GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE

IOYAIOr 1928

THENATIONAL

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PUBLISHED

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GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
MEMORIAL
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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
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JOHN BERN ARD OHANIAN,
VANESSA AMPOLlNI,

M. FAHEY,JR.,

President and CEO ROBERT L. BOOTH,
International

WILLIAM

L. ALLEN, Editor in Chief
Mannging Edit",

Associate Editor

ROBERT W. HERNANDEZ,
ANGELA BOTZER,

Licensing and Alliances

AMY KOLCZAK,

LISA ROCHE,

Editorial Manager
ALEXANDRA BALFOUR,

Production Editor Editorial Staff

Text Editor

Design Editor
AMRA SCHMITZ,

Design

DEMETRA APOSPOROS, BETH GOULART,

Photography

Text

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'lOU om.rtou TOU. Orov 6pEXEl, OEV etvci Suvcrov va EUlOlOPSWSOUV Kat orov OEV 6pEXEl, vurrt va TOU<; ppoVTioouv; Ynop< XOUV 1.360 XAp. nOAu KaAou opopou yta aUTOKivI}Ta Kat apa~E<;, Kat 3.200 XlAlOpETpa aypOTlKWV opopwv, aAAa OEVq>aiVETat va unapXEl npoSEOI} va 6PESEl TpOrroc va pEVOUV aVOlXTOi Ol ptxpot OpOpOl OE nepioooix 6poxwv. ea avoi~ouv Kat naA 1 OTI}V wpa TOU<;. AAa va ncpcpevoov A OUVEXEla ovoiytot; I'urrt: ~TI}V Konpo uncpyoov 008apE<; EAAEitpEl<; OTl<; EUlKOlVwviE<;. ~TOU<; opopOU<; TWV XWPlWV 0 EUlOKEnTI}<; Ta~lOEUEl Ola TI}<;pESOOOUTI}<;OOKlpI)<; Kat TI}<; nAaVI}<;. LlEV unapXEl OlJllOOlO TI}AE<PWVOKat I} E~aipETI} TI}AEypa<plKr} onrjpeoto nspiopi~ETat OTl<;KUplE<;nOAEl<;. 'Evoc Ta~lOlWTI}<; nou EKavE nE~onopia ana TI} Movq TpooOlTiooI}<; pETa ana vsponovrq 6pESI}KE prrpoo rc OE pta KaTOAioSI}oI}, nou EiXE SatpEl pla YE<pupa KaTw ana TEpaona 6paxta. A VEq>EpETO SEpa OTO OlEU8UVTr} EVO<; EVOOOXElOU ~ OTOV I1EoouAa, Kl EKElvoc TOUetne OTl Sa Eypaq>EOTI} Aeuxeootc. Kcrroto onypI) 0 opopo<; Sa <pTlaXVOTav. Lluo <pOpE<;opcoc, OE OlaOTlJlla PI}VWV, 6pr}Ka TO opopo aUTO KAElOTO, xwpi<; Kavevoc, Kl ana n<; OUOnAEUpE<;,va qictvsTat va yvwpi~El TO YEYOVO<;. A~l~E, opw<;, TOV xono va nepcoei Kavetc Kat naAl ana EKEivI} TI}V KOlAaOa. Orov Elxa nporronoei, Ol apuyoaAlE<; r}Tav avSlOpEVE<; Kat OTl<; nTUXWOEl<;TWV OPElVWV apnEAlWV ~EUETayoVTav Ta POOOAEUKa avSI} TOU<;. KaAonavaYlWTI}<; pE Tl<; tapaTlKE<; nI}YE<; 'lOU, 0 nAlvSOKTlOTO<; MOUTOUAAa<; pE Ta pupwoaTa povorrcrtc 'lOU pEoa OE poooxpwpa OUVVE<pa AOUAOUOlWV Kat 0 iOlO<; 0 I1EooUAa<; I)Tav nEplTplYUPlOPEVOl ana OEVTpa. OUTE Eva <pUAAO TOU<; EVKaO Taq>EpvE va KpUtpEl ro prroopnooxto ana 'ru; Aoq>onAaYlE<;, nou xcprspoeocv ro unoxotnc prjvopcro TI}<;avol~I}<;. Ta oovverpo napaAAa~av TO OKI}VlKO, pa KaSE OlOEpEVla OTEyI} anEnVEE aoxI)pta. To Tpooooc, ispoc rorroc TWV SEWV Kat TI}<;opopqncc, EXEl Eva aSAlO ~EVOOOXElo. 0 I1EoouAa<; ovorrroooarrn Aa6wvoVTa<;TO rorno pE Tl<; navaoXlJllE<; npaypanKa OTEYE<; TOU. ( Koro ro aAAa etvrn opxerc EUxaplOTO<; Kl EXEl Eva votoxo, nou etvoi aAI}Slvo KO0plJlla. OlKOOOpr}SI}KE 6.983 Xp6vta pETa TI} ofJlllOupyia TOU Aocp , yEyov6<; nou TOV KaVEl 453 ETWV. To EOWTEplK6 'lOU, nou

