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Philofophical Enquiry INTO THE of our F Origin O Ideas THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL. LVII. in Pall-mall. LONDON: Printed for R. M DCC . Dodsley. and J.

org/details/enqphiljQSophicalOOburkrich .Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2008 with funding from Microsoft Corporation http://www.archive.

often But he lofs\ found himfelf greatly at a he found that he was far from hav^ exa5l theory or ing any thing like an of our pafjions^ a knowledge of . their genuine fources he found that he could not reduce his notions to any A 3 fixed . author hopes it will not to be thought impertinent fay fomething of the motives which in^ to enter into the following The matters which make the fubjedi of it had formerly engaged a great deal of his attention.THE PREFACE rHE duced him enquiry.

Even LonginuSy in upon apart his incomparable difcourfe ofthisfubjeBy has comprehended things extremely repugnant to each other y un- der one common name of the Sublime. and that both were indifcriminately applied to things greatly differing^ diredily and fometimes of natures oppofite. others lay under He obferved that the ideas of the fublime and beautiful were frequently confounded . Could this ad- mit .vi The PREFACE.ntyy has been more generaly and attended with worfe confequences. T^he abufe ftill of the word Be2. . fixed or conjijlent principles and he had remarked^ that the fame difficulties. Jlill Such a confufon of ideas muft cer^ tainly render all our reafonings upon fubjeBs of this kind extremely inaccu-' rate and inconclufive.

and thus of exciting our pafthis could be done^ it If was imagined that the rules deducible from fuch an enquiry anight be applied the imitative artSy to and to whatever elfe they concernedy without much dif Jiculty.The tnit PREFACE. I imagined diligent vii it of any remedy . A 4 He . could only be from a exami" nation of our pajfions breafls j in our own from a carefulfurvey of the properties of things which we find by . It is four years now fince this en^ quiry was finifhed\ during which to time the author found no caufe make any material alteration in his theory. experience to influence thofe pajfions andfrom a fiber thofe properties a?id attentive invejii^ gat ion of the laws of nature y by which are capable of affeEiing the bodyy fions.

and indifputable and if he has any where expreffed himfelf more poftivelyy it tion.viii The PREFACE. was owing to inatten- The . do \ He hasjhewn it tofome of his friends^ men of learning and candour^ who not think it wholly unreafonable and he now the public^ ventures to lay it before propofng his notions as probable conjectures^ certain not as things .

and Pleafure Pain and Pleafure difference The 3 between Paia 6 SECT. final caufe of the differ- ence between the Paflions belonging to Self-prefervation. as oppofed to each other 8 SECT. SECT. II. 10 Of the PafTions which belong I3» to Self-prefervation VII. V. VIII. PART SECT. I. III. SECT. VI. IV.THE CONTENTS. and thofe which regard the Society of the Sexes. Of the Sublime Of the Paffions The 13 which be14 long to Society IX. J^ SECT. . SECT. page c SECT. SECT. SECT. I. Of Delight and Joy and Grief Pkafure. Novelty.

CONTENTS. XVI. Sympathy ibid. The fame XXI. Of the efFeas of SECT. XIV. SECT. Imitation. The effeds of Sympathy in the diftrefles of others 23 Tragedy XV. XI. The Recapitulation 32 XIX. Of Beauty 17 SECT. XVII. X. S E C T. . IV. II. SECT. SECT. Paffions Terror Obfcurity 42 43 betweea Iir. SECT. Imitation 28 Ambition 30 XVIII. XX. Of the Paffions caufed by the 41 11. 33 34 ibid. XII. SECT. Society and Solitude 19 Sympathy. SECT. SECT. SECT. SECT. 0( the difference Clearnefs and Obfcurity with regard to the 45 SECT. Sublime I. and 21 Ambition SECT. The Conclufion PART SECT. SECT. XIII. SECT.

CONTENTS.
SECT.
V.

The fame

fubjea continued

46

SECT. VI. Privation SECT. VII. Vaftnefs SECT. VIII. Infinity SECT. IX. The fame SECT. X. Succeffion
SECT.
SECT. SECT.
jeds

50
51

52
53
and
Uniformity

54
XI.

The

efFed of Succeffion and

Uniformity in Building
XII.
XIII.

56
in Building

Magnitude

58

Infinity in pleafing

Ob59 60
ibid.

SECT. SECT. SECT. SECT. SECT.
SECT. SECT. SECT. SECT.

XIV.

Difficulty

XV.
XVI.
XVII.

Magnificence

Light
Light in Building

6z
6j
as

XVIIL

Colour confidered

produdlive of the Sublime

64 [XVIIL] Sound and Loudnefs 65 XIX. Suddennefs 66

XX.
XXI.

Intermitting

The

cries

67 of Animals 68

SECT.

CONTENTS.
SECT.
XXIII.
Smell and Taftc. Bitters

and Stenches

69
Feeling,

SECT.

XXIV.

Pain

71

PART
S

III.

E C T.

I.

Of

Beauty

73

SECT.
SECT.
Beauty

II.

Proportion not the caufe of

Beauty in Vegetables
III.

74
76
fpecies

Proportion not the caufe of

in

Animals

SECT*

IV.

Proportion not the caufe of

Beauty in the human

78
81

SECT.

V.

Proportion further confidered

SECT.
Beauty

VI.

Fitnefs

not the caufe of

84
VII.

SECT.
SECT. SECT.
Beauty

The
The

real effefts of Fitnefs

86
VIII.
Recapitulation

90
91

IX.

Perfedion not the caufe of

SECT.
may be Mind

X.

How
to

far the idea

of Beauty of the

applied

the

qualities

^2

SECT.

£

CONTENTS.
SECT.
may
XI.

How
The

far the ideas

of Beauty

be applied to Virtue

94
Beauty

SECT.

XII.

real caufe of

95

SECT. XIII. Beautiful objeas fmall 96 SECT. XIV. Smoothnefs 98 SECT. XV. Gradual Variation 99 10 SECT. XVL Delicacy SECT. XVII. Beauty in Colour 102 SECT. XVIII. Recapitulation 103 SECT. XIX. The Phyfiognomy 104 SECT. XX. The Eye 105 SECT. XXI. Uglinefs 106 SECT. XXII. Grace 107 SECT. XXIII. Elegance and Specioufnefs
ibid.

SECT.

XXIV.

The Beautiful in Feeling
108

SECT. XXV. SECT. SECT. SECT.
XXVI.
XXVII.

The

Beautiful in Sounds

III
Continued.

112
1

Tafte and Smell

XXVIII.

The

Sublime

14 and

Beautiful compared

115

PART

1

CONTENTS.

PART
S E C T.
I.

IV.

Of

the efficient caufe of the

Sublime and Beautiful

117 120

SECT. SECT. SECT. SECT.

II.

AfTociation

III.

Caufe of Pain and Fear 121
Continued

IV.

124
Is

V.
VI.

How

the Sublime

produced

126

SECT.
Delight

How pain can
Exercife

be a caufe of

127
VII.
necefTary for the

SECT.
finer

Organs
VIII.

129

SECT.

Why

things not dangerous
1

fometimes produce a paffion like Terror

30

SECT.
S

IX.

Why vifual
Unity

Objeas of great
1

dimenfions are Sublime

3

E C T.
nefs

X.

why

requifite to

Vaft-

133

SECT. XI. SECT. 'XII.
milar

The artificial Infinite The vibrations muft
The
efFecls

134
be
fi1 36

SECT.

XIII.

of Succeffion
1

in vifual objeds explained

37

SECT.

Why Smoothnefs is beau- SECT. Love XIX. 145 XVIII. XXIII. XVI. Sweetnefs relaxing 156 Variation. Of Colour 164 PART . confidered 140 terrible XV. tiful Sweetnefs. SECT. The phyfical caufe of 149 SECT. is The The caufe why Darknefs terrible 144 efFeds of Blacknefs SECT. SECT. Darknefs by its own 142 SECT. XXI. nature XIV. ful XX. Concerning Smallnefs 160 XXVI. The effefSls of BIa«kne(s moderated 148 SECT. SECT.CONTENTS. SECT. Locke's opinion concefnt- ingdarknefs. SECT. XXIV. why beau- 158 SECT. its nature 152 XXII. SECT. XVII.

tive art IV. How Words influence the 180 A Phi- . Poetry not ftridly an imita- 179 VII. SECT. V. PART S V. 167 efFea of Poetry.CONTENTS. SECT. 1 73 Examples that Words may 1 The efFea of Words afFea without raifmg images 75 VI. II. Paflions. E C T. Of Words The common not by raifing ideas of things III. SECT. 168 General words before ideas 171 SECT. SECT. SECT. I.

I.Philofophical Enquiry INTO THE Origin of our Ideas O F T H E Sublime and Beautiful. PART SECT. their engaged by every thing. is human^v By curiofity. ' which we mind. the charm of novelty to recommend it. m^ NOVELTY. ever pleafure we take in novelty. or what- We fee from place to . . But as thofe things which engage us merely by their novelty. I mean whatever defire we have for. becaufe in that ftage of life. new they catch little and with very choice. atwhatever attention is comes before them. cannot attach us for any length of B time. I. THE with great firft and the fimpleft emotion difcover in the Curiofity. children perpetually running place to hunt out fomething eagernefs. every thing has.

but very eafily and has always an ap- pearance of giddinefs. reftleflhefs is and anxiety. itfelf more or lefs with alt SECT. Some de- gree of novelty muft be one of the materials in every inftrument which works upon the mind. and foon exhaufts the variety which is commonly to be met with in nature. fenfations than thofe of loathing and wearinefs^ if many things were not adapted to affe(5l the mind by means of other powers in ourfelves. . it's nature a very adtive prin- it quickly runs over the greateft part of objedls. the occurrences of the time we come to know incapable of affecting life. the is SUBLIME it's time. by would be the mind with any other it a little. abfolutely neceflary that they ihould not be exerted in thofe things which a daily and vulgar ufe have brought into a ftale unaffecSling familiarity. befides novelty in them. and curiofity blends our paflions. powers they are.^ On . very {harp. curiofity afFedlions it it the moft fuperficial of all the object perpetually is it changes . and of other paflions befides curiofity Thefe powers and paflions fhallbe confidered in their place. But whatever thefe or upon what principle foever it is affedl: the mind. and they return with lefs and lefs of any agreeable efFecSl. has an appetite which fatisfied . In (hort. the fame things make frequent returns. Curiofity from ciple it's .

as they think pleafure does from the ceafing or diminution of fome pain. and by no means neceflarily dependent upon each other for their exiftence» The human mind for the is often. in a ftate neither of pain nor pleafure. feems the ITpafHons then necefiary towardsinmoving any of Ufe to advanced people confiderable degree. which I I call a ftate of indif- When am carried from it this ftate into a ftate of adiual pleafure. does not ap- B 2 pear . that pain arifes neceflarily from the removal of fome pleafure.and BEAUTIFUL. are each of a pofitive nature. and I think it is moft part. that the objects defigned for that purpofe. incapable of definition. jQiould be capable of exciting Pain and pain or pleafure from other caufes. pleafure are fimple ideas. ference.but they are very frequently wrong in the names they give them. and in their reafon* ings about them. befides their being in fome meafure new. 3 Pain and pleasure. People are not liable to be miftaken in their feel ings. ir. that pain and pleafure in their moft fimple and natural manner of affeding. For my part I am rather inclined to imagine. Many people are of opinion. SECT.

4 On the SUBLIME If in fuch a pear neceflary that I (hould pafs through the medium ftate of any fort of pain. is gratified with the fragrance of a rofe previous thirft or if without any you were to drink of fome wine . a pain very diftin|uifhable. faid may be its perhaps. or tranquility. tell me . is felt. a man in the fame ftate to receive a violent blow. or to tafte of fome fweetmeat without being hungry . is though the of inor to pleafure abfolutely over ? Suppofe on the other hand. or eafe. and : tafte- ing. and bright and lively colours to be prefented before you . you were to be . in all the pleafant kind of feveral fenfes. fmelling. it or call what you pi eafe. yet here in every fenfe which It is afFecSt- ed. of indifference. that the pain in thefe cafes had . you undoubtedly find a pleafure yet if I enquire into the flate of your mind pre- vious to thefe gratifications. or to have his ears found wounded with fome harfli and grating here is no removal of pleafure . and . drink of fome bitter potion. of hearing. fuddenly entertained with a concert of mufic or fuppofe fome objeft of a fine fhape. will you fay any pain has fucceeded. or imagine your fmell . diiference. you will hardly that they found you in any kind of fatisfied thefe feveral fenfes pain or having their with that feveral pleafures.

fmce pleafure I is The fame may be of pain. I For if. I do not feel any adual pleafure. more certain to my own There is nothing which I my mind with more clearEvery one of fort eife. j "but this feems to me to be a that is not difcoverable in nature. : which can only but I exift they are contraftcd think I can difcern clearly that there are pofitive pains fures. he win this pain feel a much or is greater pain arife but does of the rack ? from the removal of fit any pleafure eonfjder the of the cholic a pleafure or a pain juft as it ? we are pleafed to B 3 SECT. of indifference. and plea- which do not at all depend upon each other. can as never perfuade myfelf that pleafure and pain are mere relations. is afis flided with a of the cholic ftretch this man adually in pain Caius upon the rack. previous to the pain. can diftinguifh pleafure. thefe I it's can perceive without any relation to of idea of thing Caius . and with equal reafon. though that pleafure was of fo low a degree as to be perceived only by the removal fubtilty. any fit . Nothing in is feelings than this. 5 it's rife from the removal of that pleafurc which he enjoyed before. of and of pain. nefs than the three ftates. .and BEAU T I F U L. . only pleafure as faid have no reafon to judge . that any fuch thing ^xifts it is felt. .

