Engineering Design Group 15 Richard Kempin Adriano Sanchez Yacoub Anand Timothy Kolade 379467 637604 407357 477008

Contents
1. Design Brief and Specification .................................................................................................................................. 4 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. Learning Outcomes ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Design Brief ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Specification ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Task Allocation Gantt Chart .............................................................................................................................. 5

Survey, Design Types and Operation applications .................................................................................................... 6 2.1. 2.2. Screw Jack Survey ............................................................................................................................................. 6 Types of Screw Jack ........................................................................................................................................... 6

3. 4.

Existing Design Analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Concept Design Analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 8 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.3.1. 4.4. 4.4.1. 4.5. 4.5.1. 4.6. Variant 2 Analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 8 Variant 2 Parts Description ............................................................................................................................. 10 Concept 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 11 Concept 1 Description ................................................................................................................................. 11 Concept 2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 Concept Description .................................................................................................................................... 12 Final Concept................................................................................................................................................... 13 Final Concept Analysis................................................................................................................................. 14 Part Design Considerations ............................................................................................................................. 15

5.

Material and Manufacturing Selection and Jestification ........................................................................................ 16 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. Material Survey ............................................................................................................................................... 16 Material Justification....................................................................................................................................... 17 Manufacturing Justifications ........................................................................................................................... 18 Welding Method Survey ................................................................................................................................. 19 Welding Method Justifications ....................................................................................................................... 19

6.

Thread Survey and Justification .............................................................................................................................. 20 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. Thread Survey ................................................................................................................................................. 20 Thread Requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 21 Thread Justification ......................................................................................................................................... 21

7. 7.1.

Bearings and Bushes ............................................................................................................................................... 22 Bearings............................................................................................................................................................... 22 Bearing Survey ................................................................................................................................................ 22 Bearing Justification ........................................................................................................................................ 22 Bushes ................................................................................................................................................................. 23 Bush Survey ..................................................................................................................................................... 23

7.1.1. 7.1.2. 7.2. 7.2.1.

7.2.2. 8. 8.1. 8.2.

Bush Justification ............................................................................................................................................ 23

Bearings and Bushes ............................................................................................................................................... 24 Nut Survey ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 Locking Nut Justification ..................................................................................................................................... 25

The nylon locking nuts have been selected to secure the safety plate in position. It is relatively cheap to purchase this nut than manufacturing. In term of weight is much lighter than the metal nuts. The main advantage of this nylon locking nut is that it is has resistance to torque. ............................................................................................................ 25 9. 10. Safety Factor Justification ....................................................................................................................................... 26 Power Screw Specification .................................................................................................................................. 27 Power Thread Calculations ......................................................................................................................... 27 Accuracy Screw ....................................................................................................................................... 28 Distance Screw ........................................................................................................................................ 34

10.1. 10.1.1. 10.1.2. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Nut Design Calculations ...................................................................................................................................... 39 Contact Plate ....................................................................................................................................................... 42 Contact Plate Housing Calculations .................................................................................................................... 44 Housing Desing Calculations ............................................................................................................................... 45 Handle Design Calculations ................................................................................................................................. 48 Accuracy Screw Handle Calculations........................................................................................................... 48 Distance Screw Handle Calculations ........................................................................................................... 51

15.1. 15.2. 16.

Handle Design Ergonomics.................................................................................................................................. 53 Ergonomics Background.............................................................................................................................. 53 Grip Background.......................................................................................................................................... 53 Hand Sizes ................................................................................................................................................... 53 Ergonomic Grip Choice................................................................................................................................ 54

16.1. 16.2. 16.3. 16.4. 17.

Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................... 55

1. Design Brief and Specification 1.1. Learning Outcomes
   Apply Mechanical Engineering Design and Design for Quality Manufacture; Appraise the influences of human factor considerations on engineering design; Demonstrate an understanding of the constraints on the designer;

1.2. Design Brief Your design group has been commissioned to redesign a hand driven Screw Jack using the main concepts provided in Further Information and according to BS and ISO standards. The client requires an efficient design of a screw jack of general use for supporting machine parts during their repair and maintenance on the shop floor, load capacity of X kN and lifting height of Y m. 1.3. Specification This project is to redesign a hand driven Screw Jack using specific criteria and adding others. Specific Criteria;  Minimum lifting capacity of 19kN  Minimum lifting height of 0.3m  Safety factor between 3 and 4 Additional Criteria;  Adding additional safety features  Improving the initial design  Making the Screw Jack simple to use  Increase the Screw Jack accuracy The initial design (Variant 2) is a basic Screw Jack design that will be analysed in the report. Improving the Variant 2 design is a task that requires thought about the characteristics of the Jack and the effect of any changes. Some of the characteristics that need to be assessed are;         Existing Screw Jack Types Materials Used Thread Used Screw Diameter Lifting Handle Handle Size and Ergonomics Safety Factors

1.4. Task Allocation

Task Group Leader Secretary Initial research Design brief Gantt Chart Screw Jack Survey Existing Design Analysis Variant 2 Analysis Conceptual Designs and Analysis Design Considerations Material Consideration and Justification Manufacturing Considerations and Justifications Nut Survey and Justification Thread Considerations and Justifications Bearing and Bush Survey and Selection Safety Factor Determination Part Calculations Handle Housing Screws Nut Contact Plate Contact Plate Housings Safety Plate Ergonomics Part Design Handle Housing Screws Nut Contact Plate Contact Plate Housings Safety Plate Ergonomic Grips Bushes Nut Securing Plate Detail Drawings Instructional Manual Meeting Minutes Report

Person Allocated Adriano Sanchez Timothy Kolade Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez, Yacoub Anand, Timothy Kolade Richard Kempin Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin Richard Kempin Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin Timothy Kolade, Adriano Sanchez, Richard Kempin Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez, Timothy Kolade Timothy Kolade Yacoub Anand, Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin Richard Kempin Adriano Sanchez Yacoub Anand Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin Richard Kempin Timothy Kolade Yacoub Anand Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez Adriano Sanchez Richard Kempin, Adriano Sanchez, Yacoub Anand, Timothy Kolade Yacoub Anand, Richard Kempin Timothy Kolade Richard Kempin

The screw jack is an invention that can be accredited to Leonardo Da Vinci and uses concepts that date back to Archimedes in 2000 BC.uk iii www. The simplest way of doing this is to break down the concepts of a Screw Jack.2. This section will analyse the different types of Screw Jack and how they differ from each other.co.1.techdrives. Can utilise a worm gear to accommodate different handle designs. There are various different types of Screw Jacks available that all have their own advantages and disadvantages.2   Scissor Jack      Very simple design Very cheap to manufacture Light weight compact Wide choice of materials available   Lifting cars to replace tyres Max load 19kN to iii 40kN depending on model Figure 2.2.com ii . look at how they differ and then compare a selection of current models and see how they are used. it causes the scissor design to squeeze together raising its height. Can incorporate bearings to reduce friction. Design Types and Operation applications 2. Screw Jack Survey A Screw Jack is a type of jack that is operated by turning a lead screw to lift or hold a weight.uk www.4x4jack. As the screw rotates in a horizontal direction.3 i www. Can utilise a worm gear to accommodate different handle designs. 2. Types of Screw Jack Type of Screw Jack Axially Translating Screw Jack Description Uses rotary motion of a screw in a nut or a nut in a casing to move the screw axially. As the screw is rotated.co. Can incorporate bearings to reduce friction. Survey. Common Uses   Machinery alignment Lifting of portable buildings (multiple jacks used in parallel) Used on construction sites as cable jack Machinery alignment Linear actuator Micrometers Load Capacities 5kN to i 1000kN depending on model Supporting Image(s) Figure 2. Advantages      Simple design Cheap to manufacture Cheap to purchase Wide choice of materials available Wide choice of size and lifting capacity Disadvantages   Limited operational ability Cheaper manufactures use cheaper/weak er materials Lack of bearings make it hard to use and increase wear Loading Nut requires force acting upon it to prevent it turning with the Screw. the Loading Nut will travel up or down the screw depending on the direction of rotation.techdrives. Excess lubrication may counter the effect of self-locking thread Total jack size fixed at maximum. Requires regular lubrication or high likelihood of locking.1   Rotating Screw with Traveling Nut      Very simple design Cheap to manufacture Wide choice of load capacity and Screw lengths Wide choice of materials available Cheap to purchase     5kN to ii 1000kN depending on model Figure 2.

