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The International Labour Organization (ILO) introduced the concept of the informal sector more than 25 years ago. The informal sector has been understood to mean very small-scale units producing and distributing goods and services, and consisting largely of independent, self-employed producers in urban and rural areas of developing countries, some of which also employ family labour and/or few hired workers or apprentices; which operates with very little capital or none at all; which utilize a low level of technology and skills; which therefore operates at a low level of productivity; and which generally provides very low and irregular income and highly unstable employment to those who work in it. It also includes activities that are carried out without formal approval from authorities and escape the administrative machinery responsible for enforcing legislation and similar instruments. 1 The informal sector, with its enterprising individuals and groups, can be seen as counterbalancing cure to many ill effects of globalization. 2 Firstly, the informal sector absorbs all the victims of globalization— displaced workers, forced retirees, educated unemployed and many more.
-- William D. Salter, Senior Specialist on Conditions of Work, ILO-South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team, Quezon City, Philippines, 12 November 1998. 2 -- Isagani Antonio F. Yuzon, D.P.A.. Dr. Yuzon is a senior lecturer at the School of Labor and Industrial, University of the Philippines, where he handles courses in human resource development. He was also senior lecturer at College of St. Benilde, De La Salle University. He just finished a research on ‘Social Legislation and Programs for the Informal Sector in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia: A Comparative Study’ as senior fellow of the Asian Public Intellectuals (API).
While the informal sector cannot offer jobs, it can offer income opportunities. In this sense, the informal sector is itself a safety net. Secondly, the informal sector cushions the impact of globalization on the surviving formal sector. It provides a counterbalance that reduces the impact of high inflation and real income fluctuation on fixed wage earners. The informal sector supplies cheap labor, cheap raw materials, and cheap domestic services to the wage sector. The informal sector also creates the venue for the formal sector to gain added income-earning opportunities. Thirdly, the informal sector expands the domestic market, spreads purchasing power among the poor and brings the products of the formal sector into the poorest segments of society. The underground economy was therefore credited for propping up the economy during turbulent years in Philippine economy. While the goods and services that they produced did not always register in the government's books, the income that they generated enabled Filipinos to survive the crisis, work and feed themselves. At a time when there wasn't much to speak of in the formal economy, the underground economy, apart from the huge amount of dollar remittances from Overseas Filipino Workers, took the cudgels for the nation.3 On the other hand, the informal sector can also be seen as a casualty of globalization. Firstly, the informal sector carries a substantial burden of the country’s regressive taxation system. Although it does not contribute direct taxes or regulatory fees to the government, the informal sector holds up the economy with its contributions to indirect taxation. The more affluent segments of society do not contribute as much of these as the informal sector, because they do their shopping in Hong Kong, find entertainment in Las Vegas and spend holidays in Europe. Secondly, the informal sector suffers from the absence of social protection being outside the regulatory coverage of the government. Having contributed
-- Philippine Daily Inquirer, October 24, 2001.
little direct taxes to the state, the government in return pays little attention to the informal sector in terms of policies, services and social insurance unless, of course, it is election time. Worse, the informal sector entrepreneurs end up paying bribes to government inspectors, mulcting and protection money to the police and goodwill money to business cartels just to carry out their day-to-day activities. Whether it is seen as a cure or casualty to the effects of globalization, the informal sector still plays an increasing important role in the Philippines. Although it is difficult to make accurate calculations, it is estimated that the so-called “underground economy” has hovered at around 50% of the total employment in the Philippines over the past few years and that it has contributed to at least 44 percent of the country’s Gross National Product (GNP). 4 In the City of Manila, current data on the total number of street food hawkers indicates an estimate of some 15,000 (about 5,000 are licensed), according to the Manila Hawkers Permit Services, Office of the Mayor. It is noteworthy that the City of Manila already took a step in regulating street hawkers and ambulant vendors, having adopted licensing and removal policies. However, such policies were deemed expensive and not particularly successful since there are still unlicensed ambulant vendors and hawkers roaming the City of Manila.5 In this regard, the researcher, as a member of the educational sector, deems it proper to serve unconditionally these so-called “informal sector.” Training and education can be a solution to the informal sector which, in the long run, can be a stepping stone in developing a strong industrial sector for these micro enterprises.
-- “Measuring the Non-observed Economy: The Philippine Experience,” by Estrella V. Domingo, Assistant Secretary-General of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NCSB), Manila during the United Nations Economic & Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) Workshop held on 11-14 May 2004 at Bangkok,Thailand with the theme: ASSESSING AND IMPROVING DATA QUALITY: MEASURING THE NON-OBSERVED ECONOMY. 5 -- Case study of the Street Food Hawkers in Metro Manila. (http://www.fao.org)
He may cling to them with tenacity and perseverance. Or he may descend to the “underground” where political edicts are ignored and exactions avoided through word-of. It springs from human nature that makes man choose between given alternatives. They reacted to edicts of the Egyptian dynasties and the Roman emperors. He may find his way to the “black market. he is slow to relinquish his notions and prejudices. and escape. man will weigh the alternatives and may choose to go “underground. Immutable in his nature. man is forever acting on and reacting to the world around him. evasion. Guided by ancient notions and prejudices he depends on his rulers for mandates and directives. services. and enforced them with arbitrary power and terror. Many went “underground” or moved elsewhere in search of better conditions. When government intervention fails to satisfy him.Background of the Study: There is a bustling and shadowy world where jobs.” where economic transactions take place in violation of price control and ration laws. The underground economy must be distinguished clearly and 4 .mouth dealings and cash transactions. and business transactions are conducted by word of mouth and paid for in cash to avoid scrutiny by government officials. The people either suffered degrading submission or sought escape in countless ways and directions. most rulers were tyrants who commanded the laws and lorded over their subjects. as they did later to the mandates of their Medieval feudal lords. or even works evil. man has again become a subject under the watchful eye of government.” which is as old as government itself.” In the ancient world. It is called the “underground economy. Facing the agents of government and their exactions. but may seek to avoid the ill effects through circumvention. They set just and “fair” prices for labor and commodities. In our era.