. It is this opinion which we confider here.* will. SECT. 16. c. Pleafure of every kind quickly fatisfies and when is over. not ne- dependent for their exiftence on their that. more it readily is allowed than the fets us latter becaufe it very evident it's it that pleafure. in efFe6l has very little refemblance to pofitive pleafure. the diminution or ceafmg of pleafure . us. thinks that the removal or 2. that pain and pleafure are not only. The difference between the removal of PAIN and pofitive PLEASURE. 20. or rather we into a foft tranquility. and the lof^ or diminifhing of pleafure as a pain. The former of thefe propofitions be I believe. when has run career. feft. We fhall venture to propofe. which former tinged with the agreeable colour of the * 1. down it is very nearly where found . does not operate like pofitive pain and that it's the removal or diminution of pain. Mr Locke (efTay on human underflanding. in mutual diminution or removal. fall we relapfe into indifference. much .On the SUBLIME III.) is leflening of a pain confidered and operates as a pleafure. WE ceflarily fhall carry this propofition yet a ftep further. but reality.

a ftranger to the caufe of the appearance.and BEAUTIFUL. Iliad. own. 24. B4 This . imprefTed with a fenfe of awe. than in the enjoyment of any thing like pofitive pleafure. f Purfuedfor murder from All gazey all wonder ! fuji gainsfomefrontier^ breathlefs^pale^ amazed'.^ AKKQV i^lKiTO Qctij. I ^^ former fenfation. the temper of our minds in a tenor very remote from that which fure . would rather judge us under fome confternation. am not miftaken. that the removal of a great : pain does not refemble pofttive pleafure recolletSl but in what ftate we have found feverity our minds upon efcaping fome imminent danger. AvJ^^i a cKpyeta' <£^\yjA e(Xo^avjAi.OV.Coi J^i)(Jt. ^Oo]ct KCtlctKJelVa. attends the prefence of pofitive plea- we have found them in a ftate of much fobriety. it is not at firft view let us fo apparent. that any perfon. j^s when a wretch^ zvho con clous of his crime his native clhne. if I We have on much fuch occafions found. The fafhion of the countenance and thegeftureofthe body on fuch occafions isfocorrefpondent to this ftate of mind. or on being releafed from the of fome cruel pain. in a fort of tranquility fhadowed with horror.

with which he paints very ftrongly the manner in which we find ourfelves afFc6led upon occafions any way fimilar. fubfides it*s along with and the mind returns to In ufual ftate of indifference. DELIGHT T fliall and PLEASURE. the fpecStators. For when we have fuffered from any violent emotion. it's the al- removal of pain or diminution ways . raifed. after the caufe which firft produced it has ceafed to operate . Of IV. fea remains after the ftorm and when all this remain of horror has entirely fubflded. mean any thing from a it's either in the inward fenfa- tion. origin from the removal of pain or danger. the mind naturally continues in fomething like the fame condition. of mixt paflion of affedls the and furprize. SECT. I fure ima- gine. or in the outward appearance like pleapofitive caufe. (I fliort. pleafure.) has never. the which the accident it. paflion.8 This On the S UEL I ME man whom ftriking appearance of the Homer terror fuppofes to have juft efcaped an imfort minent danger. BU we therefore fay. the tofling of the . that is as oppofed to each other.

it. Whenever I fhall call it I have occafion to . painful ? 9 ways fimply attended or affirm that the ccfis always by no means. firft. than to introduce a perhaps new one which would well not incorporate fo with the language. and to limit fignification. This feeling. in many . far or difagreeable in it's nature. that there arc pleafures and pains of a pofitive and independent nature. It is certain that the former feeling (the removal or it mofrom deration of pain) has fomething in diftrefling. fpeak of Delight and I fhall take the befl care I can. I am it fatisfied word in the word is not up a word commonly . and that upon the fame principle the removal or qualification of pleafure has no refemblance to pofitive pain. fation or the leflening of pleafure itfelf with a pleafure is ? What I advance no more than this.and BEAUTIFUL. ufed in this appropriated fignifica- but I thought better to take it's already known. to ufe that no other tion fenfe. that the of pain does not bear a pofitive pleafure to feel- ing which refults from the ceafing or diminution fufficient it refemblance to have confidered as of the fame nature. but in all fo different from pofitive pleafure. cafes fo agreeable. has no name it's which all I know but that hinders not be- ing a very real one. or to entitle it to be known by the fame name. and very different from others. . and fecondly.

10 guage. As I make ufe of the word Delight to exprefs the fen- fation vi'hich or danger . the pleafure it of If fimply ceafes. the nature of the language. after having continued a prois per time. which is the moft violent. ceflation that the IT muft be obferved. there enfues an uneafy fenfe called difappointment totally loft that there is j if the object be fo no chance of enjoying it again. that I think has any refemblance to pofitive pain. is called grief. v! JOY afFe6ls and GRIEF. framed for the purpofes of bufinefs rather than thofe of philofophy. The . On the SUBLIME have prefumed to if I (hould never at- tempt the leaft alteration in our w^ords. not even grief. SECT. accompanies the removal of pain fo when I fpeak of pofitive pleafor fure. I fhall the moil part call it fimply Pleafurc.mind three ways. the effect indifference \ if it be abruptly broken off. and the nature of my fubje(5l that leads me out of the common track of difcourfe. which Now there is none of thefe. did not in a manufe of ner neceflitate this liberty me to all it. a paffion arifes in the mind. I fhall make with poflible caution.

that he often gives himfelf fome intermiffion from fuch melancholy reflections. fufFers his paffion to grow upon him pain. It is from a fimply be unit's is difficult to the nature of grief to keep obje6i. he loves but this never happens in the cafe of a61:ual which no man ever willingly endured any confiderable time. in thtpleafure IHll we fufFer has is which uppermoft . and his own manner of feeling it. to dwell upon each. He owns indeed. who . not io That far grief fhould be willingly endured. derftood. and to find a thoufand new is perfections in all. deavour to fhake off as foon as The Odyfiey of Homer. has none more which Menelaus raifes of ftriking than thofe the calamitous fate of his friends. that were grief. to go back to every particular enjoyment. to repeat it. but he obferves too. always odious. which abounds with fo many natural and affe61:ing images. they give him pleafure. that melancholy as they are.: and BEAUTIFUL. for he indulges it. to prefent all it in moft pleafurable views. n it The perfon grieves. and the afflidion no refemblance to abfolute pain. though pleafing fenfation.perpetually in it's it's eye. and which we enpoffible. not fuinciently underftood before. the circumftances that attended leaft even to the minutenefs. .

when we efcape an imminent danger. MOST of the ideas which are capable of making a powerful impreffion on the mind. Od. 4. Still in Jhort intervals of pleafing woe.^^^ /g Jto^i K^vi^to yoioo. HoM. Of the paflions VI. whether fimply of Pain or Pleafure. which belong to SELF- PRESERVATION. The delight which arifes from the modifications of pain.12 On the SUBLIME AAA. Regardful of the friendly dues I owe^ 1 to the glorious dead^for ever dear^ Indulge the tribute of a grateful tear. On is it the other hand. and fevere nature. «/^TM? rretvl-ii oJ^v^iJLivof j^ cfc^sy&'j'. SECT. in it's folid. or . with joy that we is ? The fenfe on thefe occafions far voluptuous fatisfadlion fpc(5l from that fmooth and which the aflured pro- of pleafure beftows. fprung. TlcLvoiJLcu cu']. when we are afFe(Sled recover our health. confefles it the ftock from whence ftrong.

felffrefervation zndfociety'y to the ends of one or the other of which culated to anfwer. SECT. fill which conturn moftly on pain or and deaths The and ideas o^ pain. and danger. or ope- rates in a manner analagous .. SUBLIME. fitted in WHatever cite* is any fort to ex- the ideas of pain. or is converfant about terrible objedls. but though they put us in a with pleafure. produilivc is of the ftrongeft emotion which the mind pable ca- of feeling. When danger or pain prefs . ficknefs. they capacity of being afFe6i:ed make no ment. and BEA U T I F U L. it is is a fource of xh^ fublime that is. may 13 be re- or of the modifications of thofe. Of the vir. and ihey arc the moft powerful of all the paflions. whatever is in any fort terrible. the life mind with ftrong emotions of horror health. duced very nearly to thefe two heads. all our paflions paflions are cal- The cern felf-prefervation. to terror. that is to fay. fuch impreflion by the fimple enjoypaflions therefore The which are con- verfant about the prefervationof the individual. turn chiefly on pain and danger. danger.

which anfwers the purpofes of propagation . and v/hich anifaid we may in feme fort be to have even with the inanimate world. prefs too nearly. amounts to an uneafmefs 2 . fenfe and confefTedly the higheft pleafure of fcarce yet the abfence of this fo great an enjoyment. The caufe of this I fhall endeavour to inveftigate hereafter. to this purpofe is of a rapturous and violent. THE other head under which I clafs our is paffions. Of VIII. which may be divided into two fociety of the fexes. turn wholly on pain and danger. i. tions. that of fociety^ forts. SECT. as we every day experience. The paffions belonging to the prcfervation of the individual. and with certain modificabe. the S UBL I M£ . that more general fociety y The which we have with men and with other mals. and except at . they may and they are delightful.. and next. the paffions which belong to SOCIETY. thofe which belong to generation^ origin in gratifications and pleafures fure the plea- mofl diredly belonging lively chara<Ster. 14 On delight. have their . they are incapable of giving terrible any and are fimply but at certain diftances.

no obje<5lion to the rule which we feek to it eftablifh. as to fliut out by de- grees almoft every other. I all. When men defcribe what manner they are afFedled by pain and danger. have any connection with SECT. it is the lofs which vio- always uppermoft in his mind. When men have fufFered their ima- ginations to be long affec):ed with any idea. and on the perfedion of the object: of his defires is . effccSls The lent produced by love. you obferve. which has fomeig times been even wrought up to madnefs. as is evident from the infinite variety of caufes : which give rife to madnefs but this at moft can only prove. do not think in it affe(Sts 15 at at particular times.and BEAUTIFUL. that the paffion of love is capable of producing very extraordinary effecSls. £0 wholly engrofles them. that he infifts largely on the pleafures which he enjoyed. they do not dwell on the pleafure of health and the comfort of fecurity. a£tual pains and horrors upon the endure. not that it's extraordinary emotions pofitive pain. and then lament the lofs of thefe fatisfactions : the whole turns which they you liften to the complaints of a forfaken lover. and to break down every partition of the mind which would confine it. . But if or hoped to enjoy. Any idea is fufficient for the purpofe.

the generation a great purpofe. and thofe which regard the of the caufe SOCIETY SEXES. which THE ther . SECT. purfuit of it by fome great incentive therefore attended with a very high pleafure but as it is by no means defigned to be our conflant . threatens the deflrudtion of either but as we were not made to scquiefcc in the fimple enjoyment of them with any real pleafure. and thofe which are directed to the multiplication of the fpecies> will illuftrate the foregoing remarks yet fur- and it is. life is and health. and the performing them with vigour and efficacy depends upon health. I imagine. vation even upon own As the performance of our duties of every kind delife. On is the other hand. The final caufe of the difference between tht paffions belonging to SELF-PRESER- VATION. with that. pends upon we are very ftrongly affected with whatever . and it of mankind quifite that is re- men fhould be animated to the It is . final of the difference in character between the paflions regard felf-prefervation. it's worthy of obferaccount.16 On the SUBLIME IX. not attended lefl fatisfied we fhould give up ourfelves to indolence and inaction.

it is 17 conftant bufinefs. many. Of X. not fit that the abfence of this pleafure fhould be attended with pain. Men are times pretty equally difpofed to the pleafures of love. merely as fuch. or be mifTed only with feafon. I am afraid. this evident in brutes. any remarkable The at all difference betweerl men and brutes in this point. perhaps for ever. culties in the performance of But fhare.ind BEAUTIFUL. would find great diffiits office. becaufe the end in mufl be then anfwered. whofe paffions are more unmixed. and which purfue their purpofcs more dire(SHy than ours. which belongs is TH E is paffion to genera- tion. The only diftindion they C . as the inclination returns its SECT. Had any great pain arifen from the want of this fatisfadion. reafon. BEAUTY. little have their flated feafons at fuch times not improbable that the fenfation from the want is very troublefome. it is who obey which their own brutes laws. feems to be re- markable. in the execution of reafon has but . becaufe they are to be guided by reafon in the time and manner of indulging them. luflonly.

for beauty. does not find from any fenfe of beauty which they in their fpecies. a creature adapted to a greater variety and the idea of fome foetal qualities. and this we may fairly conclude. is the beauty of the fex. where women and men. in general fhould as be fome quality erfully. it is fit thing to create a preference. Addifon fuppofes. who have confined them. it's fo pow- or fo furely produce efFedt. fenfible and this . and common as with all other ani- he is not defigned like them to that he fhould have fomefix his live at large. I imagine. that to their own fpecies in preference to others.i8 On the S UBLIME h they ftick feverally all they obferve with regard to their mates. call love. which dire6l and heighten the appetite which he has in mals . It is true. connects with the general paflion. but from a law of fome other kind to which they are fubjedl . The which objedi therefore of this mixed paflion we fex. no other can fo quickly. from their apparent thofe objects to ipecies is want of choice amongft which the barriers of their But man. but arife this preference. it Men is . and not only they. and choice. but . as the and by the common law of nature but they are attached to particulars by perfonal I call beauty a focial quality . intricacy of relation. as Mr. are carried to the fex in general. that of fex.