screwjack.com www.en.3.44iv to £297.11 ($100US)ii to £128.com ii All Screw Jacks will suffer from common hazards as well.     Safety factors Manufacturing costs Ergonomics Material stresses and strengths . Existing Design Analysis Type of Screw Jack Axially Translating Screw Jack Cost Range (£ per unit) £150 to £5000i depending on model requirements Ease of Operation and Operation Requirements  Simple to operate  Requires upper body strength  Can be hard to turn handles depending on handle length/size Hazards       Human factors such as kicking the handle when friction is too great Wear on the screw may cause the self-locking attributes to fail.uk v www. May require bearings to prevent the load turning with the screw Plate will not turn if not loaded Limited contact area for load Uneven loading may cause uneven wear Design Requirements      Self-locking screw Handle ergonomics Handle length (from centre) Friction to overcome.22 ($200US)iii depending on model requirements £7. These include.alibaba.      Shearing of threads Crushing of weaker parts Exposure to corrosive substances Instability (damaged Housing or uneven ground) Human errors:  Misuse such as kicking handles  Dropping  Excessive loading  Impact loading  Over lubrication All Screw Jacks will have to consider common design requirements such as.co.jtote.alibaba.valuemedia.alibaba. Bearing requirements Rotating Screw with Traveling Nut £64.20v depending on model requirements   High level of strength requirement to turn screw when plate is loaded Can be hard to turn handles depending on handle length/size Very simple to operate Requires significant levels of upper body strength when loaded Compact and easily storable when unused          Scissor Jack      Can cease if unused and unlubricated Can cause injury if used incorrectly Self-locking screw Load friction Handle length (from centre) Required force Plate strength Methods of fixing load to plate Light weight Self-locking screw Compact i www.com iii www.com iv www.

1 Variant 2 Drawing 1 . Concept Design Analysis 4.1. Variant 2 Analysis Nut Screw and Nut Threads Securing Screw Housing Screw Bolt and Safety Plate Figure 4.4.

2 Variant 2 Drawing 2 .Figure 4.

It has to tapped holes in the side for the Securing Screws. This design is cone shaped as to give it a greater surface area contact with the load. Depending on the dimensions of the design. The wide surface area will also allow for uneven loads. These will be discussed later. As a separate part to the Housing and Screw. The main purpose of the Housing is to transfer the load transmitted to the screw through to the ground. It is fixed in place in the Housing by Securing Screws. thread depth and Screw diameter. The handle is designed to withstand bending from the force exerted upon it from the user. This part must also be able to withstand the load put on the Jack without sheering or buckling. Securing Screw This is a screw that secures the Nut into the Frame ensuring it does not rotate or fall out. Contact Plate (Arial and horizontal view) The Contact Plate will be in contact with the load. This will be set at the Screws maximum length as to prevent any accidents. This also allows the centre of the cone to be hollow so it can be bolted to the Handle Carrier. This piece must be able to withstand both the load on the Jack as well as the force applied through the handles. the entire Jack is unusable. It houses the Nut and acts as a base for the Screw. Due to its size it will need to be cast. These characteristics are dependent on the thread thickness. This is a large piece that requires to be made from a strong material. Handle Carrier (Internally Threaded) This piece is connected to both the Screw and the Cone. The screw thread can come in different types depending on the requirements of the screw. This is probably the most important part of the Screw Jack. it is replaceable.2. this could also incorporate a bearing bellow it allowing it to rotate if needed. If the Screw fails. It can be connected to the Screw and Cone either by welting or threading. Housing This is the outer shell of the Screw Jack. The washer will have a wider diameter than the Screw as so to not travel past the Nut preventing the Screw travelling too far out of the Piece. Handle This is the method used to turn the Screw. . The Nut will need to be capable of supporting the load without shearing or buckling. The Washer is bolted to the Screw using a Bolt in a pre-taped hole in the bottom of the Screw. It has a threaded hole through it for the handle to be attached in. It also acts as a casing for the Screw when not in use. Variant 2 Parts Description Nut This is the threaded Nut that the screw rotates in. When it is rotated it will either raise or lower (depending on the direction of rotation) adjusting the height of the Screw Jack. the stationary nut will force the Screw either up or down depending on the direction of rotation. This part is not load bearing and is usually batch ordered. It is threaded in the centre allowing it to be fixed in position within the Handle Carrier.4. Screw This is the load bearing part of the Screw Jack. Bolt and Safety Plate These are two pieces attached to the bottom of the Screw as a safety feature. If the Screw is rotated.

Concept 1 Description The Nut is bolted into the Housing from above using Securing Bolts.4.1. The Screw is rotated in this by the Handle.3.3. The contact plate is attached above the Handle Carrying Attachment with Bearings between. The Handle is attached at the top of the Screw through a Handle Carrying Attachment. . The Bearings will allow the Contact plate to rotate freely under load as required relieving the turning friction. Concept 1 Figure 4. 1 Initial Concept Drawing 4.

4. by the handle attached at the top of the Screw. The Accuracy Screw rotates inside the Distance Screw (threaded hole inside the Distance Screw) and is rotated by the handle attached at the top of the Screw. . The Distance Screw will lift the load a specific height in a fewer turns than the Accuracy Screw which will be used to raise the load accurate amounts. 2 Concept Drawing 2 4.1. The contact Cone is attached above the Accuracy Screw on Bearings. which is bolted into the Housing.4. Concept 2 Figure 4. A Distance Screw and an Accuracy Screw. Concept Description This design has two Screws.4. The Distance Screw rotates in the Nut.

4. 3 Final Concept Drawing . Final Concept NOT TO SCALE Grub Screw Plate Housing Contact Plate Handle Bearings Bolt Un-Threaded Screw Screw (Accuracy) Weld Screw (Distance) Handle Securing Cap Bolt Nut Securing Cap Bearings Handle Carrying Attachment Securing Plate Bolt Housing Figure 4.5.

Has a threaded hole in the top for the Accuracy Screw. The grove is for Grub Screws to keep it in the housing. Grub Screw Placed through the Contact Plate Housing and into the grove of the Contact Plate to prevent the Contact Plate from falling out or being accidentally removed. Has an unthreaded section at the top for the Handles to be welded to. Screw (Accuracy) This is the smaller Screw that lifts the Jack small amounts for every turn(one turn raises the Jack 5mm). They will also have ergonomic handles for the user. The uppermost will take the load on the Jack and allow the Contact Plate to rotate freely if required. It sits inside the Housing on Bearings and secured by the Nut Securing Cap (between a Bush). One welded to the top of the Accuracy Screw (Unthreaded section) to turn the Accuracy Screw. Screw (Distance) This is the larger Screw that lifts the Jack further for each turn (one turn raises the Jack 16mm). It sits on a Bearing inside the Contact Plate Housing. The other welded to the Nut to rotate it. Has Handles welded to it in order to rotate it. It sits in the Distance Screw. Contact Plate Housing Houses the Contact Plate and the bearing. The middle Bearings are designed to reduce the friction caused by the Nut Securing Cap pushing on the Nut. This houses the Distance Screw when it is not extended.5. it pushes the screw up or down. Nut As the nut rotates. 4. Has taped holes through it for Grub Screws to keep the Contact Plate in place. Sits in and is rotated by the Nut.1. The Contact Plate Housing is bolted to the top. It will be placed between the Nut and the Housing allowing the Nut to be rotated without friction. The sizes are determined by the amount of force applied on them. It is designed to withstand the load on the Jack. Nut Securing Cap Bolted to the Housing by the Securing Cap Bolts. Has taped holes in the top for the Securing Cap Bolts. Contains a ridge inside as a platform for the Bearings.           . Final Concept Analysis Bearings Three sets of Bearings. The lowest Bearings will take the entire load placed on the Jack while it is rotating. The top surface will be hatched to give it better grip. This part is not load bearing. Has a Securing Plate bolted to the bottom to prevent it from being removed while in use. Handle Two sets of handles. It is welded to the Accuracy Screw. Contact Plate A cylindrical piece with a grove towards the bottom and an internal hole to save material. Housing The main body of the Jack. Securing Cap Bolt Used to bolt the Nut Securing Cap to the Housing. Has an open bottom allowing the Distance Screw to be removed from bellow. Pushes on the Nut (via Bush) holding it in the Housing.

