical format of a call sequence

2.1

The technical format of the call sequence is:

0493-00

Dot pattern

See § 3

Phasing sequence

See § 3

Call content

See Tables 4.1 to 4.10.2

Closing sequence

See § 9, § 10 and Fig. 1

2.2

Examples of typical call sequences and the construction of the transmission

format are given in Figs. 1 to 3.

2.3

The flow charts illustrating the operation of the DSC system are shown in

Figs. 4 and 5.

3

Dot pattern and phasing

3.1

The phasing sequence provides information to the receiver to permit correct bit

phasing and unambiguous determination of the positions of the characters within a call

sequence (see Note 1).

Symbol

No.

Phasing

and unique

functions

Format specifier(1)

Category(1)

Nature of

distress(1)

First

telecommand(1)

Second

telecommand(1)

125

Phasing

DX

position

(6)

(6)

126

*

No information

No information

127

EOS

(6)

(6)

TP:

Telephony

TTY: Direct printing

ARQ: Rec. ITU-R M.476 or Rec. ITU-R M.625 equipment

(1)

Unassigned symbols should be rejected. The DSC equipment should take no action.

(2)

Currently unassigned when used with first telecommands other than symbol No. 104 – for future use.

(3)

Used for selective call to a group of ships in a specified VTS area (Rec. ITU-R M.825). Reception of calls having

format specifier 103, for (or) category shall not activate any alarms on shipborne DSC controller. Should not be used

in any future expansion.

(4)

Only used for semi-automatic/automatic service.

(5)

Used in the automatic VHF/UHF service (Rec. ITU-R M.586). Should not be used in any future expansion.

(6)

Should not be used in any future expansion.

(7)

MF/HF used only for distress alert acknowledgment and coast station receive (see Table 4).

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

359

NOTE 1 – Acquisition of character synchronization should be achieved by means of character

recognition rather than, for example, by recognizing a change in the dot pattern, in order to

reduce false synchronization caused by a bit error in the dot pattern.

3.2

The phasing sequence consists of specific characters in the DX and RX

positions transmitted alternatively. Six DX characters are transmitted.

3.2.1 The phasing character in the DX position is symbol No. 125 of Table 1.

3.2.2 The phasing characters in the RX position specify the start of the information

sequence (i.e. the format specifier) and consist of the symbol Nos. 111, 110, 109, 108,

107, 106, 105 and 104 of Table 1, consecutively.

3.3

Phasing is considered to be achieved when two DXs and one RX, or two RXs

and one DX, or three RXs in the appropriate DX or RX positions, respectively, are

successfully received. These three phasing characters may be detected in either

consecutive or non-consecutive positions but in both cases all bits of the phasing

sequence should be examined for a correct 3-character pattern. A call should be rejected

only if a correct pattern is not found anywhere within the phasing sequence.

3.4

To provide appropriate conditions for earlier bit synchronization and to allow

for scanning methods to monitor several HF and MF frequencies by ship stations, the

phasing sequence should be preceded by a dot pattern (i.e. alternating B-Y or Y-B

sequence bit synchronization signals) with duration of:

3.4.1 200 bits

At HF and MF for:

distress alerts;

distress acknowledgements;

distress relays addressed to a geographic area;

distress relay acknowledgements addressed to all ships;

all calls addressed to a ship station other than those specified in § 3.4.2.

3.4.2 20 bits

At HF and MF, for all acknowledgements to individual calls having format specifiers

120 and 123 and for all calling to coast stations. At VHF for all calls.

4

Format specifier

4.1

The format specifier characters which are transmitted twice in both the DX

and RX positions (see Fig. 1) are:

4.1.1 symbol No. 112 for a “distress” alert; or

4.1.2 symbol No. 116 for an “all ships” call; or

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4.1.3 symbol No. 114 for a selective call to a group of ships having a common

interest (e.g. belonging to one particular country, or to a single ship owner, etc.); or

4.1.4 symbol No. 120 for a selective call to a particular individual station; or

4.1.5 symbol No. 102 for a selective call to a group of ships in a particular

geographic area; or

4.1.6 symbol No. 123 for a selective call to a particular individual station using the

semi-automatic/automatic service.

4.2

It is considered that receiver decoders must detect the format specifier

character twice for “distress” alerts and “all ships” calls to effectively eliminate false

alerting. For other calls, the address characters provide additional protection against

false alerting and, therefore, single detection of the format specifier character is

considered satisfactory (see Table 3).

5

Address

5.1

“Distress” alerts and “all ships” calls do not have addresses since these calls

are implicitly addressed to all stations (ship stations and coast stations).

5.2

For a selective call directed to an individual ship, to a coast station or to a

group of stations having a common interest, the address consists of the characters

corresponding to the station’s maritime mobile service identity, the sequence consisting

of characters coded in accordance with Table 2 (see Note 1).

NOTE 1 – According to RR Article 19, maritime mobile service identities are formed of a series

of nine digits, consisting of three digits of the Maritime Identification Digits (MID) and six more

digits.

These identities are included in the address and self-identification parts of the call sequence and

are transmitted as five characters C5C4C3C2C1, comprising the ten digits of:

(X1, X2) (X3, X4) (X5, X6) (X7, X8) and (X9, X10)

respectively, whereas digit X10 is always the figure 0 unless the equipment is also designed in

accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.1080.

Example:

MID X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 being the ship station identity is transmitted by the DSC equipment as:

(M, I) (D, X4) (X5, X6) (X7, X8) (X9, 0)

5.3

For a selective call directed to a group of ships in a particular geographic area

a numerical geographic coordinates address consisting of ten digits (i.e. 5 characters), is

constructed as follows (see Fig. 6 and Note 1):

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

361

NOTE 1 – In order to comply with commonly accepted practice, the order of entry and read-out

should be: first latitude and then longitude.

5.3.1 the designated geographic area will be a rectangle in Mercator projection;

5.3.2 the upper left-hand (i.e. North-West) corner of the rectangle is the reference

point for the area;

5.3.3 the first digit indicates the azimuth sector in which the reference point is

located, as follows:

5.3.3.1 quadrant NE is indicated by the digit “0”,

5.3.3.2 quadrant NW is indicated by the digit “1”,

5.3.3.3 quadrant SE is indicated by the digit “2”,

5.3.3.4 quadrant SW is indicated by the digit “3”;

5.3.4 the second and third digits indicate the latitude of the reference point in tens

and units of degrees;

5.3.5 the fourth, fifth and sixth digits indicate the longitude of the reference point in

hundreds, tens and units of degrees;

5.3.6 the seventh and eighth digits indicate the vertical (i.e. North-to-South) side of

the rectangle, ∆ϕ, in tens and units of degrees;

5.3.7 the ninth and tenth digits indicate the horizontal (i.e. West-to-East) side of the

rectangle, ∆λ, in tens and units of degrees.

6

Category

6.1

The “category” information is coded as shown in Table 3 and defines the

degree of priority of the call sequence.

6.2

For a “distress” alert the priority is defined by the format specifier and no

category information is included in the call sequence.

6.2.1 For distress relays, distress relay acknowledgements and distress

acknowledgements the category is distress.

6.3

For safety related calls, the “category” information specifies:

6.3.1 urgency; or

6.3.2 safety.

6.4

For other calls, the “category” information specifies:

6.4.1 routine.

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7

Self-identification

7.1

The maritime mobile service identity (MMSI) assigned to the calling station,

coded as indicated in § 5.2 and its Note 1, is used for self-identification.

8

Messages

The messages that are included in a call sequence contain the following message

elements, which are listed in the order in which they would appear in each message. All

message formats are explicitly defined in Tables 4.1 through 4.10.2:

8.1

For a “distress” alert (see Table 4.1) the distress information is contained in

four messages in the following order:

8.1.1 Message 1 is the “nature of distress” message, coded as shown in Table 3, i.e.:

8.1.1.1 fire, explosion;

8.1.1.2 flooding;

8.1.1.3 collision;

8.1.1.4 grounding;

8.1.1.5 listing, in danger of capsizing;

8.1.1.6 sinking;

8.1.1.7 disabled and adrift;

8.1.1.8 undesignated distress;

8.1.1.9 abandoning ship;

8.1.1.10 piracy/armed robbery attack;

8.1.1.11 man overboard;

8.1.1.12 emergency position-indicating radiobeacon (EPIRB) emission.

8.1.2 Message 2 is the “distress coordinates” message, consisting of ten digits

indicating the location of the vessel in distress, coded on the principles described in

Table 2, in pairs starting from the first and second digits (see Note 1 to § 5.3):

8.1.2.1 The first digit indicates the quadrant in which the incident has occurred, as

follows:

8.1.2.1.1 quadrant NE is indicated by the digit “0”,

8.1.2.1.2 quadrant NW is indicated by the digit “1”,

8.1.2.1.3 quadrant SE is indicated by the digit “2”,

8.1.2.1.4 quadrant SW is indicated by the digit “3”.

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8.1.2.2 The next four figures indicate the latitude in degrees and minutes.

8.1.2.3 The next five figures indicate the longitude in degrees and minutes.

8.1.2.4 If “distress coordinates” cannot be included, or if the position information has

not been updated for 23½ h, the 10 digits following the “nature of distress” should be

automatically transmitted as the digit 9 repeated 10 times.

8.1.3 Message 3 is the time indication (UTC) when the coordinates were valid

consisting of four digits coded on the principles described in Table 2, in pairs starting

from the first and second digits.

8.1.3.1 The first two digits indicate the time in hours.

8.1.3.2 The third and fourth digits indicate the part of the hours in minutes.

8.1.3.3 If the time cannot be included the four time indicating digits should be

transmitted automatically as “8 8 8 8”.

8.1.4 Message 4 is a single character to indicate the type of communication

(telephone or FEC teleprinter) which is preferred by the station in distress for

subsequent exchange of distress traffic. This character is coded as shown in Table 3

first telecommand.

8.2

For a distress relay, distress relay acknowledgement, distress

acknowledgement (see Tables 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4) the distress information is contained in

five messages in the following order:

8.2.1 Message 0 is the “MMSI” of the vessel in distress.

8.2.2 Message 1 is the “nature of distress” message, coded as shown in Table 3, i.e.:

8.2.2.1 fire, explosion;

8.2.2.2 flooding;

8.2.2.3 collision;

8.2.2.4 grounding;

8.2.2.5 listing, in danger of capsizing;

8.2.2.6 sinking;

8.2.2.7 disabled and adrift;

8.2.2.8 undesignated distress;

8.2.2.9 abandoning ship;

8.2.2.10 piracy/armed robbery attack;

8.2.2.11 man overboard;

8.2.2.12 emergency position-indicating radiobeacon (EPIRB) emission.

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8.2.3 Message 2 is the “distress coordinates” message, consisting of ten digits

indicating the location of the vessel in distress, coded on the principles described in

Table 2, in pairs starting from the first and second digits (see Note 1 to § 5.3):

8.2.3.1 The first digit indicates the quadrant in which the incident has occurred, as

follows:

8.2.3.1.1 quadrant NE is indicated by the digit “0”,

8.2.3.1.2 quadrant NW is indicated by the digit “1”,

8.2.3.1.3 quadrant SE is indicated by the digit “2”,

8.2.3.1.4 quadrant SW is indicated by the digit “3”.

8.2.3.2 The next four figures indicate the latitude in degrees and minutes.

8.2.3.3 The next five figures indicate the longitude in degrees and minutes.

8.2.3.4 If “distress coordinates” cannot be included, or if the position information has

not been updated for 23½ h, the 10 digits following the “nature of distress” should be

automatically transmitted as the digit 9 repeated 10 times.

8.2.4 Message 3 is the time indication (UTC) when the coordinates were valid

consisting of four digits coded on the principles described in Table 2, in pairs starting

from the first and second digits.

8.2.4.1 The first two digits indicate the time in hours.

8.2.4.2 The third and fourth digits indicate the part of the hours in minutes.

8.2.4.3 If the time cannot be included the four time indicating digits should be

transmitted automatically as “8 8 8 8”.

8.2.5 Message 4 is a single character to indicate the type of communication

(telephone or FEC teleprinter) which is preferred by the station in distress for

subsequent exchange of distress traffic. This character is coded as shown in Table 3

first telecommand.

8.3

For other types of calls (see Table 4.5 through 4.10.2 and Figs. 2 and 3)

messages are included in the following order:

8.3.1 Message 1 is the “telecommand” information and consists of 2 characters (first

and second telecommand) coded as shown in Table 3;

8.3.1.1 if no information additional to that conveyed by the first telecommand

character is required, then the second telecommand signal should be symbol No. 126

(no information) (see Table 3);

8.3.1.2 if no telecommand information is used, symbol No. 126 is transmitted twice.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

365

8.3.1.3 If the telecommand 1 is “F3E/G3E duplex TP” (symbol 101) in a request,

which can be complied with, the telecommand 1 “F3E/G3E all modes TP”

(symbol 100) should be used in the acknowledgement.

8.3.2 Message 2 may contain two “channel or frequency message” elements, each of

which always consists of three characters, “character 1”, “character 2” and “character

3”, indicating the proposed working frequency (in the F1B/J2B mode the assigned

frequency should be used) in multiples of 100 Hz or the channel number (coded in

accordance with Table 5) or the ship’s position. The first frequency element (the RX

field) in the call indicates the called station receive frequency and the second frequency

element (the TX field) indicates the called station transmit frequency. In

acknowledgements the RX and TX fields indicate the receive and transmit frequency of

the acknowledging station respectively (see also Fig. 2 and Note 1).

NOTE 1 – If only one channel or frequency message element is used, this indicates the called

station receive channel or frequency or a two-frequency (paired) channel. A second channel or

frequency message element may be used to designate the called station transmit channel or

frequency. If the calling station indicates only the called station receive frequency (for broadcast

mode transmissions) then the symbol No. 126 repeated three times should be transmitted instead

of the called station transmit channel or frequency message element. If no “channel or frequency

message” elements are used, the symbol No. 126 is transmitted six times. For calls using the

semi-automatic/automatic VHF service (see Table 4.10.1) then only one “channel or frequency

message” element is transmitted which indicates the paired channel number. In the absence of

this element the symbol No. 126 should be transmitted three times.

8.3.2.1 Frequency information

The frequency (in the F1B/J2B mode the assigned frequency should be used) in

multiples of 100 Hz may only be indicated as such when the frequency is below

30 MHz. The three characters provide for the required six decimal digits. Character 1

represents the units (U) and tens (T) of 100 Hz, character 2 the hundreds (H) and

thousands (M) and character 3 the tens of thousands (TM) and hundreds of thousands

(HM) of 100 Hz. For MF/HF DSC, use frequency selection mode, vice channel

selection mode, to ensure international interoperability.

8.3.2.2 Channel information

8.3.2.2.1 HF and MF channels

If the HM digit is 3, this indicates that the number represented by the digits TM, M, H,

T and U is the HF/MF working channel number (either single frequency or two

frequency channels). This mode should only be used for decoding received calls, to

ensure interoperability with older equipment.

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8.3.2.2.2 VHF channels

If the HM digit is 9, this indicates that the number represented by the values of the

digits M, H, T and U is the VHF working channel number. If the M digit is 1, this

indicates that the ship stations transmitting frequency is being used as a simplex

channel frequency for both ship and coast stations. If the M digit is 2, this indicates that

the coast stations transmitting frequency is being used as a simplex channel frequency

for both ship and coast stations.

8.3.2.3 Ship’s position information

8.3.2.3.1 For MF/HF calls, Message 2 may contain the ship’s position, consisting of

the digit 5 repeated two times and ten digits (five characters) indicating this position,

coded in accordance with § 8.1.2 to § 8.1.2.3 (see Table 6).

8.3.2.3.2 For position requests message 2 consists of 6 no information symbols

(symbol No. 126).

8.3.2.3.3 In acknowledgements to a call requesting ship’s position (see Fig. 3d))

message 2 consists of twelve digits (six symbols), the first of which should be coded in

accordance with § 8.1.2 to § 8.1.2.3 followed by one symbol No. 126.

Message 3 follows message 2 in this case and contains the time (UTC) when the

coordinates were valid, coded as indicated in § 8.1.3 to § 8.1.3.3.

8.3.3 Message 3 follows message 2 when using the DSC system for calls initiated by

ship stations requiring a semi-automatic or automatic connection (see Table 4.10.1 and

4.10.2) and contains the public switched network number (e.g. telephone number). In

this case the format specifier used is symbol No. 123.

8.3.3.1 This number is coded by up to nine symbols in a manner similar to that shown

in Table 2, except that the first character transmitted should be either symbol No. 105 or

No. 106 to indicate whether the network number contains an odd or even number of

significant digits. As an example, the number 0012345 would be coded as symbol

numbers 105 00 01 23 45 whereas the number 00123456 should be coded as symbol

numbers 106 00 12 34 56.

8.4

For “distress relay” including shore-to-ship alerts, “distress relay

acknowledgement” and “distress acknowledgement” calls, the message formats are

indicated in Tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.2 respectively.

8.4.1 When sending a distress alert on behalf of another ship which is unable to send

its own alert, and where the identity of the station in distress is unknown, the distress

relay call should contain the symbol No. 126 transmitted five times for the

“identification of the station in distress”.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

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8.5

Test calls

Test calls on the distress and safety frequencies for MF and HF and VHF channel 70

may be conducted using the test call sequence in Table 4.7.

9

End of sequence

The “end of sequence” (EOS) character is transmitted three times in the DX position

and once in the RX position (see Fig. 1b)). It is one of the three unique characters

corresponding to symbol Nos. 117, 122 and 127 as follows:

9.1

symbol No. 117 if the call requires acknowledgement (Acknowledge RQ),

used for individual and automatic/semiautomatic calls only;

9.2

symbol No. 122 if the sequence is an answer to a call that requires

acknowledgement (Acknowledge BQ), used for individual and automatic/

semiautomatic calls and all distress relay acknowledgements;

9.3

symbol No. 127 for all other calls.

10

Error-check character

10.1 The error-check character (ECC) is the final character transmitted and it serves

to check the entire sequence for the presence of errors which are undetected by the ten-

unit error-detecting code and the time diversity employed.

10.2 The seven information bits of the ECC shall be equal to the least significant bit

of the modulo-2 sums of the corresponding bits of all information characters (i.e. even

vertical parity). The format specifier and the EOS characters are considered to be

information characters. The phasing characters and the retransmission (RX) characters

shall not be considered to be information characters. Only one format specifier

character and one EOS character should be used in constructing the ECC. The ECC

shall also be sent in the DX and RX positions.

10.3 Automatic acknowledgement transmissions should not start unless the ECC is

received and decoded correctly. A received ECC which does not match that calculated

from the received information characters may be ignored if this was due to an error

detected in the ten-unit error-detecting code of the information characters which was

correctable by use of the time diversity code.

10.4 The receiver decoder should provide maximum utilization of the received

signal, including use of the error-check character.

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11

Distress alert attempt

11.1 Distress alerts may be transmitted as a single frequency or a multi-frequency

call attempt preceded by a dot pattern. MF/HF equipment should be capable of using

both single and multi-frequency call attempts. Where a distress alert attempt contains

more than one consecutive distress alert on the same frequency (see Recommendation

ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, § 3.1.3), these consecutive alerts should be transmitted with no

gap between the end of one call and the start of the dot pattern of the following call to

enable bit synchronization to be maintained (see Fig. 1c)). Multi-frequency call

attempts should always include at least the MF and HF 8 MHz band DSC distress and

safety frequencies.

11.2 A distress alert should be activated only by means of a dedicated distress

button which should be clearly identified and be protected against inadvertent operation

with a spring loaded lid or cover. The initiation of a distress alert should at least require

two independent actions.

11.3 Calls with format specifier “distress” or category “distress”, “urgency” and

“safety” should be initiated manually only. This applies also for ships equipped for

automatic DSC operation. For automatic repetition of distress alerts see

Recommendation ITU-R M.541, Annex 1, § 3.1.3 and 3.3.5.

11.4 Immediately following a distress alert a DSC expansion message giving

enhanced position resolution according to Recommendation ITU-R M.821 should be

transmitted in the following manner.

11.4.1 For a single frequency distress alert attempt the expansion message should be

transmitted immediately after the last of five consecutive distress alerts.

11.4.2 For a multi-frequency distress alert attempt the expansion message should be

transmitted immediately after each distress alert.