among others.” It is called as such because the rise in the number of ambulant vendors is due to factors such as the lack of education. constitutes 44% of the country’s Gross National Product (GNP). Far Eastern University. 5 . 6 The Philippines is gearing towards a developing economy. They are employers and employees who are rendering valuable services without a license or inspection sticker. 7 Ambulant vending in the Philippines is a form of informal employment that constitutes 50% of the total employment in the Philippines. The underworld comprises criminals who are committing acts of bribery. gainful employment. fraud. as other occupations in the informal sector. is a “phenomenon of lack. VOL. 9 October 2000. 8 -. Sennholz. and money to finance basic needs. -. the Philippines is struggling towards a free-market economy. and racketeering. Manila. Ambulant Vendors: Economic Issues and Concerns. Online edition copyright © 2003 by the Ludwig von Mises Institute. the criminals and their organization with the producers in the underground. Hence. producing goods and services. But they differ radically in the role they play in society. FACULTY RESEARCH JOURNAL. Government officials and agents are ever eager to lump both together. Miriam College Periodicals Section.unmistakably from the criminal activities of the underworld. and willfully inflicting wrongs on society. it plays a significant role in creating employment.The Underground Economy by Hans F. The number of Ambulant vending. Just like any other countries in the world. The underground economy involves otherwise law-abiding citizens who are seeking refuge from the wrongs inflicted on them by government. by Bonifacio Bedal Morimonte. 8 Informal sector in the Philippines. This particular situation could hardly be achieved because of so many interventions. instead one reaction or recourse could possibly be the solution and that is spontaneous development of informal economies. Both groups are knowingly violating laws and regulations and defying political authority.Ambulant Vending in Areas Proximate to Far Eastern University: Its economic implications to the revenue of the City of Manila. of which ambulant vending is part. or failing to report their productive activities to the political authorities. A Research Paper submitted to the University Committee on Research.Jasmin Nario-Galace. informal sector workers is estimated at 14 million. Copyright © 1984 by the Ludwig von Mises Institute. 6 7 -.
May 2004 6 . Measuring the Non-observed Economy (NOE): The Philippine Experience. Business and Finance of Far Eastern University since it will be instrumental in enforcing and/or 9 -. by knowing the needs of the informal sector. specifically the ambulant vendors. Significance of the Study: The study is significant to the proponent. Laid-off/unemployed workers easily shift to smallscale household production to earn a living. This study will be her simple contribution to take a direct part and serve unconditionally." Its purpose is to contribute to answering key related questions concerning onthe-job skill acquisition in these poorly-understood but critical and fast-growing areas of society.Estrella V. nonformal educators. 9 This study focuses on the socio-demographic profile. The conclusions drawn here. this condition must have helped keep the economy resilient. training needs and learning patterns in the micro-business and unregulated portion of the City of Manila’s University Belt Area. To some extent. commonly referred to as the "ambulant vendors. particularly in the development of the capacity of the various actors in the informal sector to cope with the present and future skill demands of informal sector employment and income generation. researchers. should be considered more as a general guide to further study in the context of any particular locality of interest than a search for approaches having regionally-wide validity.and augmenting income. for it has been her aspiration to serve and care for the masses and the needy. development specialists and others interested in assisting in the development of the Philippines. It is hoped that the results of this study will be useful in identifying potentially effective strategies for education and training in the informal sector in the Philippines. Domingo. This study is principally addressed to policy makers. This study will be significant to the Institute of Accounts. however.
the number of poor people has risen from 26.2 million to 31. There is a need for FEU to maintain and serve a community in line with the Accreditation standards of the Commission on Higher This study will also be useful for the formation of a curriculum program for the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area.2 per cent in 1985 to 34. Lamberte. 1. The population in the Philippines currently stands at 76. despite the fact that poverty incidence had declined from 49.5 million.3 per cent world population growth rate. Thus.36 per cent.devising the programs.8 million will be added each year to the country’s population. the number of poor people inevitably keeps on rising. There is no accurate information on the number of micro-enterprises. poverty incidence declined from 44. if not eradicated.” by Mario B.2 million.4 million to 5.3 per cent in 1985 to 40 per cent in 2000. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND POOR HOUSEHOLDS IN THE PHILIPPINES. Since the economy in the last 15 years has grown only modestly. In addition. a significant support and contribution to the City of Manila.“FINANCING FOR MICRO-ENTERPRISES. Education. but the number of poor families increased from 4. this will be an opportunity to generate more revenues in the form of taxes for the City of Manila. Since this will help legitimize businesses of ambulant vendors. corruption and mulcting will be minimized. In terms of number of families. which is well above the 1. within the U-belt area. President of the Philippine Institute 7 . With a population growth rate of 2. The 1998 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey showed that 70 per cent of the poorest 40 per cent of the respondents relied on entrepreneurial activities as their main source of income.3 million during the same period. This study is significant to the FEU community in line with the University’s vision in nurturing a service-oriented community that seeks to contribute to the advancement of society. and small and medium-sized enterprises in the Philippines because many of them do not register with the concerned government agencies.2 per cent in 2000. courses and training that will suit the needs of the informal sector of the university belt area. A great majority of the income earners of poor households are self-employed. 10 10 -.
) 11 Based on the above limited statistical information.ph/issues/2005/05/01/OPED2005050133810. Recto. from micro to small-scale enterprises. This study will cover ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area as respondents. namely: a) regular ambulant vendors. (Map of the City of Manila) for Development Studies. The respondents may be divided into two classes. Scope and Limitation of the Study: This study is focused on identifying and assessing the educational needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area.4% are large.www. Thailand. Legitimate businesses are excluded. Paredes. R.6% of the total number of registered business firms in the Philippines are micro enterprises. Legarda.mb. In the long run. Tortousa and some portions in Quezon Boulevard. on 22-23 November 2001. Lepanto. 11 -. Papa.6% are small enterprises. MV delos Santos.4% are medium and 0. specifically the following streets: Espana. This paper was presented at the ESCAPADB Joint Workshop on Mobilizing Domestic Finance for Development: Reassessment of Bank Finance and Debt Markets In Asia and the Pacific held at Bangkok.However. This structure demonstrates a wide disparity of business in the country. only 7. and also depicts the widening income disparities among Filipinos.” Speech by VP Noli de Castro at the opening of a United Nations Development Program Workshop at the Makati Shangri-la Hotel on April 21. the proponent is assuming that most of the micro enterprises belong to the informal sector This study will be an opportunity for the informal sector to be formally structured. Gastambide. This will cover the university belt area.com. (“MAKING BUSINESS FOR THE POOR. Morayta. P.html 8 . b) occasional ambulant vendors. Mendiola. the 2001 National Survey shows that 91. entrepreneurship in the Philippines will be a popular dogma which Filipinos will be proud of expressing outside our country. 0. 2005.
