You are on page 1of 57

WITH THE NAME OF ALLAH WHO IS THE MOST BENIFICIENT AND THE MOST MERCIFUL

I

TOPIC: Geological Field Report on Choa Saidan Shah – Khewra Road section, Salt Range and Rumli Area, Marglla Hills, Islamabad. SUBMITTED BY ROLL NO. BGLF08M049 SUBMITTED TO Ali Shah CLASS SEMESTER : : : : : Syed Haroon Umair Asad

BS-Geology 6TH
II

GEOLOGICAL FIELD REPORT
Litho structural mapping and stratigraphy of Khewra to Choa sedan road section in salt range and Rumli area in Hazara basin, near Quaid-eAzam University Islamabad.

III

ABSTRACT
This field work has completed in two parts. The first part is completed from 22nd March, 2012 to 25th March 2012.During these days we stayed at youth hostel Katas and got the understanding of the structures and stratigraphy along Khewra to Choa sedan shah road. This area is geologically in Salt range. Salt range is further divided into three parts. Eastern salt range , Central salt range , Western salt range. Our field area is situated in central salt range. The salt range of Pakistan forms part of sub-Himalayan mountains which stretch for more than 180 kilometer east-west between the Jhelum and Indus river along the southern margin of potwar basin. With in the salt range we can observe the sedimentary cover from Pre-Cambrian to recent deposits. Our field area is in central salt range which is from Khewra to Warcha.

The second part of the field is completed during 30 March 2012 to 1 April 2012.The field area is Rumli village near Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad in Margalla hills situated in hazara basin. Hazara basin is situated in north of Pakistan. Hazara range is the northern most part of sedimentary succession of the north western margin of the Indian plate. It is bounded by its north by Panjal thrust on its southern side by the main boundary thrust. The main highway from Rawalpindi to Peshawar is the dividing line between the western limit of the Hazara and the Kala Chita range. Rumli area is in Hazara Basin. Whenever we move toward north side of Pakistan the deformation in rocks increase extensively because of the strengthen forces acting from the north side. Rumli area is situated near MBT therefore extensive deformations found here in rocks and more complex are the structures. Due to compressional forces more Thrust Faults are encountered in this area.
IV

ACKNOWLEDGEME
NT
First of all I would like to thanks to ALLAH almighty that enable me to do this difficult task. Then thanks to my respectable teacher Mr. Syed Haroon Ali Shah because of his great interest in this field provision and effort to manage this field in the quite tense and security threats atmosphere. I also thanks to my parents who never left me alone in any problem of life and all those peoples who help me to complete this work including my group members and the University Management to providing the traveling facilities.

V

Study of geological structure. VI . 3.S. Geology 6TH semester from March 22 to 25. And the road sections from Quaid-e-Azam University to Rumli village in Margalla hills. The field trip was related to the litho structural mapping and the stratigraphic understandings of the project area. Recognition of formation. Finding the environment of deposition. 2012. Lithologic Mapping of formations along road sections. 2. 4.  Studied Area During this field we study the road sections along Khewra to Chua Sedan shah.UMAIR ASAD BGLF08M049 BS GEOLOGY 6th SEMESTER FIELD BRIEFINGS Department of Earth Sciences University of Sargodha arranged a field trip for B.  Objectives 1.

3. Collecting samples Photography Measuring of dip & strike Mapping  Sporting material 1. Methodology 1. Geological hammer 2. Lens 4. Branton 3. 2. Camera TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1  Introduction to salt range ____________________________ 10-11 Previous 12 work______________________________________ of salt   Tectonic framework range_______________________ 13  Tectonic map of Pakistan_____________________________ 14 VII . 4.

 Stratigraphy of salt range______________________________ 15-16 Stratigraphic sequence range_____________________ 17-18 of Salt  • • • • • • • • •  Observed sequence of Salt range Khewra Formation_________________________________ 20 Kussak Formation__________________________________ 21 Jutana Formation__________________________________ 22 Baghanwala Formation and its associated structures_____ 23-27 Tobra Formation__________________________________ 28 Dandot Formation_________________________________ 29 Warcha Sandstone_________________________________ 30 Nammal Formation__________________________________ 31 Sakesar Formation__________________________________ 32 Faults that were observed during field in Salt range Normal fault between Nammal and Sakesar Fomations______ 33 Normal Fault between Nammal and Tobra Formations_____ 33 Horst and Graben structures at Pidh village_____________ 34 Karangal Thruust near Choa Sedan Shah________________35 Part 2 Introduction to Margalla ranges___________________ 37 Mountain VIII .