or poflefs in a far weaker degree. general fociety. unlefs we fhould have ftrong rea- fons to the contrary. is not our wifdom. With merely regard to this. I obferve. to fociety in TH E is fecond branch of the focial paffions^ that which adminifters as fociety. that without any particular C 2 . SOCIETY and XT. that prothis diftinClion. many cafes. SOLITUDE. make even diftincSlly buC with a view to fome great end. though we cannot perceive what it is. I am unable fee to difcover. this But to what end. for I no fo greater reafon for a feveral connection between man and animals who tirely are attired in engaging a manner^ than between him and fome others who it en- want this attra£tion.ana but BEAUTIFUL^ animah give us a 19 when other fenfe of joy and pleafure in beholding them. in was defigned. nor our ways his SECT. and we enter willingly into a kind of relation with them. vidence did not But it is probable. are (and there many that do To) they infpire us with fen- timents of tendernefs and afFe6lion towards their perfons . as his wifdom ways. we like to have them near us.

but abfolute and entire that is. . and the endearments of friendfhip. folitude as well as fociety has pleafures as from the former obfervathat an entire life tion we may difcern. itfelf is fcarcely an idea of more SECT. as great a pofitive pain as can almoft be conceived. ticular heightnings. Therefore pain in the balance between the pleafure of general fociety^ is and the pain of abfolute focial folitude. fmce . outweighs very confiderably the uneafmefs caufed by the want of that particular enjoyment . a temporary folitude on the other hand. is itfelf agreeable.7. fo that the flrongeft fenfations relative to the habitudes of particular fociety^ pleafure. the total and perpetual exis clufion from all fociety. fill the mind with great pleafure . fmce death terror.0 On the S UBLIME no pofitive plea* . But the pleafure of any particular enjoyment. gives us fure in the enjoyment fciitude. This may perhaps prove. that we are creatures dcfigned for contemplation as well as adion it's . lively converfations. of fo- litude contradidts the purpofes of our being. the predominant idea. are fenfations of Good company.

and are or fufFer. by which vi^e are put into the place of another man. the paffions are of a complicated kind. and afFcdled in a good meafure as he is afFe6ted . AMBITION. The three principal links in this chain zxcfympathy^ imitation^ and ambition. ' SECT. that as they are we are moved moved. and branch out into a variety of forms agreeably to the great variety of ends they are to ferve in the great chain of fociety. XII. 21 SYMPATHY. fo that this paffion may either partake of the nature of thofe I which regard felf-prefervation. and turning upon pain may be a fource of the fublime C 3 or . SECT. the IT byinto enter is firft of thefe paffions that we the concerns of others. never fufFered to be indifferent fpedlators of almoft any thing yfhizh men can do For fympathy muft be confidered as a fort of fubftitution.. IMITATION. and BEAUTIFUL. and UNDER this denomination of fociety. XIIL SYMPATHY.

has been the caufe of ing. to certain conclufions of the rcafoning faculty on theobjecSls prefentcd to us . may be applicable here. whatever has been faid of the focial af- fedions. to the comfort we receive in is confidering that fo melancholy a ftory no more than which we nature. of a very high This taken as a faft. that the influence of reafon in pro- . transfufe their paflions from one breaft to ano- ther. to the conthe evils it is templation of our own freedom from I fee rcprefented. and are often capable of grafting a de- on wTetchednefs. whether they regard fociety in general. and death It is it- a common reality obfervation. a fiction . or from the natural frame and conftitution of our minds. and other affeding arts. light felf. and next. are in tra- and fuch like reprefentations the fource Ipecies of pleafure. much reafonat- This fatisfadion has been commonly tributed. for I have fome reafon to apducing prehend. mifery. firft. or only fame particular It is modes of it. tliat by this principle chiefly poetry. painting. that objedls which in the gical would flioclc.42 or it On may turn the S UBLIME ideas of pleafure. am afraid a pradice much too to common the in inquiries of this attribute arife caufe of feelings ftruc- which merely from the mechanical ture of our bodies. upon and then.

we previoufly confider.and BEAUTIFUL. Such . how we I are affedied feelings of our fellow creatures in cirdiftrefs. in this cafe I conceive we mufi: have a delight or pleafure of fome fpecies or other in contemplating objedls of this kind. and the of it's C 4 unhappy prince. this point the di- ftrefles TO muft by the examine concerning the ef- fe6i of tragedy in a proper manner. cumftances of real am convinced we have a degree of delight. on the contrary it induces us to if it makes us dwell upon them. objects. where the incidents are fiditious The profperity of no empire. The efFeas XIV. agreeably afFedl in as the ruin of the ftate of diftrefs Ma- cedon. and that no fmall in . nor the grancan fo deur of no king. others the real misfortunes for let the afFedlion if it and pains of it be what will in appearance. if does not make us ihun fuch approach them. the'reading. one. SECT. is 23 ducing our paffions five as is nothing near fo exten- commonly believed. in of SYMPATHY of others. Do we not read the authentic this nature hiftories of fcenes of with as much pleafure as romances ? or poems.

by the violent death of the one. arifes from love and are formed Whenever we by nature to any adive purpofe. fome who are fo far gone in indo^ lencc .24 [ On the S UBLI ME in hiftory a$ Such a cataftrophe touches us much as the deftrudion of Troy does in fable. is attended with delight. portionable quantity of this ingredient and of always in the greateft proportion where our fympathy others. becaufe focial affe(Stion. or a pleafure of fome kind. characters but we Cato are both virtuous are more deeply afFe(!^ed to. Our delight in cafes of this kind. Scipio and . cellent perfon if the fufferer be fome ex- who finks under an unworthy fortune. and pity is does notprefs a paflion accompanied it with pleafure. all we would paiTion j fhun with the greateft care perfons and places that could excite fuch a as. and the ruin of the great caufe he adhered of the other for than with the deferved triumphs and uninterrupted profperity . is very greatly heightened. and as our Cre- ator has defigned we fhould be united toger- ther by fo ftrong a bond as that of fympathy. he has therefore twifted along with it a pro^ . is moft wanted. the paflion which animates us to it. let the fub- je£l matter be what it will . terror is a paflion which it always produces delight when too clofe. in the diftrefles If this paffion was fimply painful.

as that of fome uncommon and grievous calamity. TRAGEDY. the only difference diflreffes the plea. hinders us from fhunning fcenes of mifery . who fuf- and all this antecedent to any reafoning. Of the effeas of XV. and on that principle are pleafed with it. fomewhat cafes indeed in fome we derive as much or more pleafure from itfelf. SECT. cafe widely different there is with the greater part of mankind no fpectacle we fo eagerly purfue. but blended with no fmall uneafmefs. ^y an inftindt that works us to its own pur- pofes. In imitated is IT it is is thus in real calamities. is . 25 lence as not to endure any ftrong impreffion adtually do. The delight we have in fuch things. and the pain we feel. but we can And perceive is an imitation. fo that whether the misfortune is before our eyes.and BEAU But the T I F U L. without our concurrence. or whether they hiftory. it . it is it are turned back to in always touches with delight but not an unmixed delight. prompts us to relieve ourfelves in relieving thofe fer . fure refulting from the effefts of imitation for it never fo perfeft. |hat fource than from the thing But then I imagine .

and proclaim the triumph of the real fympathy. be reported is that a ftate criminal of high rank. our heartieft wifties would . mu- your auditheir ence. and its reprefentations no realities. to reprefent the Chufe a day on which fublime and ?. The more Acarerit approaches the reality. on the point of being executed in the adjoining fquare in a moment the emptinefs of the theatre would demonftrate the comparative weaknefs of the imitative arts. I believe that this notion of a our having a fimple pain in the that reality. frohi what we fhould be eager enough to fee if it was once done. k will. painting and fic . the perfe£^ is its power. appoint the moft favourite actors coft no upon the fcenes and decorations and when you have collecSled unite the gresteft efforts of poetry. we have. and the further it removes us from all idea of fidlion. juft at the moment when let it minds are ere£l with expe£tation. we do not fufficiently diftinguifh what we would by no means chufe to do. But be its power of wh at kind it never approaches to what it reprefents. yet delight in the reprefentation arifes from hence..fi'e<3:ing moft tragedy which . a6 I imagine On the SUBLIME is we fhall be much miftaken if we attria de- bute any confiderable part of our fatlsfadion in tragedy to a confideration that tragedy ceit. fpare . which fo far from doing. We delight in feeing things.

This noble I believe 27 fee redrefled. and what is the caiife of fome particular act.and be to BEA U T I F U L. . neceflary So certain. I apprehend that this miftake is owing to a fort of fophifm. fo ftrangely no man is wicked as to defire to fee deftroyed by a conflagration or an earthquake. that our being both living his was the caufe of it is crime and of my it is death. what numbers from all would croud to behold the ruins. the pride of England and of Europe. though he {hould be removed himfelf to the greateft diftance from the danger. in my own mind I can difcover nothing like it. by which we are frequently impofed upon . our immunity from them which produces our delight . If a man kills me with a fword . it is a neceflary condition to this that we fhould have j been both it of us alive before the fadl and yet would be abfurd to creatures fay. capital. and amongft them many who would fcen have been content never to have in it's London glory ? Nor is it either in real or fi6i:itious diftreffes. it arifes from our not diftinguifli'ing between what is indeed a neceflary condition to our doing or fufFering any thing. parts But fup- pofe fuch a fatal accident to have happened. ftiould that abfolutely my life be out of any im- minent hazard before T can take a delight in or the fufferings of others. real or imaginary.

that caufe of this immunity is the my dehght either on thefe or on any occafions. and in whatever belongs to imitation merely as it is fuch. whilft we not fuiFer fufFer ourfelves. without any intervention of the reafoning faculty. nor are expofed to any imminent danger of of our lives. HE XVI. No one can diftinguifh fuch a caufe of fatisfacStion in his own mind I believe. from any caufe a fophifm to ar- But then gue from thence. nay when we do any very acute pain. but folely from our natural confti- . SECT. we are foftened by we fee with in pity even diftrefles which we would accept the place of our own.28 On the S UBLIME elfe it is or indeed in any thing whatfoever. For to as fympathy makes us take and a concern in whatever men feel. you will. and often then moft when affli6lion . IMITATION. or. fo this afFedli. nr^ fecond paffion belonging to fociety if is imitation. and confequently a pleafure in This paffion arifes from much the fame caufe with fympathy. we can feel for others. tating. a defire of imiit. on prompts us confequently copy whatever they do we have a pleafure in imitating.

is more than by precept that we learn every thing . or to our pleafure of (kill of the imitator merely. we could have no defire of feeing in reality then I may be fure that power in poetry or painting is owing the power of imitation. by imitation far opinions. to imitation. and what we learn thus we acquire not only more efFe(Slually. So it is with moft of the pieces which the painters call Still life. I here venture to lay down a rule. In it's thefe a cottage. and in when to fympathy. but more This forms our manners. Herein it is painting and laid many other agreeable arts have one of the principal foundations of their fliall power. our lives. whatever regards the purpofes of our being. our pleafantly.and conftitution. that without conftraint to themfelves. as . BEAUTIFUL. the meaneft and moft ordi- . It is one of the ftrongeft it is a fpecies of mutual yield com- pliance which all men to each other. which may inform us with a good degree of certainty when we are to attribute the power of the the arts. and which is extremely flattering to all. 29 which providence has framed in in It fuch a manner as to find either pleafure or delight according to the nature of the obje£l. links of fociety . a dunghill. and to no caufe to operating in the thing itfelf. or fome other caufe conjuntlion with it. When the obje6t reprefented in is poe- try or painting fuch.

imitation is one of the gre^ perfe£lion. are capable of giving us pleafure. AL T H O' men and each could be eternal circle. as Men mufl remain that they brutes do. that the power of the poem or pidure is more owing it of fenfe will. poem let it is fuch as afFe6i: what odd fort upon it. we may to the nature of the thing itfelf than to the mere efFecSl: of imitation. SECT. AMBITION. XVII. or to a confideration of the fkill of the imitator however excellent. prevent this. inftruments ufed by providence in bringit's ing our nature towards yet if gave themfelves up to imitation entirely. Ariftotle has fpoken fo much and fo folidly upon the force of imitation in his poetics. the fame at tiiis the end are at day. that it makes any further difcourfe upon this fiibjedl the lefs neceflary. To a fenfc God has planted in man . follo^Vea the other. it is and fo on in an eafy to fee that there never any improvement amongft them. and that they were in the beginning of the world.30 Oft the S UBLIME when the obje£l of the we fhould run to us with rely ordinary utenfils of the kitchen. But painting or fee if real.

that where we cannot thing excellent. that tends to make whatever ej^cites in a man fant. diftinguifh ourfelves by fomeor this we begin to take a compla* follies.and BEAUTIFUL. preference which he has Now whatever either on good or upon raife bad grounds tends to a man in his own tri- opinion. It principle that flattery is on fo prevalent raifes for flat- tery is no more than wh^t idea of a in a man's mind an not. cency in fome fmgular infirmities. the we converfant mind always claiming to itfelf fome part of the dignity and importance of the obje(3:s with which it is converfant . produces a fort of fwelling and umph mind . that drives this paflion men to all the ways we and fee in ufe of flgnalizing themfelves. nor operates with more are force. is . and a fatisfa^lion arifing the contemplation of his excelling his fellows in fomething It is deemed valuable amongft them. when without danger with terrible objects. defeds of one kind or other. fupreme in mifery and certain is. 31 from fenfe of ambition. hence proceeds what Longinus has great- obferved of that glorying and fenfe of inward . that is extremely grateful to the human than and this fwelling is aever more per- ceived. the idea of this diftindtion fo very pleaIt has been fo ftrong as to make it very miferable men take comfort that they were .

felt in himfelf SECT. when and their caufes immediately afFe6t us they are when we have an this delight it idea of pain danger. that always the reader of fuch paflages in poets and orators as are fublime it is what every man muft have upon fuch occafions. . belong to felf prefervation. The XVIII. The paflions belonging to felf-pre- fervation are the ftrongeft of all the paffions. turn on pain which and danger delightful . draw the whole of what has been faid The paflions into a few diftindt points. npO they are fimply painful . SECT. Whatever excites this delight.. 32 On the S UBL1ME fills greatnefs. I c^Wfuhlime. I becaufe turns have not called pleaon pain. without being a6tually in fuch circumftances fure. is . and becaufe it pofitive different enough from any idea of pleafure. RECAPITULATION.

rife in pofitlve pleafure. love has its The paflion it of is. The the fociety of fex. The all other the great fociety with man and other animals. pleafure. SECT. The it pafTion belonging to a mixture of called love. like all things which grow out of pleafure. There this luft is j are two forts of focieties. 33 SECT. or fome other paflion the moft nearly refembli ng thefe. . XIX. but lufl. THE is fecond head to which the pailions arc referred in relation to their final caufe. has no mixture of and its beauty which is a name I (hall apply to fuch qua- lities in things as induce in us a fenfe of affecti- on and tendernefs. capable of being mixed with a eafmefs. and B E A UTI F U L. and its contains obje6i is is the beauty of women. fociety. mode of units when an idea of objei^ is excited in the mind with an idea at the lofl: it. is The pafHon obje6l all is fubit fervient to this called likewife love. firft is. fame time of having irretrievably This mixed becaufe caufe fenfe of pleafure I it have not called /><3/^. that is. [and beits turns upon adlual its it is both in caufe and in moft of effects of a nature altogether different..