City of Manila for the number of ambulant vendors and hawkers in the university belt area. The proponent will seek assistance from the following IABF Student Organizations for purposes of conducting the survey. also referred to as “hawker. Inc. Ambulant vendor – the respondent of this study. 2006 upto April 10. The major problem that the proponent will encounter is that there are no records available at the Manila Hawkers Permit Services. the target market. warehouse or other merchandise which are considered within the commerce of man. any 9 .For safety measures and precautions. the following are to be operationally defined: Vendor – refers to any person engaged in business illegally. this will cover only ambulant vendors who are engaged in selling goods. The proponent might rely on actual counting or by interview with the Due to time constraints. Bureau of Permits.” refers to a vendor or seller who does not permanently occupy a definite place in the market. 2006. or carrying for sale or barter or exposing therefore. 2) Management Society 3) Society of Computer Secretarial 4) Negotiorum Lex Interviewers from the different IABF Student Organizations will be trained and selected on a limited number to lessen the percentage of error. and collecting the same from the respondents: 1) Theta Kappa Rho Confraternity. the proponent will finish the study from March 18. It also includes any person. Definition of Terms: For the purpose of clarity and comprehension of this study. but one who comes either daily or occasionally to sell his goods. barangay officials to determine the actual population size. either principal or agent who travels from town to town or from place to place in the same town selling or bartering.
goods. 8289 or the amended Magna Carta for Small Enterprises. Occasional ambulant vendor – one who does not come frequently or daily or one who may come only on special Filipino events (i. Halloween. degree programs (4-5 years). The end goal of the proponent is to determine the training and educational needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area that will help them become a small-scale enterprise. Micro enterprise – as defined in Republic Act No. 10 . Valentine’s Day. Recto. 8289 or the amended Magna Carta for Small enterprise.” refers to the underground. Informal Sector – also referred to as “underground economy. The ambulant vendors referred to in this study is classified as micro enterprises. Regular ambulant vendor – one who comes frequently or daily to sell his goods or merchandise. unlicensed and illegal activities and/or informal employment. Certificate courses (6 months – two years)] which is chosen and ranked by the respondent ambulant vendors from the questionnaires to be answered by them. University Belt Area – the area in Manila where the ambulant vendors are located specifically in the following streets: Espana. Small-scale enterprise – as defined in Republic Act No. the size range is less than 10 workers and the capitalization is less than P1. warehouse or merchandise. Christmas.) to sell his goods or merchandise. cart or vehicle. Educational / Training Needs – refers to the educational / training needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. either on foot or from any animal. the size range is 10 – 99 workers and the capitalization is P1. Goods – as used in this study are the stuff sold by ambulant vendors which are considered within the commerce of man. seminars (four hours –five days).e.e. unregistered.5 million.5 million to P15 million. This will include possible courses [i. etc. Morayta. Easter.
CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH PROBLEM Statement of the Problem: This study is focused on identifying and assessing the training and educational needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. Furthermore. Mendiola. FEU-IABF – an acronym which means Institute of Accounts.4 Civil Status 1. Business and Finance of Far Eastern University.2 Gender 1. Gastambide. MV delos Santos. Papa.Legarda.1 Age 1.3 Educational Level 1. Tortousa and some portions in Quezon Boulevard.5 Residence 11 . R. Paredes. Specific Problems: 1) What is the profile of the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in terms of: 1. this study endeavors to utilize the results of the identification in developing a small-scale entrepreneurial training program. P. Lepanto.
1 Age 1. The informal sector can meaningfully contribute to the competitiveness of the market economy in totality if it is assisted. 12 . of years in vending 4) 5) 6) To what extent is the willingness of the respondent What is the extent of financial capability of the Is there a significant relationship between the ambulant vendors to undergo further study / education / study? ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area? willingness and financial capability of the ambulant vendors in undergoing further study / education/ training? 7) the study? 8) Area? From the implications derived.6 Dependents 1.5 Residence 1.2 Gender 1.7 No.6 Dependents 1. of years in vending 2) 3) 1.4 Civil Status 1. what entrepreneurial training can be developed for the ambulant vendors in the University Belt What implications can be derived from the findings of What are the training /educational needs identified by How does the identification of the training / the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area? educational needs by the ambulant vendors differ in terms of: Theoretical Framework: Experiential Learning / Education.3 Educational Level 1.1.7 No.
and active experimentation and reflective observation. It is true that legalization of the informal sector would involve simplifying the regulations and procedures for doing business. While the informal sector cannot offer jobs. legalization alone is not enough to promote decent work. turnover. those in the informal economy need representation and voice as a fundamental right and an enabling right to enhance their access to a range of other rights at work. As a result. abstract conceptualization abilities and active experimentation abilities. Those who are particularly disadvantaged or discriminated against may need special measures. must know his or her rights and entitlements and have access to the legal system. markets. profitability. Strong and effective judicial. political. and productivity. costs of production. In this sense. it is worth considering David Kolb’s Learning Styles. like an ordinary worker. An ambulant vendor. standards-related and beneficial aspects of law and to simplify the repressive or constraining aspects so that there would be greater compliance by all enterprises and workers. there is need to examine the current level of capital. reflective observation abilities. public infrastructure and social services. technology. the informal sector is itself a safety net. In addition. can be looked as both the casualty and cure to many ill effects of globalization. It also creates the 13 . Literature on the informal sector. But because the root causes of the informal economy are multifaceted. with its enterprising individuals and groups. The above concepts and theories will be relevant in devising seminars and training in the choice of educational needs for the underground economy in the University Belt Area. It is also further necessary to measure the net worthiness of the informal sector by determining the level of savings because the individuals in the informal sector transfer their accumulated own capital to raise capital to start business through sales of own livestock and/or other assets. Most importantly. it can offer income opportunities. improving the transparent and consistent application of rules and procedures and reducing the transaction costs.Hence. The informal sector. Informal workers and enterprises also need access to resources. information. The aim would be to enhance the protective. economic and other market and non-market institutions and equitable access to these institutions are essential. they developed a learning style inventory which was designed to place people on a line between concrete experience and abstract conceptualization. David Kolb and Roger Fry argue that effective learning entails the possession of four different abilities: concrete experience abilities.