Its diameter is wider than the Distance Screw and had 4 keys as part of the design that will run in the channels cut into the housing to prevent the Distance Screw from turning. The Securing Plate will contact the housing in the event the Distance Screw is extended beyond its limit. Its purpose is to prevent the Screw from being removed too far from the Nut compromising the safety of the Jack. Part Design Considerations Part Bearings Bearing Bushes Design Considerations                          To bear the dynamic load on the Jack To reduce friction To prevent wear on the Bearings Fast wearing material Easy to replace To fail before the Bearings To withstand the load without receiving damage To fail before the Contact Plate Housing Be removable Easy to remove or replace Cheap to manufacture To fail after the Contact Plate To hold the Contact Plate and Bearing Withstand the load on the Jack Long enough to overcome the torsion of the Jack Thick enough to withstand bending from force applied to it Ergonomic design Strong enough to withstand the load on the Jack Wide enough for stable base To house and protect bearings and Screws from damage Machined key channels to keep the Distance Screw aligned High enough for welded handles Self-locking thread To hold the Nut in place Prevent the Nut and Bearings from being accidentally removed from the Housing Contact Plate Contact Plate Housing Handles Housing Nut Nut Securing Cap Screw (Accuracy) Screw (Distance) Securing Plate            Self-locking thread Unthreaded section for welded handles Close pitch for accurate distance per turn Withstand the load without buckling Self-locking thread Internal thread for Accuracy Screw Larger pitch for greater distance per turn Withstand the load without buckling Wider that Distance Screw Strong enough to withstand low level impact when in use Machined keys to keep the Distance Screw aligned . 4.6. Securing Plate Metal plate bolted to the bottom of the Distance Screw.

Material and Manufacturing Selection and Jestification 5.5. Material Survey Material Specific Code CZ121 Standard BS 2874 Yield Stress 2 (N/mm ) 150-400 Manufacturing Options   Milling Lathing Common Uses       General Properties        Hard and durable at low temperatures East to machine Non sparking Corrosion resistant Machinability = 100 High metal removal rate High metal removal rate Cheap Low Tensile Strength Malleable Increasable surface hardness Expensive to manufacture Durable Hardened through flame or induction Welding not through flame Very strong Expensive Machinability = 40 Machinability = 16 Low metal removal rate Hard to machine Sand casting Hard wearing Extremely strong and hard wearing Very expensive Light weight Corrosion resistant Cheap Light weight Easy to machine Light weight Easy to machine Corrosive resistant CZ128 Brass BS 2874 150-380   Milling Lathing High speed machined components Locks Hinges Pistol firing pins Jewellery Horse shoes Low Carbon Steel (Cold drawn) 220M07 BS 970:1991 355-465   Milling Lathing     Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1045 BS 970:1991 IS:9001:2000 505   Milling Lathing       Machinery parts Wires Sprocket and chain assemblies Explosive forming tools Dies/Bolts/Rods Vehicles Shafts Bushings Crankshafts Connecting rods         High Carbon Steel (Manganese) Austenitic Stainless Steels (Softened) Grey Cast Iron EN31 BS 970:1991 IS:9001:2000 >600     Milling Lathing           Tool manufacture Specialist requirements Screws Gears Aircraft fittings Bushings Shafts Automotive part manufacture Cooking utensils Construction materials Gas turbine engines Helicopter rotors Spacecraft Golf clubs Bicycle frames      303S31 BS 970:1991 >190 Milling Lathing FG 200 IS:210 1978 200  Casting               Titanium Ti-6Al2Sn-4Zr6Mo ASTM B 265 ASTM B 338 ASTM B 367 1100    Casting Forging Milling             Aluminium bronze CA104 BS 2874 EN 12163 370   Milling Lathing Valve and pump components Fasteners Engine components Architectural applications Window frames Doors Irrigation tubing Aluminium Alloy 6063 BS EN 120201:2008 62-172     Milling Lathing Stamping Casting .1.

Material Justification Part No Component Name Material Section Quantity Material Justification 1 Contact Plate 2 Contact Plate Housing 3 Handles 4 Handle Grips 5 Housing 6 Nut 7 Nut securing cup Mild Steel 220M07 BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) Medium Carbon steel AISI 1045 BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) Medium Carbon steel AISI 1045 (IS:9001:2000) Natural Moulded Rubber BS 3734 Grey cast iron FG 200 (IS:210 1978) Medium Carbon steel AISI 1045 BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) Brass CZ128 BS 2874 1                        Low cost Economical to machine Will fail before Contact Plate Housing Can be cast for complex shape Will fail after Contact Plate Can be machined for tolerance fits Material available in rolled bars Strong enough to withstand bending force Ergonomic material Vibration absorbing Economic to manufacture Can be cast for complex shape Strong enough to hold load on Jack Economical to manufacture Strong enough material to withstand the load on the jack Practical to manufacture 1 4 4 1 1 2 8 Screws ( Accuracy) 9 Screw ( Distance) 10 Securing Plate Medium Carbon steel AISI 1045.5. BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) Medium Carbon steel AISI 1045 BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) Mild steel 220M0 BS970:1991 (IS:9001:2000) 1 Low cost Economic to manufacture Hard and durable at low temperatures to protect the nut assembly High yield strength Screws will not bend or buckle Threads unlikely to strip Can be welded to 1 1   Low force requirements on part Can be machined for key sections .2.

5µm for the fit with the bush  The inside will need to be threaded by turning  The smaller outer diameter will be turned then grinded to surface finish of 3.6 µm  Die Casting will give a suitable surface finish of 0.3µm due to outer exposure to user and inner fit with bush  Turning for the thread  Grinding the unthreaded section to a finish of 3.2µm  An economical manufacturing method that will mass produce the parts ready to use  Sand casting will give a cheap surface finish of 25µm allowing for sand blasting or painting if required  The inside requires a better finish of 12.2µm for welding of Securing Plate Bolt  Milling for accurate fits and tolerances for the keys   .3 µm  Cold rolling steel will give a surface finish of 3. Manufacturing Justifications Part Contact Plate Manufacturing Method Sand Casting Turning/Milling Die Casting Turning/Milling Cold rolling.5.2µm for welding  The larger outside diameter will be turned to a surface finish of 3.3.3µm and 1. drawing Grinding Injection Moulding Sand Casting Contact Plate Housing Handles Handle Grips Housing Nut Turning Milling Nut Securing Cap Screw (Accuracy) Turning Turning Grinding Turning Grinding Milling Screw (Distance) Securing Plate Justification Sand Casting will give a suitable surface finish of 12.2µm  Grinding the end that will be welded will have a finish of 3.2µm due to the fit with the bush  Required surface finish of 6.5µm Required Surfaces can be machined for suitable finishes of 6.8µm for the inside dimensions ready for use  Required Surfaces can be machined for suitable finish of 6.2µm for welding of Handles  Turning for the outer thread and inner thread  Grinding the underside to a finish of 3.