SECT. turn ei. The paffions I have mentioned . The XXI. and preference nothing more need be SECT. of another in whatever circumftance he and to paffion affect: us in a like manner 5 fo that this may. me- Believed that an attempt to range and I thodize fome of our moft leading paffions would be a good preparative to an enquiry of the nature of that which is to be attempted in the enfuing difcourfe. to a choice in which we are directed by the pleafure we have in the objedl. NEXT to the general paflion we have for fociety. The is nature of this paffion is to put us in the place in. the particular paflion under this head called fympathy has the greateft extent. mentioned in fome As to imitation faid. CONCLUSION. ther on pain or pleafure fications but with the modicafes in fedl. 1 1.34? On the SUBLIME XX. The fame. as the occafion requires.

on the the flronger traces we it.and BEAUTIFUL. though the variety of the paflions is great. and elevated without pride . which D 2 if . confidered hymn to the Creator the ufe of the paifions. cannot be barren ofpraife to him. every where find of his If a difcourfe Wifdom who made as an ufe of the parts of the body may be . be inquifitive without impertinence. or good. which are the organs of the mind. a wifdom alone can afford to a rational mind ferring to whilft re- him whatever we wifdom even find of right. into the counfels of the Almighty by a confideration of his works. and admiration. or fair in ourfelves. honouring where we difcover them clearly. we may be admitif I may dare to fay fo. difcovering his llrength and nefs in our own weakthem and imperfe6lion. we may ted. 35 it mentioned are almoft the only ones which fider can be neceflary to our prefent defign to con^ . accurately we fearch into the The mor^ human mind. norunpro- dudive to ourfelves of that noble and uncommon union of fcience. be the principal end of This elevation of the mind ought ta all our ftudies. and adoring their profundity where we are loft in our fearch. which contemplation of the works of infinite . riety and worthy in every branch of that va- of an attentive inveftigation.

. afFe(Sl or to judge properly of any work defigned to afFe<Sl them. Vi^ho arts. Without all this it is poffible for a man after i confufed manner. they are of But befides this great purpofe. nor can he ever make his proportions fufficiently clear to others. painters. artificers there are as among . daries of their feveral jurifdi6tions we (hould purfue them through tions.36 if they On do not in little the S UBLIME very fervice to us. Poets. many machines made and CYcn invented vt^ithout any exad knowledge of the . a confideration of the rationale of our paffions feems to me very necefTary for all who would ples. them upon folid and fure princiIt is not enough to know them in geto afFedl: them after a delicate manner. ^od latet arcana mn enarrabile fihra. we (hould know the exa6t boun. own mind of the truth of his work but he never can have a certain determinate rule to go by. fometimes to fatisfy his . and orators. all their variety of opera- and pierce into the inmoft. neral '. fome me^fure efFed. and what might appear inacceflible parts of our nature. and cultivate and thofe other this branches of the liberal critical have without knowledge fucceeded well and will fucceed in their fe- veral provinces.

. who might be much oc- moft done on here. engravings. that hard to fay who gave the firft model. the reafon why artifts in general.and BEAUTIFUL^ and we are happy that it is 37 It is. The relied themfelves. ill who afterwards reafon but on them from princi- but as it is impoflible to avoid an attempt at fuch reafoning. cupied in the pradice little. and poets principally. Men ple . ight in practice . often aft right from their feelings. not uncommon to be wrong in theory and 1 fo. This I believe. have in fo been confined nature narrow a with fo circle . and therefore can do as D 3 guides. they have been rather imitators of one another than of . was moftly with a view to their fyftems . Critics little follow them. and buildings. have generally fought the rule of the the arts in wrong place art . they fought it among poems. and equally impofllble to pre- vent its haying fome influence on our praftice. it is worth taking fome pains to have bafis artifts it and founded on the of fure experi- ence. and to fo remote an antiquity. flatues But art. furely juft. own. the philofophers have and what they have done. I the principles they are governed by. have been too . piftures. and this faithful an uniforit is mity. can never give the rules that make an is. own fchemes and they and as for thofe called critics.

will give the trueft lights. and may chance to make even his errors fubfervient to the caufe of truth. mufl leave us in the is dark. fire I this only dedifcourfe one favour 3 that no part of may . to Thefe waters mufl be troubled be- fore they can exert their virtues. by no other ftandard than of the in The true ftandard . In the following parts. A man who works beyond the furface of things. I On the S UBLI ME arts is can judge but poorly of any thing it whilft I meafure itfelf. was not convinced that nothing tends more it to the corruption of fcience than to fufFer ftagnate. and an eafy obfervation of fometimes of the meanefl things in nature. I fhall enquire what things they are that caufe in us the afFedions of the fublime and beautiful. every man's power the commoneft. In an enquiry. much if I lefs fhould I have ever ventured to publifh them. though he may be wrong himfelf.38 guides. and I never fhould little have taken the pains to digeft them. as in this I have confidered the afFciSlions themfelves. or what worfe. yet clears the way for others. where the flights greateft fagacity and induftry that fuch obfervation. I I have am fatisfied done but confidered in by thefe obfervations themfelves. amufe and miflead us it is by falfe lights. almoft every thing to be once in a right road.

The end of the firft Part. at all that they are not . armed points for battle but drefled to vifit thofe who are willing to give a peaceful ca^ trance to truth. have not 39 fnay be judged of by of the pofed reft .and BEAU for I T I F U L. and independently dif- am fenfible I my materials to abide the teft of a cap- tious controverfy. Itfelf. . but of a fober and even for- giving examination.

.

and aftonifliment all its that ftate of the foul. PART. in which motions are fufpend- cd. plo)rs . feft. 7. * In this cafe the mind that it is fo entirely filled with its object. cannot entertain any other. 3. by the great and Afto- TH nifliment .(41 ) Philofophical Enquiry J NTO of Origin THE our Ideas O F T H E Sublime and Beautiful. S IL E C T. with fome degree of horror. L by the Of the paffion caufed SUBLIME.4. nor by confequence reafon on that objed which em- ^ Part I. E paffion caufed fiibllme in nature^ when thofe caufes is is operate moft powerfully.

kinds. that far from being produced by them.42 ploys it. § For fear being an apprehenit fion of pain or death. are yet ca- pable of raifing ideas of the fublime. On the SUBLIME great Hence arifes the power of the fublime. ferpents As all and poifonous animals of almoft i Part 4. 11. TERROR. ner that relembles a£lual therefore is terrible. fea. There are many animals. fear. or not for it is impoffible to look on any thing as trifling. 6. SECT. degree the efFe<3: of the fublime in high- the inferior efFe£is ^re admiration. 4. be endued with greatnefs of dimenfions . 3. its as I have faid. or contemptible. that may be dangerous. becaufe they are confidered as objects of terror. who though far from being large. reverence and refped. manWhatever fight. NO ing as is paffion fo efFe£lually robs -the all its mind of powers of adling and reafonoperates in a pain. whether this caufe of ter- ror. 5. with regard to fublime too. . it anticipates ourreafonings. and hurries us irrefiftible force. is j on by an eft Aftonifliment.

16. we annex any adventitious idea of terror. if BEAUTIFUL. in all cafes of danger. is plain no mean may be as . Part 4. III. they become without comparifon greater. 14. OBSCURITY. An cer- even plain of a tainly vaft extent on land. Thofe .and kinds. TO make any thing very terrible. know the full extent of any danger. of which none can form clear ideas. 15. idea . that the ocean an objed SECT. the profpe£l of fuch a extenfive as a profpecSt of the it ocean but can ever fill the thing fo great as the ocean itfelf ? is ing to fevcral caufes. and how much the notions of ghofts and goblins. will be fenfible of this. obfcu- rity When we when we can accuftom t feems in general to be necefTarv. 43 Even to things of great dinienfions. our eyes to it. affecl minds. fe<a. but it mind with any this is owowing to none is more than to thisj of no fmall terror. Every one who confiders how greatly night adds to our dread. a great deal of the apprehenfion vanifhes. which give credit to the concerning fuch forts popular •(• tales of beings.

No I perfon feems to have underftood the fecret terrible things. if of heightening. their which is confe- crated to his worfliip. idol in a dark part of the hut. than His defcription of Death in the is Milton. the portrait of The Jfjhape ether Jhape^ it might he called that Jhape had none . which upon the paffion of fear. and in ihade of the oldeft and moft fpreading oaks. fe- cond book admirably ftudied . The policy has been the fame in many cafes of re- Almoft all the heathen temples were dark. For this purpofe too the the druids performed all their ceremonies in the bofom of the darkeft woods. Even in the barbarous temples they keep of the Americans at this day. or of fetting may ufe the expreflion. in their flrongeft light by the force of a judicious obfcurity. ed on the paffions of men.44 On the S UBL I ME are found- Thofe defpotic governments. with what a fia^nificant and expreflive uncertainty of ftrokes finiflied and colouring he has the king of terrors. and principally keep their chief as much ligion. as may be from the public eye. it is aftonifh- ing with what a gloomy pomp. Dijiinguijhahle^ in member^ joints or limb Or fubjlance might hi called that Jhadaw feemedy Fur .

. temple. dark. laft confufed. or a landfcape. and fublime to the SECT. /V eachfeemed either Fierce as tenfuries hlack he Jlood as night terrible as hell\ And Jhook The In a deadly dart. very clear but then (allov. in my power to raife a ftronger imotion by the defcription than I could do by the beft painting. If I make a drawing of a palace or 2 I prefent a temple. Of the difference IV. and offering to the imagi- nation. evinces. likenefs of a kingly crown had all is this defcription terrible. the moft lively give. IT one thing make another to to make an it idea clear.and BEAUTIFUL. On the other hand.^ing for is the effect of imitation which pi6i:ure fomething) my can at moft affedl only as the palace. What feemed his head on. degree. This experience conftantly of conveying the ajfe^ions The proper manner . 45 . idea of thofe objects . betwen CLEARNESS and OBSCURITY is with regard to the paffions. or landfcape would have affected in the reality. . raifesa and fpirited verbal defcription I can very obfcure and but then it is imperfecSl: idea of fuch obje6ls. uncertain.

that they may be confulerably operated upon without by certain founds . helps but as it is pow^ crful efFeds In reali- ty a great clearnefs little towards fort afFevB:ing the paflions. prefenting any image at adapted to that purpofe fufficient of which we have a proof in the acknowledged and of inftrumental mufic. SECT. Segntus irritant animos dcmijfaper aures ^am qua: funt On this the oculis fuhje^fa fidelibus. continued. The 'IP on. abbe du Bos founds a criticlfm. fame are fubjecSl HERE for two verfes in Horace's art of poetry that fcem to contradict this opini- which reafon it I fliall take a Iittl« more pains in clearing up. The verfes are. all other methods of communication is nay fo far a clearnefs of imagery from being abfolutejy neceflary to an influence upon the all. the S UBLIME \i of the mind from one to another. there is by words a great infufficlency in .46 affeSflons On . and . wherein he gives painting the preference to poetry in the article of moving the paflions . paflions. in fome an enemy to all enthufiafms whatfoever. V.

and yet who regard the objedls of their admiration in that art. (hould be more afFeding than the clear. is our ignorance of things that z caufes . when properly conveyed. to which he found it more conformable than I imagine it will be found to experience. mon It is fort of people. that their paflions are very ftrongly roufed by a fanatic preacher. little and by other popular poems and tales that are life. that produce the fame rity. or the children in the wood. I never could perceive that painting had much influence true that the befl forts of painting. are not much under- moft certain. efFe6l. ftood in that fphere. I know feveral who admire and love painting. (if it be a miftake) by his fyftem. 47 I believe and that on account principally of the greater £learnefs of the ideas it reprefents. And I think there are reafons in nature why It the obfcure idea. this excellent judge was led into this miftake. in comparifon of that warmth with which they are animated by pieces of poetry or rhethoric. So that poetry with all its obfcu- has a more general as well as a more powerful dominion over the paflions than the other art. with coolnefs enough.and BEAUTIFUL. bad or good. afFe£l:ing Among the comon their paffions. current in that rank of I do not know of any paintings. as well as the beft forts of poetry. or by the ballads of Chevyit But is chafe.