12

Shipborne human machine interface (HMI)

12.1 Shipborne aural alarm

Shipborne alarms should start softly and increase in volume if not silenced by the

operator. This will give the operator the opportunity to acknowledge the alarm without

interrupting the ship’s current communications. It should be possible for the operator to

disable all audible alarms except those of distress, priority and urgency.

Distress and urgency calls should have a distinctive two tone alarm. The alarm should

consist of two substantially sinusoidal audio-frequency tones, transmitted alternately.

One tone should have a frequency of 2 200 Hz and the other a frequency of 1 300 Hz.

The duration of each tone should be 250 ms.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

369

Distress calls and urgency calls should activate an alarm. For HF and MF distress calls,

the alarm should activate only when a distress alert, distress acknowledgement, or a

distress relay is received and the distress position is within 500 nm (926 km) of the

receiving vessel’s position, or if the distress position is in the polar areas (latitude

greater than 70° N or 70° S). The alarm should also activate when the call is received

and the distance between the vessel in distress and the receiving vessel cannot be

determined.

NOTE 1 – Disabling of aural alarm does not affect handling of call.

For geographic area calls, the alarm appropriate to the category should activate when

the receiving station’s position is within the area specified by the call or the receiving

station’s position is not known. The alarm should not be activated where duplicate

distress relay calls are received within one hour. A duplicate distress relay call is one

having format specifier all ships or geographic area that contains identical message

information, as defined in § 8.1 and an identical distress MMSI.

12.2 Inactivity timer

During normal operation, the equipment should include an inactivity timer to return the

DSC system display to default or standby mode if the operator is in a menu where DSC

call reception is disabled and does not make any selections or changes for 10 min.

12.3 Display

The information on the display should be visible in all shipboard lighting conditions. It

should have the means to display, in plain language, the information contained in the

received call. For Class A/B DSC equipment, the display should have a minimum of

160 characters in two or more lines.

12.4 MMSI

DSC equipment should not transmit any DSC call until own ship’s MMSI allocated to

the ship by the relevant administration has been configured and stored in the DSC

equipment. Once stored, it should not be possible for the user to change the MMSI

without advice from the manufacturer.

The DSC equipment should display own ship’s MMSI on start-up unless the MMSI has

not been configured. If the MMSI has not been configured, the equipment will display a

warning that the unit will not transmit any DSC calls until own ship’s MMSI is entered.

The equipment should stay in this state until the operator confirms he has read the

display and input own ship’s MMSI.

The MMSI should be readily displayed on the HMI when the DSC equipment is on.

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12.5 Disabling of DSC automatic channel switching function on VHF

Automatic switching to a subsequent communications channel on receipt of a DSC call

might in some cases disrupt important ongoing communications. Where such capability

exists, a means for disabling that function should therefore be provided for all calls

other than individual station calls of category distress or urgency. The DSC equipment

should provide visual indication that the automatic switching function is disabled.

12.6 Data interface

DSC equipment should be provided with facilities for exchange of data from shipborne

navigational equipment or systems, or other shipborne equipment as necessary in

accordance with IEC 61162 for purposes including automatic position updating.

12.7 Position updating

DSC equipment should accept valid IEC 61162 position information including the time

at which the position was determined, from an external source utilizing the data

interface described in § 12.6, for automatic update of own ship’s DSC position.

The DSC equipment may also be provided with an internal electronic position fixing

device. In which case, the DSC equipment should automatically switch to the internal

source if the external IEC 61162 position information is not valid or not available.

If the automatic position update is not available, a displayed and audible reminder to

manually update the position should occur before the position information is 4 h old.

The displayed reminder should remain until position updating has been carried out. Any

position information not updated for more than 23½ h should automatically be erased.

Own ship’s DSC position information and the source of that information (external,

internal, or manually entered) should be displayed on the DSC equipment.

12.8 Geographic area entry

DSC equipment should be provided with means for transforming a geographical area

specified by the user as a centre point and a range to the corresponding Mercator area

call format specified in § 5.3. The centre point should default to the ships position

information and the range should default to 500 nm (926 km). The transformation of the

entered range and centre-point should result in the minimum rectangular area that

encompasses the entered data.

12.9 Medical transport and neutral ships and aircraft

The capability of using second telecommands “Ships and aircraft of States not parties to

an armed conflict” and “Medical Transports” should not be available by default but

only after changing relevant parameters in the setup menu.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

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0493-01

G

2

G

3

H

I

H

H

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

A

A

B1

B2

B3

F3

G

1

G

2

G

3

H

I

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

A

A

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

G

1

F2

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

D

X

A

A

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

C

D

1

D

2

D

3

D

4

D

5

E1

E2

F1

F2

F3

G

1

G

2

G

3

H

I

H

H

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

RX

A

A

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

6

7

5

4

3

2

1

0

C

D

1

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2

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3

D

4

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5

E1

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1

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H

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RX

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A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

FIG

U

RE 1

C

onstruction of call sequence

D

ot pattern

c) Transm

ission sequence for repetition of a distress call according to § 11

b) Transm

ission sequence corresponding to Fig. 1a)

D

ot pattern

D

ot

pattern

Phasing

sequence

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

Called party

address

5 characters

Category

1 character

Self-

identification

5 characters

Telecom

m

and

m

essage

2 characters

Frequency

m

essage

3 characters

Frequency

m

essage

3 characters

End of sequence

3 identical

D

X

characters

1 RX

character

1 character

Error-check

character

a) Technical form

at of a typical routine m

essage

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0493-02

FIG

U

RE 2

Exam

ples of a calling sequence and reply sequences for typical individual calls

D

ot

pattern

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

Telecom

m

and

and frequency

8 characters

Telecom

m

and

and frequency

8 characters

A

cknow

ledge RQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Error-check

character

1 character

Phasing

sequence

a) Calling sequence

b) Reply sequence w

ith confirm

ation

c) Reply sequence w

ith new

proposal

d) Reply sequence w

ith refusal

D

ot

pattern

Phasing

sequence

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

A

cknow

ledge BQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Error-check

character

1 character

Error-check

character

1 character

A

cknow

ledge BQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

A

cknow

ledge BQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Telecom

m

and

and frequency

8 characters

Telecom

m

and

and frequency

8 characters

Category

1 character

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

Self-identification

5 characters

D

ot

pattern

D

ot

pattern

Phasing

sequence

Phasing

sequence

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Error-check

character

1 character

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

373

0493-03

FIG

U

RE 3

C

alling sequences and reply sequences for polling and ship’s position

D

ot

pattern

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

Telecom

m

and polling

2 characters

A

cknow

ledge RQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Error-check

character

1 character

Phasing

sequence

a) Calling sequence polling

b) Reply sequence to polling

c) Calling sequence to request ship’s position

d) Reply sequence to request for ship’s position

D

ot

pattern

Phasing

sequence

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

A

cknow

ledge BQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Error-check

character

1 character

Error-check

character

1 character

A

cknow

ledge RQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

A

cknow

ledge BQ

(EO

S)

3 identical D

X

characters

1 RX

character

Telecom

m

and

ship’s position

2 characters

Category

1 character

Category

1 character

Self-identification

5 characters

Self-identification

5 characters

D

ot

pattern

D

ot

pattern

Phasing

sequence

Phasing

sequence

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

Form

at specifier

2 identical

characters

A

ddress

5 characters

A

ddress

5 characters

Error-check

character

1 character

Telecom

m

and polling

2 characters

*6c

*

6c

*

6c

Coordinates**

6 characters

***

Tim

e

2c

Telecom

m

and

ship’s position

2 characters

* The sym

bol N

o. 126 repeated six tim

es should be included (see § 8.3.2, N

ote 1).

** See § 8.3.2.3.3 (6 characters).

*** See § 8.3.2.3.2 (2 characters).

374

Maritime Manual

0493-04

FIGURE 4

Example of operational flow chart

Transmitting

Message
composition*

Transmit
message

Receiving

Operation in general

No (Yes)

Yes (No)

Branching (decision)

Manual operation

Beginning or end
of the procedures

This method may be used when either single channel receivers
(without scanning) or multi-channel receivers are used.

This method is preferable when scanning receivers are used
on DSC channels.

Message composition flow chart is shown in Fig. 5b.

Acknowledge
BQ

Acknowledge
RQ

Scanning?

Address
error free?

Address
corresponds to a
stored address?

Receive and
process
message

Store message

Receive
message

Message
received error
free?

Address
corresponds to a
stored address?

No

Yes

Yes

Received
ECC
matches?

Indicate
ECC error

No

Read information
of received
message

Yes

Yes(2)

No

No

Safety
related?

End of
sequence

Yes

Procedures
as given in RR

No

Message
composition

Message
composition with
unable
to comply

Message
composition with
acknowledge
BQ

Transmit
message

End

Wait on working
frequency/
channel

Able to
comply?

All
acceptable?

No

Yes

Message composition*

Yes

Yes

Message
composition with
new proposal

No(1)

*

(1)

(2)

No

Yes

No

Note – This chart is informative only.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

375

0493-05

FIGURE 5

Example of message composition flow chart

Distress

Area

Group

Special
sequences

Select address*

Enter self-
identification**

Individual
address*

Group
address*

Area
address*

Enter nature
of distress

Include
nature of dis-
tress?

Yes

No

Routine

Safety

Distress

Urgency

Enter self-
identification**

Acknowl-
edge reply?

Distress
coordinates
available?

Yes

No

No

Additional
information?

All
acceptable?

Enter distress
coordinates
and time ***

Enter
telecommand
information

Processor
copies message

No

No

No

Yes

Tele-
command infor-
mation?

Yes

Specify
telecommand
information?

Specify receiver
frequency
information

Receiver
frequency infor-
mation?

Transmitter
frequency infor-
mation?

Yes

No

Specify
transmitter
frequency
information

No

No

No

Enter ship’s
position***

Enter
telephone
number

Ship’s
position infor-
mation?

Semi-
automatic/
automatic ship-to-
shore required?

Acknowl-
edge RQ or BQ?

RQ

BQ

End of sequence

Processor adds
acknowledge
BQ

Processor
adds end of
sequence

End of
message

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

For reply message, processor copies
self-identification of received message.

The self-identification of a calling
sequence is automatically entered.

This may be entered automatically.

*

**

***

Processor adds
acknowledge
RQ

Individual

Individual*

Area

Group*

Distress ACK/relay, urgency, safety

All ships

Select address*

Note – This chart is informative only.

376

Maritime Manual

0493-06

–15°

–20°

15°

20°

a

–15°–10°–5°

–5°

–10°

E

N

S

c

–20°

10°

5°

0°

5°

10°

b

ϕ

c

λ

c

∆ϕ

∆λ

2

1

1

0

1

2

0

3

0

5

1

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

2

0

2

0

3

0

0

a)

b)

c)

ϕ

a

λ

a

∆ϕ

∆λ

∆ϕ = 3°

∆λ

= 5°

∆ϕ = 10°

∆λ

= 10°

∆ϕ = 20°

∆λ

= 30°

FIGURE 6

Geographic coordinates

W

Format

specifier

Category

Category

Category

Sector

ϕ

a = – 11° (South) λ

a = 12° (East)

ϕ

b = – 10° (South) λ

b = 10° (East)

ϕ

c = 10° (North)

λ

c = – 20° (West)

Format

specifier

Format

specifier

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

377

Legend for Tables 4.1 to 4.10.2

Symbol/expression

Meaning

z

Required

Required for backward compatibility

Symbols 100-127

Symbols in accordance with Table 3

Area

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 5.3

Frequency

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.2.2

MMSI

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 5.2

Pos1

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.1.2

Pos2

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.3.2.3.1

Pos3

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.3.2.3.2

Pos4

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.3.2.3.3

Pos5

Coded in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.821

UTC

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 8.1.3

n/a

This field is not included in this call

ECC

Coded in accordance with Annex 1, § 10.2

expan1

Expansion sequence 1

expan2

Expansion sequence 2

expan3

Expansion sequence 3

Does not apply

NOTE 1 – For Class A and B all functions are identical for VHF and MF. HF does not apply to

Class B.

3
7
8

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.1

Distress alerts

Fre-

quency

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E Coast station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

Rec. ITU-R

M.821

expansion

sequence

(9)

1

2

3

4

Nature

of

distress

(1)

Distress

coordi-

nates

(5)

Time

(2)

Subse-

quent

commu-

nications

(1)

Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx

Rx

VHF

Distress

(RT)

z

z

z

z

z

112

MMSI 100 to 111Pos1

UTC

100

127

ECC

127

expan1

Distress

(EPIRB)

z

z

z

112

MMSI

112

Pos1

UTC

126

127

ECC

127

expan1

MF/HF Distress

(RT)

z

z

z

z

z

112

MMSI 100 to 111Pos1

UTC

109

127

ECC

127

expan1

Distress

(FEC)

z

z

z

z

112

MMSI 100 to 111Pos1

UTC

113

127

ECC

127

expan1

Rec. ITU-R M.821 expansion sequence

Type

Expansion data specifier

(1)

Enhanced position resolution

(4)

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

expan1

100

Pos5

127

ECC

127

P
a
r
t
C

R
e
c
.
I
T
U
-
R
M
.
4
9
3
-
1
3

3
7
9

TABLE 4.2

Distress acknowledgements

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Cate-

gory

(1)

Self-

ID

(5)(1)

Tele-

command

(1)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

Rec. ITU-R

M.821

expansion

sequence

(9)

0

1

2

3

4

Distress

MMSI

(5)

Nature of

distress

(1)

Distress

coordi-

nates

(5)

Time

(2)

Subse-

quent

commu-

nications

(1)

Fre-

quency

band

TxRx TxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

Distress acknowl-

edgement (RT)

z z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

100

127 ECC 127

expan1

Distress acknowl--

edgement (EPIRB) z z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126

127 ECC 127

expan1

MF

Distress acknowl-

edgement (RT)

z z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109

127 ECC 127

expan1

Distress acknowl-

edgement (FEC) z z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113

127 ECC 127

expan1

HF

Distress acknowl-

edgement (RT)

z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109

127 ECC 127

expan1

Distress acknowl-

edgement (FEC)

z

z z z

116

112 MMSI 110

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113

127 ECC 127

expan1

(1)

Distress acknowledgments where the transmitting MMSI and ship in distress MMSI are the same, the

message should be interpreted as a self Cancel operation. This should be displayed on all receiving

stations. The function should be implemented on new equipment. (NOTE 1 – Class D and E

equipment should be capable of transmitting a self cancel.)

The message should match the received distress

alert information, except for manually

generated distress acknowledgements by coast

stations.

Rec. ITU-R M.821 expansion sequence

Type

Expansion data specifier

(1)

Enhanced position resolution

(4)

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

expan1

100

Pos5

127

ECC

127

3
8
0

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.3

Distress relays

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Address

(5)

Cate-

gory

(1)

Self-

ID

(5)

Tele-

command

(1)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

Rec. ITU-R

M.821

expansion

sequence

(9)

0

1

2

3

4

Distress

MMSI

(5)

Nature of

distress

(1)

Distress

coordi-

nates

(5)

Time

(2)

Subse-

quent

com-

munica

tions

(1)

Frequency

band

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

Individual (RT) z z

z(1)

z z

120

MMSI 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

100 117ECC 117

expan2

Individual

(EPIRB)

z z

z(1)

z z

120

MMSI 112 MMSI

112

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126 117ECC 117

expan2

Geographic

area (RT)

(1)

102

Zone

112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 à 111

Pos1 UTC

100 127ECC 127

expan1

Geographic

area (EPIRB) (1)

102

Zone

112 MMSI

112

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126 127ECC 127

expan1

All ships (RT) z z

z(1)

z z

116

n/a

112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

100 127ECC 127

expan1

All ships

(EPIRB)

z z

z(1)

z z

116

n/a

112 MMSI

112

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126 127ECC 127

expan1

MF/HF

Individual (RT) z z

z z z

120

MMSI 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109 117ECC 117

expan2

Individual

(FEC)

z z

z z z

120

MMSI 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113 117ECC 117

expan2

Geographic

area (RT)

z z z z z

102

Zone

112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109 127ECC 127

expan1

Geographic

area (FEC)

z z z z z

102

Zone

112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113 127ECC 127

expan1

(1)

This call is not applicable to hand-held equipment.

P
a
r
t
C

R
e
c
.
I
T
U
-
R
M
.
4
9
3
-
1
3

3
8
1

TABLE 4.3 (end)

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Ad-

dress

(5)

Cate-

gory

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Tele-

command

(1)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

Rec. ITU-R

M.821

expansion

sequence

(9)

0

1

2

3

4

Distress

MMSI

(5)

Nature of

distress

(1)

Distress

coordi-

nates

(5)

Time

(2)

Subse-

quent

commu

nica-

tions

(1)

Frequency

band

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

MF/HF

(End )

All ships

(RT)

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109 127ECC 127

expan1

All ships

(FEC)

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113 127ECC 127

expan1

The message should match the received

distress alert information, except for manually

generated relays observed or notified by non-

DSC means.

Rec. ITU-R M.821 expansion sequence

Type

Expansion data specifier

(1)

Enhanced position resolution

(4)

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

expan1

100

Pos5

127

ECC

127

expan2

100

Pos5

117

ECC

117

3
8
2

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.4

Distress relay acknowledgements

Frequency

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

stationFormat

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Ad-

dress

(5)

Cate-

gory

(1)

Self-

ID

(5)

Tele-

command

(1)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

Rec. ITU-R

M.821

expansion

sequence

(9)

0

1

2

3

4

Distress

MMSI

(5)

Nature of

distress

(1)

Distress

coordi-

nates

(5)

Time

(2)

Subse-

quent

commu-

nications

(1)

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

Individual

(RT)

z z z z(1)

z z

120 MMSI112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

100

122ECC 122

expan3

Individual

(EPIRB) z z z(1)

z z

120 MMSI112 MMSI

112

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126

122ECC 122

expan3

All ships

(RT)

z z(1)

z z

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

100

122ECC 122

expan3

All ships

(EPIRB) z z(1)

z z

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI

112

Pos1 UTC

126

122ECC 122

expan3

MF/HF

Individual

(RT)

z z z z z z

120 MMSI112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109

122ECC 122

expan3

Individual

(FEC)

z z

z z z

120 MMSI112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113

122ECC 122

expan3

All ships

(RT)

z z z

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

109

122ECC 122

expan3

All ships

(FEC)

z z z

116

n/a 112 MMSI

112

MMSI 100 to 111

Pos1 UTC

113

122ECC 122

expan3

(1)

This call is not applicable to hand-held equipment.

The message should match the received distress

relay call information.

Rec. ITU-R M.821 expansion sequence

Type

Expansion data specifier

(1)

Enhanced position resolution

(4)

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

expan3

100

Pos5

122

ECC

122

P
a
r
t
C

R
e
c
.
I
T
U
-
R
M
.
4
9
3
-
1
3

3
8
3

TABLE 4.5

Urgency and safety calls – All ships

Frequency

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

1

2

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

(6)

Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx

VHF

All modes RT

z

z z(2)

z

z

z

116

108 or 110MMSI

100

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

Duplex RT(1)

116

108 or 110MMSI

101

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

Medical transports z

z

z

116

110

MMSI

100

111

Frequency

127

ECC

127

Ships and aircraft

(Res. 18)

z

z

z

116

110

MMSI

100

110

Frequency

127

ECC

127

MF/HF

J3E RT

116

108 or 110MMSI

109

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

F1B FEC

116

108 or 110MMSI

113

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

(1)

See § 8.3.1.3.

(2)

This call is not applicable to hand-held equipment.