Tectonic frame work MBT____________ 37-38 specially emphasized in on List of observed sequence section___________________ 39 Rumli Lokhart Limestone_____________________________________40 Patala Formation______________________________________41 Margalla Limestone________________________________42 hills Chorgali Formation____________________________________43 Kuldana Formation____________________________________44 Murree Formation and structures____________ 45-49  its associated Geological structures that were observed during our field in Rumli section_________________________________________ 50-52 Refrences_____________________________________________ 53  IX .

X .PART – 1 LITHO STRUCTURAL MAPPING AND STRATIGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDING ALONG THE CHUA SEDAN SHAH ROAD SECTION IN EASTERN SALT RANGE.

The salt range of Pakistan forms part of sub-Himalayan mountains which stretch for more than 180 kilometer east-west between the Jhelum and Indus river along the southern margin of potwar Basin. We observe the formations along Khewra to Chua sedan shah road section. Within the salt range we can observe the sedimentary cover from Pre Cambrian to recent deposits.522 m). Salt range is further divided into three parts. The incline of the strata in the central part is around 100. Rocks of Salt range was uplifted by a thrust fault called Salt Range thrust. the Salt Range contains coal. eastern. at Sakesar Mountain.992 feet (1. is from 5 to 19 miles. and its highest altitude. they are of Precambrian age and range up to more than 1.  Central Salt Range: Central Salt Range is from Chakwal to Khushab.  Western Salt Range: Western Salt Range is from Khushab to Mianwali.  Eastern Salt Range: Eastern Salt Range is from Jhelum to Chakwal. and its width. Its average height is 2.200 feet. Our field area is situated in Eastern Salt range.INTRODUCTION The Salt Range is the south-facing scarp of the Potwar Plateau. The salt range and its trans Indus extensions bridges the reentrant between the outer XI . and in the western. In addition to the salt-deposits. in the central and eastern parts. gypsum. mined from ancient times. The range is approximately 186 miles (300 km) long from east to west. which emplace older rocks of salt range upon younger rocks of less deformed tertiary rocks of Jhelum plain. is 4.600 feet (490 m) in thickness. and other minerals. and northern parts it is up to 450 It derives its name from extensive deposits of rock salt that form one of the richest salt fields in the world.

and short gaps below the Upper Jurassic. XII . and below the Upper Oligocene. below the Eocene. r. Due which all the overlying material (formations) get exposed. The Salt Range exposes a good sedimentary succession but has a long gap between the Cambrian and the Upper Carboniferous. t to high dense material. salt range formation is composed of salt which are low dense than overlying rock so it move toward low pressure state.range of North Western Himalayas and the Suleiman mountain arc upper proterozoic to recent deposits occur in salt range prior to quaternary time only epirogenic forces effect the region accompanying occasionally by the wrapping.  Salt diaphism: As less dense material move up ward w. This process is called Salt diaphism.

He also worked on Stratigraphic nomenclature on the Salt Range as did SHAH (1 977). a discussion of that time. WAAGEN (1882. His initial work related to solving the problem of the age of the ''Saline Series''. and he made a great contribution by producing a geological map (more recently six sheets on a scale 1:50. Salt Range. 2000). AFZAL & BUTT.P REVIOUS WORK Salt Range has great interest for the geologists from all over the world to study the complete sequence from Precambrian to recent. KUMMEL and TEICHERT (1966. DAVIES and PINFOLD (1937) completed a comprehensive study of Lower Tertiary larger foraminifera of the Salt Range.R. and Lower Tertiary foraminifer’s biostratigraphy. 1945. Lukas HOTTINGER of Basel University.000 have been published by the Geological Survey of Pakistan excluding the Trans-Indus Surghar Range). headed by Prof. 1970) illustrated Permian brachiopods and described the detailed stratigraphy of the Permian rocks while GRANT (1966) described trilobites. the Permian-Triassic boundary. GEE (1 935. Of particular note is the great work of E. 1895) worked on the brachiopods of the Permian of the Salt Range and FATIMI (1973) studied the certitudes of the Triassic of the Salt Range and Trans-Indus Surghar Range. 1991. Switzerland.1885. AFZAL (1997) completed his doctoral thesis on the planktonic foraminifera of the Paleogene and established a plank tonic biostratigraphy for the Patala Formation of the Salt Range and Surghar Range (AFZAL & von DANIELS. SAMEENI (1997) completed his doctoral thesis on the Paleogene biostratigraphy of the Salt Range under UNESCO IGCP-286. HAQUE (1956) described the smaller foraminifera from the Tertiary formations of the western Mammal Gorge. and established an alveolinid XIII .