and We don't any where meet a more fubllme defcription than this juftly celebrated one of Milton. this poetical pldture confift ? and in what does in images of a mifts tower. wherein he gives the portrait of Satan with a dignity fo fuitable to the fubje(Sl. Knowledge and acquaintance little* make It is the moft ftriking caufes afFe6l but thus with the vulgar. the fun rifmg through . little. and chiefly excites our paflions. Here is a'very noble picture . are The ideas there fo is of eternity. and among the moft afFedting we have. or from behind the moon twilight Jheds In dim eclipfe difaftrous \ On half the nations and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs.4S On the S UBLIME caufes all our admiration. He above Stood like the reft Injhape and gefture proudly eminent a tower -y his form had yet not loft All her original brightnefs^ nor appeared Lefs than archangel ruirCd^ and th* excefs Ofglory cured : as tvhen the fun obf new ris'n Looks through the horizontal mifty air Shorn of his beams . as the vulgar in vs^hat and all men are they do not underftand* infinity. an archangel. and yet perhaps nothing of which as of infinity we really underftand eternity.

and from the occafion. or in an eclipfe. and how far it fhall be extended. . becaufe the images thofe in painting . than from any rules that can be given. is The mind hurried out of itfelf. confufed. 49 mifts. by a croud of great and confufed images tKem. * But painting. . E SECT. the ruin of monarchs. where and when this obfervation may be applied to pradice.and BEA U T I F U L. are exacSlIy fimilar to nature and in nature dark. are by no means to be attributed to the images we it raifes . * Part 5. and the revolutions of kingdoms. clearnefs. which afFe6t becaufe they are crouded and confufed. but even in painting a judicious obfcurity in fome things contributes to the efFeft of the picture in . greatnefs. which point examine more at large hereafter. For the feparate and you lofe much of railed . with only the fuperadded plea- ftiall Aireof imitation. will be better deduced from the nature of the fubjedi:. un- certain images have a greater power on the fancy to form the grander paflions than thofe which But are more clear and determinate. and you images infallibly The by poetry are always of this obfcure kind ral the efFedls though in gene- of poetry. lofe the and join them. can only afFeil fimply by the images it prefents .

and filent Jhades obey . ALL Solitude general privations are great. {oh fub no61:e. Te fubt erroneous gcds ! whofe awful fway The gliding ghofis. has Virgil amafled all thefe circumftances where he knows that all the images of a tremendous dignity ought to be united. at the mouth of hell where before he unlocks the I fecrets of the great deep. SECT.50 On the S UBLIME VI. Dii qutbus imperintn eji ammarum^umbraq\{Atr\it% \ Et Chaos. and to ed at the boldnefs of his own defign. he feems to be feized retire aftonifh- with a religious horror. O Chaos hoar ! and Phlegethon profound f Whofe folemn empireJlretches wide around % Give . With what a fire of imagination. et inania regna. yet with what feverity of judgment. dotnos dites vacuas. per umbram. et Phlegeton ! loca nod:e filentia late f Sit mihi fas audita loqui ! fit numine vejiro Pandere Perque res alta terra et caligine merfas ! Ibant obfcuri. becaufe all terrible 5 they are Vacuity^ Darknefi^ and Silence. PRIVATION.

ye great tremendous powers. than is it is found to do in length. but it is common. or depth. 9. is a powis This too evident. fea. and the obfervation too need any illuftration . wherepro- in the fame quantity of extenfion efFedts duce greater in others.ana BEAUTIFUL. Pitt. to not fo comgreatnels mon. to confider in what ways of dimenfion. Dryden. TN e"s S. erful caufe of the fublime. or a rock or mountain of t Part 4. leaft . Give me your mighty fecrets O/fcenes and wonders in the depths of hell \ From thofe black realms of darknefs tothiday. SECT. For cerfliall tainlyi there and modes. Extenfion either height. vaftnefs of extent. GREATNESS f of dimenfion. Of thefe the length ftrikes an hundred yards of even ground will never work fuch an efFe6l as a tower an hundred yards high. Obfcure they went through dreary (hades that led Along the vfdiikc dominions of the dead. are ways. E 2 that . to tell to difplay 51 Give fne. or quanhas the moft ftriking efFed. tity. V A S VIT.

VIII. not rather in Infinity has fome a ten- fort belong to the fill mind with that fort of delightful horror. finity'j if it is in- does laft. that height le^ grand than depth ftruck at looking and that we are more . There are fcarce any things which can become the obdency to the je£ls of our fenfes that are really. and the effects of a rugged and broken furface it is feem ftronger than where poliihed. and trueft teft of the fublime.52 On is the I SUBLIME am apt to imagine likewifey . than an inclined plane. and they produce the fame . they feem to be infinite. SEC T. which is the moft genuine effect. but certain it is they aiFord a large and fruitful field of fpeculation. but of that I am A perpendicular has more form^ ing the fublime. that altitude. and in their own nature infinite. down from a an obje^ of not very pofiforce in precipice. ANOTHER fource of the fublime. It v/ould fmooth and carry us out of our way to enter into the caufe of thefe appearances here . But the eye not being able to perceive the bounds of many things. INFINITY. than at looking up at equal height tive.

forge After 9 long fucceflion of noifes. The IX. 12. fame. that the imagination meets no check which may hinder its extending them at pleafure. nifm repeats it long the firft ceafed to operate *. it will feem extended to an almoft an incredible length. WHENEVER quently. and they die away at laft perceptible. SECT. with your eye to one end. and * Part 4. After whirling about objedls about us when we fit down. they were really if 53 fame efFe£ts as if fo. the ftill feem to whirl. the we repeat any idea frefort mind by a after of mechacaufe has .and BEAUTIFUL. or the beating of hammers. are fo continued to indefinite number. they will caufe the fame deception. Place a num- ber of uniform and equidiftant marks on this pole. the hammers beat and the firft water roars in the imagination long after the founds have ceafed to zWe6t k. E ^ feem . as the fall of waters. the parts of fome large object. If by gradations which are (carcely you hold up a ftrait pole. We are any deceived in the like manner. fea.

conftitute the SucceJJion which is requifite that the parts may be continued fo long. felves to other things . fea 14. This is the reafon of an ap- pearance very frequent in madmen . uniformity of parts. § P4rt4. SUCCESSION SUCCESSION are I. X. in the conftant repetition of fome re. and what . 54 feem On the SUBLIME without end. multiplied The fenfes ftrongly aiFcCted in fome one manner. fometimes whole years. and in fuch a di- reilion. W- . cannot or adapt quickly change their tenor. to the of reafon continues end of their lives. themfirft but they continue in their old channel until the ftrength of the mover decays. every repetition reinforces it with new it ftrength and the hurry of the curb their fpirits unreftrained. and UNIFORMITY. as by their frequent impulfes on the an idea fenfe to imprefs the imagination with of their progrcfs beyond their adlual limits. 2. mark. that they remain whole days and nights. or fong ftruck powerfully tion. SECT. which having imagina- on their difordered in the beginning of their phrenfy. fome complaint.. artificial infinite.

BEAUTIFUL. or it be in the difpofition. SECT. X Mr. ftamp on bounded objefts the character of infinity. by which that it becomes impoffible to continue uninterrupted progreffion. . tion has But the parts muft be unito give form as well as circularly . highly prejudicial to the idea of infinity. which alone can kind of to artificial infinity. the fame object ftill feems to continue. this figure its full force becaufe any differ- ence. you can no where fix a boundary . Addifon in the rotund at pleafures of the imagination. turn which way you will. every alteration with the termination of one idea. thinks ing. % It is in this I believe. Vniform'ity . means and the beginning of another .or in the is even in the colour of the parts. caufe why a rotund has fuch a noble For in a rotund. difpofed. and the imaginano reft. becaufe If 55 the figure of the parts fhould be changed. Spedators concerning the it is becaufe one glance you fee half the buildThis I do not imagine to be the real caufe. whether it be a building or a plantation. which every change muft check and interrupt. whether figure. we ought look for the eflTei^l:. the imagination at every change finds a check you are prefented at . at every alteration commencing in the a new feries.and 2.

uniformity in SECT. makes a right angle with the beam. inftead of a deception that more extended than length . with a range of uni^ pillars on every fide. or colonnades. as the parallelogram of the ancients at leaft I imagine outfide is not fo proper for the For. of our own old cathedrals. fuppoflng the arms of the crofs every way equal. ON form counted the fame principles of fucceflion and uniformity. From the fame caufe of the ifles be derived the grand effect in may many not fo .56 On the S UBLIME XI. if you ftand in a dlredlion parallel to any of the fide walls. Or fuppofe the fpe6lator placed where he may take a direct 1 view . the grand appearance of the ancient heathen temples. which were generally oblong forms. the and thereby wholly turns the imagination from the repetition of the former idea. makes the building you are cut off from its a confiderable part (tv/o thirds) of a^ual of and to prevent all poflibllity arm of the crofs taking a new diredion. The to form of a crofs ufed in fomc churches feems it me eligible. of fucceflion and BUILDING. it is. progreflion. The effe&. will be eafily ac- for.

that a good part of the bafis of each angle. interfecStion of the arms of the . 57 view of fuch confequence a building what will be the the necefTary confequence muft be. a fault obvious in very thirft for is many . whatever view you take in I exemplified them the Greek crofs in which thefe faults appear the moft ftrongly all forts of nothing more prejudicial to the grandeur of buildings. fure to leave very little SECT*. Some or all of thefe objections. which the perfpective always efFedls on parts difpofed uninterruptedly in a right line. will in lie againft every figure of a crofs. I . it. which. here ftrong. Indeed there is abound in angles . it prevails.. and owing to an inordinate variety. whenever true tafte. muft be inevitably loft the whole muft . and there weak. formed by the crofs. and BEAU ? T . without that noble gradation.hts muft be unequal. than to but they appear in fome degree in crofles. of courfe alTume a broken unconne6led figure the lIo. I F U L.

and thofe fmall. . and avenues of trees of a moderate length. turning the whole figure into a fort of the pooreft in its triangle. always the fign of a common . were without comparifon far grander. A true artift (hould put a generous deceit the fpedtators. O the fublime in building. and effect the nobleft defigns by eafy methods. There is into extravagant its no danger of drawing men dcfigns by this rule it. gfeatnefs of dimenfion feems not for on a few greats parts. that colonnades have ever obferved. Magnitude in BUILDING. it as the perfpedlive will leflen in height as it gains in length. which was intended it promote. No nefs in the for the manner can effecStually compenfate want of proper dimenfions. and will bring at laft to a point . the imagination canrife to any idea of infinity. requifite . efFe6l of almoft any I figure. Defigns that are vaft only by are their dimenfions. it carries own caution along with in building Becaufe too great] a length the deftroys it purpofe of greatto nefs. that can be prefented to the eye. than when on they were fuffered to run to immenfe diftances.58 On the SUBLIME XIL SECT.

and BEA U T I F U L. grown be- caufe the imagination is entertained with the promife of fomething more. much as though of another kind. (for the fame ob- je6lion lies againft both). . I In beft have (ecn fomething which pleafed finifhing I . fpring the pleafanteft of the feafons and the young of moft animals. and does not acquiefce in the prefent objecl of the fenfe. caufes of our pleafure in agreeable. if was my purpofe to defcend far into the particulars of any art. and perhaps it might be afcertained it to a tolerable degree of exacSlnefs. fix A good eye will cefllve length. though far from being compleatly fafhioned. INFINITY. • SECT. No it 59 common art and low imagination. as well of our delight in fublime images. is The . INFINITY in pleafing OBJECTS. unfinifhed fketches of drawing. and a fhort or broken quantity . K^ufe SECT. the medium betwixt an ex- or height. me beyond the and this I believe proceeds from the have juft now affigned. XIII. but as is deceives to be otherwife the prerogative of nature only. afford a agreeable fenfation than the full more . work of j can be great.

XV. When any work feems to have required immenfe force and labour to efFe6t it. fo . The ftarry heaven. turn the mind on the immenfe force neceflary for fuch a work.eo On the S UBLIME XIV. 4.is magnificent. 5. DIFFICULTY. Nay the rudenefs of the work incrcafes this caufe of grandeur. has any thing adpiled each mirable fet . MAGNIFICENCE. * 4 MOTHER fource of greatnefs is Diffil\. SECT. 6. SECT. A great profufion of any things which are fplendid or valuable in themfelves. Stonehenge. as . and contrivance fort for dexterity is produces another of eiFe(5 which differ rent enough from this. TlJfAgntjicence is likewife a fcource of the -^'^ fublime. on end. fea. but thofe huge rude mafles of Hone. though it occurs » Part 4. and on other. culty. the idea is grand. it excludes the idea of art. neither for difpofition nor ornament.

r E gives and BEAUTIFUL. which confifts in multitude. of fireworks. In works of art. too great difEcolty fecondly. or with . This cannot be owing to any thing in the ftars themfelves. . in fuch apparent confufion. the ftars lye ideas of magnificence. SECT.never fails to excite an idea of grandeur. you will have dif- order only without magnificence. as make it impofli- ble on ordinary occafions to reckon them. This them the advantage of a fort of infinity. for the appearance of care is highly contrary to our Befides. is to be very cautioufly admitted . and fome other that in this way fucceed well. and are truly grand. that unlefs you can produce an appearance of infinity by your fort diforder. 6f fo very frequently to our view. this kind of grandeur. a profufion of ex- cellent things not to be attained. becaufe. There are. however. all becaufe in ufe. feparately confidered. to be confidered. The apparent diforder augments it. art with the greateft care and with regard to it is diforder in the difpofition. a things. The number is certainly the caufe. many fliould cafes it would deftroy which be attended to in moft of the works of . is firft.

has the moves . this. With regard to light to make it it a caufe capable of producing the bare faculty of fhewing other is fublime. SEC T. which of its it owes chiefly to the extreme velocity motion. confideration* All colours depend on Light therefore it> ought previoufly to be examined. A quick tranfition from light to darknefs. HAVING it confidered extenfion. has yet a greater effed. to Mere light too common a thing make a ftrong impreflion on the mind. befides objeds. and without a flrong impreflion nothing can be fublime. . fo far a$ is capable of ralfing ideas of great-^ nefs . muft be attended with fome circumits ftances. SECT. is a light as that of the fun. But darknefs is more produ(Slive of fublime ideas than light. 62 On the S UBLIME XVI. it immediately exerted on the eye. darknefs. colour comes next under light. as has been fuggefted in the fecond fedlion of this part. if it Light of an inferior ftrength to celerity. LIGHT. But fuch fenfe. fame power for certainly productive of grandeur. as over* powers the with great lightning is a very great idea.. and with its oppofite. or from darknefs to light.