3
8
4

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.6

Urgency and safety – Geographic area calls

Frequency

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

1

2

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Fre-

quency

(6)

Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx

MF/HF

J3E (RT)

z z

z z z z

102

Area 108 or 110MMSI

109

126

Fre-

quency 127 ECC

127

F1B (FEC)

z z

z z

102

Area 108 or 110MMSI

113

126

Fre-

quency 127 ECC

127

Medical transports z z

z

102

Area

110

MMSI 109 or 113

111

Fre-

quency 127 ECC

127

Ships and aircraft

(Res. 18)

z z

z

102

Area

110

MMSI 109 or 113

110

Fre-

quency 127 ECC

127

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TABLE 4.7

Urgency and safety – Individual calls and their acknowledgements

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

1

2

3

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

or pos

number

(6)

Time

(2)

Frequency

band

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

All modes RT

z z z

z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

100

126

Frequency n/a

117 ECC

117

Duplex RT(1)

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

101

126

Frequency n/a

117 ECC

117

RT

acknowledgement z z z

z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

100

126

Frequency n/a

122 ECC

122

Unable to comply

acknowledgement z z z

z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

104

100 to 109Frequency n/a

122 ECC

122

Position request

z z

z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

121

126

Pos3

n/a

117 ECC

117

Position

acknowledgement z z

z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

121

126

Pos4

UTC 122 ECC

122

Test

z z z z z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

118

126

126

n/a

117 ECC

117

Test

acknowledgement z z z z

z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

118

126

126

n/a

122 ECC

122

3
8
6

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.7 (end)

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

1

2

3

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

or pos

number

(6)

Time

(2)

Frequency

band

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

MF/HF

J3E RT

z z z z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

109

126

Frequency n/a 117 ECC

117

J3E RT with pos

number

z

z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

109

126

Pos2

n/a 117 ECC

117

J3E RT

acknowledgement z z

z z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

109

126

Frequency n/a 122 ECC

122

F1B FEC or ARQ z z

z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI 113 or 115

126

Frequency n/a 117 ECC

117

F1B FEC or ARQ

with pos number z

z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI 113 or 115

126

Pos2

n/a 117 ECC

117

F1B FEC or ARQ

acknowledgement z z

z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI 113 or 115

126

Frequency n/a 122 ECC

122

Unable to comply

acknowledgement z z

z z z

120

MMSI 108 or 110MMSI

104 100 to 109Frequency n/a 122 ECC

122

Position request z z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

121

126

Pos3

n/a 117 ECC

117

Position

acknowledgement z z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

121

126

Pos4

UTC 122 ECC

122

Test

z z

z z z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

118

126

126

n/a 117 ECC

117

Test

acknowledgement z z

z z z z

120

MMSI

108

MMSI

118

126

126

n/a 122 ECC

122

(1)

See § 8.3.1.3.

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TABLE 4.8

Routine group calls

Frequency

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

1

2

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequenc

y

(6)

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

All mode RT

z z z z z z

114

MMSI

100

MMSI

100

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

Duplex RT(1)

114

MMSI

100

MMSI

101

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

MF/HF

J3E RT

z z

z z z z

114

MMSI

100

MMSI

109

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

F1B FEC

z z

z z

114

MMSI

100

MMSI

113

126

Frequency

127

ECC

127

(1)

See § 8.3.1.3.

3
8
8

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.9

Routine individual calls and their acknowledgements

Frequen

cy

band

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 identical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

1

2

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

or pos

number

(6)

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

VHF

All mode RT

z z z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

100

126

Frequency 117 ECC

117

Duplex RT(1)

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

101

126

Frequency 117 ECC

117

RT acknowledgement

z z z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

100

126

Frequency 122 ECC

122

Data

z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

106

126

Frequency 117 ECC

117

Data acknowledgement

z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

106

126

Frequency 122 ECC

122

Unable to comply

acknowledgement

z z

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

104 100 to 109Frequency 122 ECC

122

Polling

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

103

126

126

117 ECC

117

Polling acknowledgement

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

103

126

126

122 ECC

122

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TABLE 4.9 (end)

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class

D

Ship

station

Class

E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Address

(5)

Cate-

gory

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 identical)

1

2

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

or pos

number

(6)

Frequency

band

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

MF/HF

J3E RT

z z z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

109

126

Frequency 117 ECC

117

J3E RT with pos number z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

109

126

Pos2

117 ECC

117

J3E RT acknowledgement z z z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

109

126

Frequency 122 ECC

122

F1B FEC, ARQ or data

z z z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI 113, 115, 106

126

Frequency 117 ECC

117

FEC, ARQ or data with

pos number

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI 113, 115, 106

126

Pos2

117 ECC

117

F1B FEC, ARQ or data

acknowledgement

z z

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI 113, 115, 106

126

Frequency 122 ECC

122

Unable to comply

acknowledgement

z z

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

104

100 à 109Frequency 122 ECC

122

Polling

z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

103

126

126

117 ECC

117

Polling acknowledgement z z

120

MMSI

100

MMSI

103

126

126

122 ECC

122

(1)

See § 8.3.1.3.

3
9
0

M
a
r
i
t
i
m
e
M
a
n
u
a
l

TABLE 4.10.1

Semi/auto VHF (optional)

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E

Coast

station Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

1

2

3

1st tele-

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

(3)

Number

(2-9)

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

Request

z z z(2)

z(2)

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 100, 101, 106

126

FrequencyNumber117 ECC

117

Able to comply

acknowledgement

z z z(2)

z(2)

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 100, 101, 106

126

FrequencyNumber122 ECC

122

Start of call

(on working channel)

z z(2)

z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 100, 101, 106

126

FrequencyNumber127 ECC

127

Unable to comply

acknowledgement

z z z(2)

z(2)

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

104

100-109 FrequencyNumber122 ECC

122

End of call request

(on working channel)

z z(2)

z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

105

126

FrequencyNumber117 ECC

117

End of call

acknowledgement

(on working channel)(1)

z z(2)

z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

105

126

Duration Number122 ECC

122

(1)

Upon call completion the coast station may send the end of call acknowledgement without a request from the ship station. The EOS symbol being 127.

(2)

This call is not applicable to hand-held equipment.

NOTE 1 – See Recommendation ITU-R M.689.

NOTE 2 – For Class D symbol 123 does not need to be displayed.

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TABLE 4.10.2

Semi/auto MF/HF (optional)

Type

Applicable to

Technical format of call sequence

Ship

station

Class

A/B

Ship

station

Class D

Ship

station

Class E

Coast

station

Format

specifier

(2 iden-

tical)

Address

(5)

Category

(1)

Self-ID

(5)

Message

EOS

(1)

ECC

(1)

EOS

(2 iden-

tical)

1

2

3

1st tele

command

(1)

2nd tele-

command

(1)

Frequency

or pos

number

(6)

Number

(2-9)

TxRxTxRxTxRxTxRx

J3E RT/F1B FEC/ARQ

Request coast station

z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

Frequency Number117

ECC

117

Request ship station

z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

126 or Pos2 Number117

ECC

117

Able to comply

acknowledgement

z z z z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

Frequency Number122

ECC

122

Signal strength test by ship

(on working channel)(1)

z

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

Frequency Number117

ECC

117

Coast station acknowledgement

with new working frequency(1)

z

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

New

frequency Number122

ECC

122

Call start: Coast station

acknowledgement with same

working frequency(1)

z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI 109, 113, 115

126

Same

frequency Number122

ECC

122

Unable to comply

z z

z z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

104

100 a 109 Frequency Number122

ECC

122

End of call request (on working

channel)

z

z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

105

126

Frequency Number117

ECC

117

End of call acknowledgement (on

working channel)(2)

z z z

123

MMSI

100

MMSI

105

126

Duration Number122

ECC

122

(1)

This call involves signal strength testing. The ship requests call by sending the coast station its position. Once the ship or coast station is able to comply the ship station sends test DSCs on the

working frequency. If the coast station acknowledges with a new working frequency, the ship station sends a test DSC on the new frequency. When the coast station acknowledges with an

unchanged frequency, the subsequent communication may begin.

(2)

Upon call completion the coast station may send the end of call acknowledgement without a request from the ship station. The EOS symbol being 127.

NOTE 1 – See Recommendation ITU-R M.1082.

NOTE 2 – For Class E symbol 123 does not need to be displayed.

392

Maritime Manual

TABLE 5

Frequency or channel information

TABLE 6

Position information (Annex 1, § 8.3.2.3)

Frequency

0

1

2

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

The frequency in multiples of 100 Hz as indicated by

the figures for the digits HM, TM, M, H, T, U. This

should be used for MF, HF equipment.

3

X

X

X

X

X The HF/MF working channel number indicated by

the values of the digits TM, M, H, T and U. This

should be used for backward compatibility in receive

only mode.

Channels

8

X

X

X

X

X Only used for Recommendation ITU-R M.586

equipment.

9

0

X(1)

X

X

X The VHF working channel number indicated by the

values of the digits M, H, T and U.

HM

TM

M

H

T

U

Character

3

Character

2

Character

1(2)

(1)

If the M digit is 1 this indicates that the ship stations transmitting frequency is being used as a simplex channel

frequency for both ship and coast stations. If the M digit is 2 this indicates that the coast stations transmitting

frequency is being used as a simplex channel frequency for both ship and coast stations. If the M digit is 0, this

indicates the frequency being used is in accordance with RR Appendix 18 for both single and two frequency

channels.

(2)

Character 1 is the last character transmitted.

Quadrant

digit

NE = 0

NO = 1

SE = 2

SO = 3

Latitude

Longitude

Tens

of

degrees

Units

of

degrees

Tens

of

minutes

Units

of

minutes

Hundreds

of

degrees

Tens

of

degrees

Units

of

degrees

Tens

of

minutes

Units

of

minutes

55

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Character

6

Character

5

Character

4

Character

3

Character

2

Character

5(1)

(1)

Character 1 is the last character transmitted.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

393

Annex 2

Equipment classes

1

Equipment classes only apply to shipborne equipment

Class A equipment, which includes all the facilities defined in Annex 1, will comply

with the IMO GMDSS carriage requirements for MF/HF installations and/or VHF

installations.

Class B equipment providing minimum facilities for equipment on ships not required to

use Class A equipment and complying with the minimum IMO GMDSS carriage

requirements for MF and/or VHF installations.

Class D equipment is intended to provide minimum facilities for VHF DSC distress,

urgency and safety as well as routing calling and reception, not necessarily in full

accordance with IMO GMDSS carriage requirements for VHF installations.

Class E equipment is intended to provide minimum facilities for MF and/or HF DSC

distress, urgency and safety as well as routine calling and reception, not necessarily in

full accordance with IMO GMDSS carriage requirements for MF/HF installations.

Class A and Class B equipment may support the optional semi-automatic/automatic

service in accordance with Recommendations ITU-R M.689, ITU-R M.1082 and

Tables 4.10.1 and 4.10.2 and are encouraged to do so.

Class D and Class E equipment may also support the optional semi-automatic/automatic

service.

NOTE 1 – Class C, F and G equipment as defined in earlier versions of this Recommendation

(e.g., Recommendations ITU-R M.493-5 (Geneva, 1992) and ITU-R M.493-7 (Geneva, 1995))

did not provide vital minimum DSC functions (transmitting and receiving distress alerts) and

have therefore been withdrawn.

394

Maritime Manual

2

Class requirements for B, D and E are given in § 3, 4 and 5 (See

Tables 4.1 to 4.10.2 for technical requirements)

3

Class B (MF and/or VHF only)

3.1

Transmit capabilities

3.1.1 Format specifier:

Distress

All ships

Geographic area

Individual station

Semi-automatic/automatic service

Ships having common interest (group).

3.1.2 The numerical identification of the called station (address).

3.1.3 Category:

Distress

Urgency

Safety

Routine.

3.1.4 Self-identification (automatically inserted).

3.1.5 Messages

3.1.5.1 For distress alerts:

Message 1: Nature of distress, defaulting to undesignated distress

Message 2: Distress coordinates

Message 3: Time for last position update

Message 4: Type of subsequent communication:

MF: J3E

VHF: F3E/G3E simplex.

3.1.5.2 For distress relay calls:

First telecommand:

Distress relay

Identification of the ship:

As defined in Annex 1

Messages 1 to 4:

As § 3.1.5.1.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

395

3.1.5.3 For distress acknowledgement calls:

First telecommand:

Distress acknowledgement

Identification of the ship:

As defined in Annex 1

Messages 1 to 4:

As § 3.1.5.1.

3.1.5.4 For all other calls:

First telecommand:

Unable to comply.

MF:

For individual station calls, J3E or “test” (see

Annex 1 § 8.4); for calls using the

semi-automatic/automatic MF-services, J3E

or “end of call”.

VHF:

For individual station calls, F3E/G3E or

“polling” (see Annex 1 § 8.4); for calls using

the semi-automatic/automatic VHF-services

F3E/G3E or “end of call”.

Second telecommand:

No information.

Frequency/channel or ship’s position: As defined in Annex 1.

Selection information (semi-

automatic/automatic service):

Telephone number of public telephone

subscriber.

3.1.6 End of sequence character:

As defined in Annex 1.

3.2

Receive capabilities

3.2.1 Receive and be capable of displaying all the information in calls listed in § 3.1

plus all distress relay calls having the format specifier “geographical area calls”, all

distress acknowledgement calls and all “unable to comply” calls.

3.2.2 Audible alarm upon reception of any DSC call.

396

Maritime Manual

4

Class D (VHF only)1

4.1

Transmit capabilities

4.1.1 Format specifier:

Distress

All ships

Individual station

Ships having common interest (group).

4.1.2 The numerical identification of the called station (address).

4.1.3 Category:

Distress

Urgency

Safety

Routine.

4.1.4 Self-identification (automatically inserted).

4.1.5 Messages

4.1.5.1 For distress calls:

Message 1: Nature of distress, defaulting to undesignated distress

Message 2: Distress coordinates

Message 3: Time for last position update

Message 4: Type of subsequent communication: F3E/G3E simplex.

4.1.5.2 For all other calls:

First telecommand:

F3E/G3E simplex

Unable to comply

Polling.

Second telecommand:

No information.

Frequency/channel information:

VHF working channel, defaulting to

channel 16 for urgency and safety calls and a

recognized intership channel

(RR Appendix 18) for all other calls.

4.1.6 End of sequence character:

As defined in Annex 1.

_______________

1

Requirements for sub-category hand-held equipment are specified in Annex 1 Tables 4.1

to 4.10.2.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.493-13

397

4.2

Receive capabilities

Receive and be capable of displaying all the information in calls listed in § 4.1 plus all

distress relay calls except those having the format specifier “geographical area calls”,

all distress acknowledgement calls and all “unable to comply” calls.

5

Class E (MF and/or HF only)

5.1

Transmit capabilities

5.1.1 Format specifier:

Distress

Geographic area

Individual station

Ships having common interest (group).

5.1.2 The numerical identification of the called station (address).

5.1.3 Category:

Distress

Urgency

Safety

Routine.

5.1.4 Self-identification (automatically inserted).

5.1.5 Messages

5.1.5.1 For distress calls:

Message 1: Nature of distress, defaulting to undesignated distress

Message 2: Distress coordinates

Message 3: Time for last position update

Message 4: Type of subsequent communication J3E.

5.1.5.2 For all other calls:

First telecommand:

J3E telephony

Unable to comply

Test.

Second telecommand:

No information.

Frequency/channel information:

MF/HF working channel, on MF defaulting to

2 182 kHz for urgency and safety calls.

398

Maritime Manual

5.1.6 End of sequence character:

As defined in Annex 1.

5.2

Receive capabilities

Receive and be capable of displaying all the information in calls listed in § 5.1 plus all

distress relay calls having the format specifier “geographical area calls”, all distress

acknowledgement calls and all “unable to comply” calls.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.585-5

399

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.585-5

Assignment and use of maritime mobile service identities

(1982-1986-1990-2003-2007-2009)

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

the need for a unique ship identity for safety and telecommunication purposes;

b)

that the unique number should be the maritime mobile service identity

(MMSI);

c)

the need for this identity to be usable with automated radiocommunication

systems;

d)

that the identities assigned to ship stations, coast stations, aircraft participating

in search and rescue operations, aids to navigation, craft associated with a parent ship,

and used for establishing group calls should be of a similar nature;

e)

that it is possible to use the MMSI to establish a telephone call to a ship after

routing through the public switched networks to an appropriate coast station;

f)

that the public switched networks in many countries have restrictions on the

maximum number of digits that may be dialled or keyed to identify the called ship

station and the routing coast station, which would prevent the translation of the

complete MMSI directly into a diallable number for the ship that is compliant with

ITU-T Recommendation E.164;

g)

that whatever restrictions may be required should, in the interests of the

development of automatic shore-to-ship operations, be as few as possible;

h)

that mobile-satellite systems enable the maritime community to participate in

or interwork with international public correspondence telecommunication systems on a

fully automatic basis, utilizing the numbering, naming and addressing scheme

pertaining to the service being used;

j)

that the current generation of mobile-satellite systems participating in the

global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) have signalling and routing

characteristics requiring ships using these networks to have an MMSI ending with three

zeroes;

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Maritime Manual

k)

that the numbering scheme specified for future generations of mobile-satellite

systems participating in the GMDSS will be designed to meet the needs of the

international public correspondence service and is unlikely to offer the facility to

incorporate any part of the MMSI in a diallable number for a ship,

recommends

1

that ships complying with the International Convention for the Safety of Life

at Sea, 1974, as amended, and other ships equipped with automated

radiocommunication systems, including Automatic Identification Systems (AIS),

Digital Selective Calling (DSC), and/or carrying alerting devices of the GMDSS should

be assigned maritime mobile service identities in accordance with Annexes 1, 2, 3, 4 or

5 to this Recommendation, as appropriate;

2

that ship, coast stations, and aircraft participating in search and rescue

operations using digital selective calling equipment in accordance with

Recommendation ITU-R M.493 should use their 9-digit numerical identities transmitted

as a 10-digit address/self-identity, normally with a digit 0 added at the end of the

identity (see also Recommendation ITU-R M.1080);

3

that ship, coast stations, and non-shipborne stations using AIS equipment in

accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.1371 should use their 9-digit numerical

identities;

4

for the purpose of ensuring compatibility with the GMDSS, the numbers,

names and addresses of ship earth stations participating in international

telecommunication services should be made readily available to all authorized entities

by the telecommunication service providers concerned;

5

that the guidance given in Annex 6 to this Recommendation should be

employed regarding the reuse of MMSI, particularly those with three trailing zeroes.

Annex 1

Assignment of identification to ship station

1

Ships participating in the maritime radio services mentioned in recommends 1

should be assigned a nine digit unique ship station identity in the format

M1I2D3X4X5X6X7X8X9 where in the first three digits represent the Maritime

Identification Digits (MID) and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID denotes the

geographical area of the administration responsible for the ship station so identified.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.585-5

401

2

Restrictions may apply with respect to the maximum number of digits, which

can be transmitted on some national telex and/or telephone networks for the purpose of

ship station identification.

3

The maximum number of digits that could be transmitted over the national

networks of many countries for the purpose of determining ship station identity was six.

The digits carried on the network to represent the ship station identity are referred to as

the “ship station number” in this text and in the relevant ITU-R Recommendations. The

use of the techniques described below should have made it possible for the coast

stations of such countries to engage in the automatic connection of calls to ship stations.

To obtain the required nine digit ship station identity a series of trailing zeros would

have to be added automatically to the ship station number by the coast station in order

to complete a shore-originated telephone call, for example, carried over the public

switched telephone network:

Ship station number

Ship station identity

M1I2D3X4X5X6

M1I2D3X4X5X6070809

4

In accordance with the above, and the relevant ITU-T Recommendations, a

numbering plan was instituted for Inmarsat Standard B, C and M systems, which also

requires that MMSI with three trailing zeroes be assigned to ships fitting standard B, C

and M ship earth stations.

5

The above restrictions do not necessarily apply to Inmarsat Standard C

systems, as they are not diallable terminals from the public switched telephone network

but are only data terminals.

6

With respect to Inmarsat Standard B and M systems and as long as the above

restrictions apply, ships reasonably expected to be affected by the above limitations

should only be assigned ship station identities with X7X8X9 = 000.

7

Group ship station call identities for calling simultaneously more than one ship

are formed as follows:

01M2I3D4X5X6X7X8X9

where the first figure is zero and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID represents only

the territory or geographical area of the administration assigning the group ship station

call identity and does not therefore prevent group calls to fleets containing more than

one ship nationality.

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Maritime Manual

8

With the evolution of global mobile-satellite systems, ships earth stations are

able to participate in international public correspondence telecommunication services.

Ship earth stations having this functionality may be assigned international

telecommunication numbers that have no direct correspondence with the ship station

MMSI. Those authorized to assign the numbers, names and addresses associated with

such ship earth stations should maintain a record of the cross reference relationships

with the MMSI, for example in an appropriate database. For the purposes of GMDSS

the details of these relationships should be made available to authorized entities such as

but not limited to the Rescue Coordination Centres (RCC)1

. Such availability should be

on an automatic basis, 24 hours per day 365 days per year.

Annex 2

Assignment of identification to coast station

1

Coast stations and other stations on land participating in the maritime radio

services mentioned in recommends 2 should be assigned a nine-digit unique coast

station identity in the format 0102M3I4D5X6X7X8X9 where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent

the MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID reflects the territory or geographical

area in which the coast station or coast earth station is located.