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36

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<puni~nat povo orro TIl Gopetc nopro TOU, ~wvTavEUEt pE TOlxoypa<piE<;, pETat;u TWV onouov pia, OE PEYE80<; pEyaA\JTEpO TOU <pUOtKOU, TIl pop<pij TOll ApXaYYEAOUMtpE xaijA, rrpo<; npijv TOU orroiou XTioTI}KE I} EKKAIJOia. To TEprrAo, yta xonoto PUOTl')pto AOYO,<pEpEtTOEp6AIJPa TWVAou~ 1vicv. Jeffery TO 6pioKEl urrEp60AtKO va mo reipet on I} EKKAl}oia etvci TOOOrraAta, TOU 160u ouovo, aAAa 0 iepeoc Kat 0 t;EVOOOX0<;, Ota6a~oVTa<; pta EIItypa<pij novco orr' TI}V nopro, E6yaAav TO ouunepaopa on XTioTI}KE TO 1475, urroAoyi~oVTa<; TO OtaoTIJPa orro TI} oIJPtoupyia TOU Aoap PExpt TI} YEVVI}OI} TOU XpWTOU OE 5.508 XpOVta.

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KaAtE<;, n<; Af;pOVtE<; Kat Tt<; pOOtE<;TOU<;, KaAAtEpyOUV Ta aprrEAta TOU<;Kat <pnaXVOUVTa xpcoio TOU<; E TI}V EKKAl}oia W<; p urro6a8po TOU<pUotKOUKat TOUrrVEUpaTtKOU TOU<;KOOpOU. To ~E8Ewpa oTq oouAEla avarrAqpwvnat, TO rrOAU rrOAU, pE pta npooberq pEpa ovrmoooqc, ono auTE<;rrou ouvij8w<; nepvcet xcvetc OTO xc rpsvsto, all} OOOEta 01OU<; aypou<; ij pE Kou6EVTOAOt OTO rra~apt. Etvm OAOl TOU<; 6a8ta 8PI}KEllOpEVOt. H Kurrpoc etvrn apEprrTI} ono 8pl}OKEUTtKij onoipq. H MEr AAH BIOMHXANIA EINAI ~E EMBPYAKH KAT A~T A~H ~THN KYIlPO