The Department of Finance is worried that the potential loss of income out of the law can reach a staggering P200 billion a year. It is sad to say that ever since the BMBE Law was passed. A number of local government units are reluctant in registering More important. low-technology and low-capital content. it has not been properly enforced. 8289 or the amended Magna Carta for Small Enterprises passed in l997 now provides a clear-cut official classification of enterprises in terms of asset size and number of workers. 2003) by Bonifacio Morimonte. Republic Act No. The informal sector expands the domestic market and spreads the purchasing power among the poor. Applicable Laws. even national government agencies are at odds in The Department of Finance has openly questioned seeing its full implementation. by Jasmin Nario-Galace. Accordingly. A “small enterprise” ranges from 10-99 workers and capitalization of P1. In a research entitled AMBULANT VENDORS: ECONOMIC ISSUES AND CONCERNS. It did not cover the population representative of the University Belt Area.venue for them to gain added income-generating opportunities. BMBE applicants. livelihood in the Philippines. BMBE Law is flawed and implementation is being held hostage by defects in its crafting. and those in the underground economy to formalize their contribution to national growth.5 million to P15 million. AREAS PROXIMATE TO In a research paper entitled: AMBULANT VENDING IN FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY: ITS ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS TO THE REVENUE OF CITY OF MANILA (April. Manila. Research Studies. Ambulant vending is a popular source of Identified respondents have had some form of schooling 14 . it is primarily concerned in determining the economic implications of ambulant vending to the revenue of the City of Manila. The Barangay Micro Business Enterprise (BMBE) Law was enacted to encourage the start-up of enterprises. The informal sector products have no way of competing in the global market owing to their low-input. provisions of the Law which exempts BMBE registrants from the payment of income tax. the informal sector is the first casualty of globalization. The above study is only limited to the ambulant vendors within areas proximate to Far Eastern University. Many were hopeful the Law will provide the necessary incentives to spur the growth of small businesses. Despite the aforementioned benefits.
Manila. and academic advising. In effect. Education is seen as a vehicle for social and economic mobility. it is important to conduct a market study of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area as this will determine their training and educational needs. With the high unemployment in the country. that is the ambulant vendors located within the University Belt Area. However. That is why the proponent has considered the above study in devising affordable and relevant seminars.and are working as ambulant vendors for lack of opportunity and skill. educational and training programs towards a small-scale enterprise will be developed on the basis of the educational and training needs of the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area. Therefore. ambulant vending activities should get attention and support it deserves from government. the success of putting up a night school for the informal sector depends upon the existing educational and training needs of its target market. vocational counseling. The primary reason for wanting to earn is to support basic needs of the family and finance education of children. it plans to put up a night school and offer a curriculum program for the informal sector. This can also be usefully employed as a guide for understanding learning difficulties. The model was also utilized by 15 . has been actively involved in serving its community within the University Belt Area. Conceptual Framework: Far Eastern University. degrees and certificate programs for the choice of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area so as to determine their training / educational needs. The above is similar to the proponent’s research in terms of addressing the general concerns of the ambulant vendors. Ambulant vending is a viable employment alternative since the vendor’s average income is higher than the minimum wage. As part of its vision in nurturing a service-oriented community that seeks to contribute to the advancement of society. The David Kolb’s Learning Styles model provides an excellent framework for planning the teaching and learning activities of the ambulant vendors.
underground economy grow as a small-scale business. gear towards a small-scale enterprise as defined in Republic Act No. proponent’s simple contribution to our government. Research Paradigm: Profile of Ambulant Input Vendors • Education al level • Age • Gender • Civil Status • No. Indeed. the informal sector can be a cure to effects of globalization. which has been reluctant in supporting the Philippine’s underground economy formalize their contribution to national growth. seminars and certificate programs for the choice of preference by the respondents taking into consideration the current needs of the underground economy towards a small-scale industry. developed for this study. That is why the proponent is conducting this study to help minimize the casualty effects of globalization against these ambulant vendors.the proponent in designing the degrees. This will eventually help the This study will be the ambulant vendors. of years in vending • Dependen ts • Residence Classification of ambulant vendors according to: • Selling areas • Frequenc y of selling Thru put Training needs assessment Identification of the financial capability of ambulant vendors Interest in continuing education of Ambulant Vendors Output Identification of Educational and Training needs Development of a small-scale entrepreneurial training 16 . The proponent’s study will focus on developing small-scale This will help the The model will also be utilized to validate the research hypotheses which the proponent has entrepreneurial training for the underground economy of the University Belt Area by knowing its educational and training needs. 8289. as a micro-level enterprise.
b) Classification of ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area according to selling areas and frequency of selling. gender. and actual residence. identification of their financial capability.Assessment and Evaluation (Feedback loop) The figure shows the research paradigm of the study. number of years in vending dependents. there is a need to assess and evaluate the programs to determine if the training and educational programs devised have served the intended target market. 17 . Input variables include: a) profile of ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area in terms of educational level. and their interest in continuing education. The thru put are the training needs assessment of the ambulant vendors. However. The output is the identification of the training and educational needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area towards the development of smallscale entrepreneurial training programs. age. Hypotheses: 1) There is no significant difference between the young and old ambulant vendors’ identification of training needs. and c) Attitude of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area towards training. civil status.
of training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of their residence. training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of their number of years in There is a significant difference in the identification of training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of the number of their There is no significant relationship between the willingness and financial capability of the ambulant vendors in undergoing further study /education/ training. Consider the following methods to be utilized: 18 . 8) There is no significant difference between male and There is a significant difference in the identification of There is no significant difference in the identification There is no significant difference in the identification There is a significant difference in the identification of female ambulant vendors’ identification of training needs training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of educational level.2) 3) 4) 5) 6) vending. of training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of civil status. 7) dependents. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Research Design: The proponent intends to use descriptive and exploratory research as research designs.
in coordination with the Barangay Chairpersons having jurisdiction of the same. educational background. the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area. MV delos 19 . This will also help the proponent determine if the study to be undertaken will be obsolete or of no use. 6) Willingness of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education. Lepanto. number of dependents and number of years in vending. c) secondary data sources. residence. Articles from recent newspapers and the internet will be considered in order to be updated on the study. Morayta. Papa. 7) The type of educational programs or training that would be affordable. 2) Respondents’ behavior and activities 3) Respondents’ social environment 4) Economic conditions of the respondents 5) Financial capability of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education.the subject matter of the survey will be composed of the following: 1) Demographic characteristics of the respondents – which includes the age. as respondents.a) Survey -. b) focus group discussion -. Legarda. Sample: The proponent will be utilizing. for a focus group discussion to further discern their attitudes for purposes of determining their educational and training needs. P.the proponent will be inviting representatives of the underground economy within the University Belt Area. Recto. gender. relevant and of interest to the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. Mendiola. specifically on the following streets: Espana. Paredes. R. civil status.
