Robbins & Judge

Organizational Behavior
14th Edition

Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. – Identify the motivational benefits of intrinsic rewards.Chapter Learning Objectives  After studying this chapter. – Show how flexible benefits turn benefits into motivators. – Discuss variable-pay programs and their effect on employee motivation. you should be able to: – Describe the job characteristics model and evaluate the way it motivates by changing the work environment. – Compare and contrast job redesign strategies. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1 . – Discuss employee involvement measures. – Discuss three alternative work arrangements. Inc.

publishing as Prentice Hall 8-2 . Inc.The Job Characteristics Model  Five Core Job Dimensions – Skill Variety: degree to which the job incorporates a number of different skills and talents – Task Identity: degree to which the job requires the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work – Task Significance: how the job impacts the lives of others – Autonomy: identifies how much freedom and independence the worker has over the job – Feedback: how much the job generates direct and clear information about the worker’s performance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.

Job Characteristics Theory 2-3 .

publishing as Prentice Hall 8-4 . and evaluation of the work. Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Job Enrichment • The expansion of a job by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning.How Can Jobs be Redesigned? Job Rotation • The shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements. execution.

publishing as Prentice Hall 8-5 .  Telecommuting – Telecommuting allows workers to work from home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office.  Job Sharing – Job Sharing allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job. Inc.Alternative Work Arrangements  Flextime – Flextime allows employees to choose the hours they work within a defined period of time. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.

and safe will be more satisfying . Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and dangerous is less satisfying • Work that is controlled. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-6 . loud. relatively quiet. Inc.Social and Physical Context of Work  Social Context – Some social characteristics that improve job performance include: • Interdependence • Social support • Interactions with other people outside of work  Physical Context – The work context will also affect employee satisfaction • Work that is hot.

Inc.Employee Involvement  Definition: A participative process that uses employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organization’s success. Examples of Employee Involvement Programs • Participative Management • Representative Participation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-7 .

it is a motivator. – Establish a pay structure – Variable-pay programs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-8 .Using Rewards to Motivate Employees  Although pay is not the primary factor driving job satisfaction.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-9 .Establishing a Pay Structure Internal Pay Equity External Pay Equity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.

How to Pay Variable-Pay Programs – – – – – – – Piece-Rate Pay Merit-Based Pay Bonuses Skill-Based Pay Profit-Sharing Plans Gainsharing Employee Stock Ownership Plans Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-10 . Inc.

Types of Variable-Pay Programs  Piece-Rate Pay – Pays a fixed sum of money for each unit of production completed. If appraisals are designed correctly. Inc.  Merit-Based Pay – Pays for individual performance based on performance appraisal results. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. For example: Ballpark workers selling peanuts and soda get $1 for each bag of peanuts and soda sold. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-11 .  Bonuses – Pay a lump sum at the end of a designated period of time based on individual and/or organizational performance. workers performing at a high level will get more pay.

– Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall .  Gainsharing – Pays for improvements in group productivity from one period to another. 8-12 .  Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOP) – Provides each employee with the opportunity to acquire stock as part of their benefit package. Inc.More Types of Variable-Pay Programs  Skill-Based Pay – Pays based on the number of skills employees have or the number of jobs they can do. It is a group incentive plan.  Profit-Sharing Plans – Pays out a portion of the organization’s profitability. It is an organization-wide program and is based on a predetermined formula.

publishing as Prentice Hall . Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Flexible Benefits  Flexible benefits give individual rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his or her current needs and situations. 8-13 .

8-14 .Employee Recognition Programs  Employee rewards need to be intrinsic and extrinsic. they can cause more harm than good. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc. Employee recognition programs are a good method of intrinsic rewards. – The rewards can range from a simple thank-you to more widely publicized formal programs. – Advantages of recognition programs are that they are inexpensive and effective. – Some critics say they can be politically motivated and if they are perceived to be applied unfairly.

Global Implications  Job Characteristics and Job Enrichment – Studies do not yield consistent results about applicability to other cultures  Telecommuting – Most common in the United States  Variable Pay – Most believe variable pay systems work best in individualistic cultures such as the United States. – Fairness is an important factor  Flexible Benefits – Popular in all cultures  Employee Involvement – Differ among countries Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-15 .

Summary and Managerial Implications  Recognize individual differences  Use goals and feedback  Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them  Link rewards to performance  Check the system for equity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8-16 .

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