we can classify the Himalaya on the basis of • STRATIGRAPHY • STRUCTURES • METAMORPHISM The main classification of Himalaya is as:  SUB HIMALAYA: It is area comprised between Salt range thrust (SRT) and main boundary thrust (MBT). SAMEENI & HOTTINGER (2003). Along the MBT a thrust fault is passing named as Punjal thrust. 1996. The zone of decoloment appears to have been provided by Salt Range Formation which underlies the salt range and the pot war plateau to the north. 2004. Compression forces are mostly responsible of orogeny. In the north of Punjal fault area consists of igneous/metamorphic rocks or hard rocks called as northern igneous/metamorphic zone. If we notice the tectonic of Himalaya in Pakistan.biostratigraphy for the Eocene succession of the Salt Range (SAMEENI & BUTT. In the south of Punjal thrust area consists of sedimentary rocks or soft rocks called southern sedimentary zone. Tectonic Framework of Salt Range “Salt range and Trans Indus ranges are the surface expression of leading edge of a decoloment thrust in which the crystalline basement is not involved”. XIV .

 LESSER HIMALAYA: It is area comprised between main boundary thrust (MBT) and main central thrust (MCT). MKT exists in north.Above MMT. Salt Range exists in the south of MBT and Hazara basin exists in the west of MBT or Hazara-Kashmir syntax. TECTONIC MAP OF AKISTAN XV .  HIGHER HIMALAYA: It is area bounded between the main central thrust (MCT) and the main mantel thrust (MMT).

The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Khewra. • Sakesar and Tilla Jogian are the highest peaks of Salt Range. XVI .STRATIGRAPHY OF SALT RANGE The hill ranges making the Southern boundary of Potwar Plateau lying between the river Indus in the west and river Jhelum in the east is called Salt Range. across the northern portion of the Punjab province. The Salt Range contains the great mines of Mayo. Coal of a medium quality is also found. The range extends from the Jhelum River to the Indus. Warcha and Kalabagh which yield vast supplies of salt. deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock salt.

Geologically the Salt range is famous for the rocks exposed from 600 million years old to present i. In Permian Gondwanaland split in different plates. The area displays some excellent geological exposures in valley and gorges representing geological history from 600m years to recent and therefore is known as field museum of Geology.  PROCESSES OF FORMATION OF SALT RANGE • Indian plate collusion • Salt diaphism • Indian plate collusion: As Pangaea spilt into Paleozoic era. o o o Eastern Salt Range: Eastern Salt Range is from Jhelum to Chakwal. Central Salt Range: Central Salt Range is from Chakwal to Khushab.• Khabikki Lake and Uchhali Lake are the lakes of Salt Range.e. This plate then collide with the belt of island arcs. called semiarid XVII . called leisure and other toward south called Gondwanaland. its one part move toward north. Salt Range is divided into three parts. from Cambrian to recent with the absence of Ordovician. Silurian and Devonian over a distance of few kilometers. One of the plate called Indian plate start moving towards north. Western Salt Range: Western Salt Range is from Khushab to Mianwali.

This process is called Salt diaphism.arc. Due which all the overlying material (formations) get exposed. due to collusion intercontinental fault Main Central thrust or MCT developed. • Salt diaphism: As less dense material move up ward w. salt range formation is composed of salt which are low dense than overlying rock so it move toward low pressure state. r. called Main mantel thrust or MMT. this cause a thrust faults. In 10Ma ago another intercontinental fault occur called Main boundary Thrust and in 5 Ma ago Salt range thrust or SRT form. In 25 Ma ago. STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE OF SALT RANGE XVIII . which are form by partial melting of oceanic lithosphere. t to high dense material.