2

As the number of coast stations decreases in many countries, an administration

may wish to assign MMSI of the format above to harbour radio stations, pilot stations,

system identities and other stations participating in the maritime radio services. The

stations concerned should be located on land or on an island in order to use the

00MIDXXXX format.

3

The administration may use the sixth digit to further differentiate between

certain specific uses of this class of MMSI, as shown in the example applications

below:

a)

00MID1XXX

Coast radio stations

b)

00MID2XXX

Harbour radio stations

c)

00MID3XXX

Pilot stations, etc.

4

This format scheme creates blocks of 999 numbers for each category of

station, however the method is optional and should be used only as a guidance. Many

other possibilities exist if the administration concerned wishes to augment the scheme.

_______________

1

IMO Resolution A.1001(25) requires that distress priority communications in these systems

should, as far as possible, be routed automatically to an RCC.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.585-5

403

5

Group coast station call identities for calling simultaneously more than one

coast station are formed as a subset of coast station identities, as follows:

0102M3I4D5X6X7X8X9

where the first two figures are zeros and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID

represents only the territory or geographical area of the administration assigning the

group coast station call identity. The identity may be assigned to stations of one

administration which are located in only one geographical region as indicated in the

relevant ITU-T Recommendations.

6

The combination 0102M3I4D506070809 should be reserved for a Group Coast

Station Identity and should address all 00MIDXXXX stations within the administration.

The administration may further augment this use with additional Group Call identities,

i.e. 00MID1111, etc.

7

For the purpose of the GMDSS the details of these MMSI assignments should

be made available to authorized entities such as, but not limited to, RCC. Such

availability should be on an automatic basis, 24 hours per day 365 days per year.

8

The combination 010293949506070809 is reserved for the All Coast Stations

Identity and should address all VHF 00XXXXXXX stations. It is not applicable to MF

or HF coast stations.

Annex 3

Assignment of identification to aircraft

1

When an aircraft is required to use maritime mobile service identities for the

purposes of conducting search and rescue communications with stations in the maritime

mobile service, the responsible administration should assign a nine-digit unique aircraft

identity, in the format 111213M4I5D6X7X8X9 where the digits 4, 5 and 6 represent the

MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID represents only the territory or

geographical area of the administration assigning the aircraft call identity.

2

The format shown above will accommodate 999 aircraft per MID. If the

administration concerned has more Search and Rescue (SAR) aircraft than 999 they

may use an additional country code (MID) if it is already assigned by the ITU.

3

The administration may use the seventh digit to differentiate between certain

specific uses of this class of MMSI, as shown in the example applications below:

a)

111MID1XX

Fixed-wing aircraft

b)

111MID5XX

Helicopters

404

Maritime Manual

4

This format scheme creates blocks of 99 numbers for each of the category of

stations, however, the method shown here is optional.

5

The combination 111213M4I5D6070809 should be reserved for a Group Aircraft

Identity and should address all 111MIDXXX stations within the administration. The

administration may further augment this with additional Group Call identities,

i.e. 111MID111, etc.

6

For the purpose of search and rescue the details of these MMSI assignments

should be made available to authorized entities such as, but not limited to, RCC. Such

availability should be on an automatic basis, 24 hours per day 365 days per year.

7

The MMSI assigned to SAR aircraft should also be available from the ITU

MARS database (see Radio Regulations (RR) No. 20.16).

Annex 4

Assignment of identification to AIS Aids to Navigation (AtoN)

1

When a means of automatic identification is required for a station aiding

navigation at sea, the responsible administration should assign a nine-digit unique

number in the format 9192M3I4D5X6X7X8X9 where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent the

MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID represents only the territory or

geographical area of the administration assigning the call identity for the navigational

aid.

2

The format shown above applies to all types of AtoN as listed in the most

recent version of Recommendation ITU-R M.1371, see AIS Message 21 parameter

“Type of aids to navigation” and the associated table for this parameter. This format is

used for all AIS stations for the transmission of messages that relate to AtoN. In the

case where an AIS base station is collocated with an AIS AtoN station the messages

related to the base station operation should be assigned an identification number in the

format given in Annex 2.

3

The format scheme shown above will accommodate 10 000 AtoN per MID. If

the administration concerned has more than 10 000 they may use an additional country

code (MID) if it is already assigned by the ITU giving a further 10 000 identities.

4

The administration may use the sixth digit to differentiate between certain

specific uses of the MMSI, as shown in the example applications below:

a)

99MID1XXX

Physical AIS AtoN

b)

99MID6XXX

Virtual AIS AtoN

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.585-5

405

5

This format scheme creates blocks of 999 numbers for each category of

station, however the method shown here is optional and should be used only as a

guidance.

6

In addition to the use of the sixth digit to differentiate between specific

navigational aids as explained above, the seventh digit may be used for national

purposes, to define areas where the AIS AtoN are located or types of AIS AtoN to the

discretion of the administration concerned.

7

The details of these MMSI assignments should be made available but not

limited to the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse

Authorities (IALA) and appropriate national authorities.

8

The assigned MMSI to aids of navigation should also be available from the

ITU MARS database (see RR No. 20.16).

Annex 5

Assignment of identification to craft associated with a parent ship

1

Craft associated with a parent ship, need unique identification. These crafts

which participate in the maritime mobile service should be assigned a nine-digit unique

number in the format 9182M3I4D5X6X7X8X9 where the digits 3, 4 and 5 represent the

MID and X is any figure from 0 to 9. The MID represents only the territory or

geographical area of the administration assigning the call identity for the craft

associated with a parent ship.

2

This numbering format is only valid for devices on board craft associated with

a parent ship. A craft may carry multiple devices which would be identified by the

MMSI assigned to the craft. These devices may be located in lifeboats, life-rafts, MOB-

boats or other craft belonging to a parent ship.

3

A unique MMSI should be assigned for each craft associated with a parent

ship and will have to be separately registered and linked to the MMSI of the parent

ship.

4

The format scheme shown above will accommodate 10 000 crafts associated

with parent ships per MID. If the administration concerned has more than 10 000 they

may use an additional country code (MID) if it is already assigned by the ITU giving a

further 10 000 identities.

5

The assigned MMSI to these craft associated with a parent ship should also be

available from the ITU MARS database (see RR No. 20.16).

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Maritime Manual

Annex 6

Guidance on the conservation and management of MMSI

1

Administrations should employ the following measures to manage the limited

MMSI numbering resource, particularly for the reuse of MMSI with three trailing

zeroes, in order to avoid depletion of MID and the corresponding MMSI series:

a)

implement effective national procedures for MMSI assignment and

registration;

b)

provide the Bureau with regular updates of assigned numbers in conformity

with RR No. 20.16;

c)

ensure that the period from the expiration of the ship station licence associated

with the number assignment until the date of reassignment of that number is

sufficient for the changes to be incorporated in the relevant ITU service

publications, taking into account the standard intervals between successive

published editions;

d)

ensure that when ships move from the flag of registration of one

administration to that of another administration, all of the assigned means of

ship station identification, including the MMSI, are reassigned as appropriate

and that the changes are notified to the Bureau as soon as possible

(see RR No. 20.16).

2

It is essential for a lapsed number assignment to remain dormant before taking

it back into use again, in order to avoid confusion over the origin of distress

communications or over the responsible parties for billing and reconciling accounts for

maritime radiocommunications.

3

The objective is to ensure that a period of five years should pass before a

lapsed MMSI is reused and entered into national and international databases pursuant to

RR No. 20.16.

4

Administrations could also apply the above procedures to MMSI assigned

with 2, 1 or no trailing zeroes in the interests of the long term conservation of MMSI

and MID resources. However these number formats are normally not critical to the

assignment of an additional MID to an administration (see Section VI of RR

Article 19).

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

407

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.628-4

Technical characteristics for search

and rescue radar transponders

(1986-1990-1992-1994-2006)

Scope

This Recommendation contains technical characteristics for search and rescue radar

transponders (SART). A SART is used for locating a ship or survival craft at sea when

it is in distress.

A ship or survival craft at sea can use a SART to indicate that it is in distress. The

SART can be detected by radars operating in the 9 GHz frequency band.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

that Regulations III/6.2.2 and IV/7.1.3 of the 1988 Amendments to the

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 require the

carriage of radar transponders operating in the 9 GHz frequency band for locating the

ship when it is in distress at sea or its survival craft;

b)

that such radar transponders may also be used by ships not subject to the 1974

SOLAS Convention; some of these radar transponders may be installed with a float-free

release and activation arrangement or with a float-free Emergency Position Indicating

Radio Beacon (EPIRB) or float-free satellite EPIRB;

c)

that Regulations V/19 of the 2000 Amendments to the 1974 SOLAS

Convention require that passenger ships irrespective of size and cargo ships of

300 gross tonnage and upwards carry a radar installation or if they are of 5 000 gross

tonnage and upwards, two radar installations; from 1 February 1995, the radar

installation or at least one of the radar installations shall be capable of operating in the

9 GHz frequency band;

d)

that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a

Recommendation on performance standards for survival craft radar transponders for use

in search and rescue operations (Resolution A.802(19));

408

Maritime Manual

e)

that location is part of the basic requirements for the GMDSS;

f)

that a locating system would be more effective if the radar transponder was in

conformity with internationally agreed technical and operating characteristics,

recommends

1

that the technical characteristics of search and rescue radar transponders

(SART) operating in the frequency range 9 200-9 500 MHz should be in accordance

with Annex 1;

2

that the maximum detection range of a SART having technical characteristics

in accordance with Annex 1 by a radar conforming with IMO Resolution MSC.192(79)

should be assessed using its measured technical characteristics in conjunction with the

theoretical method given in Annex 2;

3

Notes 1 and 2 are part of this Recommendation.

NOTE 1 – The propagation losses of a SART signal caused by a survival craft and its occupants

are explained in Annex 3.

NOTE 2 – The technical characteristics of circular polarization SARTs are described in

Annex 4.

Annex 1

Technical characteristics for search and rescue radar transponders

operating over the band 9 200-9 500 MHz

1

Frequency: 9 200-9 500 MHz.

2

Polarization: horizontal or circular.

3

Sweep rate: 5 µs per 200 MHz, nominal.

4

The response signal should consist of 12 sweeps.

5

Form of sweep: sawtooth,

forward sweep time: 7.5 µs ± 1 µs,

return sweep time: 0.4 µs ± 0.1 µs.

The response should commence with a return

sweep.

6

Pulse emission: 100 µs nominal.

7

e.i.r.p.: not less than 400 mW (equivalent to +26 dBm).

8

Effective receiver sensitivity: better than –50 dBm (equivalent to 0.1 mW/m2

)

(see Note 1).

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

409

9

Duration of operation:

96 h in stand-by condition followed by 8 h of

transponder transmissions while being

continuously interrogated with a pulse

repetition frequency of 1 kHz.

10

Temperature range: ambient: –20° C to +55° C,

stowage: –30° C to +65° C.

11

Recovery time following excitation: 10 µs or less.

12

Effective antenna height: ≥1 m (see Note 2).

13

Delay between receipt of radar signal and start of transmission: 0.5 µs or less.

14

Antenna vertical beamwidth: at least ± 12.5° relative to the radar

transponders’ horizontal plane.

15

Antenna azimuthal beamwidth: omnidirectional within ± 2 dB.

NOTE 1 – Effective receiver sensitivity includes antenna gain.

Effective receiver sensitivity of better than –50 dBm applies to interrogating radar pulses

(medium and long) of > 400 ns.

Effective receiver sensitivity of better than –37 dBm applies to interrogating radar pulses

(short) of ≤ 100 ns.

The receiver should be capable of correct operation when subjected to the radiated field

(28 dB(W/m2

)) emitted from a shipborne radar complying with IMO

Resolution MSC.192(79) at any distance > 20 m.

NOTE 2 – This effective antenna height is applicable for equipment required by

Regulations III/6.2.2 and IV/7.1.3 of the 1988 Amendments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention.

Annex 2

The maximum detection range of a SART of given or measured e.i.r.p. and effective

receiver sensitivity when deployed with a radar conforming with IMO Resolution

MSC.192(79) may be assessed using Fig. 1.

The essential parameters of the radar are:

transmitter power 25 kW,

antenna gain 30 dBi,

antenna height 15 m,

receiver sensitivity –94 dBm.

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Maritime Manual

Figure 1 shows the propagation curves for SARTs of height 0.5 m, 1 m and 1.5 m in a

fairly calm sea (wave height 0.3 m). For rougher seas, the sea reflection coefficient is

reduced and the propagation curves move back towards the free space line depending

on atmospheric refraction. For an SART of 1 m height, the maximum detection range is

at least 5 NM.

The method of using Fig. 1 is as follows:

calculate the radar received power (Pr) at range 1 NM using the formula:

Pr = SART e.i.r.p. × radar antenna gain × (λ/4 π R)2

that is Pr(dBm) = SART e.i.r.p. (dBm) –87 dB;

set the calculated Pr against point A on the radar received power scale and

complete the scale (10 dB per division);

set the SART effective receiver sensitivity (ERS) on the transponder received

power scale and read the intercept with the appropriate propagation curve at

that level to obtain the radar to SART maximum detection range;

take the –94 dBm level on the radar received power scale and read the

intercept with the appropriate propagation curve at that level to obtain the

SART to radar maximum detection range.

The smaller of the two maximum detection ranges so obtained is the required

assessment of SART maximum detection range, which should be at least 5 NM as

required by IMO Resolution A.802(19).

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

411

1

2

5

5

A

0628-01

FIG

U

RE 1

Propagation curves for m

easurem

ent of SA

R

T m

axim

um

detection range

Seaborne search (

15 m

)

H

r

=

Free space

Transponder received power, (dBm) (SART ERS)

P

tr

R
a
n
g
e
(
N
M
)

Radar received power, (dBm)

P

rr

412

Maritime Manual

Annex 3

Effects of antenna height and obstruction of the signal path by a survival

craft and its occupants on the detection range of SARTs

1

Introduction

This Annex discusses the effects on the propagation path of SART signals, taking into

account the height of the SART antenna above the surface of the sea and also the

attenuation caused by the materials of the survival craft and its occupants.

2

Effects of SART antenna height on detection range

This Recommendation requires that the height of the installed SART antenna should be

at least 1 m above the sea surface in order to obtain the five nautical mile detection

range required by IMO Resolution A.802(19). Practical tests have confirmed this

performance. Tests on a sample of six SARTs from different manufacturers gave

detection ranges between 8.2 NM and 9.2 NM with an antenna height of 1 m.

2.1

Tests have also shown the importance of maintaining a SART antenna height

of at least 1 m. The following results were obtained with a SART in a survival craft:

SART lying flat on the floor:

range 1.8 NM

SART standing upright on the floor:

range 2.5 NM

SART floating in the water:

range 2.0 NM

3

Effects of survival craft on SART signal

Tests have been made with a SART mounted on a survival craft to give a 1 m antenna

height, in order to determine whether the body of the survival craft and its occupants

may cause an obstruction.

3.1

Figures 2-4 give the results of these tests carried out on two different models

of an eight-man SOLAS life-raft. In each case, the SART was placed at the centre of a

turntable in an open field site, and was triggered with a pulsed radar signal. Each set of

measurements was conducted with and without the life-raft and "survivors" present,

keeping the SART at the centre of the turntable.

3.2

Figure 2 shows the results obtained from a SART mounted on a telescopic

pole fitted to the life-raft’s antenna mounting. In this case, the SART antenna was level

with the canopy support tube of the raft. One of the rafts had little effect on the SART

signal, whereas the other (which has carbon in the material of the support tube) caused

a dip in the signal through an angle of about 30°.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

413

3.3

Figure 3 shows the results obtained with the same rafts, but with a SART

designed to hang from the support tube, inside the canopy of the raft. A smaller loss of

signal was noted due to the carbon loaded tubes, as the signal was only passing through

the vertical sections. Dips were also noted, however, due to the presence of retro-

reflective tape on the outside of the life-raft canopies. On one raft, there was a severe

reduction in signal over a very small angle, due to the proximity of a Lithium battery

pack mounted on the canopy for powering the life-raft location light.

3.4

Figure 4 shows the blanking effect caused by a survivor holding the SART at

arm’s length. In this case however the SART height was only 0.5 m.

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Maritime Manual

4

2

0

0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

7

8

0628-02

7.5

7.2

6.5

6.1

FIGURE 2

Pole mounted SART

Relative pow

er (dB)

Azimuth angle

Signal masked by carbon loaded

canopy support tube

Mounted on raft 1

Mounted on raft 2

A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
N
M
)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

415

2

0

180

90

0

8

7

66

0628-03

7.2

6.5

6.1

FIGURE 3

SART hung inside raft

Relative pow

er (dB)

Azimuth angle

Signal masked by battery for light

Mounted in raft 1

Mounted in raft 2

A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
N
M
)

7.5

Dips caused by reflective tape

and/or carbon in support tube

416

Maritime Manual

2

0

7

6

5

7

6

5

7

6

5

0628-04

6.5

6.1

FIGURE 4

Hand-held SART

Relative pow

er (dB)

Azimuth angle

A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
r
a
n
g
e
(
N
M
)

Hand held in raft 1

5.2

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

417

3.5

On each figure approximate detection ranges are given. These are derived

theoretically assuming an 8 NM detection range for a 1 m height SART and a 7 NM

range for 0.5 m height.

3.6

It can be seen from the figures that best performance was obtained with the

pole mounted SART where the reduction in detection range due to the survival craft

was generally no more than 0.5 NM. In all cases there was reduced performance over

narrow sectors of 1.5-2.0 NM but in practice with the survival craft moving in the sea

this will not be a serious operational problem. The reduction shown in Fig. 4 caused by

a person, will not be significant in practice as a person seated in a survival craft is lower

in height than 1 m.

3.7

The above results were obtained with the survival craft dry as it was on a test

site. Table 1 gives the propagation loss for the canopy and air tube cloths used in a

number of different manufacturers’ survival crafts. The last two entries give the loss

when the materials are sprayed with sea water. It can be seen that in the worst case the

additional loss for wet material was 3.35 dB which equates to a reduction in detected

range of about a further 0.5 NM.

TABLE 1

Transmission loss through canopy of life-raft (measurement results)

Transmission loss (dB) vs. slant of

canopy

Test

Sample

Thickness

(mm)

Weight

(kg/m2

)

Slant

θ = 0° θ = 30° θ = 45° θ = 60°

1

Canopy cloth of

company A

0.18

0.22

0

–0.1

–0.2

0

2

Air tube cloth of

company A

0.53

0.7

–0.05

–0.05

–0.3

–0.2

3

Canopy cloth of

company B

0.25

0.27

0

–0.1

–0.15

–0.05

4

Air tube cloth of

company B

0.57

0.67

0

–0.4

–0.4

–0.45

5

Canopy cloth of

company C

0.26

0.3

–0.2

–0.5

–0.3

–0.4

6

Air tube cloth of

company C

0.54

0.67

–0.6

–1.4

–1.9

–2.4

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Maritime Manual

TABLE 1 (end)

4

Conclusions

The tests indicated that properly mounted SARTs will achieve the detection range

required by IMO, even allowing for the blanketing effects of the survival craft. There is

no necessity to mount the SART more than 1 m above the sea particularly if the extra

height is likely to lead to difficulties by survivors in achieving the mounting, but in

future improved antenna mountings may be feasible giving additional detection range.

4.1

The tests did not consider the effect on SART performance of a radar reflector

but it would be expected that this would seriously degrade the SART response.

Survivors are advised not to deploy a SART and a radar reflector on the same survival

craft because the reflector may obscure the SART.

Annex 4

Performance of circular polarization SARTs

Foreword

Horizontal polarization has been used as the method of polarization for SARTs. Recent

examinations in Japan have shown that circular polarization would be suitable for use

with SARTs. A SART using circular polarization with a helical antenna was made for

trial purposes, and water tank experiments and sea trials were conducted. The results

showed the superiority of circular polarization used with SARTs and it was concluded

that this will enable a reduction in the size of SARTs.

Test Sample

Thickness

(mm)

Weight

(kg/m2

)

Transmission loss (dB) vs. slant of

canopy

Slant

θ = 0° θ = 30° θ = 45° θ = 60°

7

Spraying salt

water

(4.8% NaCl)

over “1”

–0.35

–0.55

–0.95

–1.1

8

Spraying salt

water

(4.8% NaCl)

over “3”

–1.3

–1.9

–2.6

–3.4

Measurement freqency: 9.4 GHz

Sample size: 600 × 800 mm

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.628-4

419

1

Characteristics of SART signal in the tank tests

Measurements of the received power of the SART signal and observations of visibility

of the signal on radar PPI were carried out in an artificial waves water tank at a research

laboratory in Japan. The results showed that circular polarization was superior to

horizontal polarization for SARTs.