ME~A AnO MIA KOIAAdA OIlOY OI rYNAIKE~ IlAENOYN T A POYXA ME TA 1l0dIA TOY~

Mio aKopl} IItO rrapa~EVI} EKKAl}oia dvat EKEiVI} TI}<; Movrp; TOU A yiOll Ioxrvvq AaprraowTij, OTOV KaAorravaytwTI}. KaTE6aivEt xovstc OE pta OTEVij KOlAaoa, onou Ol vovctxsc TOUXWptou rrAEvouv TI}V prrouyaoa TOU<; crtcovrcc TI} pE rc yup va n lOU<; rrOota ovrt va TI}V TpiBouv OTO XEpt. r.TI}V aAAI} rrAEUpa TOUpuaKtoU 6pioKEmt Eva oUVOV8uAEupa uno povco crxo KTiopaTa, pE TI}V oporpq TOU pEyaAuTEpoU cno aUTa va uqJc;wnat all} pta aKpl} oav Et;WOTI}<; EaTpou. 8 To nporro rrapEKKAijOt etvcn EAAI}VtKO, pE Eva 6u~aVTtVO TpOUAO rrou xavETat KaTw uno TO t;UAtVO aETwpa rrou rrpOOTE81}KE opvotcpo. Touc Toixou<; TOU KOopOUV EtKOVE<;,aAAa, Ka8w<; Eva Ka8pE<plaKl TOErrl}<;aVTavaKAOUOE TO <PW<; pEoa OTI} OKOTEtVij orrl}Ata Kat OEV 10Apouoa va XPl}otporrotijow OKOVI} pcvvqotoo yta <pAa<;,avap<pi60Aa npenei va TUXOUVKaAUTEPI}<; pwTOypa<pwl}<;. < H opo<pij 010 AanVtKo rrapEKKAijOt oou OiVEl TI}V EVTurrw01} OTt ~wypa<pioTI}KE X8E<;. Oi Anoo ro s.ot, rrAatOlWpEVOl pE Xpuoo, ~EIIp06aAAouv pEa a ono Eva prrAE <pOVTO,orrou XEpou6Eip pE KaTaKoKKLVI} oqJl} KOlTOUV pElAiXta rrpo<; Ta Et;W EVWot <PTEPOUYE<; 1OU<; rETapi~ouv. r Yncpyoov Kt aAAa rrpaypaTa OTI}V Kurrpo EKTO<; no EKKAl}oiE<;, pa OEVurrapXEl u IItO EIIl6AI}TtKij ov tot.qro OTt<; ~WE<;TWV av8pwrrCtw TI}<;. Opvovoov ro xwpa<pta TOU<;,Ko60uv rc xapouIIta TOU<;, a~Euouv p ru; EAlE<; TOU<;,600KOUV Ta npofkrro Kat ru; KaToiKE<; TOU<;,<ppoVTi~ouv ru; rropTO-

H pEyaAI} 610pqxavia OTI}V Kunpo EiVat aKopa OE Ep6puaKij KaTaoTaol}. YrrapXEl pta 6pnavtKij ETatpEia rrou E~OPUOOEt 0<pEtTa06wTiTq, rrAl}ywvoVTa<; pE oropocc cno oxoupi« pla OAOKAIJPI}rrAayta TOU Tpoooouc. H apEptKaVtKij srmpsto xaAKou, Erriol}<;· I} vooTaAyia rrou pOU ~urrvqoav Ol lIqxaVE<; TI}<; ijTav Eva pUOTqpto, worrou TI}V arrEowoa 010 KOUOOUVl TOU TpEVOU. TEAo<;, EVa pETa~oupydo OTI}V I1a<po Kat pEptKa EpYOOTaOta otvops trov ouprrAIJPWVOUV Aiyo rrOAU TOV KmaAoyo. H E~OpUt;q apiavTOU cvcverm TOOOrraAla 010 rrapEA80v 000 Kt EKEiVI} TOU xaAKOU. Ot pUptE<; XpijOEt<; TOll OpUKTOU, rrou I} aKaTEpyaOTI} pop<pij TOU8upi~Et orraAto pE AEUKE<; ypappWOEl<;, £IVa! xoptcoc VEE<;Kat I} ioropucr] TOU xpijOI} EXEt rrAEOV o rcporqoer. KarrOTE E<pnaxvav orr' aUTO TOU<;oaKOU<; pEoa o tooc onotouc xotvovrov Ta oropo ro TWV ProEva TEAE<pEpiK qrrove t KaTEu8dav KaTw OTI} AEpsoo, aAAa 0 KaTa rroAU paKpuTEpO<; opopo<; EXEt rc XaAta TOU. H AEPWO<; etvoi Eva ouYXpovo Atllavl. MExpl Kat TO 120 cuov« oxopc, Ta rrAoia EIItaVaV OTI}V Apa80uvTa . .::lEV llrrapXEt arroOEt~1} OTt TO rppoopto etvot 1000 rraAto, urrapXEl opw<; q EKKAl}oia onoo .\EYETat OTt 0 Ptxapoo<; 0 AEOVTOKapoo<; rraVTPEUTI}KE TI}V nptvxtmooc Bepevxcpto TI}<;Na6apa<;. 'Opw<;, I} <pavmXTEpij AEPWO<; poo npoorpspe Eva a~ExaoTO 8Eapa. 'Hrrrv I} rravoEAl}vO<; TOUPapa~avtou. Oi p tvopeOE<; TE<poVTav ono <pwTa. r.TO OTEVOopoo po rrou oOl}yd OTI}V rroAI}, xorrotec aqlioE<; rrp06aAAav Tt<; crroxoojrec OlAOUETE<; TOU<;