HSLA steels. Welding Method Justifications The Metal Arc Welding process have been selected. causing it to melt and fuse. The process is a high quality welding but to get the best from it. The metallic core-wire is melted by the arc and is transferred to the weld pool as molten drops. . as well as repair work The speed of this process makes it too slow for the welding of the handles. such as. magnesium. it is now used for welding aluminum. MIG Welding This process is suitable to weld the handles but rise the production cost due to the prices of inert gas. was soon applied to steels because it allowed for lower welding time compared to other welding processes It is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum. so cost are risen The use of this process is cost effective but too expensive for the manufacturing process. The resulting weld is uniform with good physical and chemical properties. stainless steel. copper. since it burns in oxygen and gives a high flame temperature of 3100o . Applications The process is used widely for mechanical joining and sealing for higher performance applications on copper based alloys Justification This kind of processes are to slow and they are most widely used on copper alloys Gas Welding It is widely used for welding pipes and tubes. and a wide range of other metals that are difficult to weld. Laser Welding. stainless steels and nickel-based alloys. Welding Method Survey Name Brazing Characteristics This mechanical joining process. nickel. aluminum. aluminum.3200o. carbon steels.5. Therefore the process is most efficient when done in a vacuum chamber The laser beam is a concentrated beam of light with sufficient energy to generate the heat at the base metal surface to cause fusion. that use fillers having a significantly higher melting points ( 450 to 800o ) The heat to produce fusion of the parent metal and filler rod is provided by burning a suitable gas in oxygen or air. The seller recommend welding the material under especial considerations as this kind of welding processes. Submer ged Arc Welding The process is suitable to weld the handles but the slowness of the welding rise the cost. This process involves the welding arc being continuously submerged under a mound of granular flux. though special electrodes have made possible the welding of cast iron. 5. copper. capable of welding carbon steels.5. because several considerations. rising cost. even though. enable to use low hydrogen electrodes. low alloy steels. stainless steel.4. however. This process is used widely for automated welding using robots. and other metals Was originally developed for welding aluminum and other nonferrous materials in the 1940s.  This process is flexible and enables the use of low hydrogen electrodes that the seller recommends  It reduces the cost of manufacturing  Its ideal for repairs as this kind of process are mobile increasing the versatility of it. The metal inert gas process uses a consumable electrode of wire form and an inert gas shield of carbon dioxide when welding carbon steel This process was developed for welding magnesium. TIG Welding This process is suitable to weld the handles but rise the production cost due to the prices of inert gas. C. it will be the one being use to weld the handles Metal Arc Welding The process is generally limited to welding ferrous materials. it needs the vacuum chamber. and copper alloys This process got a wide range of welding applications such as. In this process an arc is drawn between a coated consumable electrode and the work piece. Electron Beam Welding This process is able to melt any known material and the ability to weld dissimilar metals This is a versatile process. and titanium. A concentrated beam of electrons bombards the base metal.

1 manufacture  Resultant Radial  Higher load capacity pressure/side thrust  Can be self-locking    High efficiency Radial pressure/side thrust imposed on the nut. cannot be repaired. Can be self-locking         Figure 6.1 Trapezoidal Thread Figure 6. Thread Type Acme (Trapezoidal) Characteristics  Most common form of Power thread  Trapezoidal and Acme threads have a difference of 1°  Used for power/force transmission  Low friction  No imposed radial forces Advantages Disadvantages Supporting Images  Economic to  Low efficiency thread Figure 6. Thread Survey and Justification 6.4 Ball Screw Thread .2 Square Thread Figure 6.2 Difficult and expensive to manufacture Low thread thickness results in low load capacity When worn. Only replaced Figure 6. Thread Survey Purpose of Power Threads  Transmit force by converting rotational motion into linear motion There are four main types of Power Thread.4 Figure 6.1.3 It can only transmit power in one direction Square Buttress    Ball Screw Combines the advantages of square and trapezoidal threads Used for heavy unidirectional axial forces Uses ball bearings to reduce friction and distribute force Used in accurate machinery alignment High Efficiency Economic to manufacture Can be self-locking   Very low friction Highly accurate    Low load capacity Expensive to manufacture Not self-locking Figure 6.6. Below are the characteristics.3 Buttress Thread Figure 6.

B Bhandari .3. 2 Thread Type Justification Research source – design of Machine Elements. 2010. minimum requirement is one direction Limited Friction Self locking Economical to manufacture Load bearing threads 6. V. Thread Requirements      Displace load axially.6. Thread Justification Thread Surface Chosen Thread Reason Both Screws (alternate directions) Buttress Thread  Low Friction  High load bearing capacity  Economic to manufacture  Only one direction load direction required Table 6.2. Third Edition.

We have chosen to use a bearing with dimensions 50x95x31 for the Nut load bearing (dynamic load capacity of 88. 1 Needle Roller Bearing Figure 7.3kN) and Figure 7. Bearings 7.1. Bearing Survey There are many types of bearings available for use today and they all have their own specific characteristics and reasons for use.7. Bearings and Bushes 7.1.1.2.1.4kN) and a bearing with dimensions 50x95x31 for the Contact Plate bearing (dynamic load capacity of 55. Bearing Justification The chosen bearings used will be Thrust Bearings. This survey will look at the different types and their properties Bearing Type Thrust Ball Bearing Advantages  Capable of taking high dynamic loads  Low cost  Internal clearance for alignment  Can take radial load  High radial load capacity   Take less space High load capacity Disadvantages  Can only take load in one direction  Cannot take radial load        Uses  Plant machinery  Pumps  Thrust shafts       Roller Bearing Needle Roller Bearing Tapered Roler Bearings   Very High Load capacity Efficient design Cannot take axial loads Take up more room than needle roller bearings Can only take load in one direction Cannot take radial load Wider than Roller Bearings for same capacity Very expensive Minimum size requirements Transmissions Printing Motorcycles Precision applications Gearboxes Automotive differentials   Trailer and Caravan axles Transmissions 7. 2 Tapered Roller Bearing Figure 7. 3 Roller Bearing . The reason for this will be the cost and axial load efficiency of the bearings.

7 Split Bush Figure 7. Figure 7. 6 Flanged Bush Figure 7. 7. Ltd.2.2.Figure 7.” is able to manufacture the selected bushes.1. Solid sleves have been selected to be placed between the bearings and their housings to prevent wear on the walls of the housing..2.2. Splits bushes has a cut along its length. 4 Thrust Bearing 7. 8 Clenched Bush . The company “Xingya Non-Ferrous Metal Casting Co. Description Characteristics Solid tube. Bush Survey Types Solid sleeve Flanged A bush is an independent plain bearing that is inserted into a Split Clenched housing to provide a bearing surface for rotary applications. Bushes 7. 5 Solid Sleeve Bush Figure 7. Bush Justification A split bush has been selected to be placed into the housing between the nut and the cap to absorb the wear as a solid bearing cannot be placed there. Solid sleeve with a flange extending radially outward from the outside diameter to provide a thrust surface or used to allocate the bushing when it is installed. Clenched bushes have the same cut as split bushes but with a clench across the cut.

Advantages   Disadvantages Expensive    Architectural metal work Construction Internal marine applications Application Images Figure 8.2       Nylon lock Nut DIN986 TUV CERT ISO9001:20 iii 00  Metric BZP Wing Nuts M5 Metric BZP Wing Nuts M10 Metric BZP Dome Nuts M5 Metric BZP Dome Nuts M10 It has two wings on it side that grip for easy loosen and tighten by hand It can be hand tide to some extend.com ii . Nuts Materia ls Type Locking Nuts Aero tight Stainless 304(M5 Selflocking Nut All Metal (Aerotight) A2 Stainless)A2 .1 Steel  Allows to hand turn  into the bolt for the first turns. Tightened in the same manner as a normal steel nut.8.  Wing Nut Zinc plated steel It is lighter compare to metal locknut Does not rust Does not conduct electricity Low in cost Allow reused a limited number of times. By tightening the clamping bolt. This table will show the different types. Withstand vibration HMS Lock nuts ii Split HMS lock nuts trapezoidal thread to ISO 2903:1993. Great temperature resistance (600oC) than nylon insert locknuts. the slot is narrowed. grade 7H    Does not require No keyway when in use on shaft Easy to mount No problem with fretting corrosion during dismounting  Expensive      Gears Flywheels Shafts Wind turbines Figure 8. Bearings and Bushes 8. Lock washers are not used with prevailing torque lock nuts Resistance to torque Reduces hand afford during tighten and loosening Weather resistant It can be use for all type of application mention in the application    Not good for elevated temperature Not advisable in chemical area Contaminates of the bolt affect the performance of the nylon      Wheels or axles Aerospace Agricultural equipment Appliances Vehicles Figure 8. except the nylon thread inside one end will mould to the thread and grip tight prevent it being shaken or vibrated loose.skf.   Loose tightening Weak material holding Car wheels Bike parts Engine rocker covers Figure 8.5 i www.3     It is considered as a weaker nut because of the arm strength It can be bolted or screw depending on the thread depth. The nut has a tight fit on the shaft thread so that it cannot turn. As the bolt passes into the narrowed area of the nut the nut holds it i quite firmly.com www. and the nut located without clearance. Nut Survey There are many different types of nut available for us to use when securing the Safety plate onto the Distance Screw.1.mymilescity. Mode of operation Require a bolt to travel through a space. which is actually too small for its diameter and threads.4  Dome Nut Zinc plated steel    Figure 8.