Tortousa and some portions in Quezon Boulevard. warehouse or merchandise which are considered within the commerce of man. S = sample size e = margin of error (which is . proponent or investigator.05 or 95 percent level of certainty) The proponent will be using purposive sampling as a sampling scheme wherein a desired number of sample units are selected on purpose. to be calculated using the Slovin’s Formula as follows: S= N --------1 + Ne² N = population size as determined by the average of the actual Count of the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area for seven (7) consecutive days. A blueprint map from the City Engineers’ Office of the City of Manila will be utilized to determine the areas covered in the University Belt. The selection of the sample shall depend on the personal convenience of the Where: Instrumentation: 20 . Sampling Design: The proponent will be using non-probability sampling methods since there are no population size figures available involving ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area.Santos. Gastambide. (Appendix “D”). This will cover ambulant vendors engaged in selling goods. The proponent will conduct the actual counting technique to determine the population size of the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area. The researcher will work to a 95 percent level of certainty in determining the minimum sample size. The population size shall be determined by the average of the actual count of the ambulant vendors within the University Belt Area for seven (7) consecutive days.
Informal conversations will be utilized or the interviewer directs the course of the interview in order for the respondent to fully appreciate the manner of answering the questions. civil status. g) The type of educational programs or training that would be affordable. relevant and of interest to the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. In addition.The subject matter of the survey instrument will be composed of the following: a) Demographic characteristics of the respondents – which includes the age. The above demographic variables will be utilized to determine whether significant differences exist in the identification of the training needs of the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. as stated in the proponent’s null hypotheses. gender. residence. The degrees. Translation of the questionnaires in Tagalog shall be imperative for the respondents to fully understand the questions being solicited from them. b) Respondents’ behavior and activities c) Respondents’ social environment d) Economic conditions of the respondents e) Financial capability of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education. educational background. seminars and certificate programs devised by the proponent in terms of determining the training and educational needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area were taken from the current programs offered by the Institute of Accounts. the above demographic variables will also utilized to affirm the research hypotheses of this study. Business & Finance of Far Eastern University (FEU- 21 . A structured and closed-form set of questionnaires will be distributed for each respondent. f) Willingness of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education.
In terms of obtaining the accurate demographic profile of the respondents. The proponent also had to resort to references in the library at the Far Eastern University. b) age. Philippine Normal University.” by Dr. The survey questionnaire also gave provisions for classifying ambulant vendors in terms of: a) selling area. d) civil status. 2) 3) 4) To determine the financial capability of the ambulant To determine the willingness of the ambulant vendors To determine the type of educational programs or vendors in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education.IABF). a straightforward question such as “What is your “Research Methods for Management. Shajahan was also considered before the proponent came up with the Gender. A reference entitled: instrument. training that would be affordable. For example. The questionnaires will be translated to the respondent ambulant vendors in Tagalog to facilitate the response of the respondent ambulant vendors. in case of knowing the respondent’s age. The questionnaires were designed to cover all areas concerning the study. c) the University Belt Area in terms of: years in vending. e) residence. and g) number of 22 . in the University Belt Area in pursuing further education. That is why the proponent needed to seek the advice or comment from the Dean of IABF in order to achieve the required and complete information from the respondents. and b) frequency of selling. a series of categories were presented per variable. f) dependents. relevant and of interest to the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. and De La Salle University for information that can be utilized for the preparation of the survey instrument that will be distributed to and answered by the respondents. The survey questionnaires were devised in order to answer the following specific objectives: 1) To determine the profile of the ambulant vendors in a) educational level. S.
the proponent has to resort to the opinion of a statistician and psychologist to examine the validity of the instrument. it is worth considering that the questions will be translated in Tagalog. In terms of determining the extent of the financial capability and willingness of the ambulant vendors in undergoing further study or education. a multi-item measuring technique was developed. the scales in the instrument provided adequate coverage of the topics under study. A pilot test or test-run shall be conducted on at least ten (10) ambulant vendors within the proximate area of Far Eastern University. In other words. However. In this regard. In terms of obtaining the extent of financial capability and the willingness of the ambulant vendors in the university belt area to undergo further training and education. Convenience sampling will be utilized to conduct pilot testing. Data Gathering Procedures: The sequence in obtaining the survey questionnaires as a primary data source are as follows: 23 . Manila so that the proponent will have a view on how respondents will react to the questionnaires.age” is followed by a series of age categories. and that the interviewer will direct the course of the interview in order for the respondent to fully appreciate the manner of answering the questions. the validity of the instrument can be examined using content validity.
2) Collect the questionnaires from the respondents 3) Tabulate the findings using appropriate statistical tools 4) Assessment of the implications that can be derived from the findings of the study 5) Develop conclusions and recommendations. 24 . gender. Gathering of the secondary data sources shall be done through daily surfing on the internet. in coordination with the Barangay Chairpersons having jurisdiction of the same. the proponent will be using frequency and percentage. educational background. for a focus group discussion. Statistical Treatment of Data: From the results of the survey. To further discern the attitudes of the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. For the secondary data sources. the proponent will be inviting representatives of the underground economy within the University Belt Area. residence. articles from recent newspapers and the internet will be considered in order to be updated on the study. the proponent shall consider the following statistical treatments in coming up with the training /educational needs of the respondent ambulant vendors: a) In determining the demographic profile of the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area in terms of age. dependents and number of years in vending. Proponent will direct the interview in Tagalog format.1) Distribute the questionnaires to respondents. civil status. This will also help the proponent determine if the study to be undertaken will be obsolete or of no use.
c) In determining whether there is a significant difference in the identification of training needs by the ambulant vendors in terms of age. the proponent will be using frequency. rank. CHAPTER 4 25 . dependents and no. f) In determining whether there is a significant relationship between the willingness and financial capability of the ambulant vendors in undergoing further study / education / training. gender. the proponent will be using Chi-square. the proponent will be using the frequency. and average value. e) In determining the extent of financial capability of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. of years in vending. the proponent will be using frequency and ranking. rank. d) In determining the extent of willingness of the respondent ambulant vendors to undergo further study /education/ training. educational level. and average value. residence. civil status.b) In determining the training /educational needs identified by the respondent ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. the proponent will be using the Chi Square test for each demographic variable.