2

Characteristics of SART signal in the on-sea trial

This experiment was conducted in 2000, in cooperation with ships and aircraft of the

maritime authorities of Japan in Sagami Bay, by observing the visibility of the SART

signal on the radars on board the ships and aircraft. In the meantime, the received power

of the SART signal was measured by a land-based radar. The following results were

obtained:

a)

With aircraft radar, the maximum visible distance of the SART signal of

circular polarization was 37 NM, while that of horizontal polarization was

30 NM. This confirms the superiority of circular polarization.

b)

With marine radar, the maximum visible distance of the SART signal of

circular polarization was 14 NM, while that of horizontal polarization was

11.5 NM. These results confirm the superiority of circular polarization.

c)

With land-based marine radar, the result shown in Fig. 5 was obtained. The

SART of circular polarization was moved on the sea by an escorting small

vessel. The distance between the radar and the SART was changed. The

received power of the SART was measured by the land-based marine radar. In

Fig. 5, the black dots show the actually measured SART signal of circular

polarization, and dotted lines show the theoretical value of SART signal of

horizontal polarization. The measured data always appears above the

theoretical value curve for “SART to radar”. The appearance of the SART

signal of circular polarization on the radar PPI was stronger and clearer than

that of horizontal polarization. These results confirm the superiority of circular

polarization. The reason is as follows: Because the electric field revolves,

circular polarization is resolved in the horizontal polarization element and the

vertical polarization element. For these two composition elements, the

reflection characteristic of the surface of the sea is different. Therefore the

curve of reception strength when the direct wave and the surface of the sea

reflection wave interfere changes with distance. This phenomenon leads to the

detectable distance of a circular polarization wave SART increasing over

horizontal polarization SART by 30% or more.

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FIGURE 5

Observed data of SART signal of circular polarization and theoretical value

of horizontal polarization

Furthermore, in 2004, measurements of the received power of a SART signal were

carried out in rough weather conditions using a marine radar of a research laboratory in

Japan. As a result, it was confirmed that a SART with circular polarization was not

inferior compared with that of horizontal polarization.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

421

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.689-2

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME VHF RADIOTELEPHONE SYSTEM WITH

AUTOMATIC FACILITIES BASED ON DSC SIGNALLING FORMAT**

(Question ITU-R 93/8)

(1990-1992-1994)

Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

recommends

1.

that the operational procedures described in Annex 1 be observed when operating an

international radiotelephone system with automatic facilities based on the DSC signalling

format, and using the public correspondence channels listed in RR Appendix 18;

2.

that the same RR Appendix 18 channel can be used for both automatic and manual

operation by the same coast station depending on the requirements of the ship stations;

3.

that the technical characteristics of the ship and coast station equipment should be in

accordance with Annex 2.

ANNEX 1

Operational procedures

1.

Introduction

These procedures are initiated by using DSC on the VHF calling channel and based on

the technical characteristics and operational procedures detailed in Recommendations

ITU-R M.493 and ITU-R M.541. Connection to the PSTN is effected using any appropriate

VHF public correspondence working channel listed in RR Appendix 18 without in any way

impairing their use for manual operation.

Appendix 1 illustrates the timing of the call set-up, calling and acknowledgement

sequences described by these procedures in the ship-to-shore direction and in the shore-to-ship

direction.

_______________

**

Coast stations may also use other procedures with automatic facilities based on DSC signalling format

directly on VHF radiotelephone working channels.

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Maritime Manual

2.

Operational procedures in the ship-to-shore direction

2.1

Ship station initiates call

2.1.1

The user aboard the ship (hereafter referred to as the user) composes the calling

sequence (see Note 1) on his DSC equipment as follows:

– selects the format specifier 123 (automatic/semi-automatic service);

– enters address (identification) of required VHF coast station;

– selects the category routine (100);

– (the ship station self-identification is entered automatically);

– selects first telecommand 101 (duplex F3E/G3E) or 100 (simplex F3E/G3E) or 106 (data)

(see Note 2) and second telecommand as appropriate;

– inserts subscriber number required (e.g. telephone number);

– selects “end of sequence” signal “RQ”.

Note 1 – It is assumed that commercial equipment will be produced which simplifies the

composition of the calling sequence. In practice the user should only need to key the VHF coast

station address and the required subscriber number, all other information being inserted

automatically.

Note 2 – Duplex mode of operation should be used for data communications.

2.1.2

The user selects the VHF DSC calling channel (channel 70 of RR Appendix 18) and

initiates transmission of the sequence on the calling channel. In order to reduce the probability of

call collisions, the DSC equipment should automatically inhibit transmission of this sequence

until the calling channel is clear of any signal.

2.1.3

If the ship station does not receive an error-free acknowledgement from the called

coast station (see § 2.2) within 5 s, the calling sequence should be automatically repeated. If an

error-free acknowledgement is still not received within a further 5 s, then any further repetitions

should be effected by manually initiating a new calling sequence. Such further repetitions to the

same coast station should not, however, be initiated until at least 15 min have elapsed.

2.2

Coast station acknowledgement

2.2.1

The coast station should, within 3 s of receipt of the calling sequence, initiate the

transmission of an acknowledgement sequence on the DSC calling channel. The coast station

equipment should also automatically inhibit transmission of the acknowledgement until the

calling channel is clear.

2.2.2

If the coast station can comply immediately with the call request, then it should

immediately:

– radiate an “engaged channel” signal on the coast station transmit frequency of the

appropriate working channel;

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

423

– transmit the acknowledgement sequence which should contain the same information as in

the call request with the following exceptions:

– the address will be that of the ship;

– the self-identification will be that of the coast station;

– the working channel number will be included;

– the “end of sequence” signal will be “BQ”.

2.2.3

If the coast station cannot comply immediately with the call request due to the

appropriate working channel(s) being busy, then the acknowledgement sequence should be as in

§ 2.2.2 except that the first telecommand will be 104 (unable to comply) and the second

telecommand will be 103 (queue) if the optional ring-back procedure is applied, else 102 (busy)

and three symbols No. 126 should be included in the channel information field.

2.2.4

If the coast station cannot comply for other reasons, the acknowledgement sequence

should be as in § 2.2.3, except that the second telecommand signal should be one of symbol

numbers 100-109 as appropriate.

2.2.5

The ship station, on receipt of an error-free acknowledgement in accordance with

§ 2.2.2 (ability to comply), should, within 5 s of receipt, change to the working channel

indicated in the acknowledgement and transmit, on that working channel, a carrier for a

minimum period of 2 s. Fully automated ship station equipment should, within that transmission,

transmit a DSC call which is identical to the initial call (see § 2.1.1) except that the “end of

sequence” signal should be 127 (see Note 1).

Note 1 – In some regional applications, ships do not transmit DSC signals on the working

channels. Equipment on ships sailing beyond these regional applications and participating in the

automated service, should be able to comply with the requirements for the fully automated

service.

2.2.6

If the ship station receives an error-free acknowledgement in accordance with § 2.2.3

indicating “unable to comply – queue” then, if the user still requires the call connection, the ship

station should continue to monitor the DSC calling channel for any calls from the coast station.

2.2.7

The ship station, on receipt of an acknowledgement indicating “unable to comply” in

accordance with § 2.2.4 (or, if the coast station does not operate the “ring-back” procedure

(§ 2.3.2), in accordance with § 2.2.3), should, if an automatic connection is still required, initiate

an appropriate new call in accordance with § 2.1.

2.2.8

If the coast station transmitted an acknowledgement indicating “unable to comply” in

accordance with § 2.2.4 (or, if the coast station does not operate the “ring-back” procedure

(§ 2.3.2), in accordance with § 2.2.3), then it should take no further action with respect to the

call request.

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2.3

Procedures subsequent to the exchange of initial DSC calls

2.3.1 Mandatory procedure

2.3.1.1 If the coast station transmitted an acknowledgement indicating “able to comply”

(§ 2.2.2) then, if a DSC call (§ 2.2.5) containing the same self-identification as that of the calling

ship is detected on the coast station receive frequency of the working channel, the coast station

should immediately start to dial the required subscriber number (see Note 1, § 2.3.1.2).

2.3.1.2 If a further call identical to the original calling sequence is received from the ship

station within 16 s of receipt of the original calling sequence (see § 2.1.1) then the coast station

should repeat the acknowledgement (§ 2.2.2). If a DSC call in accordance with § 2.3.1.1

(Note 1) is not detected within this 16 s period then the coast station should remove the

“engaged channel” signal.

Note 1 – Some coast stations detect only the presence of a carrier at this stage. In areas of high-

traffic density, carrier detection may not ensure that the calling ship has transferred to the

working channel and should be avoided where practicable.

2.3.2 Optional “ring-back” procedure

The following additional sequence will tend to reduce repetitive ship calling and

provide a better service to the ship:

2.3.2.1 If the coast station transmitted an “unable to comply – queue” acknowledgement (see

§ 2.2.3) then the ship’s identification and required subscriber number should be stored until an

appropriate working channel becomes available. This information should be retained for a

period of 15 min.

2.3.2.2 If an appropriate working channel becomes available within the 15 min period, the

coast station should immediately radiate an “engaged channel” signal on the coast station

transmit frequency of that working channel and initiate a DSC call on the DSC calling channel

to the ship station with the same format as the acknowledgement (see § 2.2.2) except that the

“end of sequence” should be “RQ”. If no appropriate working channel becomes available within

this 15 min period then the information should be cleared and no further action taken by the

coast station.

2.3.2.3 If an acknowledgement of the above call is not received from the ship station (see

§ 2.3.2.4) within 5 s then the coast station should repeat the call. If there is no acknowledgement

to this second call then the ship’s call details should be cleared and the “engaged channel” signal

removed.

2.3.2.4 The ship station, on receipt of such a calling sequence (§ 2.3.2.2) should, if the call

connection is still required, automatically initiate an acknowledgement within 2 s on the calling

channel (the acknowledgement being transmitted only when the channel is clear). This

acknowledgement should be identical to the received calling sequence except that the address

should be that of the coast station, the self-identification should be that of the ship station and

the “end of sequence” should be “BQ”.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

425

2.3.2.5 The ship station should then continue to listen to the calling channel for a further 5 s,

then change to the working channel and transmit a carrier and DSC call as described in § 2.2.5.

If a further calling sequence is received within this 5 s period, the acknowledgement should be

repeated.

2.3.2.6 The coast station, after receipt of an acknowledgement from the ship station, should,

when a DSC call in accordance with § 2.3.1.1 (see Note 1, § 2.3.1.2) is detected on this working

channel, immediately start to dial the subscriber number.

2.3.2.7 If, after a period of 15 min a ship has not received a call as indicated in § 2.3.2.2 then,

if the call connection is still required, a new call should be manually initiated in accordance with

§ 2.1.1.

2.4

Call connection

2.4.1

Once the coast station begins dialling the subscriber number it should connect the line

circuit to the radio path. Timing of the call for billing purposes should commence after the

subscriber answers, i.e. “off-hook” condition detected. The call connection is now retained and

the user should commence communication as soon as the subscriber answers.

For a ship working on a duplex basis (see Note 1) the carrier must be transmitted for

the total duration of the call.

For a ship not working on a duplex basis the carrier must be activated at least once

every 45 s. Such activation, when it does not occur naturally (due to the ship transmitting)

should preferably be automatic. If automatic activation is not provided then means could be

provided to timely alert the user that carrier activation is necessary.

Note 1 – Ships capable of working duplex but using a semi-duplex operation should use the

telecommand signal 100.

2.4.2

If the called subscriber does not answer within a period of 1 min from completion of

dialling, then the call should be considered as not started and the coast station should clear the

circuit in accordance with § 2.5.5. The user, on hearing the ringing tones stop or hearing

anything other than “ringing” tones (e.g. engaged, number unobtainable, etc.) should refrain

from any further transmissions on the working channel. If a further call is required, the user

should initiate a new call on the DSC calling channel. The ship’s equipment should prevent the

transmission of a new call on the DSC calling channel until at least 5 s have elapsed after

clearance to prevent malfunction of the coast station “call completion due to ship station

clearance” procedure (see § 2.4.4.1, 2.4.4.2 and 2.5.5).

2.4.3

If a further call is attempted from the same ship within the “time-out period” (semi-

duplex operation, see § 2.4.4.2), the coast station may use the information derived from the call

to disconnect the previously allocated working channel.

2.4.4

If, during any period of the call, the coast station equipment detects the absence of the

ship’s carrier, the following procedures apply:

2.4.4.1 If the first telecommand indicated duplex operation and the coast station equipment

detects the absence of the ship’s carrier for a period greater than 5 s, then the call should be

considered to be complete.

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2.4.4.2 If the first telecommand indicated simplex operation and the coast station equipment

detects the absence of the ship’s carrier for a period greater than 45 s, then the call should be

considered to be complete.

2.4.5

If during any period of the call, a fully automated ship station equipment detects the

absence of the coast station’s carrier for a period greater than 5 s, the call should be considered

to be complete.

2.5

Call completion (Note 1, § 2.2.5 applies to § 2.5.1 to 2.5.4)

2.5.1

When the ship station wishes to terminate the call connection to the PSTN, it transmits

an “end of call” DSC call on the working channel and removes the carrier. The format of this

call should be the same as that described in § 2.1.1 except that the first telecommand should be

105 (end of call) and the second telecommand should be 126.

2.5.2

On receipt of that call (see Note 1), if it contains the same self-identification as that of

the calling ship, the landline is disconnected, the call timing is stopped, the coast station

transmits a DSC acknowledgement on the working channel within 1 s of receipt and removes its

carrier from the working channel. The format of that acknowledgement should be the same as

that described in § 2.5.1 except that the “end of sequence” signal should be BQ and:

– the chargeable duration of the call should be inserted in the “frequency/channel” field by

coding the three characters as hours, minutes, seconds, e.g. a chargeable duration of 6 min

and 50 s would be coded as 00 06 50;

– if the chargeable duration of the call is not available then the “frequency/channel” field

should contain three symbols 126.

Note 1 – Some coast stations do not recognize this “end of call” DSC call or transmit the above

acknowledgement but rely solely on the procedures described in § 2.5.5.

2.5.3

If the coast station receives a second “end of call” DSC from the ship station within 4 s

then it should repeat the procedure given in § 2.5.2.

2.5.4

If the ship station does not receive an “end of call acknowledgement” within 2 s then it

should automatically repeat the “end of call”, then after a further 2 s or after receipt of an “end

of call acknowledgement” (whichever occurs first) it should consider the call to be complete and

remove the carrier from the working channel.

2.5.5

If the coast station does not receive the “end of call” as described in § 2.5.1, then the

call will be considered to be complete when the “on-hook” condition is detected from the PSTN

or if no reply within 1 min or loss of ship’s carrier for more than 5 s (duplex) or 45 s (simplex) is

detected (see § 2.4.2 to 2.4.4.2). When this indication is registered at the coast station, the

following action should take place:

– call timing is stopped;

– the line is cleared and disconnected from the radio circuit;

– the coast station transmits an “end of call” DSC call whose format is the same as that of the

acknowledgement described in § 2.5.2 except that the “end of sequence” signal should be

127;

– the coast station’s carrier is removed from the working channel.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

427

The radio channel is now free to handle other traffic.

2.5.6

If the ship station detects the absence of the coast station’s carrier for a period greater

than 5 s, then it should cease to transmit on the working channel. If further calls are required by

the ship then a new call should be initiated on the DSC calling channel.

3.

Operational procedures in the shore-to-ship direction

3.1

Coast station initiates call

3.1.1

The equipment of a VHF coast station should provide the capability to distinguish the

ship’s identity, in accordance with Recommendation ITU-R M.585, when transmitted from the

PSTN.

3.1.2

When receiving a call request from the PSTN and if there is a working channel

available, the coast station equipment should radiate an engaged channel signal on the coast

station transmit frequency of that working channel.

3.1.3

If the coast station cannot comply immediately with the call request because no

working channel is available, then it should transmit a busy signal to the calling subscriber.

3.1.4

If there is a working channel available and a ship’s identity is detected in accordance

with § 3.1.1, the coast station should transmit a calling sequence on the DSC calling channel in

accordance with the following conditions:

– the format specifier will be 123 (automatic/semi-automatic service),

– the address will be that of the ship,

– the category will be 100 (routine),

– the self-identification will be that of the coast station,

– the first telecommand will be 101 (duplex F3E/G3E) or 100 (simplex F3E/G3E) or 106

(data) (see Note 1) and second telecommand as appropriate,

– the working channel number will be included,

– the PSTN subscriber number may follow if known,

– the “end of sequence” signal will be RQ.

Note 1 – Duplex mode of operation should be used for data communications.

3.1.5

If the coast station has not received an error-free acknowledgement from the called

ship station (see § 3.2) within 5 s, the calling sequence should be repeated automatically. If an

error-free acknowledgement of the repeated call is not received within the following 5 s, the call

is regarded as not started. The engaged channel signal is then removed and a busy signal is

transmitted to the calling subscriber for 5 s, after which the line is cleared.

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Maritime Manual

3.2

Ship station acknowledgement

3.2.1

On receipt of an error-free calling sequence in accordance with § 3.1.4, the ship station

should, within 3 s of receiving it, automatically initiate the transmission of an acknowledgement

sequence on the DSC calling channel.

3.2.2

If the ship station can comply immediately with the call request, the acknowledgement

sequence should contain the same information as in the call request (§ 3.1.4), with the following

exceptions:

– the address will be that of the coast station,

– the self-identification will be that of the ship,

– the first and second telecommands will be as appropriate,

– the “end of sequence” signal will be BQ.

3.2.3

If the ship station cannot comply immediately with the call request, the

acknowledgement sequence should be as in § 3.2.2, except that the first telecommand should be

104 (unable to comply) and the second telecommand should be as appropriate to indicate the

reason for being unable to comply or symbol No. 126.

3.2.4

If the coast station receives an acknowledgement in accordance with § 3.2.2 then it

should transmit a ringing signal to the calling subscriber.

3.2.5

If the coast station receives an acknowledgement in accordance with § 3.2.3 then it

should remove the engaged channel signal and transmit a busy signal to the calling subscriber

for 5 s and then release the line.

3.3

Procedures subsequent to the exchange of initial DSC calls

3.3.1

If the ship station transmitted an acknowledgement in accordance with § 3.2.2 then it

should continue to listen to the calling channel for a further 5 s, and when the ship subscriber

indicates that he is able to accept the call (e.g. by lifting the handset) it should change to the

working channel and transmit a carrier as described in § 2.2.5. A DSC call, if contained within

that transmission, should be in accordance with § 3.2.2. If a further calling sequence in

accordance with § 3.1.4 is received within this 5 s period, the acknowledgement should be

repeated. If the ship subscriber does not accept the call within 1 min then the call should be

considered as not started and the procedures described in § 2.4.2 to 2.5.5 applied.

3.3.2

If the coast station does not receive a transmission on the working channel within

1 min, the call is regarded as not started, the carrier is removed from the working channel, and a

busy signal is transmitted to the calling subscriber for 5 s, after which the PSTN subscriber is

disconnected from the coast station.

3.4

Call connection

The coast station, on receipt of a transmission on the working channel in accordance

with § 3.3.1, should stop transmitting the ringing signal to the calling subscriber and begin

timing the call.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

429

3.5

Call completion

The procedures for completion of the call should be as described in § 2.5, except that

indication of chargeable duration of the call in the “end of call” sequence to the ship may be

omitted.

APPENDIX 1*

Timing diagram of call set-up sequences when the ship station

initiates the call

Coast station able to comply

Coast station unable to comply (busy)

Time

(s)

Ship

Coast station

Ship

Coast station

0

Initiate call (§ 2.1.2)

Initiate call (§ 2.1.2)

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receive call and

radiate engaged

channel signal

(§ 2.2.2)

Receive call

2

3

4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initiate

acknowledgement

(able) (§ 2.2.2)

Initiate

acknowledgement

(unable) (§ 2.2.3 and

2.2.4)

Store ship ID and

telephone number

(§ 2.3.2.1) if “ring back”

procedure

5

Receive

acknowledgement

(§ 2.2.5) {or initiate 2nd

call (§ 2.1.3)}

Receive

acknowledgement and

continue monitoring

DSC channel (§ 2.2.4)

{or initiate 2nd call

(§ 2.1.3)}

6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {Receive 2nd call (and

radiate engaged

channel signal if 1st

call not received –

§ 2.2.2)}

{Receive 2nd call}

7

8

9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {Initiate

acknowledgement due

to 2nd call (§ 2.3.1.2

and § 2.2.2)}

{Initiate

acknowledgement due to

2nd call (§ 2.3.1.2,

§ 2.2.2.3 and § 2.2.2.4)}

_______________

*

This timing diagram is only applicable to fully automated ship station equipment that operate with coast

stations employing DSC signalling on the working channels.