4 Wing Nut Figure 8. 5 Dome Nut . 1 Steel Lock Nut Figure 8. It is relatively cheap to purchase this nut than manufacturing.2. 3 Nylon Lock Nut Figure 8. 2 HMS Lock Nut Figure 8. Locking Nut Justification The nylon locking nuts have been selected to secure the safety plate in position. The main advantage of this nylon locking nut is that it is has resistance to torque.com ii iii 8.Dome Nut plated steel  Metric BZP Dome Nuts M10 mention in the application depending on the thread depth.mymilescity.skf. Engine rocker covers i www. Figure 8.kaimametal. In term of weight is much lighter than the metal nuts.com www.com www.

which are undeterminable. Low safety factors (between 1 to 2) are usually used for simple designs with very little risk.9. high speed or vibration characteristics will raise the required safety factor to above 5. . the purpose and the usage environment will also impact on the safety factor. impact.5. this will be done on each part by assuming the required load capacity being at least 3 times greater. The safety factor is usually designed into the part from the start. This chosen safety factor will be determined by the type of product being designed. If the materials are known and have been tested. This means all parts must withstand of a minimum load of 57kN. the higher the safety redundancy. The higher the safety factor. the exposure to weather and corrosive substances limited then the designed safety factor can be low. The design for this screw jack will have a minimum safety factor of between 3 and 4. the loads and stresses are constant and low. The purpose of the designed piece can also raise the safety factor. The type of material. the manufacturing process. The only exception to this will be the safety factor of the Bearings which will have a dynamic safety factor of at least 1. Safety Factor Justification Safety factors are an integral part of modern design processes. If however . the material characteristics are known allowing safety factor will be calculated into the designs of each part. Unlike the environmental characteristics. these factors can change or are unknown then the safety factor will need to be higher. The can be described as a form of redundancy. For example.

Power Screw Specification Power Thread Calculations 10.1.10. Calculation Symbol Designation 𝜎𝑦 = 𝑌𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝜎𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑆𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 𝑊 = 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐸 = Young’s Modulus 𝑙 = Lead Distance 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑑𝑚 = 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑐 = 𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 𝜆 = 𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝛼 = 𝑜𝑓𝑓𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑐 = 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐾 = 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑦𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐿 = 𝑆𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 + 𝐻𝑎𝑙𝑓 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑡 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑇 = 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝜏 = 𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝐼 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐼𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝐽 = 𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐼𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑛 𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝜏𝑦 = 𝑌𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 .

31920 𝑚𝑚 𝑎𝑐 = 0.1.096 𝑚𝑚 ℎ3 = 4.339 𝑚𝑚 𝑅 = 0. Accuracy Screw Figure 10.10.97 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑚 = 22 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑐 = 18.75 𝑚𝑚 𝑤 = 1. 1 Accuracy Screw Buttress Thread Profile 𝐷 = 25.589 𝑚𝑚 𝑎 = 0.35 𝑚𝑚 𝑃 = 5 𝑚𝑚 𝐻 = 7.621 𝑚𝑚 .2236 𝑚𝑚 𝑒 = 1.9390 mm 𝐻/2 = 3.9695 mm 𝐻1 = 3.589 𝑚𝑚 𝑎𝑐 = 0.1.

15 ≥ 0. 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜎𝑦 𝑓𝑠 500𝑀𝑃𝑎 3 𝜎𝑐 = 166.67𝑀𝑃𝑎 One of the first approaches to have an idea of which diameter will support the load is to transpose the formula to make dc the subject 𝑊 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜋 𝑑𝑐 2 4 𝑑𝑐 = 4𝑊 𝜎𝑐 𝜋 4 𝑥 19000𝑁 166.529𝑚𝑚 The screw will not be Self-Locking.529𝑚𝑚 𝑙 = 2𝑃 tan 𝜆 = 0.67𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑥 𝜋 𝑑𝑐 = 𝑑𝑐 = 12.To know the compressive stress allowable for 19000 N.760 𝑙 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 8𝑚𝑚 𝜋 𝑥 16.058mm.154 𝜆 = 8.154 0. 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜆 = tan 𝜆 = 𝛼 = 3⁰ 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 𝛼 𝑥 cos 𝜆 𝛼𝑛 = 2. for the next calculations the Lead will be take equal to the Pitch .04𝑚𝑚 Closest core diameter of buttress thread available is 13. the 𝜎𝑦 needs to be divide for the safety factor of 3.97⁰ 𝜋 𝑥 16.15 ≥ 8𝑚𝑚 𝑥 cos 2.760 - Self-Locking demonstration: 𝜇𝑠 ≥ 𝐿 𝑥 cos 𝛼𝑛 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 0.970 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 30 𝑥 cos 8.

59𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝑐 = 264. the chance of buckling is too high.35𝑚𝑚)2 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 150𝑚𝑚 2 = 264.058𝑚𝑚)2 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 150𝑚𝑚 2 = 133.25 𝐿 = 120𝑚𝑚 + 𝐾 = 𝑑𝑐 4 𝜋 4 1 60𝑚𝑚 2 𝐿 = 150𝑚𝑚 𝐾 = 18.27𝑚𝑚 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 32477.2mm.92𝑚𝑚 𝑥 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚 (1 − ) 4 𝑥 0. Therefore this diameter screw is not strong enough.59𝑚𝑚 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 97632.46𝑚𝑚 𝑥 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚 (1 − ) 4 𝑥 0.25 𝑥 𝜋 2 207𝑥103 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 4.27𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝑐 = 133.058𝑚𝑚 4 𝜋 4 2 𝐾 = 3.35𝑚𝑚 4 𝜋 4 2 𝐾 = 4. 𝐶 = 0.25 𝑥 𝜋 2 207𝑥103 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 3.2𝑁 As the critical load is less than three times the required load (to allow for safety factor). The resultant safety factor is 5.14.46𝑚𝑚2 𝐴𝑐 = 𝑑𝑐 2 2 𝐴𝑐 = (18. The next diameter we will try is 16.25 𝐿 = 120𝑚𝑚 + 𝐾 = 𝑑𝑐 4 𝜋 4 1 60𝑚𝑚 2 𝐿 = 150𝑚𝑚 𝐾 = 13.92𝑚𝑚2 𝐴𝑐 = 𝑑𝑐 2 2 𝐴𝑐 = (13. .11𝑁 As this critical load exceeds the safety factor of three times the required load.- Buckling Calculations: 𝜎𝑦 𝐿 2 = 𝐴𝑐 𝑥 𝜎𝑦 (1 − ) 4 𝑥 𝐶 𝜋 2 𝐸 𝐾 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐶 = 0. . there will be no chance of buckling.

15 ≥ 0. . Y W X Y q n x cos 𝛼𝑛 - Tangential forces: Σ𝐹𝑡 = 0.07 𝜆 = 4.99⁰ 𝜋 𝑥 20𝑚𝑚 This demonstrates.𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜆 = tan 𝜆 = 𝛼 = 3⁰ 𝑙 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 5𝑚 𝑚 𝜋 𝑥 22𝑚𝑚 𝑙 = 𝑃 tan 𝜆 = 0.15 ≥ 5𝑚𝑚 𝑥 cos 2.990 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 30 𝑥 cos 4. 𝑞 − 𝑛 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 = 0 𝑞 = 𝑛 ( 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆) - Axial forces: Σ𝐹𝑎 = 0 . the accuracy screw is self-locking. 𝑊 + 𝑛 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 .550 - Self-Locking demonstration: 𝜇𝑠 ≥ 𝐿 𝑥 cos 𝛼𝑛 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 0.140 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 𝛼 𝑥 cos 𝜆 𝛼𝑛 = 2.08 0.