think then. pafs you to as ought to from the is greateft light. that to produce an idea of the fublime. this worth enquiring. The fecond is. SECT. 63 SECT Light in BUILDINGlight is AS the management of in a matter it is of importance architecture. that to make an it objedt very ftriking. we fhould make as different as poflible from the obje£ts with which we have been immediately converfant when therefore you enter a building. but for the very fame reafon and the more highly a room is then illuminated. . ought rather to be dark and gloomy. the firft is. and this for itfelf darknefs two reafons . rule will hold. and BEA U T I F U L. the grander will the pailion be. edifices calculated how far I remark is appliall cable to that purpofe. At night the contrary .. air . you can- not pafs into a greater light than you had in the open lefs. XVII. much darknefs as confiftent with the ufes of architefture. that on other occafions is known by experience to have a greater efFe6t on the paffions than light. to go into one fome few degrees can make only a trifling change . but to make the tranfition thoroughly ftriking.

or deep purple. little contribute but to the fublime. and in buildis when the higheft degree of the fublime intended. that it this melanthe choly khid ofgrcatnefs. fuch as are foft. though be certainly . covered with this refped. is a fhining green nothing in to one dark and gloomy the cloudy fky . nor fpotted. Therefore in painting. nor of a pale red. and the like. AMONG cheerful. nor yellow. the materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. as black. is . An immenfe mountain turf. mofaics. confidered as produdive of the SUBLIME. nor blue.6^ On the S U BL I ME SECT. painting or ftatues. nor violet. more grand than the blue hiftorical and night more fublime and folemn than day. a gay or gaudy drapery^ : can never have a happy efFed ings. or brown. colours. Much of gilding. but of fad and fufcous colours. COLOUR XVIII. and that in every particular for it ought to be obferved. except where an is j uniform degree of the moft ftriking fublimity to be produced. This rule need not be put in practice. or (except perhaps a ftrong red which is cheerful) are unfit to produce grand images. nor green.

thebeft eftablifh- ed tempers can fcarcely forbear being born F down. Sounds have a great power in thefe moft other paflions. I do not mean words. is not the only organ of fenfaby which a fublime paffion may be produced. XVIII. SOUND and LOUDNESS. though we can obferve no nicety or artifice in thofe forts of mufic. raging ftorms. awakes a great and awful fenfation in the mind. tudes has a fimilar ftrength and by the fole of the found. . to fufpend fufficient to overpower the to fill its adlion. eye tion. in where yet grandeur muft be ftudifuch cafes the fublimity muft be drawn from the other fources . SECT. with a ftri6t caution however againft any thing light and riant . and hurry of the mind.I and BEAUTIFUL. that in this ftaggering. becaufe words do not afFedl fimply by their founds. The efFe<St fhouting of multi. and it with terror. thunder. ^$ all forts the higheft. or artillery. (o amazes and con- founds the imagination. ought not to be ftudled in of ed edifices. but by means altogether diffeis Exceffive loudnefs alone foul. TH E as in rent. . as nothing fo efFeaually deadens the whole tafte of the fublime. The noife of vaft ca^ tara61:s.

The attention is roufed by as it and the faculties driven forward. XIX. . repeated with paufes . SUDDENNESS. were. Sudden beginning. SECT. and of the fucceflive firing of cannon at a diffipated. we are apt to ftart . A this . and confequently can be no caufe of greatnefs^ In every thing fudden and unexpedted. we have a perception of danger. SECT. or fudden ceflation' of found of any conliderable force. ilghts or founds Whatever tranfition either in makes the from one extreme to the other eafy. and our nature roufes us to guard It may be obferved. if repeated after intervals. down. when the filence of the night prevents the attention from being toq much fingle ftroke The fame may be faid of a drum. though but of (hort duration. has a grand things are Few more awful than the ftriking of a great clock. on their guard. caufes no terror. that is. has the fame power. and joining in the and common refolution of the croud. on a diftance fc(5lion . that a fingle againft it. efFedt. all the efFedts mentioned in this have caufes very nearly alike. found of fome ftrength.t6 On the S UBLIME common cry.

that. 67 E E T.and BEA S U T I F U L. — A faint Jljadow of uncertain life lights Like as a lampj whofe doth fade away . ^ale Eft • per incertam lunam fub luce maligna iter injilvis. and hence fo terrible. though lime. Now fome low. that no light. when we do it is. that that uncertainty we often feek to be rid of at the hazard of a certain mifchief. that f night increafes our terror more perhaps than any thing elfe . AL O W. worth while to examine The fadi: itfelf man*s own muft be determined by every experience. XX. 3. It is tremulous. confufed. or an uncertain light does concerning the objedls that furround us. may happen to us. intermitting found. and refledlion only. + Sea. INTERMITTING. it feems in fome refpedls oppofite is to that juft mentioned. not know what can is it. productive of the fubthis a little. it is our nature. leave us in the fame fearful anxiety concerning their caufes. uncertain founds. I have already obferved. to fear the worft that happen us . ¥ z Or .

light now now leaving terrible and fo off and on. ing great ideas unlefs be the well known ufed to voice of fome creature. even more fort than cur. The angry tones of wild beafts are equally capable of caufing a great and awful fenfation* Mine exaudiri gemitus^ iraque leonum Vincla recufantum^ etfera fub noSie rudentum ^ Sitigerique fues. appearing. or any other aniit SUCH mals founds as imitate the natural inar- ticulate voices of in pain or danger. when the neceflary difpofitions con- more alarming than a total filence. are capable of convey. SECT. at que in prefepihus urft Sisvire It . on which we are look with contempt. et forma: magmrum ululare luporum. and is But a us. . The cries xxr. Doth Jhewto him who walks in fear and great Spenser.68 On the SUBLIME cloudy night Or as the moon cloathed with affright. might fecm that thefe modulations of found carry fome connexion with the nature of the things . total darknefs and a of uncertain founds are. men. of ANIMALS.

and accompanied with no fort of delight . BITTERS STENCHES. are almoft infinite. which may be produ6tive of the fublime. are Thofe I have mentioned. on what principle they are all built. in ideas of greatne/s but it is a fmall its nature. have fail makethemcannot be this The modifications of found. all ^9 animals. things they reprefent. that thefe affedlions of the fmell andtafte. and upon the very fame prin- ciple of a moderated pain. SECT. and TASTE. when they are in their full ly force. " A «up of bitter*' nefs F 3 . but when they are moderated. only a few inftances to fhew. never felves fufficiently underftood faid of language. O'ME LLS^ one. that no fmells is or taftes can produce a grand fenfation. and leandire£l- upon the fenfory. and confined in operations. and BEAUTIFUL. becaufe the natural cries of even of thofe annimals with not been acquainted. SMELL and XXIII. whom we to . I (hall only obferve. and intolerable ftenches. as in a defcriptionor narrative. and are not merely arbitrary.. and Taftes^ have fome fhare . weak in its too. except exceflive bitters. are fimply painful. they become fources of the fublime as genuine as any other. It true.

'* the S UBLIME cup of fortune . Zpelunca "AX-zfuit^ vaftoque immanis hlatu tmpune volantes. ftench of the vapour in Albunea confpires fa happily with the facred horror and gbominefs of that prophetic foreft. I have added thefe exam pies. that itfelf. it the fentiment flood nakedly by would but be fubjed at firfl view to burlefque and ridicule . and in a very fublime defcription. nor does at all difagree it is with the other images amongft which introduced." Thefe ideas fuitableto afublime defcription. In the fixth book.'* are all nefs to drain the Ijitter the bitter apples of Sodom. to whofe judgment if I defer were of opinion. nemorumque tenebris ^amfuper baud ullcs poterant Tendere iter pennis^ talis k:ic halitus atris Faucibus efFundens fupera ad convexa ferebat.. Nor is this where the paflage of Virgil without fublimity. At rex foUicitus monjlrorum oracula fauni Fatidici genhorh adity lucofque fub alt a ConfuUt Albunea^ tmnorum quce maxima facro Fontefonat j faevamq. 70 *' *' On . the poifonous exhalation of Acheit on is not forgot. Scrupea^ tuta lacu nigro. becaufe fome friends. exhalatopacaMephitim.

FEELING. as thofe given in the former fe£Uons abundantly ' il- F 4 luftrat . PAIN. the whole compofition with dignity. OF Feeling little more can be faid. XXIV. and SECT. pain. not whether it becomes meaa other inftances as well as in thofe. torment. is produ6live of the fublime . but whefupported when united with images of an allowed is grandeur. in the modes and degrees of labour. they are merely odious as toads fpiders. all than the that the idea of bodily pain. but of a danger eafily icome. fuch an union degrades the fublime in it is all one of the tefts by which the lublimity of an image is to be tt ied. able qualities.' arife 71 from but this I imagine would principally confidering the bitter nefs and flench in com- pany with mean and contemptible ideas. anguifh.irnd BEAUTIFUL. with which it muft be owned they are often united. and nothing elfe in this fenfe can produce it. always great . Things which are terrible are but when thmgs poiTefs difagreeor fuch as have indeed fome deover- gree of danger. But when ther. I need not give here any frefh inftances. afibciated with mean ideas .

and many perhaps ufeful con? fequences drawn from them. PART .— 72 On the SUBLIME. (fe<3:. That flrongeft emotion is an emotion of diftrefs. reality luftrate a remark. Sedfugit intereayfugit irrevocabile tempus^ Singula dum capti circumve6famur amore. 6. that in wants only an attention to nature. 7) will be found very is nearly true that the fublime an idea beit is longing to felf-prefervation. part i. my obfervation. t Vide fea. might be brought in fupport of thefe truths. Numberlefs examples befides thofe mentioned. caufes of the Having thus run through the fublime with reference to firft all the fenfes. fore its That there- one of the moft afFeding we have. and that no f pofltive or abfolute pleafure belongs to it. . to be made by every body.

Philofophical Enquiry I N T O T H of our E Origin Ideas OF T H E Sublime and Beautiful. that quality . in a manner extremely uncertain. BEAUTY. to examine But previous we muft I take a fhort review of the . that to fay. and indeterminate. I. IT is my defign to confider beauty . how far to this. PART Of III. By beauty I mean. it is confident with it. opinions already entertained of this quality which any think are hardly to . as diftinguifhed from the fublime and in the courfe of the enquiry. SECT. be reduced to fixed principles becaufe men are ufed to is talk of beauty in a figurative manner.

in what things we of beauty. BEA U TY in VEGETABLES. or thofe qualities in bodies by which they caufe love. tain proportions of parts I on confider- have great reafon to doubt. as every idea of order feems to do as . this quality firfl. beauty . tisfadtory conclufion in it were find well to examine. to fee whether in . It is not by the force of long attention and enquiry that we find any obje6l to be beautiful cerned . next. as the application of ice or produces the ideas of heat or cold. rather than a primary caufe acting on the fenfes and imagination. at all whether beauty be proportion. an idea belonging to Proportion relates almoft wholly to convenience. Proportion not the caufe of II.74 lity On the S UBL I ME it. and it a creature muft therefore be confidered of the underftanding. uncon- the appearance of beauty as efFecSlu- ally caufes fome degree of love fire in us. or fome paffion fimilar to SECT. BEAUTY ing the matter. is ufually faid to confift in cer. demands no even the will afliftance is from our reafoning . To gain fomething like a fathis point .

tiful as we find nothing there fo beau- flowers. in the inferior animals. yet . attired notwithftanding this is What by general confent allowed to be a more beautiful object than an orange tree. in man. Its . What proportion do we difcover between the ftalks and the leaves of flowers. flourifbing at once with its leaves. and the plants that bear them are moft engagingly difproportlon. appears in vegetables. as it We and (hall confider this pleafing power. and can we tion undertake to fay that its is does not owe a grows tree great deal of ? beauty even to that difpropora large flower. and in thefe. bota- have given them their names. that our idea of beauty refults from them. in fuch a manner ought to convince us. Turning our eyes to the vege- table creation. which are almoft as various.. BEA UTI as F U L. 75 we can find any aflignable propor- tions. or between the leaves and the piftils? How does the flender ftalk of the rofe agree it with the bulky head under which but the rofe is bends ? a beautiful flower it . and of every fort of difpofition they are turned and fafhioned into an infinite variety of forms nifts . and grows upon a large yet the rofe and the apple bloflbm are both beautiful. Ibrt of fliape. the rofe it upon a is fmall fhrub it the flower of the apple very fmall. and from thefe forms. but flowers are of almoft every .

buta is full in 'T'HAT among proportion has fmall (hare in as evident the formation of beauty. and of a methodical difpofition of the leaves. animals.y^ its On the its SUBLIME fruit? bloflbms. f . it and the order of the leaves confounded. Proportion not the caufe of BEAUTY ANIMALS. even more beauin the before it is full is blown formed bud . or concerning the relation of the particular parts to each other. The when tains tiful rofe has fuch a figure and fuch a dipofiits tion of petals is . and difpofitions of parts are well fitted. but in an oblique view. fomething of a regular figure. or any thing eKe con- cerning the dimenfions of the whole. and this is only nefs. before not the this exadl: figure . Here the greateft variety of fhapes. its yet re- beauty . are found rather prejudicial than ferviceable beauty. and but it is in vain that we fearch here for any proportion between the height. III. this figure in a good meafure loft. inftance wherein method and exa6lto the caufe of the foul of proportion. I grant that we may obferve in many flowers. SECT. the breadth. the rofe is .