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Maritime Manual

Coast station able to comply

Coast station unable to comply (busy)

Time

(s)

Ship

Coast station

Ship

Coast station

10 Transmit carrier and DSC

call on working channel

(§ 2.2.5)

{or receive “2nd”

acknowledgement}

{Receive “2nd”

acknowledgement and

continue monitoring

DSC channel (§ 2.2.6)}

11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recognize DSC call

then dial (§ 2.3.1.1)

12

13

14

15 {If not already done so,

transmit carrier and DSC

call on working channel

(§ 2.2.5)}

16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {If not already done so,

recognize DSC call then

dial (§ 2.3.1.1)}

17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {If no DSC call

recognized, remove

engaged channel signal

and delete calling record

(§ 2.3.1.2)}

=

=

< = 15 min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

If working channel

available then radiate

engaged channel signal

on working channel and

transmit DSC “ring-

back” call (§ 2.3.2.2)

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receive “ring-back”

call

6

7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit “ring-back”

acknowledgement

(§ 2.3.2.4)

8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Receive “ring-back”

acknowledgement

9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

{Initiate 2nd “ring-back”

call (§ 2.3.2.3)}

10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {Receive 2nd “ring-

back” call}

11

12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit carrier and

DSC call on working

channel {and transmit

acknowledgement due

to 2nd call} (§ 2.3.2.5)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

431

Coast station able to comply

Coast station unable to comply (busy)

Time

(s)

Ship

Coast station

Ship

Coast station

13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Recognize DSC call

then dial (§ 2.3.2.6)

{and receive “2nd”

“ring-back”

acknowledgement}

14

15

16

17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {If not already done

so, transmit carrier and

DSC call on working

channel due to 2nd call

(§ 2.3.2.5)}

18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

{If not already done so

recognize DSC call then

dial (§ 2.3.2.6) or, if no

DSC call and

acknowledgement,

remove engaged channel

signals and clear call

details (§ 2.3.2.3)}

Timing diagram of call set-up sequences when the coast station

initiates the call

Time

(s)

Coast station

Ship station

0 Transmit DSC call on calling channel (§ 3.1.4) and

engaged channel signal on the reserved working

channel (§ 3.1.2)

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receive call on calling channel (§ 3.2.1)

4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initiate acknowledgement able (§ 3.2.2) or unable

(§ 3.2.3)

5 Receive acknowledgement on calling channel

If able, transmit ringing signal to the calling subscriber

(§ 3.2.4)

If unable, remove the engaged channel signal and

transmit a busy signal to the calling subscriber (§ 3.2.5)

6 {Transmit 2nd call if error-free acknowledgement not

received (§ 3.1.5)}

7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {Receive 2nd call (§ 3.3.1)}

10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . {Transmit 2nd acknowledgement (§ 3.3.1)}

11 {Receive 2nd acknowledgement (§ 3.3.1)}

If error-free acknowledgement still not received,

remove the engaged channel signal and transmit a busy

signal to the calling subscriber (§ 3.2.5)

432

Maritime Manual

Time

(s)

Coast station

Ship station

≤ 71

Lift handset and transmit within 5 s on working

channel (§ 3.3.1)

76 Receive call on working channel (§ 3.4). Connect radio

path to the calling subscriber. If no call received,

remove the engaged channel signal, transmit a busy

signal to the calling subscriber and release the line

(§ 3.3.2)

Note 1 – Timing diagram assumes 1 s between call initiation and reception and assumes maximum timing

between calls and acknowledgements.

Note 2 – Sequences in parentheses { . . . } are only applicable if repeat calls or acknowledgements are

necessary.

ANNEX 2

Technical characteristics

1.

Ship station

1.1

The DSC equipment should meet the VHF technical characteristics detailed in

Recommendation ITU-R M.493, Annexes 1 or 2. This equipment need not necessarily provide

all combinations of codes, e.g. it may be simplified DSC equipment (with no distress functions),

but it must provide all the necessary formats for automatic/semi-automatic VHF DSC signalling.

1.2

The VHF transceiver should be capable of operating on all public correspondence

working channels listed in RR Appendix 18 and on the DSC calling channel and be capable of

automatic channel selection and carrier transmission under control of the DSC equipment.

1.3

The equipment should be capable of sensing the presence of a signal on the DSC

calling channel (see RR Appendix 19).

1.4

After initiation of a DSC call, the equipment should be capable of automatic

prevention of the transmission of that call, when the calling channel is occupied by calls (see RR

Appendix 19).

1.5

The equipment should be capable of operating in accordance with the operational

procedures described in Annex 1.

2.

Coast station

2.1

The DSC equipment should meet the VHF technical characteristics detailed in

Recommendation ITU-R M.493, Annex 1. The installation should be capable of receiving and

transmitting all types of VHF DSC calls on the DSC calling channel.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.689-2

433

2.2

The VHF installation should be capable of operating in full duplex mode on the coast

station’s designated public correspondence working channels and in simplex mode on the DSC

calling channel.

2.3

After initiation of a DSC call, the equipment should be capable of automatic

prevention of the transmission of that call when the calling channel is occupied by calls (see RR

Appendix 19).

2.4

The coast station equipment should be capable of detecting the presence of a DSC call

on a working channel and also the line subscriber’s “off-hook” and “on-hook” conditions.

2.5

The coast station should be capable of radiating an “engaged channel” signal on any of

its working channels which should be dissimilar from any present line signalling tones.

2.6

The equipment should be capable of operating in accordance with the operational

procedures described in Annex 1.

434

Maritime Manual

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1138-2

Determination of necessary bandwidths including examples

for their calculation and associated examples for

the designation of emissions

(1995-2007-2008)

Annex 1

Determination of necessary bandwidths, including examples for their

calculation and associated examples for the designation of emissions

1

The necessary bandwidth is not the only characteristic of an emission to be

considered in evaluating the interference that may be caused by that emission.

2

In the formulation of the table, the following terms have been employed:

Bn: necessary bandwidth (Hz)

B: modulation rate (Bd)

N: maximum possible number of black plus white elements to be transmitted

per second, in facsimile

M: maximum modulation frequency (Hz)

C: sub-carrier frequency (Hz)

D: peak deviation, i.e. half the difference between the maximum and

minimum values of the instantaneous frequency. The instantaneous

frequency (Hz) is the time rate of change in phase (rad) divided by 2π

t: pulse duration (s) at half-amplitude

tr: pulse rise time (s) between 10% and 90% amplitude

K: an overall numerical factor which varies according to the emission and

which depends upon the allowable signal distortion. In the case of

orthogonal frequency division multiplexed multi-carrier signal, K is the

number of active sub-carriers as defined by equation (52) in

Recommendation ITU-R SM.328

Nc: number of baseband channels in radio systems employing multichannel

multiplexing

Part C – Rec. ITU-R SM.1138-2

435

fp: continuity pilot sub-carrier frequency (Hz) (continuous signal utilized to

verify performance of frequency-division multiplex systems)

Ns: frequency separation between two sub-carriers (kHz).

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

I. NO MODULATING SIGNAL

Continuous wave

emission

NONE

II. AMPLITUDE MODULATION

1. Signal with quantized or digital information

Continuous wave

telegraphy, Morse code

Bn = BK

K = 5 for fading

circuits

K = 3 for non-fading

circuits

25 words per minute

B = 20, K = 5

Bandwidth: 100 Hz

100HA1AAN

Telegraphy by on-off

keying of a tone

modulated carrier,

Morse code

Bn = BK + 2M

K = 5 for fading

circuits

K = 3 for non-fading

circuits

25 words per minute

B = 20, M = 1 000, K = 5

Bandwidth: 2 100 Hz = 2.1 kHz

2K10A2AAN

Selective calling signal

using sequential single

frequency code, single-

sideband full carrier

Bn = M

Maximum code frequency is:

2 110 Hz

M = 2 110

Bandwidth: 2 110 Hz = 2.11 kHz

2K11H2BFN

Direct-printing

telegraphy using a

frequency shifted

modulating sub-carrier,

with error-correction,

single-sideband,

suppressed carrier

(single channel)

Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

B

M =

B = 50

D = 35 Hz (70 Hz shift)

K = 1.2

Bandwidth: 134 Hz

134HJ2BCN

Telegraphy,

multichannel with

voice frequency,

error-correction, some

channels are time-

division multiplexed,

single-sideband,

reduced carrier

Bn = highest central

frequency + M + DK

2

B

M =

15 channels;

highest central frequency is:

2 805 Hz

B = 100

D = 42.5 Hz (85 Hz shift)

K = 0.7

Bandwidth: 2 885 Hz = 2.885 kHz

2K89R7BCW

2. Telephony (commercial quality)

Telephony,

double-sideband

(single channel)

Bn = 2M

M = 3 000

Bandwidth: 6 000 Hz = 6 kHz

6K00A3EJN

436

Maritime Manual

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

2. Telephony (commercial quality)

Telephony, single-

sideband,

full carrier (single

channel)

Bn = M

M = 3 000

Bandwidth: 3 000 Hz = 3 kHz

3K00H3EJN

Telephony, single-

sideband,

suppressed carrier

(single channel)

Bn = M – lowest

modulation frequency

M = 3 000

lowest modulation frequency =

300 Hz

Bandwidth: 2 700 Hz = 2.7 kHz

2K70J3EJN

Telephony with

separate frequency

modulated signal to

control the level of

demodulated speech

signal, single-sideband,

reduced carrier

(Lincompex) (single

channel)

Bn = M

Maximum control frequency =

2 990 Hz

M = 2 990

Bandwidth: 2 990 Hz = 2.99 kHz

2K99R3ELN

Telephony with

privacy, single-

sideband, suppressed

carrier (two or more

channels)

Bn = Nc M – lowest

modulation frequency

in the lowest channel

Nc = 2

M = 3 000

lowest modulation frequency =

250 Hz

Bandwidth: 5 750 Hz = 5.75 kHz

5K75J8EKF

Telephony,

independent sideband

(two or more channels)

Bn = sum of M for each

sideband

2 channels

M = 3 000

Bandwidth: 6 000 Hz = 6 kHz

6K00B8EJN

3. Sound broadcasting

Sound broadcasting,

double-sideband

Bn = 2M

M may vary between

4 000 and 10 000

depending on the

quality desired

Speech and music

M = 4 000

Bandwidth: 8 000 Hz = 8 kHz

8K00A3EGN

Sound broadcasting,

single-sideband,

reduced carrier (single

channel)

Bn = M

M may vary between

4 000 and 10 000

depending on the

quality desired

Speech and music

M = 4 000

Bandwidth: 4 000 Hz = 4 kHz

4K00R3EGN

Sound broadcasting,

single-sideband,

suppressed carrier

Bn = M – lowest

modulation frequency

Speech and music

M = 4 500

lowest modulation frequency =

50 Hz

Bandwidth: 4 450 Hz = 4.45 kHz

4K45J3EGN

Part C – Rec. ITU-R SM.1138-2

437

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

4. Television

Television, vision and

sound

Refer to relevant

ITU-R documents for

the bandwidths of the

commonly used

television systems

Number of lines: 625

Nominal video bandwidth = 5 MHz

Sound carrier relative to

video carrier: 5.5 MHz

Total vision Bandwidth: 6.25 MHz

FM sound bandwidth including

guardbands: 750 kHz

RF channel Bandwidth: 7 MHz

6M25C3F --

750KF3EGN

5. Facsimile

Analogue facsimile by

sub-carrier frequency

modulation of a single-

sideband emission with

reduced carrier,

monochrome

Bn = C +

2

N

+ DK

K = 1.1

(typically)

N = 1 100 corresponding to an index

of cooperation of 352 and a cycler

rotation speed of 60 rpm. Index of

cooperation is the product of the

drum diameter and number of lines

per unit length.

C = 1 900

D = 400 Hz

Bandwidth: 2 890 Hz = 2.89 kHz

2K89R3CMN

Analogue facsimile;

frequency modulation

of an audio frequency

sub-carrier which

modulates the main

carrier, single-sideband

suppressed carrier

Bn = 2M + 2DK

M =

2

N

K = 1.1

(typically)

N = 1 100

D = 400 Hz

Bandwidth: 1 980 Hz = 1.98 kHz

1K98J3C --

6. Composite emissions

Double-sideband,

television relay

Bn = 2C + 2M + 2D

Video limited to 5 MHz, audio on

6.5 MHz, frequency modulated

sub-carrier, sub-carrier deviation =

50 kHz:

C = 6.5 × 106

D = 50 × 103

Hz

M = 15 000

Bandwidth: 13.13 × 106

Hz

= 13.13 MHz

13M1A8W --

Double-sideband

radio-relay system,

frequency division

multiplex

Bn = 2M

10 voice channels occupying

baseband between 1 kHz and

164 kHz

M = 164 000

Bandwidth: 328 000 Hz = 328 kHz

328KA8E --

438

Maritime Manual

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

6. Composite emissions

Double-sideband

emission of VOR with

voice

(VOR: VHF

omnidirectional

radio range)

Bn = 2Cmax + 2M +

2DK

K = 1

(typically)

The main carrier is modulated by:

– a 30 Hz sub-carrier

– a carrier resulting from a

9 960 Hz tone frequency modulated

by a 30 Hz tone

– a telephone channel

– a 1 020 Hz keyed tone for

continual Morse identification

Cmax = 9 960

M = 30

D = 480 Hz

Bandwidth: 20 940 Hz = 20.94 kHz

20K9A9WWF

Independent sidebands;

several telegraph

channels with error-

correction together

with several telephone

channels with privacy;

frequency division

multiplex

Bn = sum of M for each

sideband

Normally composite systems are

operated in accordance with

standardized channel arrangements

(e.g. Rec. ITU-R F.348).

3 telephone channels and

15 telegraphy channels require

the bandwidth:

12 000 Hz = 12 kHz

12K0B9WWF

7. Standard frequency and time signals

7.1 High frequency (voice)

Voice announcements,

double-sideband

Bn = 2M

Speech

M = 4 000

Bandwidth: 8 000 Hz = 8 kHz

8K00A3XGN

7.2. High frequency (time code)

Time code as

telegraphy

Bn = BK + 2M

B = 1/s

M = 1

K = 5

Bandwidth: 7 Hz

7H00A2XAN

7.3. Low frequency (time code)

Time code as

telegraphy

Bn = BK + 2M

B = 1/s

M = 1

K = 3

Bandwidth: 5 Hz

5H00A2XAN

Part C – Rec. ITU-R SM.1138-2

439

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

III-A. FREQUENCY MODULATION

1. Signal with quantized or digital information

Telegraphy without

error-correction (single

channel)

Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

B

M =

K = 1.2

(typically)

B = 100

D = 85 Hz (170 Hz shift)

Bandwidth: 304 Hz

304HF1BBN

Telegraphy, narrow-

band direct-printing

with error-correction

(single channel)

Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

B

M =

K = 1.2

(typically)

B = 100

D = 85 Hz (170 Hz shift)

Bandwidth: 304 Hz

304HF1BCN

Selective calling signal Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

B

M =

K = 1.2

(typically)

B = 100

D = 85 Hz (170 Hz shift)

Bandwidth: 304 Hz

304HF1BCN

Four-frequency duplex

telegraphy

Bn = 2M + 2DK

B: modulation rate

(Bd) of the faster

channel.

If the channels are

synchronized:

2

B

M =

(otherwise,

M = 2B)

K = 1.1

(typically)

Spacing between adjacent

frequencies = 400 Hz

Synchronized channels

B = 100

M = 50

D = 600 Hz

Bandwidth: 1 420 Hz = 1.42 kHz

1K42F7BDX

2. Telephony (commercial quality)

Commercial telephony Bn = 2M + 2DK

K = 1

(typically, but under

certain conditions a

higher value of K may

be necessary)

For an average case of commercial

telephony,

D = 5 000 Hz

M = 3 000

Bandwidth: 16 000 Hz = 16 kHz

16K0F3EJN

3. Sound broadcasting

Sound broadcasting

Bn = 2M + 2DK

K = 1

(typically)

Monaural

D = 75 000 Hz

M = 15 000

Bandwidth: 180 000 Hz = 180 kHz

180KF3EGN

440

Maritime Manual

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

4. Facsimile

Facsimile by direct

frequency modulation

of the carrier; black

and white

Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

N

M =

K = 1.1

(typically)

N = 1 100 elements/s

D = 400 Hz

Bandwidth: 1 980 Hz = 1.98 kHz

1K98F1C --

Analogue facsimile

Bn = 2M + 2DK

2

N

M =

K = 1.1

(typically)

N = 1 100 elements/s

D = 400 Hz

Bandwidth: 1 980 Hz = 1.98 kHz

1K98F3C --

5. Composite emissions (see Table III-B)

Radio-relay system,

frequency division

multiplex

Bn = 2fp + 2DK

K = 1

(typically)

60 telephone channels occupying

baseband between 60 kHz and

300 kHz;

r.m.s. per-channel deviation:

200 kHz; continuity pilot at

331 kHz produces 100 kHz r.m.s.

deviation of main carrier.

D = 200 × 103

× 3.76 × 2.02

= 1.52 × 106

Hz

fp = 0.331 × 106

Hz

Bandwidth: 3.702 × 106

Hz

= 3.702 MHz

3M70F8EJF

Radio-relay system,

frequency division

multiplex

Bn = 2M + 2DK

K = 1

(typically)

960 telephone channels occupying

baseband between 60 kHz and

4 028 kHz; r.m.s. per-channel

deviation: 200 kHz;

continuity pilot at 4 715 kHz

produces 140 kHz r.m.s. deviation

of main carrier.

D = 200 × 103

× 3.76 × 5.5

= 4.13 × 106

Hz

M = 4.028 × 106

fp = 4.715 × 106

(2M + 2DK) > 2 fp

Bandwidth: 16.32 × 106

Hz =

16.32 MHz

16M3F8EJF

Part C – Rec. ITU-R SM.1138-2

441

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

5. Composite emissions (see Table III-B)

Radio-relay system,

frequency division

multiplex

Bn = 2fp

600 telephone channels occupying

baseband between 60 kHz and

2 540 kHz;

r.m.s. per-channel deviation:

200 kHz;

continuity pilot at 8 500 kHz

produces

140 kHz r.m.s. deviation of main

carrier.

D = 200 × 103

× 3.76 × 4.36

= 3.28 × 106

Hz

M = 2.54 × 106

K = 1

fp = 8.5 × 106

(2M + 2DK) < 2 fp

Bandwidth: 17 × 106

Hz = 17 MHz

17M0F8EJF

Stereophonic sound

broadcasting with

multiplexed subsidiary

telephony sub-carrier

Bn = 2M + 2DK

K = 1

(typically)

Pilot tone system;

M = 75 000

D = 75 000 Hz

Bandwidth: 300 000 Hz = 300 kHz

300KF8EHF

442

Maritime Manual

III-B. MULTIPLYING FACTORS FOR USE IN COMPUTING D,

PEAK FREQUENCY DEVIATION, IN FM FREQUENCY DIVISION

MULTIPLEX (FM-FDM) MULTI-CHANNEL EMISSSIONS

For FM-FDM systems the necessary bandwidth is:

Bn = 2M + 2DK

The value of D, or peak frequency deviation, in these formulae for Bniscalculated by multiplying the

r.m.s. value of per-channel deviation by the appropriate “multiplying factor” shown below.

In the case where a continuity pilot of frequency fp exists above the maximum modulation frequency M,

the general formula becomes:

Bn = 2fp + 2DK

In the case where the modulation index of the main carrier produced by the pilot is less than 0.25, and the

rms frequency deviation of the main carrier produced by the pilot is less than or equal to 70% of the r.m.s.

value of per-channel deviation, the general formula becomes either:

Bn = 2fp or Bn = 2M + 2DK

whichever if greater.