FORMATIONS Lei conglomerate Pleistocene AGE Soan formation Kumlial formation Early Miocene Late Miocene Dhok pathan formation Murreeformation Early Miocene Pliocene Nagri formation Chingi formation MAJOR UNCONFORMITY Chorgali formation Early Eocene Sakesar formation Early Eocene Nammal formation Early Eocene Patala formation Paleocene Lockhart limestone Paleocene Hangu formation Paleocene MAJOR UNCONFORMITY Lumshiwal formation Chichali formation Late Jurassic & Early Cretaceous DISCONFORMITY Samanasuk formation Shinawri formation Datta formation Middle Jurassic Middle Jurassic Middle Jurassic DISCONFORMITY Kingriali formation Tredian formation Mianwali formation Late Jurassic Late Jurassic Late Jurassic XIX .

PARACONFORMITY Chidhru formation Warghal limestone Abm formation Sardhai formation Warchha formation Dandot formation Tobra formation Late Permian Late Permian Late Permian Early Permian Early Permian Early Permian Early Permian MAJOR UNCONFORMITY Baghanwala formation Jutana formation Kussak formation Khewra sandstone Salt Range formation Middle & Early Cambrian Precambrian to Early Cambrian L IST OF OBSERVED FORMATIONS DURING FIELD WORK ALONG KHEWRA TO CHUA SEDAN SHAH ROAD SECTIONS. Kamlial Formation Miocene Sakesar limestone Early Eocene XX .

Prior to that Wynne (1878) called the Formation as “Purple sandstone series”.  Contacts: XXI . The present Name “Khewra Sandstone” was given by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan.Nammal formation Warcha formation Dandot formation Tobra formation Baghanwala formation Jutana formation Kussak formation Khewra sand stone Early Eocene Early Permian Early Permian Early Permian Middle Middle Middle Middle to to to to Early Early Early Early Cambrian Cambrian Cambrian Cambrian KHEWRA SANDSTONE  Synonymy: The name was originally proposed by Noetling (1894) as “Khewra group”. dull red fine grained sand stone.  Observed lithology: It was mainly composed of beds of purple.

In the XXII . • Upper contact:  Age: The age of formation is Early Cambrian. The present name was given by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan.• Lower contact: Lower contact of Khewra sandstone is sedimentary with salt range formation. 1 KU FORMATION  Synonymy: SSAK Wynne (1878) applied the name of “Obolus beds” or “Siphonotreta beds” to predominantly greenish grey glauconitic micaceus sand stone and silt stone. glauconitic. greenish grey in color.  Field lithology: Kussak formation consists of predominantly sandstone and siltstone. Contact is shown in this fig 1. Upper contact of Khewra sandstone is conformable with kussak formation. Waagen (1895) used the name “Neobolus beds” for the same unit. Sandstone and siltstone are micaceous. some dolomite content is present.

 Contacts: o Lower contact: Lower contact is gradational with Jutana formation.upper part interbeded. XXIII . As shown in fig 2.  Field lithology: It is mainly composed of pink to light yellow green fine grained dolomite. JUTANA FORMATION  Synonymy: Fleming (1853) named this unit “Magnesium sandstone” and Noetling (1894) as “Jutana stage”. The Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan formalized the name as “Jutana Formation. variegated sandstone and sandy shales are  Contacts: o o Lower contact: Lower contact is conformable with the Khewra sandstone Upper contact: Upper contact is gradational with jutana formation.  Age: Early to late Cambrian .

contact is conformable with Baghanwala  Age: The Formation assigned Early Cambrian to Early Middle Cambrian age. given to the Wynee (1878) Holland (1926) Pascoe (1959)  Field lithology: Thin bed. maroon colored sandstone with clay interbeds. called these beds salt Pseudomorph beds and named them Baghanwala Stage. Shale’s found in some part. Pseudo-morph crystals (of salt and lenticular bedding are also observed.o Upper contact: Upper formation. XXIV . As shown in fig 3. 2 BAGHANWALA FORMATION  Synonymy: The name Baghanwala Formation is now rocks of the Pseudomorph Salt Crystal zone of and the Baghanwala Group of Noetling (1894).