with proportions different. to fay what the others ought to be. who tail has comparatively but a {hort neck. Some are of but one fingle colour. and but a very (hort tail . for there is fome- thing fimilar in the colouring of both. many when upon confidering them we find nothing in anyone part that might determine us. rainbow obferver little fome are of the primary colours. that there as of proportion in the colouring as in the fhapes . idea. whe- ther they are confidered in their extenfion or gradation. others have all the colours of the . and fo excite this BEAUTIFUL. has a neck longer than the reft of his body. 77 The fwan. but what experience might fhew to be full of difappointment and miftake. And with regard to the colours either of birds or flowers. with a longer than the neck and the ? of the body taken together How many birds are there that vary infinitely from each of thefe ftandards. nor indeed to guefs any thing about them. is this a beautiful proportion ? But then what fhall we muft allow that we fay to the peareft cock. an attentive is may foon conclude. and often ! diredly oppofite to each other and yet of thefe birds are extremely beautiful. confefledly a bird. and from every other which you can fix. there is nothing of proportion to be obferved.I beautiful it is. a priori. . others are of the mixt in (hort.

body. ihapes of thefe obje£ls. THERE man before it fome that parts of the huobferved . or any other animal. are found to hold I we may fafely fay. that they differ in every fpecies. mean in the efFedl: produced on the view. or of . and ex- amine their how far the fame proportions between heads and their necks. that wherever thefe are found the perfon to I exacSl. and the body. yet that there are individuals ' found in a great many fpecies fo difFering. mufl be fhewn. are to hold certain proportions to each other but can be proved. ^ examine the head of a beautiful horfe find what proportion each other. and to his limbs. the IV. and what relation thefe have to and when you have fettled thefe as a ftandard of beauty. then take a dog or cat.7B On the S UBLIME Turn next to beafts . and think on. whom they belong is beautiful. that lies the efficient it caufe of beauty in thefe. SECT. that have a very ilriking beauty. cither of any member diftindlv confidered. proportions that bears to his body. Proportion not the caufe of BEAUTY iti human are fpecies. fo between thofe .

in beautiful bodies fhould meafure with the calf of the leg. as any try. how any efFe^l owing to procan refult from them. Thefe proportions are certainly to be found in handfome bodies. in many fubjeds. And an infi- nity of obfervations of this kind to be found in the writings. (hould likewife be twice the circumference of the wrift. I have at feveral times very carefully examined portions. and found many of thofe pro- or altogether alike them hold very nearly. which from one another. they are often fo remote from each other. With re- gard to the parts which are found fo proportioned. and BEA U T I F U L. and the other very remote from beauty. It 79 a of the whole body together. who I will take the pains to may find. and converfations of many. do not know but they may be tiful. wife fhewn.I from it. in fituation. Nay. leaft perfedi: in fome of the mofl beaubeauty How are the partizans of proportional . fay it they. and office. nature. muft be like- that thefe parts ftand in fuch relation to each other. that I cannot portion fee nor confequently how they admit of any comparifon. and that the afFedion of the mind may naturally refult For my part. They are as certainly in ugly ones. that the comparifon between them may be eafdy made. were not only very different but where one has been very beautiful. The neck.

if fame not be manner contrary denied. which I believer tvill hardly be attributed to the fuperior exadtthe fair fex. muft the parts of any animal are fo formed that they do not well fupport each . the fame fallacious will hap- pen by. as your rule to meafure The is proportions of animals are relative to the ufual form in which this we fee changed. and having found what relation that bears to the other parts. but the female of the greateft. examine the beautiful animals of the winged ]and four-footed kinds by this rule.. nefs of proportion in In fine^ take the head as the meafure of proportion in any fpecies of animals. that we are are fhocked in the them . and it will ftandard we have fhew evidently what a chofen . a Vaft difference ifi fuch a fmall number of divifions ! others take other methods of eftimating the proportions^ and all with equal fuccefs. we if when any It thing happens to that expectation. as in men . yet both fexes are capable of beauty. But are thefe proall portions exa6i:ly the fame in all hand fome fay men ? or are they at the proportions found will in beautiful women ? nobody that they are. if you take any other part of any other animal whatfoever. 86 Oh the S UBLIME beauty agreed about the proportions of the human body ? fome hold it to be feven heads others make it eight .

not to beauty. the difagreeable is. a great deal of the opi- nions concerning proportion have arifen from this that deformity has been confidered as the . NO W fort if it be allowed. as maiming and mutilation proSo if duce from accidents. and this has the fame efFedt in natural faults. but to have them fimply otherwife. the becaufe there is wanting to compleat the whole idea we form man . I am . Proportion further confidered. that almofl every of form. and every manner of ar- rangement giue it ticular is confiftent with beauty. oppofite to beauty and that the removal of a miftake. not miftaken. If one of the legs of fomething a man be found man is deformed . SECT. each other. not bur- does not by any means produce beauty. This is I believe is For de- formity oppofed. is the \ back be humped. but to the compleat. of a fhorter than the other. efFe6l is 8i .and BE AUTIFUL. the former of thefe qualities gave birth to the latter. the man deformed becaufe his G back . I imaamouuts to a conceflion that no parBut if proportions are necelTary to it. V. common form. that thenfome to one another.

becaufe thefe prothere can be all of them . canit. But it is the nature of things which hold us by . the nature of ufe and cuftom will (hew. not refult from We are fo wonderfuliy formed. the leaft Deformity arifes . refpe6ts. . that beauty. and his and his back quite ftrait.. But if proportion in na- be relative to cuftom and ufe. flitutes an univerfal beauty afligned. all. and refembling each other in flze. rience But may all convince us. the common proportions in portions vary in each fpecies of animals. abfolute proportion afligned no which conwords. without havperceivable ing at the fame time beauty. and a proportion in other which cannot be no proportion at tural things is. which is a pofitive and powerful quality. and what carries with it the idea of fome difeafc or misfortune fo if a man's neck be confiderably longer or Ihorter than ufual. that a man may have neck of a juft his legs of an equal length. that part. becaufe we fay he is deformed in men are not commonly made furely every hour's expe- in that manner. we are as ftrongly attached to habit and cuftom. that at the fame time that we are creatures vehementLy defirous of novelty. 82 On the S UBLIME back has an unufual figure. from the want of but the neceflary is the common I proportions refult of their exiftence in any obje6t fay not beauty.

always can be alligned to other lefs equivocal caufes. It is true. ufual proportion in fure to difguft. and I' may truly fay. and the acute fenfe of fmell yet deprive is is deadened fo fo as to feel hardly . yet if by any means I paffed I by the ufual time of my going thither. but if it can be (hewn too that they are found without beauty. I I returned without pleafure. to affeil us very whilft in pofTeflion of them. and he the moft uneafy mortal in the world. and that beauty frequently exifts without them. that fo far it. and was not quiet till I had got into my old track. it will natufally lead us to conclude. and that this beauty. So the want of the other animals is men and is though their prefence by no of means any caufe of beauty in the real pleafure. finding pleafure in that I v/as afFeded with . They who ufe fnufF take it almoft without being fenfible that they take it. that pro- G 2 prtion . from uent. but ftrongly I we are when they remember to have frequented a certain place. where it exifts. every day for a long time toge- ther . any thing from the fnufF- fharp a ftimulus taker of his box. little 83 by cuftom are abfent. becaufe they are generally found in all mankind . was remarkably uneafy. a fort of wearinefs and difgud I came.and BEAUTIFUL. that the proportions laid down as caufes human body are frequently found in beautiful ones.

rooting. or of a its part's being well adapted to anfwer end. JT is is faid that the idea of utih'ty. VI.g4 On The the S UBLIME is portion and beauty are not ideas of the fame nature. Between beauty and ugllnefs there is a fort of mediocrity. or indeed beauty is itfelf. but furely never arofe from at that rate. and beautiful. our eyes... its For the wedge-like fnout of a fwine. its little funk eyes. would be extremely bill The would great bag hanging to the of a pelican. but ugUnefs it and as proceeds from caufes oppofite to thofe of beauty. this has no efFedl upon the SECT. the caufe of beauty. with tough cartilage at the end. and the whole its make fo well adapted to offices of digging. true oppofite to beauty . a thing highly ufeful to this as beautiful in animal. not difproportion or deformity. FITNESS not the caufe of BEAUTY. pofitive we cannot confider it until we come to treat of that. be likewife hcdgehos. clofely allied to the former one of proportion. in which the afligned proportions are moft com- monly found. This notion experience. The aflaults fo well fecured againft all by . but paflions.

is admirably calculated for running. and fpecies. very well adapted to their purpofes are deceived and we by a fophifm. To grappling. I ima- proceeds frequently per- ceiving the parts of the bodies to human and other animal and . to have but one denomination for the qualities of a Venus and Hercufo totally different in almoft all refpe(3:s. ftrength and agility only beauties. imagined he ftood upon raifed a becaufe he the chariot that really raifed liver. and mi/file quills. he has the hands of a man. men would be much more lovely than women . is les. Is which makes only a concofly . the lungs. or abufe of words. There are few animals. whofe parts are better contrived than thofe of a monkey. gine. leave thefe foreign examples . us take that for a caufe which mitant . furely a ftrange confufion of ideas. joined to the fpringy limbs of a beaft . the well as other G ^ . or the porcupine with his would be then confidered as creatures of no fmall beauty. leaping. would be confidered as the But to call ftrength by the name of beauty. who it. 85 his prickly hide. this is the fophifm of the great duft. as The' ftomach. if beauty in our own was annexed to ufe. be at once very beautiful. The caufe of this from our confufion."^ ana hy BE A UT I F U L. and climbing: and yet there are few animals feem to us to have lefs beauty.

The real efFeas of VII. eating. or a well-fafhioned mouth. or a well-turned leg. or that they arc any way dependent on each other. any ideas of their being well fitted for feeing. SECT. are incomparably well adapted . to fay that they dif- were of no value. whether on beholding a beautiful eye. it is impoffible to dif- And I appeal to the firft and moft natural feelings of mankind. FITNESS. fit- WH EN I excluded proportion and nefs from any (hare in beauty. or that they ought to be regarded in works of Works . I did not by any means intend art. the moft beautiful ? part of the vegetable world It true. ever prefent themfelves. to their purpofes yet they are far Trom hav- ing any beauty. in vi^hich cern any idea of ufe. of his bounty. ufe is it What idea of is that flowers excite. that the infinitely wife and good Creator has. or runnmg. frequently joined beauty to thofe things this which he has made ufeful to us . Again.86 On the S UBLIME other parts. but does not prove that an idea of ufe and beauty are the fame thing. of art arc it the proper fphere of their power and here is . many things are very beautiful.

but he endued it with powers and pro- perties that prevent the underftanding. How different is the fatisfadion of an the ufe of the mufcles anatomift. w^ill. of the body. and fenfes even the which is feizing upon the and imagination.and is BEAUTIFUL. the excellent contrivance the one for the various movements of and the wonderful texture of the well as inlet. as ferent feffes is how dif- this from the affe6lion which pof- an ordinary man and at the fight of a deall licate fmooth fkin. : wifdom of God it. whilft we G 4 look . who d i fc overs and of the (kin. from that which ftrikes us without any preparation from the fublime or the beautiful. in his is when we but in its the effedl very different. the other parts of beauty which require no inveftigation to be perceived ? In the former cafe. not only manner of acquiring own nature. other. Whenever v^re the vv^ifdom of our Creator intended that fhould be afFe£ted any thing. he did not his confide the execution of defign to the languid and precarious operation of our reafon . captivate the underftanding or to oppofe them. covering and at once a general outlet. It is foul before the ready either to join with them by a long deduction the adorable dif- and much cover in the ftudy that we difcover works it. v^^ith S7 that they have their full efFedl. at once a general.

88
look
iip

On
to
praife,

the S
the

UBLI

ME
admiration
it

Maker
;

with
the

and

the objedl

which caufes

may
very

be odious and
gination, that
artifice

diflafleful
its

latter

often fo touches us by

power on the imawe examine but little into the

of

its

contrivance, and

we

have need

of a ftrong

effort

of our reafon to difentangle

our minds from the allurements of the object
to a confideration of the

wifdom of

that

hand

which invented
as they proceed

fo

powerful a machine.

The

efFedl of proportion

and

fitnefs, at leafl: fo far

from a mere confideration of
produce approbation, the ac-

the

work

itfelf,

quiefcence of the underftanding, but not love,

nor any paflion of that

fpecies.

When wc

examine the ftrudure of a watch, when we

come

to

know

thoroughly the ufe of every
as

part of

it,

fatisfied

we

are with the fitnefs

of the whole,

we

are far

ceiving any thing like beauty

enough from perin the watchthe
in engraving,

work
.

itfelf;

but

let us

look on the cafe,
artift

labour of fome curious

with
a

little

or no idea of ufe,

we

fhall

have
ever

much

livelier idea

of beauty than
itfelf,

we

could have had from the watch
the mafter-piece of
faid,

though
I

Graham.

In beauty, as

the eifedl
;

is

previous to

any knowis

ledge of the ufe
ive

but to judge of proportion,
for

muft

know the end

which any work

defigned.

and
(Jefigned.

BEAUTIFUL.
Thus
there
is

89

According to the end the propor-

tion varies.

one proportion of a
j

tower, another ofanhoufe

one proportion of
another of a

a gallery, another of an hall,

chamber.
thefe,

To

judge of the proportions of

you muft
fenfe

be

firft

acquainted

with

the purpofes for

which they were defigned.
to be

Good
art.

and experience acting together,
is fit

find out

what

done in every work of

We
;

are rational creatures^ and in all our
to regard their end and pur-

works we ought
pofe

the gratification of any paflion,

how

innocent foever, ought only to be of fecondary confideration.

Herein

is

placed the real

power of fitnefs and proportion ; they operate on the underftanding confidering them, which approves the work and acquiefces in it.