Multiplying factor(1)

Number of

telephone channels

Nc

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª

×

20

level

reference

modulation

above

dB

in

value

antilog

)

factor

Peak
(

3 < Nc < 12

avalueindBspecifiedbytheequipmentmanufacturer or

stationlicensee, subjecttoadministrationapproval

4.47antilog

20

×

ª

º

«

»

«

»

«

»

¬

¼

12 ≤ Nc < 60

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª +

×

20

log

2

2.6

antilog

76
.
3

c

N

Multiplying factor(2)

Number of

telephone channels

Nc

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª

×

20

level

reference

modulation

above

dB

in

value

antilog

)

factor

Peak
(

60 ≤ Nc < 240

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª +

×

20

log

4

–1

antilog

76
.
3

c

N

Nc ≥ 240

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª +

×

20

log

0

1

–15

antilog

76
.
3

c

N

(1)

In the above chart, the multipliers 3.76 and 4.47 correspond to peak factors of 11.5 and 13.0 dB,

respectively.

(2)

In the above chart, the multipliers 3.76 correspond to peak factors of 11.5 dB.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R SM.1138-2

443

Description

of emission

Necessary bandwidth

Designation

of emission

Formula

Sample calculation

IV. PULSE MODULATION

1. Radar

Unmodulated pulse

emission

t

K

B

n

2

=

K depends upon the

ratio of pulse duration

to pulse rise time. Its

value usually falls

between 1 and 10 and

in many cases it does

not need to exceed 6

Primary radar

range resolution = 150 m

K = 1.5 (triangular pulse

where t~ tr,

only components down to 27 dB

from the strongest are considered)

Then:

»
¼

º

«
¬

ª×

=

light

of

velocity

)
resolution

(range

2

t

8

10

3

150

2

×

×

=

= 1 × 10–6

s

Bandwidth: 3 × 106

Hz = 3 MHz

3M00P0NAN

2. Composite emissions

Radio-relay system

t

K

B

n

2

=

K = 1.6

Pulse position modulated by 36

voice channel baseband; pulse

width at half amplitude = 0.4 µs

Bandwidth: 8 × 106

Hz = 8 MHz

(Bandwidth independent of the

number of voice channels)

8M00M7EJT

3. Standard frequency and time signals

3.1 High frequency (tone bursts)

Ticks used for

epoch measurement

Bn = 2/tr

tr = 1 ms

Bandwidth: 2 000 Hz = 2 kHz

2K00K2XAN

3.2 Low frequency (time code)

Time code leading

edge used for epoch

measurement

Bn = 2/tr

tr = 1 ms

Bandwidth = 2 000 Hz = 2 kHz

2K00K2XAN

V. MISCELLANEOUS

Orthogonal

frequency division

multiplexing

(OFDM) or coded

OFDM (COFDM)

Bn = Ns·K

53 active sub-carriers are used,

each spaced 312.5 kHz apart

(K= 53 and Ns = 312.5 kHz). Data

sub-carriers can be BPSK, QPSK,

QAM modulated

Bn = 312.5 kHz × 53 = 16.6 MHz

16M6W7D

444

Maritime Manual

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1467-1

Prediction of sea area A2 and NAVTEX ranges and protection

of the A2 global maritime distress and safety

system distress watch channel

(Question ITU-R 92/8)

(2000-2006)

Annex 1

Prediction of A2 and NAVTEX ranges

1

Overview

In order to establish a new A2 sea area it is necessary to account for variations in the

propagation conditions. A2 coverage is by groundwave, which is largely stable,

enabling the extent of the service area to be confirmed by measurement, as is

recommended by the IMO, before committing capital expenditure.

The design criteria to be used for establishing A2 and NAVTEX sea areas are defined

by the IMO in Annex 3 to their Resolution A.801(19).

2

Prediction of A2 and NAVTEX ranges

2.1

IMO performance criteria

The criteria developed by the IMO for determination of A2 and NAVTEX ranges are

reproduced in Table 1 and should be used in the determination of ranges for A2 and

NAVTEX services.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

445

TABLE 1

Performance criteria for A2 and NAVTEX transmissions

2.2

Achieving the required quality of signal

2.2.1 The effect of received noise

On a very quiet site, man-made noise dominates below 4 MHz and galactic noise

above. These combine, at the receive antenna with seasonal levels of atmospheric noise,

and also transmitter sideband noise, as shown in Fig. 1. Recommendation ITU-R P.372

should be used to account for atmospheric and normal man-made noise levels.

Distress channel

Radiotelephony

DSC

ARQ NBDP

NAVTEX

Frequency (kHz)

2 182

2 187.5

2 174.50

490 and 518

Bandwidth (Hz)

3 000

300

300

300

Propagation

Groundwave

Groundwave

Groundwave

Groundwave

Ship’s power (W)

60

60

60

Ship’s antenna efficiency

(%)

25

25

25

25

RF full bandwidth signal/

noise ratio (S/N) (dB)

9

12

18 min(1)

8

Mean Tx power below

peak (dB)

8

0

0

0

Fading margin (dB)

3

Not stated

3

IMO reference for above

Res. A.801(19)

Res. A.804(19)

Rec. ITU-R F.339

Res. A.801(19)

Availability required (%)

95(2)

Not stated

Not stated

90

DSC: digital selective calling

NBDP: narrow-band direct printing

(1)

Stated as 43 dB(Hz) under stable and 52 dB(Hz) under fading conditions with 90% traffic efficiency.

(2)

Availability can be relaxed to 90% in cases where the noise data used or performance achieved can be proven by

measurement.

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Paragraph 3.5 should be used to ensure that the levels of transmitter sideband noise and

intermodulation products reaching the receive antenna by groundwave do not exceed

the tolerable limit for protection of the A2 DSC watch frequency.

2.2.2 C/N required for single sideband (SSB) radiotelephony

In order to maintain the intelligibility of a received SSB radiotelephony signal it is

necessary to provide the operator with a minimum AF signal/noise plus distortion ratio

(SINAD), which in turn defines the RF C/N required at the receive antenna.

The capture range for an A2 receive system should be calculated assuming an RF C/N

density figure of 52 dB(Hz) at the shore-based receive antenna. This will ensure that a

ship’s transmitter operating with a peak-to-mean ratio of 8 dB provides the shore-based

operator with a 9 dB S/N in a 3 000 Hz bandwidth, as stipulated by the IMO.

The receive antenna and multicoupler should be designed to offer good linearity to

minimize the risk of intermodulation products being generated on the watch

frequencies. With good electronic design the noise generated within the receive system

itself can be ignored below 3 MHz.

2.2.3 C/N required for NAVTEX broadcasts

The transmit range for NAVTEX broadcasts should be calculated assuming an RF C/N

density figure of 35 dB(Hz) at the ship’s antenna. This will ensure that the NAVTEX

receiver is provided with an RF S/N of 8 dB in a 300 Hz bandwidth.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

447

2.3

Accounting for ships topside noise

Topside noise refers to the environmental noise generated by ship-borne machinery,

and other sources, and a figure is required for entry into NOISEDAT and other

programs. Table 2 shows a number of published figures, and for reference purposes

includes galactic and quasi-minimum noise levels, which is accepted as representing the

best achievable noise floor.

TABLE 2

Naval environmental categories for topside noise

The Australian Department of Defence (DOD) and Advisory Group for Aeronautical

Research and Development (AGARD) have both published relevant figures. The

AGARD figure represents a naval vessel under normal cruise conditions, whilst the

DOD figure represents the maximum level under battle conditions with all machinery in

operation.

The levels of noise to be expected on commercial vessels can be expected to range

between these figures. The IPS Radio and Space Services (IPS) of the Australian

Department of Industry have adopted an intermediate figure in their GWPS, which is

well accepted as representing the noise level encountered on container vessels, pleasure

cruisers, and utility ships. This figure, í142 dBW, should be used in prediction of

coverage area of shore-based GMDSS transmitters.

2.4

Determination of external noise factor, Fa, for the required availability

An A2 area in the GMDSS is defined as the area within which ship stations can alert

shore stations by using DSC on MF and communicate with the shore stations using MF

radiotelephony (class of emission J3E). The communications ranges for voice signals

are shorter than for DSC and the IMO criteria for determination of A2 areas should

therefore be based on the communication of voice signals.

Environmental category

dB below 1 W

ref. 3 MHz

DOD Cat 1 mobile platform

í137.0

IPS ship (ASAPS and GWPS)

í142.0

AGARD ship

í148.0

Quasi-minimum noise

í156.7

Noise galactic (Rec. ITU-R P.372)

í163.6

ASAPS: advanced stand alone prediction system

GWPS: groundwave prediction system

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The range achieved by a transmitter or a receiver depends upon the radiated power, the

propagation loss, and the ability of the receiver to discriminate between the wanted

signal and the unwanted noise or interference. The level of each component in the

received signal will drift as the propagation conditions change with time, and therefore

arrive at the receive antenna in varying proportions. The final system design should

therefore ensure that the level of the signal will exceed the level of the noise by an

adequate amount for an adequate proportion of the time. This proportion is called the

availability, and is determined by quantifying the behaviour of the signal and the noise

with time as shown in Fig. 2.

Equation (1) should be used to calculate an upper value Fa for the external noise factor

which corresponds to the required availability:

2

2

s

t

am

a

D

D

F

F

+

+

=

dB above k T0 B

(1)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

449

where:

Fam : median external noise factor

Ds : variation in signal level expected for the required time

percentage, to which is ascribed the figure of 3 dB specified by

the IMO as fading margin

Dt : variation in noise level expected for the required percentage of

time.

90% availability is required for NAVTEX broadcasts, and so the upper decile value Du

should be substituted for Dt in equation (1).

95% availability is required for A2 coverage. To achieve this, substitute Dt = Du + 3 dB

in equation (1).

First Fam and Du should be determined by running the Noise1 program, which comes

with the ITU NOISEDAT package. The program requests seasons required, site

location, frequency, level or category of man-made noise, and type of data output

required (select Fa), local mean time, and statistical parameters required (select overall

median). For prediction of external noise factor on ship stations, the reference figure of

í142 dBW should be used to account for topside noise, if no better data is available.

The data is presented in seasonal blocks as shown in Table 3, the data fields being

explained in Table 4.

TABLE 3

Sample NOISEDAT output

LAT = –51.45,

LONG = –57.56,

DUMMY SITE

WINTER

FMHZ = 2.182,

QUIET RURAL NOISE

OVERALL NOISE

TIME BLOCK ATMO

GAL

MANMADE OVERALL DL

DU

SL

SM

SU

0000-0400

59.3

44.2

43.9

59.6

7.2

9.2

2.3

3.5

2.6

0400-0800

54.0

44.2

43.9

54.5

4.1

1.9

3.2

3.4

2.7

0800-1200

28.2

44.2

43.9

45.9

4.3

9.0

2.2

3.4

1.3

1200-1600

31.0

44.2

43.9

46.0

4.2

8.9

2.2

3.3

1.3

1600-2000

53.5

44.2

43.9

53.9

10.4 12.2

3.6

3.9

2.9

2000-2400

54.3

44.2

43.9

55.2

7.2

9.2

2.3

3.7

2.6

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Maritime Manual

TABLE 4

Fields presented for use in the NOISEDAT output

The median and upper values for Fa should be organized as shown in Table 5, and the

seasonal spread in the value of Fa for the required availability should be plotted as a

bar graph in Fig. 3. This presentation enables the process to be reviewed if any

anomalies occur.

TABLE 5

External noise factor, Fa

Field

Symbol

Description

TIME BLOCK

Time block during which original measurements were made

ATMO

Level of atmospheric component

GAL

Level of galactic component

MANMADE

Level of man-made component

OVERALL

Fam

Median level of Fa

DL

Dl

Lower decile of deviation from median

DU

Du

Upper decile of deviation from median

SL

Dl

Standard deviation of Dl

SM

Fam

Standard deviation of Fam

SU

Du

Standard deviation of Du

Median value, Fam

Fa for required availability

s

t

am

D

D

F

2

2

+

+

Time block

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

0000-0400

59.6

55.9

52

52.2

71.7

65.2

60.2

60.9

0400-0800

54.5

43.7

45.9

46

66.8

56.2

55.6

59.5

0800-1200

45.9

45.9

45.8

45.9

55.4

55.4

55.3

55.4

1200-1600

46

41.9

37.7

45.8

55.4

54.8

52.5

55.7

1600-2000

53.9

43.2

43.6

43.9

66.5

59.7

59.5

58.2

2000-2400

55.2

55

54.4

55.8

64.9

63.2

61.4

64.3

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

451

IMO Resolution A.801(19) states “Administrations should determine time-periods and

seasons appropriate to their geographic area based on prevailing noise levels”.

2.5

Accounting for propagation by groundwave

2.5.1 Introduction

Horizontally polarized waves will not propagate along the surface of normal ground, as

the electric vector runs tangential to the surface causing a current to flow, which results

in absorption and heavy transmission losses. For this reason groundwaves have to be

vertically polarized, and can only be generated by a vertical antenna, or to a limited

extent by an antenna which is not perfectly horizontal, either because one end is higher

than the other, or because the elements droop.

The prime mover for groundwave propagation is the cymomotive force (c.m.f.) exerted

by the transmit antenna. In free space, power flux-density (W/m2

) decreases inversely

with the square of distance, and so the field strength decreases inversely with distance

and has a value equal to the product of c.m.f. and distance. The c.m.f. is synonymous

with the effective monopole radiated power (e.m.r.p.), which is the power (kW) which

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Maritime Manual

would have to be fed into a short lossless monopole to achieve the same c.m.f., and in

dB terms the two have the same value. A short lossless monopole on a perfect ground

fed with 1 kW has a c.m.f. of 300 V, which is the reference used in the groundwave

curves given in Recommendation ITU-R P.368.

Subsequent calculation of the transmitter power required should take account of the

following losses associated with the antenna:

the transmitter output power may be de-rated by an antenna offering a poor

match;

power will be absorbed by the ground and the feeder;

whereas an ideal monopole will produce maximum radiation along the ground,

the radiation from a real antenna will peak a few degrees above the ground and

tuck in to a lower value along the ground.

2.5.2 Proof of performance tests

IMO Resolution A.801(19) stipulates that the range of the A2 sea area should be

verified by field strength measurement. The c.m.f. of any shore-based transmitter and

antenna should therefore be determined by operating the transmitter continuously at

peak power, and measuring the resulting field strength using a portable field strength

meter. This should be done on an arc around the station with an approximate radius of

1 km in the required directions of propagation. The precise location of the antenna and

each measurement point should be fixed using a GPS navigator. The c.m.f. on each

bearing is then the product of field strength (mV/m) and range (km) for each

measurement point. The antenna drive point current should also be recorded before and

after the measurement.

The procedures in this Recommendation should be used by administrations to

determine the c.m.f. required to establish coverage, which should then be demonstrated

by the equipment supplier, effectively eliminating uncertainties in performance due to

local ground conditions, and the antenna and station earthing system.

2.5.3 Determination of extent of A2 service area

The extent of the A2 service area is determined by the range over which SSB

communication is effective at 2 182 kHz between ship and shore. The ship is considered

to be fitted with a 60 W transmitter, feeding a short monopole antenna with an

efficiency of 25%, as given in Table 1.

The range is fixed by the maximum distance at which the ship can be from the shore

station to produce an S/N of 9 dB in a 3 kHz bandwidth out of the receive antenna at the

shore station. The shore transmit station must transmit sufficient power to return the

same S/N at the output of the ship’s receive antenna.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

453

The range in both directions depends upon the sensitivity of the receive antenna, which

depends upon the levels of natural and man-made noise present, and the ability of the

antenna to discriminate between the wanted signal and the unwanted radiated noise.

Although some improvement can be achieved by using a directional receive antenna,

this often proves to be uneconomic and impractical, and is outside the scope of this

Recommendation. It will be assumed that a short whip antenna is used for reception,

that it has been installed on clear ground on an earth mat, and that it is regularly

maintained to avoid the effects of corrosion. The noise factor of the receive system

connected to the antenna can be ignored at 2 182 kHz.

2.5.3.1 Determination of shore-based receive range

The IMO minimum range thus achieved should be determined for all seasonal values of

Fa using the 15 W curve in Fig. 4. Additional curves have been included to demonstrate

the benefit of vessels using higher transmit powers.

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Maritime Manual

2.5.3.2 Determination of shore-based transmit power required

Effective two-way SSB radiotelephony requires matched conditions in both directions.

Since the transmission loss is the same in both directions the power required to return a

call depends primarily upon the difference in noise levels at each end, and also the

difference in transmit antenna efficiency. However the following additional factors

have a direct impact on the power to be transmitted by the shore station:

peaks and troughs in the radiation pattern of the receive antenna on the ship,

due to interaction with the ship’s hull;

losses due to the condition of the ship’s receive antenna on the ship.

Tests on scale models of a number of vessels indicate that variability in gain of receive

antennas is typically ±5 dB. Furthermore, allowance should be made for ships whose

antennas are in poorly maintained condition. A figure of 10 dB has been included in the

calculation of shore-ship power budget to take account of these factors.

To determine the radiated power required from the shore-based transmitter the external

noise factors for the receive stations on shore, Fac, and ship, Fas, should first be

established as described in § 2.4. The minimum e.m.r.p. required to return a GMDSS

call at the same S/N to a ship on the limit of the service area should then be calculated

using equation (2):

Pe.m.r.p. = (FasFac) –16 + Rpm dB(kW)

(2)

where:

Rpm: peak-to-mean ratio of the transmitter used on the shore station

(dB).

The transmitter power required, PTx, should then be determined from equation (3), in

which La should account for all the losses associated with the antenna described in

§ 2.5.1:

PTx = Pe.m.r.p. + La

(3)

Substituting typical figures (FasFac) = 10 dB, Rpm = 3 dB, and La = 3 dB yields a

typical value of 1 000 W for the minimum required transmitter power at the coast

station.

If the antenna efficiency Effant is required it should then be determined from

equation (4):

Effant = Pe.m.r.p./PTx

(4)

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

455

2.5.4 Determination of the range achieved using NAVTEX operation

The range achieved by a given NAVTEX transmitter depends upon the efficiency of the

transmit antenna, and the external noise factor on board the ship, as shown in Fig. 5.

The antenna efficiency depends upon the quality of the Earth system provided, and

once the required c.m.f. has been determined, it should be measured as described in

§ 2.5.2, and the efficiency determined.

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Maritime Manual

IMO Resolution A.801(19) specifies 90% availability and so the upper decile value for

Fa should be calculated using the statistical data produced by NOISEDAT.

3

Protection of A2 watch frequency

The IMO specify that the distress channels should be watched 24 h per day. The system

should be designed so that the watch function is not desensitized by noise or

interference. It is essential therefore that all transmit channels assigned for use on the

transmitting station are selected so that no intermodulation products are allowed to fall

within the frequency bands of the watch channels.

For very close channel separations the watch process can be threatened by energy in

upper sideband of the adjacent SSB transmission falling within the receiver passband,

where the wanted signal could be swamped by blocking or reciprocal mixing. Where

channel separation is large enough to remove the threat of reciprocal mixing, a further,

but lesser threat to the watch process may be sideband noise from the transmitter falling

in the receiver passband.

The resulting DSC signal level reaching the shore station will depend upon the declared

A2 range for the shore station, and in turn depend upon the sensitivity, Fa.

The level to be protected would be the level reaching the shore station after suffering a

3 dB fading loss, and is shown in Fig. 6.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

457

3.1

Impact of site separation on system performance

3.2

Estimating the level of the interference field

The tolerable amount of sideband noise leaving the transmit antenna, and the level of

adjacent channel isolation required by the watch receiver both depend upon the

separation between the transmit and receive antenna, and Fig. 7 provides a reference

power Pref (mW), which corresponds to the radiated power which would produce a field

strength at the receive antenna equal to the DSC field strength to be protected and Fig. 8

provides a rule of thumb to relate this to transmitter and receiver characteristics.

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Maritime Manual

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

459

3.3

Required adjacent channel selectivity

The level of adjacent channel isolation required by the watch receiver depends upon the

separation between transmit and receive antennas. Figure 7 provides a reference power,

Pref, which corresponds to the radiated power which would produce a field strength at

the receive antenna equal to the DSC field strength to be protected. If the receiver has

an adjacent channel isolation figure of Iadj (dB), then the maximum power radiated by

the station should be limited to:

Prad = Pref + Iadj

(5)

Three grades of receiver may be considered for providing the DSC watch: commercial

communications receivers, ship’s DSC watch receivers, or high performance

crystallized DSC watch receivers, conforming with Table 6:

TABLE 6

3.4

Protection from adjacent channel interference

The maximum permitted transmitter power should be determined using equation (6):

PTx = 30 + 10 log(Pref) + Iadj – 10 log(Effant)

(6)

where:

PTx: transmitter power (dBW)

Iadj: adjacent channel isolation figure for the receiver

Effant: antenna efficiency.