14 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2.99 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠4.14 𝑞 = 4275. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2 𝜏 = 𝜋 4 32 𝑥 18. 𝑚𝑚 𝑇 = 𝑞 𝑥 𝑇 = 4275.14 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2.77 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝐽𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 32 4 .99 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛4.04 𝑁.35𝑚𝑚 47032.𝑛 = 𝑊 (−𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆) 𝑛 = 19000 𝑁 (−0.04 𝑁.35 𝑁 0.64 𝑁 - Torque to lift the weight: 𝑑𝑚 2 22 𝑚𝑚 2 𝑇 = 47032.35 𝑁 𝑞 = 19285.64 𝑁 - Bending: 𝑑𝑐 𝑇 𝑥 2 𝜏 = 𝐽 18.35𝑚𝑚 𝜏 = 38.14) 𝑛 = 19285.15 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛4.15 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠4.

𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋 𝑥 18.02 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑏 2 2 + 𝜏 2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 112.02 2 2 + 38. 𝑚𝑚 𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 18.772 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 68.02 𝑁. this column won’t fail by bending stress.67.12 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑦 = 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 𝑓𝑠 = 3.12 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑦 𝜏𝑦 = 2 𝜏𝑦 = 500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 68.𝜎𝑏 = 𝑀𝑏 𝑥 𝐼 𝑑𝑐 2 𝑀𝑏 = 453 𝑁 𝑥 150𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑏 = 67950 𝑁.35𝑚𝑚 112.35𝑚𝑚 4 64 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 64 4 𝜎𝑏 = 112.67 As the safety factor for bending stress for this diameter is 3. .

942 𝑚𝑚 𝑅 = 0.5 𝑚𝑚 𝑃 = 5 𝑚𝑚 .684 𝑚𝑚 𝑃 = 8 𝑚𝑚 𝐻 = 12.942 𝑚𝑚 𝑎 = 0.2828 𝑚𝑚 𝑒 = 1.828 𝑚𝑚 ℎ3 = 6.69 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑚 = 39.994 𝑚𝑚 𝐷 = 26 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑚 = 22.668 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑐 = 33.10.2.7024 mm 𝐻/2 = 6.1.25 𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑐 = 18.3512 mm 𝐻1 = 6 𝑚𝑚 𝑤 = 2. Distance Screw Figure 10. 1 Distance Screw Buttress Thread Profile 𝐷 = 45.11072 𝑚𝑚 𝑎𝑐 = 0.

67 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑡 = 3. so the diameter could be 32.84𝑚𝑚 𝑥 166. .97𝑚𝑚)2 𝜋 𝐴𝑐 = 361. However.23 𝑚𝑚 The minimum thickness required to support the load without failing for stress is 3.684𝑚𝑚)2 − 4 (25.421𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝑐 = 𝜋 4 𝐴𝑐 = )2 (33. to give us a major thickness to accomplish bending and buckling calculations with a safety factor over 3. being secure enough to be used.421𝑚𝑚 This diameter accomplishes the buckling calculations with a safety factor of 5.25 𝑥 𝜋 2 207𝑥103 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 8.As the design is a hollow circle one of the first approach to be taken into account is considering the minimum thickness. that have been mentioned before.43mm.684𝑚𝑚 4 𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 𝑔 = (𝑑𝑐)2 − 4 (𝐷𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 𝑔 = 8.3 𝑁 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 350𝑚𝑚 2 ) 4 𝑥 0. - Buckling Calculations 𝜎𝑦 𝐿 2 ) 4 𝑥 𝐶 𝜋 2 𝐸 𝑔 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝐴𝑐 𝑥 𝜎𝑦 (1 − 𝐶 = 0.23 mm. 𝜎𝑐 = 𝑡 = 𝑡 = 𝑊 2𝜋 𝑥 𝑟 𝑥 𝑡 𝑊 2𝜋 𝑥 𝑟 𝑥 𝜎𝑐 57000 𝑁 (2𝜋 16.25 𝐿 = 300𝑚𝑚 + 𝑔 = 𝑑𝑐 4 𝜋 4 𝜋 1 100𝑚𝑚 2 𝐿 = 350𝑚𝑚 33.49. that is why an upper diameter have been selected.42𝑚𝑚2 𝑥 500𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 (1 − 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 104310. according to buckling calculations the screw will fail.42𝑚𝑚2 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 361. which will be able to support the safety factor of 3.

98⁰ 𝜋 𝑥 39. 𝑊 + 𝑛 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 . 𝑞 − 𝑛 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 = 0 𝑞 = 𝑛 ( 𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆) - Axial forces: Σ𝐹𝑎 = 0 .668𝑚𝑚 𝑙 = 2𝑃 tan 𝜆 = 0.320 - Self-Blocking demonstration: 𝜇𝑠 ≥ 𝐿 𝑥 cos 𝛼𝑛 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 0.128 0.13 𝜆 = 7.15 ≥ 16𝑚𝑚 𝑥 cos 2.980 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 30 𝑥 cos 7.320 𝛼𝑛 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 tan 𝛼 𝑥 cos 𝜆 𝛼𝑛 = 2.𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜆 = tan 𝜆 = 𝛼 = 3⁰ 𝑙 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 2(8𝑚𝑚 ) 𝜋 𝑥 39. Y W X Y q n x cos 𝛼𝑛 - Tangential forces: Σ𝐹𝑡 = 0.15 ≥ 0. the main screw is self-blocking.668𝑚𝑚 This demonstrates.

32 𝑞 = 5398.15 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠7.15 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛7. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 𝜏 = 22.41 𝑁.46 𝑁 𝑞 = 19559.46 𝑁 0.98 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠7.73 𝑁 Torque to lift the weight: 𝑑𝑚 2 𝑇 = 𝑞 𝑥 𝑇 = 5398.32 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2.07 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 .73 𝑁 39.98 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛7. 𝑚𝑚 Bending: 𝜏 = 𝑇 𝑥 𝐽 𝑑𝑐 2 33.41 𝑁.668 𝑚𝑚 2 𝑇 = 107078.32) 𝑛 = 19559.684𝑚𝑚 2 4 − 25.97𝑚𝑚 4 33.684𝑚𝑚 𝐽ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = 𝜋 𝑥 (𝑑𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 4 − 𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 4 ) 32 𝜏 = 𝜋 32 𝑥 107078.32 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2.𝑛 = 𝑊 (−𝜇𝑠 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜆 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼𝑛 𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜆) 𝑛 = 19000 𝑁 (−0.

.66 𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 7.01 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑏 2 2 + 𝜏 2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 56.01.842𝑚𝑚) 𝐼ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 4 − 𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 4 4 𝑀𝑏 = 453 𝑁 𝑥 300𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑏 = 135900 𝑁.985𝑚𝑚)4 ) 4 𝑥 ((16. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋 4 − (12.01 2 2 + 22.072 𝑁 𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 35. 𝑚𝑚 𝜎𝑏 = 56. this column won’t fail by bending stress.66 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑦 𝜏𝑦 = 2 500 𝜏𝑦 = 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 2 𝜏𝑦 = 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 250 𝑁 𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑁 35.684𝑚𝑚 135900 𝑁.𝑑𝑐 𝑀𝑏 𝑥 2 𝜎𝑏 = 𝐼 33.01 As the safety factor for bending stress of this diameter is 7.