Papa. Lepanto. the sample size for this business plan is 399. Mendiola. R.0352 or 97 percent level of certainty) 2) Store owners and/or employees. Legarda. P. Tortousa. Lerma and some portions of Quezon Boulevard. Recto. The proponents worked with a 97 percent level of certainty in determining the minimum sample size. Gastambide. A) Geographic Location This will cover the University Belt Area. Morayta.FINDINGS DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE TARGET MARKET A survey was conducted among the following respondents within the University Belt Area to determine their respective educational and training needs: 1) Ambulant vendors. barangay officials. Paredes. Consider the population size of the ambulant vendors classified according to area: 26 . to be calculated using the Slovin’s Formula as follows: S= N --------1 + Ne² N = population size S = sample size Where: e = margin of error (which is . MV delos Santos. Earnshaw. Out of 790 population size in the U-belt Area. A total of 106 respondents located within the proximate areas of Far Eastern University was conducted and completely undertaken. specifically the following streets: España.
most of the respondent store owners/employees have at least attained College level education but not college graduates. Tortuosa Total Population Size B) Education Level Population Size 65 15 129 48 250 100 36 147 790 100% percent of the respondents are considered early school leavers. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS OF THE TARGET MARKET WITHIN THE UNIVERSITY BELT AREA 27 . ambulant vendors with an age structure between 21-50 years comprise 83 percent of the total number of population size within the University Belt Area. On the other hand.Area: Espana Lepanto (including Cayco) Earnshaw Legarda (including Casal) Recto Lerma (including some portions of Quezon Boulevard) Mendiola Morayta.00.500. their daily income would range from 151 upto 401 pesos. For the ambulant vendors located within the University Belt Area. Their savings per month would also range to a maximum level of 2.500 pesos. On the other hand. Their savings per month would range to a maximum level of P2. D) Level of Earnings Most of the storeowners/employees located within the proximate areas of Far Eastern University have a daily income of 151 to 300 pesos. Most of the ambulant vendors have finished high school or at least attained high school level education. Gastambide. R. C) Age The age structure of the storeowners/employees between 21-30 years comprise 77% of the total number of respondents. Papa. MV delos Santos.
000.00 P1. Their preferred time in undergoing training/education is from 6:00 up to 9:00 p. they can attend classes any month during the year if classes are held in the evenings. However.00 P1. Based on the survey results.e.000.000.000. ambulant vendors and store owners/employees within the University Belt Area).00 P1.m if on weekdays.00 P1.000.00 Frequency: 27% 12% 6% 5% 10% 9% 4% 7% However. R s o s o a b la t v n o w o e p n e f m u n e d rs h h v a in d h hs h o le e a e tta e ig c o l v l A rd le ffo ab 3% 5 Nt o A rd le ffo ab 6% 5 28 .000.000.000. consider the following training needs: Most of the respondent ambulant vendors and storeowners/employees are willing to undergo training/education if given the opportunity.00 P1. Their preferred months in undergoing education / training is April and May.00 P20.The University would initially offer its non-formal education courses to its proximate members of the community (i.00 P1. only 35% of the respondents who have chosen the above-mentioned courses can afford to pay the fee as prescribed in the survey. The preferred days of the respondent ambulant vendors to undergo training/education is during Saturdays and Sundays if classes are held in the daytime. Respondent Ambulant Vendors who have attained at least high school level have preferred the following courses: Preferred Courses: Culinary Arts Handicraft Making Caregiving Basic Management Simple Business Planning Basic Entrepreneurship Agribusiness Garment Merchandising Suggested Course Fees: P1.
000.00 P1.000.000.00 P1.Respondent ambulant vendors who are high school graduates have preferred the following courses: Preferred Courses: Suggested Course Fees: Restaurant P25.00 P1.000.00 P1.00 Frequency : 17% 5% 6% 8% 8% 4% 6% 7% 6% Catering & Management Entrepreneurship Simple Business Planning Basic Management Basic Entrepreneurship Basic Marketing Computer Operations Handicraft Making Agribusiness However.00 P1. They have no specific time preference in undergoing training/education.00 P1.000.000.000.000.000.00 P20. only 20% of the respondents who have chosen the abovementioned courses can afford to pay the fee as prescribed in the survey. Response of ambulant vendors who are high school graduates Affordable 20% Not Affordable 80% The respondent store owners/employees have preferred the following courses: Preferred Courses: Suggested Course Fees: Frequency: 29 .00 P1.
by Leila Salaverria. 2002. D. Ofreneo. 2. Philippine Daily Inquirer. “Micro. Research Studies: 1.com) 1. Geneva. IV. 2. (http://www.000. 4.00 63% 57% 43% 33% 30% 30% 24% At least 70% of the respondents who have chosen the above-mentioned courses can afford to pay the fee as prescribed in the survey. “The Informal Sector as Cure for Globalization. 5. Report VI.com. Readings from the Internet: (http://www.A.net).com) II. printed in Switzerland.000.00 P1.00 P1.mb. “Hawkers are in for more heartaches. 90th Session 2002. Republic Act No. 2.Computer Secretarial Basic Marketing Basic Management Basic Finance Basic Entrepreneurship Basic Accounting Computer Operations P20.000. CHAPTER FIVE REFERENCES: David Kolb’s Learning Styles: (http://www. “Decent work and the informal economy. Posted: 1:09 AM (Manila Time) May 24.00 P1. Informal Sector Survey (1999/2000) for the Country of Botswana. “Problems with the BMBE Law.inq7.000. Isagani Antonio F. International Labour Office. 2003. The Manila Times.000. 8289 or the amended Magna Carta for Small Enterprises passed in 1997.” The Manila Bulletin Online (www. 2004 by Dr. Local Readings: 1.00 P1. Yuzon. ” International Labour Conference. 2003. 3.Inquirer News Service.ph).P.yahoo. “AMBULANT VENDING IN AREAS PROXIMATE TO FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY: ITS ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS TO THE REVENUE OF 30 . 2005. “Street food vendors banned from schools. small or medium: Which is which?.000. 2004. March 11.yahoo.” LABOREN EXERCENS. May 7. Barangay Micro Business Enterprise (BMBE) Law. March 18.” Manila Times dated November 13. by Rene E. V.000. Sixth item on the agenda.00 P1.” page A23.00 P1. III. a report published by the Central Statistics Office. by Alcuin Papa. Applicable Laws: 1.