For example, consider a receiver of the grade used on board ship having a typical

adjacent channel isolation figure of 60 dB, on a site offering an Fa of 65 dB located

2.5 km from a transmit antenna with an efficiency of 75%. Figure 7 gives a Pref of

0.1 mW and so the maximum level of radiated power would be 60 dB above 0.1 mW,

which is 100 W. Allowing for antenna efficiency the maximum transmitter power

would be 133 W. In order to benefit from a 500 W transmitter a pre-filter offering an

additional 4 dB adjacent channel isolation would be required.

Selectivity

(dB)

Offset

(Hz)

6

Between 150 and 220

30

Less than 270

60

Below 400

80

Less than 550

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Maritime Manual

3.5

Protection from transmitter sideband noise

The maximum tolerable level of sideband noise is determined by the required C/N at

the receive antenna. In the above example, for a S/N of 10 dB, the maximum tolerable

level of sideband power would be 10 mW, which is quite low, and may call for use of a

post-selector to reduce the noise leaving the transmitter modulator unit.

3.6

Co-site operation

Figure 9 shows the effect of reducing the separation between the transmit and receive

antenna below 1 km to 300 m, the minimum value computed using GRWAVE. By way

of example, if a station close to the shoreline had a maximum annual median external

noise factor Fa of 65 dB then from Fig. 4 the range achieved would be just over

200 nautical miles. If the adjacent channel isolation were 80 dB, then for an e.m.r.p. of

200 W the antenna separation should be not less than 450 m.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1467-1

461

Under such circumstances a long feeder would be required to attain the separation

required. As the frequency increases there is a considerable reduction in external noise

and increase in feeder loss. At 2 MHz the external noise factor is very much greater

than the system noise factor, and for a system noise factor of 15 dB up to 10 dB of

feeder loss would be tolerable on a well designed and maintained system. A cost-

effective way to avoid the cost of a very long low loss coaxial cable would be to use a

separate antenna for A2.

4

Software requirements

4.1

Noise calculation

To simplify the determination of range for A2 and NAVTEX transmissions a modified

form of NOISEDAT is ideally required including calculation of Fam in accordance with

the procedures of this Recommendation.

4.2

Intermodulation

In order to protect the DSC watch channels from the harmful effects of interference

caused by intermodulation products, a new program is ideally required to enable the

frequencies assigned for use on a shore-based transmitting station to be checked to

ensure that no intermodulation products are produced within the passbands of the DSC

watch receivers, down to at least the 9th order. Such software should account for the

offset spectrum occupied by SSB transmissions to be used.

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Maritime Manual

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1842-1

Characteristics of VHF radio systems and equipment for

the exchange of data and electronic mail in the maritime

mobile service RR Appendix 18 channels

(2008-2009)

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a)

that Resolution 342 (Rev.WRC-2000) of the World Radiocommunication

Conference invites ITU-R to finalize studies currently ongoing, inter alia:

identify the future requirements of the maritime mobile service;

identify suitable technical characteristics of the system or interoperable

systems;

identify necessary modifications to the table of frequencies contained in

Appendix 18;

b)

that IMO has stated that the maritime industry has a need for

radiocommunications for business and safety. At IMO the future need for

harmonization of systems using maritime VHF channels was considered, and ITU-R

has been informed of the possible future need for worldwide systems for the exchange

of data and electronic mail on maritime VHF channels,

recognizing

that in accordance with RR Appendix 18 channels used for VHF data shall not cause

harmful interference to and shall not claim protection from other stations operating in

accordance with RR Article 5. This includes SOLAS applications such as GMDSS on

channel 70 and AIS 1 and AIS 2,

recommends

1

that the characteristics for VHF data described in the Annexes to this

Recommendation should be considered as examples of such systems;

2

this Recommendation should be used as a guideline for future digital

technologies in the maritime mobile service VHF bands;

3

that new VHF data systems introduced should provide characteristics that are

compatible with the existing voice and data system, particularly the AIS.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1842-1

463

Annex 1

VHF data system example 1

The following characteristics should be indicative of a VHF radio system for the

exchange of data and electronic mail in the maritime mobile service.

1

General characteristics

1.1

The class of emission should be 16K0F1DDN.

1.2

The necessary band should cater for the channels in RR Appendix 18

designated with footnote o), each with 25 kHz bandwidth.

1.3

The modulation may be either /4 DQPSK at 28.8 kbit/s or /8 D8-PSK at

43.2 kbit/s, depending on required station-station radio range and channel

signal fidelity.

1.4

The access method may be carrier sense time division multiple access

(CSTDMA).

1.5

The following area coverage techniques may be used:

– cellular channel reuse;

– time sharing transmission.

1.6

The following handover techniques may be utilized:

– uninterrupted handover (channel and base station);

– uninterrupted file transfer.

1.7

The equipment should be designed so that frequency changes between

assigned channels can be carried out in less than 100 ms.

1.8

Switching between reception and transmission should not take more than 2 ms.

1.9

The serial communication channels (SCC) on a single radio modem may be:

– Ethernet;

– RS232 (NMEA).

1.10 The radio equipment should meet the following norms:

– radio parameters: ETSI EN 300 113-1;

– EMC: ETSI EN 301 489-5.

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Maritime Manual

2

Transmitters

2.1

The frequency tolerance for coast station transmitters should not exceed

5 parts in 106

, and that for ship station transmitters should not exceed 10 parts

in 106
.

2.2

Spurious emissions should be in accordance with the provisions of RR

Appendix 3.

2.3

The carrier power for coast station transmitters should not exceed 50 W.

2.4

The carrier power for ship station transmitters should not exceed 25 W.

2.5

The cabinet radiated power should not exceed 25 µW.

2.6

The adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) should be at least 70 dB (see

Fig. 3).

3

Receivers

3.1

The receiver sensitivity for bit error rate (BER) 10–3

should be better

than –107 dBm.

3.2

The adjacent channel selectivity should be at least 70 dB.

3.3

The spurious response rejection ratio should be at least 70 dB.

3.4

The radio frequency intermodulation rejection ratio should be at least 70 dB.

3.5

The power of any conducted spurious emission at the antenna terminals should

not exceed 2.0 nW.

4

Sample emissions spectrum based on variations of ETSI TETRA

standard modulation

This proposal refers to the work of RTCM Special Committee 123 (RTCM SC123)

which evaluated the ETSI TETRA modulation schemes for use in RR Appendix 18.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1842-1

465

FIGURE 1

36 kbit/s /4-DQPSK and 54 kbit/s /8-D8-PSK modulation spectra

RTCM SC123 test results for TETRA-TEDS modulation

Results

Figure 1 presents the spectra for TETRA and TEDS modulations, at their normal

36/54 kbit/s data rates, along with the IEC 61993-2 25 kHz mask for comparison. It is

apparent these modulations fail to meet the mask; their power exceeds the –25 dBm

limit at a 10 kHz offset from the carrier.

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Maritime Manual

FIGURE 2

Family of spectrum plots for different data rates

RTCM test results for slightly reduced data rates to fit Appendix 18 emissions mask

Somewhat lower 32/48 kbit/s and 28.8/43.2 kbit/s data rate combinations were then

tested. Figure 2 overlays these results with those of Fig. 1. It is evident 32 kbit/s

/4-DQPSK and 48 kbit/s /8-D8-PSK modulations just barely fit or violate the mask

whereas 28.8 kbit/s /4-DQPSK and 43.2 kbit/s /8-D8-PSK modulations

comfortably fit the mask.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1842-1

467

FIGURE 3

Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) performance

RTCM test results: 28.8 kbit/s /4-DQPSK and 43.2 kbit/s /8-D8-PSK modulation

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Maritime Manual

5

Conclusions on emissions

Emissions spectrum requirements for RR Appendix 18 based on maritime IEC test

standards will allow both /4 DQPSK at 28.8 kbit/s and /8 D8-PSK at 43.2 kbit/s

modulation to be used.

6

System interoperability

6.1

Ship-to-shore

In the ship-to-shore direction interoperability is maintained by the internet service

provider (ISP) at the internet protocol (IP) level. Typically, a ship will enter an

electronic mail, with or without attachments, in the electronic mail system and then

click on the “send” button.

6.2

Shore-to-ship

In this system, there are no interoperability concerns on the part of the shore-side user.

The shore-based sender of an electronic mail to a ship can merely:

a)

click on the “reply” button, or

b)

address the message to Shipname@xxx.com or callsign@xxx.com.

The electronic mail will be delivered via whatever system the ship is using. If there is a

system failure, there will be an automatic re-route via an alternate system. These

automated decisions are based on the contents of an extensive database. Consequently,

the electronic mail may be delivered via HF or an alternate satellite-based system. If

there is an overall system failure, addressing problem or non-delivery for any reason,

the system support operators will be alerted and take corrective action. This ensures that

shore-based users need not be concerned about what system or network the ship is

using. They need only address the electronic mail and click on “send”.

6.3

Ship-to-ship

The VDL protocol should also provide for direct transmission between ships where

possible (within radio propagation range) in the simplex ship-ship mode. The duplex

ship-shore-ship mode should be used for extended range (beyond the ship-ship radio

propagation range).

6.4

Efficient use of the VHF data link (VDL)

System interoperability should be achieved for all transmission modes, ship-to-shore,

shore-to-ship, and ship-to-ship. Spectrum efficiency and data throughput should also be

considered. For example, application of the electronic mail internet protocol (IP) at the

network level and not on the VDL would result in an efficiency improvement of 3:1.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1842-1

469

Annex 2

VHF data system example 2

Introduction

This Annex describes an existing narrowband VHF data system for the exchange of

data and electronic mail in the maritime mobile service. The system is currently in use,

operating from base stations ashore and on offshore installations.

1

General characteristics

1.1

The system is operating on nine duplex 25 kHz channels in the maritime VHF

band.

1.2

The class of emission is 16K0F1DDN.

1.3

The modulation is 4-level GMSK. Transmitted bit rate 21.1 kbit/s.

1.4

The access method is time division multiple access (TDMA).

1.5

The following area coverage techniques are used:

– cellular channel reuse;

– time sharing transmission.

1.6

The following handover techniques are utilized:

– uninterrupted handover (channel and base station);

– uninterrupted file transfer.

1.7

The equipment is designed so that frequency changes between assigned

channels can be carried out in less than 100 ms.

1.8

Emissions are vertically polarized at the source.

1.9

Switching between reception and transmission should not take more than 2 ms.

1.10 The serial communication channels (SCC) on a single radio modem should be:

– Ethernet;

– RS232 (NMEA);

– IEC 61162.

1.11 The radio equipment should meet the following norms:

– radio parameters: ETSI EN 300 113-1;

– EMC: ETSI EN 301 489-5 and IEC 60945.

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2

Transmitters

2.1

The frequency tolerance for coast station transmitters should not exceed five

parts in 106

, and that for ship station transmitters should not exceed ten parts in

106
.

2.2

In order to prevent harmful interference to other users of the maritime VHF

band, spurious emissions should be in accordance with the provisions of RR

Appendix 3.

2.3

The carrier power for coast station transmitters should not exceed 50 W.

2.4

The carrier power for ship station transmitters should not exceed 25 W.

2.5

The cabinet radiated power should not exceed 25 µW.

2.6

Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) should be at least 70 dB.

3

Receivers

3.1

The receiver sensitivity for bit-error rate (BER) 10–3

should be better

than –107 dBm .

3.2

The adjacent channel selectivity should be at least 70 dB.

3.3

The spurious response rejection ratio should be at least 70 dB.

3.4

The radio frequency intermodulation rejection ratio should be at least 70 dB.

3.5

The power of any conducted spurious emission at the antenna terminals should

not exceed 2.0 nW.

4

Possibilities and advantages

4.1

Coverage and stability

The VHF band has very good qualities regarding range and stability. Typical

range from a land-based station is up to 70 NM.

4.2

IP – Ethernet

The common used Ethernet protocol that makes connection to local data

networks and other data services easy.

4.3

Fixed IP address at the radio on board the ship

This makes it possible to send data to the ship without anyone being needed to

activate the link. The ship may also have ten local IP addresses.

Part C – Rec. ITU-R M.1842-1

471

4.4

Always connected

There is no connection time. This makes the system very effective for real-

time applications, e.g. banking terminals.

4.5

Several services in parallel from one radio on the ship

The system is based on packets all the way. From one radio on the ship one

may carry out several different services at the same time. The system is

therefore frequency efficient.

4.6

Automatic reconnection after disruption

The system will automatically reconnect and continue the tasks again at the

right point. This happens both after short breaks as well as long breaks, e.g.

outside radio coverage area.

4.7

Integrated data router

The radio is delivered with an integrated router. It means that tasks may be

programmed directly into the radio and may be carried out without the use of a

PC. For example, the fishing boat positioning and moving report system is

programmed into the radio/router. In addition, the router has very large

capacity to carry out several tasks, among other things compression and

decompression of electronic mail, web applications and weather maps.

4.8

Several inputs to the radio

Ethernet cable may be plugged directly into the radio or the router, enabling

easy establishment of a local net on board the ship. Other digital or analogue

inputs may be used for GNSS, measuring instruments, etc.

4.9

Connection to local WLAN

The system may be combined with local wireless networks on board the ship.

4.10 External communication carriers

The system may be delivered with possibilities for seamless connection to

external networks, e.g. wireless LANs in harbour areas or to satellite

communication.

5

Applications

Some current and possible future applications of VHF data are listed below:

– safe SeaNet reporting (ISPS);

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Maritime Manual

– fishery catch reporting;

– fishing boat position and movement reporting;

– weather maps;

– general electronic mail;

– messages to the ship’s agent, the pilot or harbour authorities;

– banking terminals, especially on passenger ships;

– safety-related information;

– telemetry information;

– updating of electronic maps.

6

System interoperability

6.1

Ship-to-shore

In the ship-to-shore direction interoperability is maintained by the Internet

service provider (ISP) at the internet protocol (IP) level. Typically, a ship will

enter an electronic mail, with or without attachments, in the electronic mail

system and then click on the “send” button.

6.2

Shore-to-ship

In this system, there are no interoperability concerns on the part of the shore-

side user. The shore-based sender of an electronic mail to a ship can merely:

a) click on the “reply” button, or

b) address the message to Shipname@xxx.com or callsign@xxx.com.

The electronic mail will be delivered via whatever system the ship is using. If

there is a system failure, there will be an automatic re-route via an alternate

system. These automated decisions are based on the contents of an extensive

database. Consequently, the electronic mail may be delivered via HF or an

alternate satellite-based system. If there is an overall system failure, addressing

problem or non-delivery for any reason, the system support operators will be

alerted and take corrective action. This ensures that shore- based users need

not be concerned about what system or network the ship is using. They need

only address the electronic mail and click on “send”.

_______________

PART D

Extracts from the International

Telecommunication Regulations

(Melbourne, 1988)

Note by the Secretariat: In preparing the extracts from the International

Telecommunication Regulations (Melbourne, 1988), the Secretariat made editorial

changes, where appropriate, to reflect the ITU structural changes (world administrative

radio conference to world radiocommunication conference, CCIR to ITU-R, CCITT to

ITU-T, IFRB to the Radiocommunication Bureau, Administrative Council to Council,

etc.)

In addition, the term “Member(s)” has been replaced by the term “Member State(s)‡

” to

correspond with the terminology employed currently within the ITU. The symbol “‡

indicates that this replacement was made by the Secretariat.

Part D – ITR

475

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION REGULATIONS

Article 1

Purpose and Scope of the Regulations

2

1.1 a) These Regulations establish general principles which relate to the provision and

operation of international telecommunication services offered to the public as well as to

the underlying international telecommunication transport means used to provide such

services. They also set rules applicable to administrations*
.

3

b) These Regulations recognize in Article 9 the right of Member States‡

to allow

special arrangements.

4

1.2 In these Regulations, “the public” is used in the sense of the population, including

governmental and legal bodies.

5

1.3 These Regulations are established with a view to facilitating global interconnection

and interoperability of telecommunication facilities and to promoting the harmonious

development and efficient operation of technical facilities, as well as the efficiency,

usefulness and availability to the public of international telecommunication services.

6

1.4 References to ITU-T Recommendations and Instructions in these Regulations are

not to be taken as giving to those Recommendations and Instructions the same legal status

as the Regulations.

7

1.5 Within the framework of the present Regulations, the provision and operation of

international telecommunication services in each relation is pursuant to mutual agreement

between administrations*
.

8

1.6 In implementing the principles of these Regulations, administrations*

should

comply with, to the greatest extent practicable, the relevant ITU-T Recommendations,

including any Instructions forming part of or derived from these Recommendations.

9

1.7 a) These Regulations recognize the right of any Member State‡

, subject to national

law and should it decide to do so, to require that administrations*

and private

operating agencies, which operate in its territory and provide an international

telecommunication service to the public, be authorized by that Member State‡
.

10

b) The Member State‡

concerned shall, as appropriate, encourage the application

of relevant ITU-T Recommendations by such service providers.

11

c) The Member States‡

, where appropriate, shall cooperate in implementing the

International Telecommunication Regulations (for interpretation, also see

Resolution No. 2).

_______________

* or recognized private operating agency(ies)

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Maritime Manual

12 1.8 The Regulations shall apply, regardless of the means of transmission used, so far as

the Radio Regulations do not provide otherwise.

Article 2

Definitions

13

For the purpose of these Regulations, the following definitions shall apply. These

terms and definitions do not, however, necessarily apply for other purposes.

21 2.6 International route: Technical facilities and installations located in different

countries and used for telecommunication traffic between two international

telecommunication terminal exchanges or offices.

22 2.7 Relation: Exchange of traffic between two terminal countries, always referring to a

specific service if there is between their administrations*
:

23

a) a means for the exchange of traffic in that specific service:

– over direct circuits (direct relation), or

– via a point of transit in a third country (indirect relation), and

24

b) normally, the settlement of accounts.

25 2.8 Accounting rate: The rate agreed between administrations*

in a given relation that

is used for the establishment of international accounts.

26 2.9 Collection charge: The charge established and collected by an administration*

from its customers for the use of an international telecommunication service.

27 2.10 Instructions: A collection of provisions drawn from one or more ITU-T

Recommendations dealing with practical operational procedures for the handling of

telecommunication traffic (e.g., acceptance, transmission, accounting).

Article 3

International Network

28 3.1 Member States‡

shall ensure that administrations*

cooperate in the establishment,

operation and maintenance of the international network to provide a satisfactory quality of

service.

_______________

* or recognized private operating agency(ies)

Part D – ITR

477

29 3.2 Administrations*

shall endeavour to provide sufficient telecommunication facilities

to meet the requirements of and demand for international telecommunication services.

30 3.3 Administrations*

shall determine by mutual agreement which international routes

are to be used. Pending agreement and provided that there is no direct route existing

between the terminal administrations*

concerned, the origin administration*

has the choice

to determine the routing of its outgoing telecommunication traffic, taking into account the

interests of the relevant transit and destination administrations*
.

31 3.4 Subject to national law, any user, by having access to the international network

established by an administration*

, has the right to send traffic. A satisfactory quality of

service should be maintained to the greatest extent practicable, corresponding to relevant

ITU-T Recommendations.

Article 4

International Telecommunication Services

32 4.1 Member States‡

shall promote the implementation of international tele-

communication services and shall endeavour to make such services generally available to

the public in their national network(s).

33 4.2 Member States‡

shall ensure that administrations*

cooperate within the framework

of these Regulations to provide by mutual agreement, a wide range of international

telecommunication services which should conform, to the greatest extent practicable, to

the relevant ITU-T Recommendations.

34 4.3 Subject to national law, Member States‡

shall endeavour to ensure that

administrations*

provide and maintain, to the greatest extent practicable, a minimum

quality of service corresponding to the relevant ITU-T Recommendations with respect to:

35

a) access to the international network by users using terminals which are

permitted to be connected to the network and which do not cause harm to

technical facilities and personnel;

36

b) international telecommunication facilitiesand services available to customers

for their dedicated use;

37

c) at least a form of telecommunication which is reasonably accessible to the

public, including those who may not be subscribers to a specific

telecommunication service; and

38

d) a capability for interworking between different services, as appropriate, to

facilitate international communications.

_______________

* or recognized private operating agency(ies)

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Article 5

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