- Nut Design Calculations Frictional Torque 𝜇𝑓 = 𝜇𝑡 − 𝜇𝑡 (𝑓 = 0) 𝜇𝑡 (𝑓 = 0) = 𝑊 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑥 cos 𝛼𝑛 𝑥 2 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑚 𝑥 cos 𝛼𝑛 𝜇𝑡 (𝑓 = 0) = 19000𝑁 𝑥 46 𝑚𝑚 16 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 cos 2. 𝑚𝑚 𝜇𝑓 = 107078.18 𝑚𝑚4 .17 𝑚𝑚2 2 𝜋 46 𝑚𝑚 4 2 𝐴𝑛 = 1357.98 𝜇𝑡 (𝑓 = 0) = 48070 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚 - Bending Stress 𝑊 𝐴 𝑛 𝜋 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 4 𝜋 62 𝑚𝑚 4 𝜋 𝐷 4 𝜎𝑛 = 𝐴𝑛 = 𝐴𝑛 = 2 − − 2 19000 𝑁 𝜎𝑛 = 1357.41 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2 𝜏𝑛 = 1011090.99 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 - Shear stress due to Torque for Lifting 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 2 𝐽𝑛 𝜋 𝑥 (𝑑𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 4 − 𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 4 ) 32 𝜋 𝑥 32 62 𝑚𝑚 4 𝜏𝑛 = 𝑇 𝑥 𝐽ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝐽ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝐽ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = = 62 𝑚𝑚 59008. 𝑚𝑚 − 48070 𝑁.11.98 𝑥 2 𝜋 𝑥 46 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 cos 2.18 𝑚𝑚4 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 − 46 𝑚𝑚 4 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒 = 1011090.41 𝑁.41 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚 𝜇𝑓 = 59008.17 𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑛 = 13.

however.81 2 𝑁 𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 7.𝜏𝑛 = 1.32 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 1. A nut with a smaller height could have been used to reduce cost. due to the stress being spread between the threads. it make the design more than 11.32 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 .23 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 34.58 The safety factor of 34.81 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 - Principal Shear Stress 𝜏𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑛 2 2 + 𝜏𝑛 2 2 𝜏𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 13.23 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 7.52 times secure. - Transverse Shear Stress (stripping of threads) 𝜏 = 𝜏 = 𝑊 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 𝑥 𝑡 19000 𝑁 𝜋 𝑥 46 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 100 𝑚𝑚 𝜏 = 1.58 says that the nut is totally secure.99 2 + 1.

12 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 .𝑓𝑠 = 189.39 - Maximum Allowable Bearing Pressure 𝑆𝑏 = 𝜋 4 𝑥 𝑆𝑏 = 𝜋 4 𝑥 𝑊 𝐷 2 − 𝑑𝑐 2 𝑥 12.5 𝑍 = 12.5 𝑍 = 𝑍 = 2 𝑡 𝑃 100 𝑚𝑚 8 𝑚𝑚 19000 𝑁 62 𝑚𝑚 2 − 46 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 12.5 𝑆𝑏 = 1.

33 N/mm2 From this. 𝑡 = 𝑡 = 𝑊 𝜋 𝑥 𝐷 𝑥 𝜏 57000 𝑁 𝜋 𝑥 50 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 59. first the 𝜎c must be calculated. Contact Plate To determine the minimum thickness required for the Contact Plate. the 𝜏𝑦 can be calculated. 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜎𝑦 2 355 2 𝜏𝑦 = 177.5 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 And the maximum allowable 𝜏 (𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 ).17 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 With this data. 𝜎c = 𝜎c = 𝜎y 𝑓𝑠 355 N/mm2 3 𝜎c = 118.132 𝑚𝑚 This is the minimum thickness.5 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 = 3 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 59. the plate will be 57mm high to accommodate for the Grub screw grove and its requirement to sit in the Contact Plate Housing.12. For practicality.17 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑡 = 6. 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝜏𝑦 𝑓𝑠 177. . the minimum required thickness of the contact plate surface can be calculated.

𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝜎𝑦 𝐿 2 = 𝐴𝑐 𝑥 𝜎𝑦 (1 − ) 4 𝑥 𝐶 𝜋 2 𝐸 𝑔 𝐶 = 1 𝐿 = 57 𝑚𝑚 𝑔 = 𝑑𝑐 4 𝑔 = 50 𝑚𝑚 1 𝑔 = 50 𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝑐 = 𝜋 4 (𝑑𝑐)2 − 𝜋 4 (𝐷𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 )2 𝐴𝑐 = 𝜋 4 (60 𝑚𝑚)2 − 𝜋 4 (50 𝑚𝑚)2 𝐴𝑐 = 863.94 𝑚𝑚2 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 863. the buckling stress will have to be calculated for the wall thickness.As the Contact Plate will be hollow inside.14 .7 𝑁 This allows the walls to be 5mm thick with a safety factor of 16.94 𝑚𝑚2 𝑥 355 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 (1 − 355 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 4 𝑥 1 𝑥 𝜋 2 200𝑥103 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 57 𝑚𝑚 2 ) 50 𝑚𝑚 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 303631.

𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝜏𝑦 𝑓𝑠 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 3 𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 83.3 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 With this data. Contact Plate Housing Calculations To determine the minimum thickness required for the Contact Plate Housing. To accommodate for the Grub Screw holes.13. 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜎𝑦 2 500 2 𝑁 𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑦 = 250 And the maximum allowable τ (𝜏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 ). the thickness of the walls will be 11 mm. For practicality. the 𝜏𝑦 can be calculated. . 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜎𝑐 = 𝜎𝑦 𝑓𝑠 500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 3 𝜎𝑐 = 166. the calculation uses sheer stress. first the 𝜎𝑐 must be calculated. the minimum required thickness of the Contact Plate Housing can be calculated. the Contact Plate Housing will be 9 mm thick.3 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑡 = 8. The diameter used is that of the Accuracy Screw. 𝑡 = 𝑡 = 𝑊 𝜋 𝑥 𝐷 𝑥 𝜏 57000 𝑁 𝜋 𝑥 26 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 83.67 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 From this. Because of the difference in diameter.38 𝑚𝑚 This is the minimum thickness.

67 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑡 = 2.88𝑚𝑚2 𝑥 200𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 (1 − 200 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 464𝑚𝑚 2 ) 4 𝑥 0.25 𝐿 = 464 𝑚𝑚 𝑔 = 𝑑𝑐 4 𝜋 4 𝑔 = 𝐷𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 2 𝜋 100𝑚𝑚 4 2 𝑔 = 25 𝑚𝑚 𝐴𝑐 = 𝜋 4 𝐴𝑐 = − 4 𝐷𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 (125 𝑚𝑚)2 − 4 (100 𝑚𝑚)2 𝜋 𝐴𝑐 = 4417.14.88𝑚𝑚2 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 4417. .72 𝑚𝑚 - Buckling Calculations 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝜎𝑦 𝐿 2 = 𝐴𝑐 𝑥 𝜎𝑦 (1 − ) 4 𝑥 𝐶 𝜋 2 𝐸 𝑔 𝐶 = 0.6 Safety Factor 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑊 842456.6 𝑁 19000 𝑁 𝑓𝑠 = 44. Housing Desing Calculations “Minimum thickness for the housing” 𝜎𝑐 = 𝑡 = 𝑡 = 𝑊 2𝜋 𝑥 𝑟 𝑥 𝑡 𝑊 2𝜋 𝑥 𝑟 𝑥 𝜎𝑐 57000 𝑁 (2𝜋 50𝑚𝑚 𝑥 66.25 𝑥 𝜋 2 105𝑥103 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 25 𝑚𝑚 𝑊𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 842456.34 The safety factor demonstrates that the housing will not fail for buckling.

- Housing Contact Surface Calculations 𝐶 = 2𝜋 𝑥 𝑟 𝐶 = 157. .08 𝑚𝑚 57000 N B =1 𝜎 = 𝜎 = 𝑀𝑦 𝐼 57000 𝑁 𝑥 25 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 15 𝑚𝑚 2250 𝑚𝑚4 𝐼 = 𝐼 = 1 𝑥 𝐵 𝑥 𝐻 12 3 1 𝑥 1 𝑥 30 𝑚𝑚 12 3 𝐼 = 2250 𝑚𝑚4 𝜎 = 9500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 As the load is being taken between 157 points of 1 mm.

51 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 As the 𝜎𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 66.67 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 for Cast Iron the circumference got the thickness enough to support the safety factor load of 57000 N.𝜎𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝜎 𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝜎𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 9500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 157 𝜎𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑛𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 60. .

Handle Calculations 𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 𝐿ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑒 = Angle of application Hand Force Total Hand Force Pull L 180 222 Push R 60 151 373 Pull Push Pull Push L R L R 150 90 120 120 187 160 151 160 347 311 Figure 15.1.120 Total Hand Force 90 . 2 Hand Force Pushing Against Pulling (Right and left) .180 Graph 15. Handle Design Calculations Accuracy Screw Handle Calculations 𝑇 𝐿ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑒 𝑇 𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑 15.150 60 . 1 Handle Force Data Pull L 90 142 Push R 150 187 329 Pull Push L R 60 180 116 222 338 Total Hand Force 400 350 300 250 180 .15. 1 Total Hand Force 250 200 150 100 50 0 180 150 120 Right Left 90 60 Graph 15.60 150 .90 120 .