Inc. Shajahan. S. Assignment po naming malaman lamang ang kakailanganin nyo para sa inyong hanap buhay o dili kaya ay makagawa kami ng mga programang pag-papaaral sa mga ambulant vendors. 2005 Sixth Edition. Dalawang minuto lang po ang pagtatanong namin. RESEARCH METHODS FOR MANAGEMENT. Thank you for your cooperation. 19.) 31 . 2004 Second Edition. CHRISTINE P. Salamat po. by Carl McDaniel and Roger Gates. Very truly yours. Rest assured that your identity and answers will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Manila. Textbooks: 1. VI. may I request your cooperation to kindly fill-up the blanks by checking or crossing opposite to the questions asked. Gusto po ng FEU magtayo ng eskuela na panggabi sa mga ambulant vendors ng University Belt. MARKETING RESEARCH. John Wiley & Sons. 2. CITY OF MANILA. Vol. Miriam College.” In this regard. “AMBULANT VENDORS: ECONOMIC ISSUES AND CONCERNS. (April. October 2000. Titser po ako sa FEU. Sana po ay mapahintulutan niyo akong makausap kayo ng dalawang minuto man lang. (Questionnaire) Dear Respondents: The undersigned is conducting a research study entitled: “A STUDY ON THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AMBULANT VENDORS IN THE UNIVERSITY BELT AREA.” FACULTY RESEARCH JOURNAL.2. CARPIO Researcher (Pasensiya na po kayo. by Jasmin Nario-Galace.” A research paper submitted to the Committee on Research of Far Eastern University. 2003) by Bonifacio Morimonte. by Dr. Jaico Publishing House.
civil status and educational attainment to come up with accurate educational programs and training that will suit the needs of the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area. Instructions: Kindly fill-up or check the appropriate blanks: I.20 _____ 21-30 _____ 31-40 _____ 51-60 _____ above 60 1.4 Civil Status (May asawa na ba kayo?) _____ Single _____ Widow/Widower ___ Married ___ Separated 1. Their financial capability and attitude will also be assessed in determining their educational and training needs.2 Age (Ilang taon napo kayo?) _____ 14 -below _____ 41-50 _____ 15. Profile of the Respondents: 1.5 Dependents (Mga anak po? May mga magulang o biyenan ba kayo na sinusuportahan din po?) 32 . That is why we have to consider their demographic profile in terms of age.3 Gender _____ Male _____ Female 1.A STUDY ON THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AMBULANT VENDORS IN THE UNIVERSITY BELT AREA Objective: This questionnaire is designed to determine the type of educational programs or training that would be affordable. relevant and of interest to the ambulant vendors in the University Belt Area.1 Area (Street): ___________ 1.
8 Number of years in vending (Ilang taon na po kayong nagtitinda?) _____ less than one (1) year _____ 1-3 years _____ 4-6 years _____ 7-10 years _____ more than 10 years 1._____ Parents _____ Children ___ Spouse ___ Other relatives or friends Total No.7 Educational Level (Nakatapos na po kayo ng pag-aaral? natapos niñyo sa pag-aaral?) Elementary ____ Elementary Grade Level ____ Elementary Graduate Secondary ____ High School Year Level ____ High School Graduate Ano po ang Tertiary ____ College Year Level ____ If college graduate. irregular or on occasional basis 33 . Valentine’s Day) ___ infrequent. of dependents (Ilan po ang sinusuportahan ninyo?): _______________ 1.6 Residence (Saan po kayo ngayon nakatira?) _____ Manila _____ Quezon City ___ Others: Please specify _________________ 1.e. Halloween. Christmas.9 How often do you sell your goods in this area? (Malimit po ba kayo rito para magtinda? Gaano kadalas po?) ___ daily ___ weekly ___ monthly ___ on special occasions (i. specify degree completed: ________________ 1.
10 Do you sell your goods in places other from this area? (Nagtitinda rin po ba kayo sa ibang area?) ____ Yes ___ No If yes.00 P1000.00 P1000. Christmas. Valentine’s Day) ___ infrequent.000.0 0 Catering & Restaurant P25.000. please specify the area where you sell your goods (Saan po?): _____________ How often do you sell your goods in such area? (Gaano kadalas rin po ba ang pagtitinda niñyo roon?) ___ daily ___ weekly ___ monthly ___ on special occasions (i. please check your preferred top five (5) choices and rank your choices accordingly: (1=highest.1 Are you willing to undergo further study on the following programs listed below? If yes. irregular or on occasional basis II.000. Halloween.00 P1000.0 Technician 0 Seminar Courses: (3 hrs – 7 days) Basic Accounting / Bookkeeping (whole day) Basic Entrepreneurship (4 hrs.e. lagyan ng ekis (x) kung ang tuition fee ay kaya ninyong ipaluwal) Computer Secretarial P20.00 P1000.) Basic Hygiene and P1.0 Management 0 Certified Accounting P20.000.1.) Basic Marketing (3hrs.0 0 Entrepreneurship P20. List of Educational/Training Needs to be Identified: 2.0 0 Retail Management P20.00 34 .000. Top 5 choices lang po): Rank Certificate Courses: (6 Proposed Please check if the proposed tuition months – 2 years) Tuition fees of your choice are affordable (Sa Fees inyong piniling kurso.000.) Laws Governing Business Laws (3hrs. 5=lowest) (Pili po kayo sa mga gusto ninyong kurso na gusto ninyong pag-aralan.
) Basic Management Skills (3 hrs.000.00 P1.000.00 P1.000.00 P1000.000.00 P1.00 P1000.000.000.000.7 3.2 Preferred venue for training/education/study? (Saan po niñyo gustong maturuan? ) ______ near the place where I reside ______ near the place where I sell my goods and/or merchandise ______ my place of residence ______ no specific preference 35 . continue answering 1.) Simple Business Planning (3 hrs.00 P1.00 P1.00 in III.000.2 upto 1.000.00 P1. gusto niyo ba na mag-aral?) ____ Yes ___ No _____ Maybe If yes.000. Extent of Willingness: 3.) Basic Finance (3 hrs.00 P20.) Basic Computer Operations (10 days) Courses for Elementary / High school level Candidates Agribusiness Gardening Handicraft Making Culinary Arts Garment Merchandising Flower Arrangement Basic Catering Caregiving Cosmetology Diploma for Elementary / High School Degree Courses: BS-Accountancy Bachelor of Science Commerce P1000.1 Are you willing to undergo training or further study if given the opportunity? (Kung mapagbibigyan po kayo ng pagkakataon na mag-aral.0 0 P5.00 P1.00 P1.Sanitation (3hrs.