The lower conformable. the same age may be assigned to Baghanwala Formation. o Lower contact: Upper contact: Upper contact is unconformable with Tobra Fm. A graben is found in the Baghanwala formation and 5 can seen in the fig 5. XXV .  Geologic structure: o Graben: A graben is a block of rock which is bounded on both sides by the Normal fault. Contacts: Contacts are shown in fig 4. contact with the Jutana formation is o 4 3  Age: Since it rests conformably on the Jutana Formation which considered as Early Middle Cambrian age.

Salt pseudomorph crystals are shown in fig no 6 these formed in supratidal environment when water dissolve the salt evaporates crystals and deposit here clay and silt as shown in Fig 6. Flaser bedding is found in Baghanwala formation. 6 o Flaser bedding: Flaser bedding is formed when alternate bed of sand and mud are deposited and they formed in high energy environments or tidal environment. Flaser bedding consists mostly of sand. Sand > mud is shown in Fig 7. XXVI .o Salt pseudomorph: Crystal salt pseudo morph.

8 XXVII .7 o Channel migration: Channel migration is found in the Baghanwala formation on road section as shown in Fig 8.

9 o Lenticular bedding: Lenticular bedding is sedimentary bedding pattern displaying the alternating layers of mud and sand formed during periods of slack water. 10 XXVIII . Mud > sand is shown in Fig 10. lenticular bedding is classified by its large quantities of mud relative to sand. The sand within bedding displays lens like shape and it shows high energy environments such as intertidal and supra tidal.o Channelize Sandstone: Sandstone of channel deposition is found in the lower part of formation as shown in Fig 9.

o Tidal bedding: The sedimentary structure within the intertidal sediments is tidal bedding. 11 XXIX . This consists of sand-mud couplets as shown in Fig 11.

 Contacts: o Lower contact: Lower unconformable with Baghanwala Fm. sandy and silly matrix. Boulders of pink granite with biotitic and Muscovite and some other fragments are embedded in clayey.  Age The age of Tobra formation is early Permian.  Field lithology: It is tillitic facies. o Special feature: This is a tilitic facies Glacier deposits no sorting is a feature of this formation shown in figure 5.TOBRA FORMATION  Synonymy: The name Tobra formation was previously known as Talchir Boulder Bed or Talchir Stage of Gee (1959) and salt range boulder bed of Teichert (1967). o Upper contact: Upper contact is gradational with Dandot Fm shown in the following figure no 12. o Pink Granites: Pink Granites are the special features of Tobra formation. XXX .

Lower part is composed of shale’s.  Age: The age of the Dandot Formation on the basis of fauna and its super positional order with the Tobra Formation of Early Permian age is considered as Early Permian. Sandstone is yellowish grey in color. XXXI . Shale’s are splintery and dark to greenish grey in color.  Contacts: o Lower contact: The formation is gradational contact with the underlying Tobra formation o Upper contact: It has sharp but conformable contact with overlying Warcha Sandstone. Upper part is composed of gritty sandstone with occasionally pebble beds. Tobra formation has been observed along Choa saidan shah road. It was observed that the section consists of thick bedded sand stone with pebble of different sizes. “Eurydesma Beds” and “Conularia beds” by Wynne(1878) and the “Speckled Sandstone” by Wagon(1879).12 DA T FORMATION  Synonymy:  Field lithology: NDON Dandot Group” by Noetling(1901) . “Olive Series” .

XXXII .  Age: The age is Early Permian. o Upper contact: It is overlain by the Sardhai Formation with the transitional contact.  Contacts: o Lower contact: It conformably overlies the Dandot Formation. 13 W SANDSTONE  Synonymy:  Lithology: ARCHA The name Warcha Sandstone was coined by Hussain (1967) which has been approved by stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. The pebbles of the unit are mostly of granite of pink color and of quartzite as shown in Fig 14. conglomeratic in places and interbeds of shale. Field feature: Channel migration is found in the Dandot formation near Pidh village on road section as shown in Fig 13. The formation consists of medium to coarse grained sandstone. The sandstone is cross bedded and arkoses.