00 150.35𝑚𝑚 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 120. .09 347 311 135.According to the graph bellow the optimal length for the handle will be 138. However.23 Graph 15.15 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 𝐿ℎ − 𝑑𝑐 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 138. there are some manufacturing considerations for the handle and as it is better and cheaper to produce a handle with a preferred size. as this size cut the graph in two points. the final length will be 125 mm.99 mm.54 151.95 338 139.00 140.00 373 347 311 329 338 Handle Lenght (mm.) 373 126.) 160.99𝑚𝑚 − 18.00 110.00 130.64 𝑚𝑚 So. 3 Accuracy Screw Handle Length 329 142.00 120. Handle Lenght (mm.

𝑚𝑚 𝑥 2 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋 4 64 𝑥 18𝑚𝑚 𝜎𝑏 = 98. 𝑚𝑚 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = + 𝜏 2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 98.28 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜏𝑦 = 𝜎𝑦 2 500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚 𝑎𝑥 𝑓𝑠 = 3. the diameter of the handle demonstrates that will not fail for bending.9 2 2 + 41.9 𝜏𝑦 = 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 With a safety factor of 3.07𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑑𝑐 2 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 64 𝜎𝑏 = 𝑀𝑏 𝑥 𝐼 𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 4 18𝑚𝑚 56625 𝑁.9 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑏 2 2 𝑀𝑏 = 453 𝑁 𝑥 125𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑏 = 56625 𝑁.072 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 64.04 𝑁.Handle bending calculations: 𝜏 = 𝑇 𝑥 𝐽 𝑑𝑐 2 18𝑚𝑚 2 4 𝐽𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 32 4 47032. .9. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 𝜏 = 𝜋 32 𝑥 18𝑚𝑚 𝜏 = 41.

07 347 308.00 373 347 311 329 338 Handle Lenght (mm. However.00 280.15.30 329 325. .00 260. as this size cut the graph in two points.45𝑚𝑚 − 33. Handle Lenght (mm.) 360.47 338 316.2.00 300.00 240.45 mm.80 Graph 15. Distance Screw Handle Calculations Handle Length Calculations 𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 𝑇 𝐿ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑒 𝑇 𝐹ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐿ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑒 = According to the graph bellow the optimal length for the handle will be 316.00 340.58 311 344.684𝑚𝑚 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 282. 4 Distance Screw Handle Length 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 𝐿ℎ − 𝑑𝑐 𝐿ℎ𝑚 = 316. the final length will be 290 mm.00 320. there are some manufacturing considerations for the handle and as it is better and cheaper to produce a handle with a preferred size.) 373 287.77 𝑚𝑚 So.

032 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 49.13 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 131370 𝑁.11 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 5. 𝑚𝑚 𝜎𝑏 = 76. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 𝜏 = 𝜋 32 𝑥 26𝑚𝑚 𝜏 = 31.Handle bending calculations: 𝜏 = 𝑇 𝑥 𝐽 𝑑𝑐 2 26𝑚𝑚 2 4 𝐽𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 32 4 107078 𝑁. 𝑚𝑚 𝑥 𝜎𝑏 = 𝜋 64 𝑥 26𝑚𝑚 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝑏 2 2 + 𝜏 2 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 76.11 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑦 𝜏𝑦 = 2 𝜏𝑦 = 500 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 2 𝑓𝑠 = 𝜏𝑦 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝑓𝑠 = 49. .1 𝜏𝑦 = 250 𝑁/𝑚𝑚 2 The calculations shown above demonstrate that the main screw will not fail for bending.13 2 2 + 31.03 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2 𝜎𝑏 = 𝑀𝑏 𝑥 𝐼 𝑑𝑐 2 26𝑚𝑚 2 4 𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝜋 𝑥 𝑑𝑐 64 4 𝑀𝑏 = 453 𝑁 𝑥 290𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑏 = 131370 𝑁.

16. the Power Grip and the Precision Grip. Grip Background There are two types of grip. contoured to the curve of the palm. reduces stress during use. Karl H E Kroemer.1.3. Karl H E Kroemer. The grip is designed for bare hand operation. Undersized handles could cause danger to operator during use. Sixth Edition (2008) Figure 13. 1 Average British Male Hand Sizes 1 Fitting The Human. Handle Design Ergonomics Ergonomics Background 16. The Power Grip uses the muscles of the hand and forearm effectively. therefore it is imperative they are designed ergonomically without jeopardising the safety factor. Sixth Edition (2008) . Hand Sizes Hand measures Population Mean Length Breadth at Knuckles Maximal breadth Circumference at knuckles British British British British 180 85 105 nda SD (Standard deviation) 10 5 5 ndai Table 16. The handle is designed to be held in a power grip which requires the operator to align the fingers so they work in conjunction with each other.2. A slightly rough surface will be used to achieve an anti-slip coating to create sufficient friction preventing slip. 16. i Fitting The Human. Oversized handles could make the screw jack un-ergonomic. Handles are the parts an operator will come in contact with most often. 1 Power Grip 16.

2 Illustration of Hand Measurement Mean hand width (mm) Standard deviation of hand width(mm) 5th percentile hand width (mm) Mean Vertical Length(mm) Standard Deviation of vertical length(mm) 5th percentile Vertical length (mm ) Table 16. Ergonomic Grip Choice The grip selected is a standard grip made from textured rubber. The recommended size is 40 mm but in order to fit all sizes. we have chosen 45 mm.1.4.65 x σ # Figure 16. The chosen cylindrical shape will generate low wrist deviation ensuring arm and wrist postures are not affected. 2 Refined Hand Size Data 85 5 76. .mean σ – standard deviation 5p = µ.75 180 10 163. The grip will be placed on the cylindrical handle bars. It provides good grip and reduces required effort for effective use.5th percentile Calculation µ .5 16.

Overall we found this project enjoyable due to its ability to make us think as well as providing an engineering based challenge. This was a more difficult process than we had initially envisaged as choosing original and working designs was complicated due to the options available. These constraints helped us understand the complications associated with designing a mechanical devices. it can overcome any friction caused by the load and incorporates a method of raising small distances with increased accuracy if needed. We know this project is only to design but it would be interesting to see our Screw Jack manufactured into a working model. to finding a method of keeping the first (Distance) Screw from rotating while the nut is turned. application and the manufacture of parts. our design would be greatly improved in both ergonomic design and efficiency of use and manufacture. This helped with understanding of the uses. The design was constrained by the specifications as well as manufacturability. appearance and operation.17. we will be able to improve on our methods and current levels of designs. Having some industrial experience such as Richard’s experience in the Royal Navy and Adriano’s experience in aeronautics was a great help. We believe that this project is currently complete to the best of our current abilities as our Screw Jack can lift and support loads of 19kN (to a safety factor of 3) in excess of 0. If we redesigned to incorporate removable handles. We discovered late in the time scale that we had issues with parts of our designs and given more time we would have been able to rectify them properly to produce a better screw jack. Conclusion This project was to design a manual Screw Jack that can lift a load of 19kN 0.3 metres. we would have redesigned it to be manufactured from a hardened plastic or a carbon fibre compound to reduce weight and material cost. We had more designs that we wanted to encompass to improve the design efficiency and effectiveness but we could not due to time. As we gain more experience in engineering. The main complication with our design was the use or a rotating stationary nut as this restricted how we attached the handles. We had to encompass mechanical engineering design knowledge in order to successfully design a working screw jack that can be manufactured and mass produced. We also found this to be a useful project as we have all gained valuable engineering knowledge that will prove very useful later in our careers.3 metres in a simple manner. human factors and any other characteristics we chose to encompass. The biggest challenge was the battle against time. . This project turned up many complications at every stage while designing the Jack. We looked at many designs and developed our own initial concepts. Undertaking this project with only academic experience is a daunting task. We also realised that the contact plate could have been better designed. We have realised that there are other methods of doing this such as inserting keyed channels as a separate part and even other designs. This was complicated further by the calculations and material standards that would determine dimensions of each part. The design also had to consider human factors that would affect its construction. The keyed insert for the housing to prevent the distance screw from rotating will be very difficult to manufacture to tolerance. These were such things as struggling to find suitable materials to use for each part. Given the chance.