501 – P2. _____ no specific preference 3.5 Preferred month for training/education/study: (Anong pong buwan na puede kayong mag-aral): _____ January _____ February _____ March _____ April _____ May _____ June _____ July _____ August _____ September _____October _____ November _____ December _____ no specific preference 3.12:00 noon _____ 1:00 p. 4=Agree to some extent [sumasang-ayon]. 3=Not sure [hindi sigurado].3 Preferred day for training/education/study (Araw ninyo po na gustong magaral?) _____ Monday _____ Tuesday _____ Wednesday _____ Thursday _____ Friday _____ Saturday _____ Sunday _____ no specific preference 3.6 Are you willing to pay a fee for training or education if given the opportunity? (Ok po ba kayo magbayad sa inyong pag-aaral kung saka-sakali?) ____ Yes _____ No _____ Maybe / Not sure 3.001 per course -.m.m.3.above 3. How willing are you in the following situations? 5=Strongly agree [higit na sumasang-ayon]. --.000 per course ______ P 3.7 If with fee. 1=strongly disagree [higit na di sumasang ayon]) Situations I am very much interested in undergoing further study as long as it is related to business (Interesado akong mag-aral kung ito ay may koneksyon sa pagnenegosyo) I am willing to undergo further training for six months upto two years as long as it will help me bring food on the table in the future (Gusto kong mag-aral hanggang dalawang taon kung ito ay makakagaan sa aking buhay) I am willing to undergo further training to a maximum period of six months as long as it will help me bring food on the table in the future SA 5 4 3 SD 2 1 36 . --. --.001--P1.m.m.5:00 p. how much are you willing to pay for your education / training per course? (Kung may bayad.4 Preferred time for training/education/study (Free time ninyo po na gustong mag-aral) _____ 8:00 a.m. ok ba ho na magbayad kayo ng P1. _____ 6:00 p.000 per course ______ P1. 2=Disagree [hindi sang-ayon].500 per course ______ P1.000 bawat kurso? Magkano po ang kaya ninyong ibayad?) ______ below P500 per course ______ P501 – P1.8 Extent of Willingness.9:00 p.
I am willing to undergo further training or education as long as it is for free (Ako ay mag-aaral kung ito ay libre) If training or education given is not for free. Quezon City (Ok lang kung ako’y mag biyahe sa Fairview.1 How much is your daily income in vending? (Makano po ang kinikita ninyo sa pagtitinda sa isang araw?) _____ 150 pesos and below _____ 151-300 pesos _____ 301-450 pesos _____ 451-600 pesos _____ above 600 pesos 4.(Gusto kong mag-aral ngunit hindi dapat tumagal ng anim na buwan) I am willing to undergo further training to a maximum period of two (2) weeks as long as it will help me bring food on the table in the future (Gusto kong mag-aral ngunit hindi dapat tumagal ng dalawang linggo) I am willing to undergo training or further education because it will help me alleviate my standard of living (Gusto kong mag-aral kung bibigyan ng pagkakataon dahil ito lang ang makakaahon sa aking buhay). Manila (Ok lang kung ako’y magbiyahe sa Morayta.2 Do you have other sources of income aside from vending? (Ito lang po ba ang pinanghahanapbuhay niyo?) ___ Yes _____No 37 . Extent of Financial Capability: 4. Quezon City para mag-aral) I am willing to undergo training and education in Morayta. I will no longer be willing to undergo such education and training (Kung ang aking pag-aaral ay hindi libre. ayaw ko nang mag-aral) I am willing to undergo training and education in Fairview. Manila para mag-aral) I am willing to undergo training and education if such training will be held on Saturdays and Sundays only (Gusto kong mag-aral kung ito ay gaganapin lamang tuwing Sabado o Linggo) IV.
001 pesos and above 4. How financially capable are you in the following situations? (5=Strongly agree [higit na sumasang-ayon]. 1=strongly disagree [higit na di sumasang ayon]) Situations As an ambulant vendor. how much is your daily income? (Sa iba ninyong hanapbuhay. I earn more money than most of my friends.If yes.000 pesos _____ 10.501-5.000 pesos _____ 5. 3=Not sure [hindi sigurado].500 pesos and below _____ 2. magkano po ang kinikita niñyo sa isang araw?) _____ 150 pesos and below _____ 151-300 pesos _____ 301-450 pesos _____ 451-600 pesos _____ above 600 pesos 4.500 pesos _____ 7. (Mas angat ako sa aking mga kaibigan sa kita ko bilang ambulant vendor) What I have earned from ambulant vending is more than what I SA 5 4 3 2 SD 1 38 .001-7.3 How much is your savings per month? (May savings pa ba kayo sa isang buwan? Magkano po?) _____ none _____ 2.4 Extent of financial capability.501-10. 4=Agree to some extent [sumasang-ayon]. 2=Disagree [hindi sang-ayon].
000. my inability to save inorder to undergo further training and education. hence.000.000.000. (Marami akong bayarin na dapat unahin kung kaya di ko kayang mag-aral sa kasalukuyan) As an ambulant vendor.00 bawat isang kurso) I earn a lot of money from ambulant vending (kumikita ako ng malaking halaga sa ambulant vending) I can afford to pay for my education and training as long as such training does not exceed P 3.actually need (Ang kinikita ko sa pagiging ambulant vendor ay higit pa para sa aking mga pangangailangan) I have enough savings to undergo further education/ training worth P1.00 para sa aking pag-aaral) I do not have enough savings to go to school or undergo further training or education (Wala akong naitatago na husto para sa aking pag-aaral) I have debts to pay.00 per course (Meron akong naitago na puwede kong gamitin sa pag-aaral na humigit kumulang na P1. clothing and shelter (Ang kinikita ko sa isang araw sa ambulant vending ay husto lamang para sa aking pang araw-araw na kailangan) 39 . my daily income is just enough for my daily subsistence for food.00 (kaya kong magbayad ng humigit kumulang na P3.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?