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OTO 6EAOUOtvo ocpcvo. LTI}V aAAI} roo aKpl}, 0 opollo<; nepvocos Kcnw ana 11ta mvioa, llEoa ono TI}V onoia qxnvorov Eva napa8upo orroo HallnE Eva povcouco KEpi. TIEpa an' TI} OEUTEPI} aqrioa, OE~ta, 6pwKoTav Eva poooouspcvuco eorurroP1o, OAOq>WWKat KaTapww pETa ana TI} vl}oTda TI}<;I}llEpa<;. Mto OKOTEtVr) q>tyoupa oiyoupa 8a EKavE nOAu rno EVOtaq>Epouoa aUTr) TI}V aqruXI} EtKOVa, Kt ETOl, aq>ou aVOt~a 'ro otaq>paYlla TI}<; pI}Xavr)<;, Ka8wa OE Eva oKaAonan, KaTE6a~OVTa<; TO TaAamwpl}PEVO KanHo 1l0U xapl}Aa. LTa pwa TOU XPOVOU EK8EOI}<;, Eva<; KaAoouvaTO<; pOUOOUApavo<; pE EiOE Kat r)p8E q>EpVOVTa<;lla~i rou llta KapEKAa. Xoptc va KtvI}8w an' TI} 8EOl} pou npoona81}0a va apvl}8w, aAAa llaTata. Orov Eva<; Toupxoc anoq>aoi~Et va OE nEpmOt1}8d, Oq>EiAEt<;va q>Ep8Ei<;oav pooocqnPl}<;. 'Enpsrte va l;avaoTr)ow TI} q>wwypaq>ia an' TI}V apxr). Mia wpa xcrco ana EKEiVE<; <; wxpoKin TptVE<; aqrioE<;, OKUPPEVO<;KaTw ana TO q>OVTO TOU 6douotvotJ oopcvoo Kat liE TI}V KapEpa OTpappEVI} OTa rpepopevo q>WTa WU T~alltOu, prropet va lll}v KaTEAI}~a OE pta uccvorroujttxq qxcrovpcqito, aHa I} ovopvqoq Kat I} q>tAia pE 'ro YEPO pouoouAllavo rropcpavoov. EKEiVI} I} vuxm ow opollo, KaTw ana ro q>Eyyapoq>wTO, r)Tav Eva napapu8EV1O OVEtPO nou TO OtEAUOEI} auyr). TO TEAm; ENOl: KAMITAPE l:TH AEMEl:O LTI} AEPWO unapxEt Eva Kaq>ElIE KOaAAa napaKlltaKr) rrtpooq>atpa. «H eptcrtoxpcrtc XOPEUEtEOW» eine llta xaptTWpEvl} aHa q>TWXr)xoneAa, nou 0 nonooroqc 1l0U q>wva~E yta OtEppl}vEa. 'Hrov, oproc, llta apwwKpaTia TI}<;ouprpopcc, KaKOTEXVE<;xcpucorocpsc pE ourovrKr) 1l0Pq>r)YEpt~aV WU<; wixou<;. TIavw OTI} OKI}Vr), llta TptpEAr)<; Opxr)OTpa ~opKt~E ro 8avaw pE 1l0VTEpva 1l0UOlKr). AOUOTpOt pnat v06yat vav, OKUAta EK06av 60hE<; rrcvco KaTw ow nAaKOOTpwPEVO oanEOO. Tpstc VWPE<;XOpEUTpIE<;,nou stXav UAEtWOEt TO vocpspo TOU<;, Kavav E o.rt pnopoooov yw va xporqooov ~w..: vrcvq TI}V aTpooq>mpa Kat va PI}V onoK01pl}8Ei OAO w llaya~i. LlinAa ow TpanE~t TOU<; a80VTav K TEOOEpL<; XWptaTE<; pE KanEAa Kat pna-

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