14 NA FORMATION  Synonymy: MMAL The term Nammal formation has been formally accepted by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan for the ''Nammal Limestone'' and ''Shale'' of Gee (1945). Interbeds of limestone and shales are also observed as shown in Fig 15.  Lithology: It consists of yellowish shales. o Upper contact: XXXIII .The section exposed in Nammal gorge is type section. Nodular limestone of light grey to creamy color also exists.  Contact: o Lower contact: The lower contact of nammal formation is with Patala formation. Limestone is thin bedded.

 Field Features: XXXIV . In Nammal Gorge chert beds and marl in upper part of Sakesar limestone. massive nodular limestone with nodules of chert in upper part was observed.Upper contact of nammal formation is with the Sakesar limestone are transitional.  Age: Eocene age has been assigned to the formation on the basis of fauna. 1 5 SA FORMATION KESAR  Synonymy: The term ''Sakesar Limestone'' was introduced by Gee for the most prominent Eocene limestone unit in Salt range and Trans Indus ranges. Creamish colored.  Observed Lithology: Sakesar formation was observed in Eastern salt range along Chua Sadden Shah road during our Field work. Nummulities and Assilina are highly abundant in Sakesar limestone.

P moves in the dip of fault plane this is called normal fault.o Chert nodules o Nummulites  Contact: The lower contact with the Nammal Formation is conformable. The age of Sakesar limestone is Miocene and the age of Warcha sand stone is early Permian. the upper contact with Chorgali formation is conformable. This fault is observed along the Chua sedan shah to Khewra road section can seen in Fig 16. whereas in central and western salt range. XXXV . Where the Nammal formation move downward under the influence of gravity. the Rawalpindi or Siwalik groups uncomfortably overlie the formation. So this is a normal fault.  Age: The age of formation is regarded as Early Eocene on the basis of foraminifers reported. In eastern salt range. Sakesar lime stone found equal to Warcha sand stone. FAULTS OBSERVED DURING FIELD IN SALT RANGE  Normal fault: When the block lying above F.

and a graben is a block that has dropped due to the faulting. 17 6  Horst and Grabben: Horst and graben are terms referring to regions that lie between normal faults and are either above or lower than the area beyond the faults. Nammal formation found equal to Tobra formation in previous figure. XXXVI . This can seen in Fig 17. A horst represents a block pushed upward by the faulting.16 Normal fault occur between Nammal formation and tobra formation.

18 XXXVII .

Gandala nala thrust and Karangal thrust are truncated along Strike slip fault which is XXXVIII .  Karangal thrust: Thrust is a type of fault in which repetition of strata occurs and the block lying above fault plane moves across the dip direction of fault plane. Basically this is a splay of Salt range Thrust. Basically this village is located on grabben. Karangal thrust run north to South. This thrust lies between the Kamlial formation overlain by Salt range Formation. The age of Kamlial is late Miocene and the age of Salt range Formation is Eocambrian. Sakeser limestone making graben and village is Constructed on the Sakeser limestone as shown in fig 18.We have seen in the field a horst and grabben structure between Sakeser limestone and Warcha sand stone at Pidh village. Karangal thrust is a thrust that observed in field near “Saraen More”1 Km away from Chua Sedan shah.

Thrust can seen in Fig 19.situated under the city Chua sedan shah. 19 PART-2 XXXIX .

It is arrange with many valleys as well as high mountains.LITHO STRUCTURAL MAPPING AND STRATIGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDING IN RUMLI AREA IN HAZARA BASIN INTRODUCTION MARGALLA MOUNTAIN RANGES The Margalla hills also called Margalla mountain ranges are also a part of lesser Himalayas located north of Islamabad. The hills are the part of Murree hills. XL . Margalla range has an area of 12605 hectors.

