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A person’s general style of interacting with the world People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place
Personality Psychoanalytic Approach: Freudian Psychoanalysis and Post-Freudian Theories 2 .
the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind 3 .Psychoanalytic Approach Developed by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation .
feelings. perfectionist dimension of personality Unconscious Id Irrational. mediating dimension of personality Ego Superego Conscious Preconscious Information in your immediate awareness Information which can easily be made conscious Thoughts. impulsive dimension of personality . illogical. urges. and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness 4 Moralistic. judgmental.Psychoanalytic Approach Rational. planful.
Psychoanalytic Approach Conscious all things we are aware of at any given moment Ego Superego Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Id 5 .
be brought into consciousness Ego Superego Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Id 6 .Psychoanalytic Approach Preconscious everything that can. with a little effort.
Psychoanalytic Approach Unconscious inaccessible warehouse of anxietyproducing thoughts and drives Ego Superego Conscious Preconscious Unconscious Id 7 .
Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind Id .develops out of the id in infancy Superego internalization of society’s moral standards responsible for guilt 8 .instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish between reality and fantasy operates according to the pleasure principle understands reality and logic mediator between id and superego Ego .
Defense Mechanisms Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety 9 .
replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite 10 .Defense Mechanisms Repression .keeping anxietyproducing thoughts out of the conscious mind Reaction formation .
when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego Sublimation .Defense Mechanisms Displacement .displacement to activities that are valued by society 11 .
retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development 12 .reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else Rationalization .Defense Mechanisms Projection .reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts Regression .
each associated with a particular erogenous zone Fixation .Psychosexual Stages Freud’s five stages of personality development.an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it way achieved in these stages 13 .
1 year) Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood 14 .Oral Stage (birth .
Anal Stage (1 .3 years) Anus is associated with pleasure Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood 15 .
5 years) Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals Oedipus or Electra complex can occur Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females 16 .Phallic Stage (3 .
Latency Stage (5 .puberty) Sexuality is repressed Children participate in hobbies. school and same-sex friendships 17 .
fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages 18 .Genital Stage (puberty on) Sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work.
Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories Karen Horney’s focus on security Object relations theories Alfred Adler’s individual psychology Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development Carl Jung’s collective unconscious 19 .