According to the research carried out by scientists and Archeologists of the project “post earthquake explorations of human remains in Margalla hills”.Fault scarp of MBT can seen in the Fig 20. The dominant limestone of Margalla hills mix with sandstone and occasional minor beds of shale. In the south of Punjal thrust area consists of sedimentary rocks or soft rocks called southern sedimentary zone. The archaeologists of the project have also found two Human foot prints over 1 Million years old here preserved in sandstone. Rumli section which is situated almost near to MBT also called Muree Fault. Along the MBT a thrust fault is passing named as Punjal thrust. The hills rock formations are 40 Million years old and the fossils of marine life are abound Indicated that the Margalla hills were at one time under the Sea.MBT formed 10 Million years ago by the collision of Indian plate with Eurasian plate and it is an intercontinental fault developed.  Tectonic framework: The field area is near Islamabad. Its highest peak is Tilla Charouni. the formation of the Margalla hills dates to Miocene epoch. The range gets snow fall in winters.The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1604 meters on its east with average height of 1000 meters. XLI .In this section complex Folding and Thrusting can seen because we are close to Northern area collision zone. In the north of Punjal fault area consists of igneous/metamorphic rocks or hard rock’s called as northern igneous/metamorphic zone.In the mapping of MBT we see a fold in MBT called as Hazara-Kashmir syntaxes.

20 List of Observed Formations in Rumli section XLII .

Recent conglomerates Murree formation Kuldana Formation Chorgali Formation Margala hill formation Patala formation Lokhart limestone Holocene Miocene Eocene Eocene Eocene Paleocene Paleocene STRATIGRAPHIC NOTES LOCKART FORMATION  Synonymy: XLIII .The following formations were observed in Rumli section.

The formation conformably overlies the Hangu Formation o Upper contact: The formation transitionally underlies Patala Formation PA 21 TALA FORMATION  Synonymy: Patala Shales” by Davies (1937).  Field Lithology: In the Hazara the limestone is dark grey and black in color and contains intercalation of marl and shale. This unit thus represents ''Nummulitic series'' of Middle Miss (1896). The present name was given by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan.  Field lithology: In Nammal Gorge it is mainly composed of khaki and blackish brown colored shales as shown in Fig 22.Davies introduced the name ''Lockhart Limestone'' for a Paleocene limestone unit in the Kohat Area (1930).  Contacts: o Lower contact:  Age: The formation is of Paleocene age. “Tarkhobi Shales” by Eames (1952). “Hill Limestone” by Wynne (1873).  Contacts: XLIV . Latif (1970) Assigned Mari Limestone to this unit. Lockhart limestone also has some tectonic nodules as shown in Fig 21.

The name is derived from the Margala Hills in Hazara.  Field lithology: Margala hill limestone was observed in Rumli road section during our field work.  Age: Upper Paleocene age.o o Lower contact: Upper contact: Lower disconformable with Lokhart afaormation. the upper part of Hill limestone of Wynne(1873) and Cotter (1933). Upper conformable with Margalla hills limestone. 22 MARGALA HILL LIMESTONE  Synonymy: The term Margala Hill limestone of Latif has been formally accepted by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan for the ''Nimmulitic formation'' of Waagen and Wynee (1872).  Contacts: XLV . and part of ''Nummlitic Series'' of Middle miss . It was limestone with subordinate shale and marl as shown in Fig 23.

 Age: The age of Margalla hill limestone is Eocene.  Field lithology: Formation is composed of shale and limestone as show in Fig 24. 23 CHORGALI FORMATION  Synonymy: The term “Chorgali beds” of Pascoe 1920 has been formalized as Chorgali Formation by the Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan.o Upper contact: The upper contact of Margalla hill limestone is with Kuldana formation. o Upper contact: The lower contact of margalla hill limestone is with Patala formation.  Contacts: XLVI .

XLVII  Age: . Murree formation was observed in Islamabad and Changla Gali during our field work. Latif called ''Kuldana beds'' to the rocks of Kuldana formation.  Contacts: o Upper contact o Lower contact Lower contact is conformable with Chorgali Formation. The age of Formation is Early Eocene. Its upper contact is disconformable with Murree Formation. The fauna indicates an early Miocene age of the formation. It was clay and sandstone with conglomerate as shown in Fig 25.  Age: 24 KULDANA FORMATION  Synonymy:  Field lithology Middle miss (1896) used the name ''Kuldana series''. o Lower contact: Its lower contact is conformable with Kuldana Formation.o Upper contact: Its upper contact is conformable with Margalla hill limestone.

 Contacts: o Lower contact: XLVIII . The basal strata of the formation consist of light greenish. grey calcareous sandstone and conglomerate. Fig 26. The formation uncomfortably overlies various formation of Eocene age.25 MURREE FORMATION  Synonymy: Mari Group by Wynne (1874) Murree Beds by Lydekker (1876) Murree Series by Pilgrim (1910) Murree Formation by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan  Field lithology: The formation consists of purple clay and greenish grey sandstone with subordinate intraformational conglomerate.

26 o Plumose structure: On the surface of master joint. a ridge like tracing in a plume like pattern usuallt oriented parallel to the upper and lower surfaces of the constituent rock units as shown in the fig 27 27 XLIX . Sole marks.  Associated structures: • • • • • • Plumose structure. Fig 28. Jointing.  Age: Early Miocene age. Fig 27. Honey comb weathering. Fig 29.o Its lower unconformable contact is with various formations of Eocene age o Upper contact: Upper contact is transitional with Kumlial Formation. Calcite and Quartz veins. Fig 30. Fig 31. Trace fossils. Fig 32.

o Sole marks: An irregularity or penetration on the undersurface of a sedimentary stratum as shown in figure 28 28 o Joints: A fracture or crack in a rock mass along which no appreciable movement has occurred as shown in figure 29 L .

These things may be precipitated during the Digenesis as shown in the fig 30 30 o Trace fossils: Imprints of ancient animals.29 o Calcite and Quartz veins: When discontinuities of rocks are filled with external material like Quartz and Veins. LI . The trace fossils of the Mammals are found in the Murree Formation.

32 o Unconformity: An unconformity is found on the upper contact of the Murree Formation where it overlies by the recent conglomerates as shown in the fig 33. LII .31 o Honey comb weathering: Weathering on the upper surface of the rock just like Honey comb structure.

33 o Cross bedding A Characteristics sedimentary structure shows the change of current direction during the deposition of rocks as shown in fig 34. 34 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED IN RUMLI SECTION  Imbrications faults: LIII .

During our field in Rumli area we have seen imbrications between Lockhart limestone and Patala formation where a backthrust is found then the epitation of strata found and Duplexes are formed. This is an thrust fault in which Chorgali Formation is over lie and the kuldana Formation is under lying. 36  Graded bedding: The graded bedding is the primary depositional structure which forms when cycle of deposition occurs and we found the fining upward sequence again and again. This can be seen in Fig 37.When we cut the rocks into slices this is called Imbrication. This can seen in Fig 36. 35  First thrust marks in Rumli area: This thrust fault observed in Rumli section between the Chorgali Formation and Kuldana Formation. This is called graded bedding.These can seen in Fig 35 where 1 is Patala Fm and 2 is Lockhart Fm. LIV .

LV . This can be seen in Fig 38. Composit unconformity is a type of unconformity in which two Formations are underlying by the same Formation. 38  Folding: When compression forces acts then the rocks are bended and this bending is called folding of rocks. Folds are of many Types depends upon the intensity of acting forces and the nature of rocks upon which these forces are acting. The folds we have seen in the field are of following types. In this case the upper formation is recent conglomerates.37  Composite unconformity: Unconformity is a surface of erosion or non deposition and marks a hiatus in the deposition.

the result will be a series of concentric strata that grow progressively older from the outside-in.o o o Chevron folds: Hinge point is pointed. if the top of a dome is eroded off. with the oldest rocks exposed at the center. Asymmetrical folds: The fold which the limbs are not the Mirror image of each other. axial plane is vertical. The strata in a dome are up warped in the center. Class 1-b type: Parallel folds are called 1-b type. 39 REFERENCES LVI . o Dome structure: Dome is a deformational feature consisting of symmetrically-dipping anticlines their general outline on a geologic map is circular or oval.

encyclopedia.wikipedia.com  Geological field report of salt range and hazara by our seniors.  Encarta 2012 LVII . o www.  Internet source.12 Edited by Syed Ibrahim Shah.com o www. MEMOIRS of The Geological Survey of Pakistan Vol.wiley.com o onlinelibrary.