The

paffions,

and the imagination which prinlittle

cipally raifes

them, have here very
appears in
its

to do.

When
nefs,

a

room

original
;

nakedlet
its

bare walls and a plain cieling
it

proportion be ever fo excellent,
little
;

pleafes very

a cold approbation
;

is

the utmoft

we

can reach
with
glafles,

a

much worfe

proportioned room,

elegant

mouldings and fine feftoons,

and other merely ornamental furniture,
the imagination revolt againft the
will pleafe

will

make
;

reafon

it

naked proportion of the

much more than the room which firfi:
the

90

On

the S

UBLIME
much
approved, as
its

the underilanding has Co

admirably

fitted

for

purpofes.

What

I

have here
tion,
is

faid

and before concerning propor-

furdly to neglecEi the Idea of ufe in the

by no means to perfuade people abworks
is

of art.
things,

It

only to (hew that thefe excellent

beauty and proportion, are not the
not that they (hould either of them be

fame

;

difregarded.

SECT.
The

VIII.

RECAPITULATION.
the

ON
parifon,

whole

;

if

fuch parts in

human

bodies as are found proportioned, were

likewlfe conftantly found beautiful, as they

ceruinly are not

;

or

if

they were fo fituated,

as that a pleafure

might flow from the com-

which they feldom are ; or if any were found, either in animals, which were always attendplants or ed with beauty, which never was the cafe; or if, where parts were well adapted to their purpofes, they were conftantly beautiful, and when no ufe appeared, there was no beauty, which is contrary to all experience ; we might
aflignable proportions

conclude, that beauty confifted in proportion

or

utility.

But fmce,
2

in all refpeds, the cafe
is

and
is

BEAUTIFUL.
;

91
that

quite otherwife

we may

be

fatlsfied,

beauty does not depend on thefe,
its

let

it

owe

origin to

what

elfe it will.

SECT.

IX.

Perfeaion not the caufe of

B E A U T Y,
notion
current^
;

THERE
Perfeaion
is

is

another

pretty clofely allied to the former

that

the conftituent caufe of beauty.
to extend

This opinion has been made
fo far
is

much
from

further than to fenfible obje(5tG.

But

in thefe,

perfection, confidered as fuch,
;

being the caufe of beauty

that this quality,

where

it is

higheft in the female fex, almoft
it

always carries with
imperfedion.
for

an idea of weaknefs and

Women are very fenfible of this;
lifp,

which reafon, they learn to
ficknefs.

to

tot-

ter in their

walk, to counterfeit weaknefs, and
In
all

even

this,

they are guided

by nature. Beauty in diftrefs is much the moft affecting beauty. Blufhing has little lefs power; and modefty in general, which is a
tacit

allowance of imperfe^ion.

Is itfelf

conthat

fidered as

an amiable quality,
Is fo.

and certainly
I

heightens every other that
it is

know,

in every body's mouth, that

love perfection.

This

is

to

we me a

ought to
fufficient

proof.

that it is not the proper object of love. we wo- man. How far the idea of X. and Such like. there is no need of the concurrence of our will. But it is for that reafon that they are fo amiable. and though certainly thofe lefs dignity. compaffion. on dangers. lovelinefs. as produce terror rather fortitude. ienfe of are the fofter virtues eafinefs of temper. 92 On the S UBLIME ought to love a fine proof. are of the fublimer kind. and the by Never was any man amiable Thofe which engage our hearts. Thofe than which caufe admiration.. which imprefs us with a force of thefe qualities. Who ever faid. in general lefs NOR virtues is this remark appli- cable to the qualities of the mind. than in dif- penfing favours 5 and are therefore not lovely. juftice. wifdom. which pleafe us ? Here to be aft*e<Sted. and troubles. kindnefs liberality lefs . Jove. punifliand are exercifed rather in preventing the worft mifchiefs. plied to the ^jualities of the BE AUT Y may be ap* MIND. though . SECT. virtues turn The great principally ments. latter are ot immediate and momentous concern to and of fociety. or even any of thefe beautiful animals.

how we feel ourfelves afFe<9:ed with reading the chara£ters of Caefar. refpe6t we at a diftance. The fubordinate turn indulgences. to our firft To draw things . the ignofcendo^ hrglundo in the other. and he leads us whither he pleafes. lovely. that are fatigued objeiSfe. who creep into who are chofen as and the companions of their fofter hours. mire. The former makes us familiar with him we love him. Saluft. In one. ni/ largiundo. In the latter we have much him. hinders us from having that entire love for him that we . malts to ad- the mlferis perfugium\ in the other. are never nor ftrong virrather the foft green of the foul reft perfons of fliining qualities. Thofe perfons the hearts of moft people. reading this authority by an ingenious The of a father. fomere- thing to fear ipe61: we . but much him to reverence. with beholding more glaring It is worth obfcrving. and all fo juftly venerable upon accounts. It is on which we our eyes. femiciem. and Cato. and though 93 though highly venerable. tues. as they are fo finely drawn and contrafted in . fo ufeful to our well-being. and are therefore more in dignity. inferior on reliefs.and BEAU T I F U L. gratifications. and perhaps . clofer and moft natural feelings a remark I will add to fe6tion this made upon friend. In one. their reliefs from care and anxiety.

XL How far the idea of to BEA UTY may be applied V I R T U E. it from lows removed a degree and where the weaknefs of age melpar- into fomething of a feminine tiality. SECT. FROM going -what has been faid in the fore- the application of beauty to virtue made with of this we may eafily fee. as the affixing the name of beauty to proportion. . where the parental is authority ahiioft mo- ther's fondnefs rally and indulgence. The general application fe<3:ion. ofwhimfical theory. as well as to qualities of things yet more remote from our natural ideas of it. how far may be propriety. that was not even uncertain and fallacious than our more own fancies. congruity and perfec-« tion. in whom us. SECT. metaphorical quality to virtue. has a flrong things tendency to confound our ideas of and it has given rife to an infinite deal . has tended to confound our ideas of beauty. and from one another. and left us no ftandard or rule to judge by.94 dii the StFB melted LIME down into the we have for our mothers. But for is we gene- have a great love this authority our grandfathers.

in what it really conlifts affe<Sting j for beauty is a thing much no no too not to depend upon fome pofitive qualities. a^ng mechanically upon the tervention of the human mind by the infenfes. 95 SECT. in fuch things as perience we find by exwhich excite in us the paffion of love. and even where ufe at ali can be difcerned. remains that we ihould examine. it fmcc it is creature of our reafon. for the greater fome merely fenfible quality. at leaft with equal attention. SECT. it HAVING beauty is endeavoured to fhew what not. And we ought therewhat manner beautiful. The real caufe XIL- of BEAUTY. iince the order is and method of nature generally very difFe- rcnt from our meafures and proportions. or fore to confider in thofe fenfible qualities are difpofed.and BEAUTIFUL. Now certainly. or fome correlpond- ent afFedion. is. fmce ftrikes us without any reference to ufe. we muft conclude that beauty part. .

converfation. lefs Though flld the Romans were a people of quick and deinto the licate feelings. language the dito Anciently in the Engllfti miniftiing ling was added ftill. of expreffion concerning I am told that in moft languages. it But to this day in ordinary is ufual to add the endearing • name . the names of perfons or things that were the objects of love. And what degree of extent prevails in bodies. is itfelf to extent or quantity. are almoft always the terms of afFedtion and tendernefs. yet they naturally lefTening termination upon the fame occafions. in Greek the toy. It is fo in all the languages of which I have any knowledge. and other diminutive terms. (or little dear) and a few others. Some we retain as darling. XIIL Beautiful obje£ls fmall. THE its moft obvious point that prefents us in examining any-bbjedl. the objects of love are fpoken of under diminutive epithets. may be gathered from the ufual manner it. Thefe diminutives were commonly added by the fame people to the names of perfons with whom they converfed on terms of friendfhip and familiarity. that are held beautiful.96 On the S U BLI ME SECT.

we are flattered into compliance. and pleafmg .name of little to every thing we love . H SECT. fond Little and fome of the fmaller kinds of beafts. always dwells on great objedls. . a A great beautiful thing. The fublime. the French and Italians make ufe of thefe more than we. which is the caufe of the former. we in admire . affedlion- ate diminutives even In the it animal creation. is we are inclined to be is . hard. to think fubje<St. difference the latter on fmall ones. of. withat- out confiderably lefTening the efFedt of the one So that tending to their quantity. and terrible. ugly thing. In fhort. beautiful obje(^s are comparatively fmall. manner of ex- preflion fcarcely ever ufed but that of a great is very common. out of our the fmall birds. I had almofl: faid impoflible. we in fubmit to what fubmits to us the other . but we love what one cafe we are forced. own fpecies. of reconciling them in the fame or the other upon the pailions. There is a wide between admiration and love. the ideas of the fublime and the beauthat it tiful is ftand on foundations fo difl?erent.

je<a . cfFe6l of A very confiderable part of the is beauty owing to this quality . TH E lity fo next property conftantly obfervable is in fuch objects eflential * Smoothnefs. 21. Whereas want ever if it many moft to of the other conftituents. beautiful obje6l. fmooth leaves are beau- fmooth flopes of earth in gardens . that that I am a good deal furnone who have handled the fub- » Part 4. let it no not longer. and flowers. A qua- to beauty. it wants this.. and give it a broken and rugged ed it furface. 98 On the SUBLIME XIV. and in feveral forts of ornamental furniture/mooth andpolifh- ed furfaces. fmooth coats of birds and beafts in animal beauties tiful in fine women. in and however other well it formpleafes fo may be refpedls. fmooth ftreams in the landfcape . in- For take any deed the moft confiderable. me fo evident. fea. that I do not now recolle6l In trees any thing beautiful that is not fmooth. all the others without becomes more pleafing than alThis feems it. prifed. fmooth fkins . SMOOTHNESS. SECT.

which continues to the middle of the body. 59 made any mention of the quality of fmoothnefs in the enumeration of thofe that go to the forming of beauJty. BU T They as perfectly beautiful bodies are compofcd of angular vary their never continue long in the fame right dire6tion every f moment. VARIATION. but for whofe beit ginning or end you will find certain a point. to the tail .. H 2 but I . from whence it leflens gradually until it mixes with the neck . fo their parts line. fea. fee the Here we head increafing infenfibly to the middle. the neck lofes itfelf in a larger fwell. difficult to af- The view of a beautiful bird will illuftrate this obfervation. and they change under the eye by a deviation continually carrying on. any fudden projedlion. and jcO: have BEA U T I F U L. any (harp angle idea. when the the whole decreafes again tail takes a new diredion t Part 5. 23. is in the higheft degree contrary to that SECT. Gradual XV. For indeed any ruggednefs. not parts.

through which the unfteady eye knowing where to fix. woman where fhe is . the eafy and infen- fible fwell. you is prefented with no fudden protu- berance through the whole.leo but it On foon the S its UBL new . and yet the whole continually changing. its parts are (to ufe that expreffion) melted into one another. below. perhaps the moft . it agrees very well with moft of the conditions of beauty. In this defcription I have before me the idea of a dove . Is not this a demon- ftration of that change of furface continual and yet hardly perceptible at any point which forms one of the great conftituents of beauty ? SECT. I ME . upon every fide. is never for the fmalleft fpace the fame ceitful the de- Hides giddily. the variety of the furface. varies courfe it blends line is again with the other parts and the perpetually and infenfibly changing. which . it or whither is carried. I . Obferve that part of a beautiful beautiful. It is fmooth and downy are . about the neck and breafts the fmoothnefs the foftnefs . above. without maze.

the afti. I need here fay fair fex. the greyhound maftiff . of the where I believe the point will be eafily allowed me. iiderably The beauty of women is con- owing to their weaknefs.. it the jeflamine. loi SECT. and elegance. Arabian horfe. XVI. AN of fential air of robuftnefs and ftrength is veiy prejudicial to beauty. or an. and BEAUTIFUL. It is the delicate myrtle. much more than the ftrength and ftability of fome horfes little of war or carriage. will find this obfer- vation to be founded in nature. fragility. it is it is the almond. or any of the confider as . we they are awful and majeftic they infpire a fort of reverence. fo remarkable for its weaknefs and momentary duration. It which we look is on as vegetable beauties. the flowery fpecies. or delicacy. An appearance almoft efthe vege- delicacy^ and even of it. Among animals than the amiable. is it is the orange. DELICACY. It is not the oak. or the elm. H 3 and . the vine. is to Whoever examines table or animal creation. that gives us the livelieft idea of beauty. a barb. is more is beautiful and the delicacy of a gennet. robuft trees of the foreft vs^hich beautiful .

and the fine variation loft in wrinkles. but becaufe the conditions of beauty collapfe . that weaknefs betraying very bad health has any fhare in beauty . foft weak whites 3 pink reds 3 and violets. difficult AS to the colours ufually found in beautiful bodies . it to afcertain them. Thofe which feem moft appropriated to beauty. the colours of beautiful bodies muft not be dufky or muddy. . quality of mind analogous I would not here be underftood to fay. even in this variety. they muft not be of the ftrongeft kind. Secondly. there is an ever. the lumen purpu^ is reum juventa is gone . light greens . but clean and fair. are the milder of every fort blues 'y . even enhanced by their timidity. Howwe may mark out Firft. Thirdly. of health which produces fuch weaknefs . but the ill efFed of this is ill not becaufe ftate it is weaknefs. may be fomewhat infinite variety. SECT Beauty in XVIL COLOUR. alters the other the parts in fuch a cafe the bright colour. fomething on which to fettle.102 and is On the SUBLIME a to it. and right lines. becaufe in the feveral parts of nature. fudden breaks.

the beauty both of fliape and colour- ing are as nearly related. there is is In a fine complexion. be comparatively Thirdly. as pofe it we can well fup- poffible for things of fuch different natures to be. there are almoft always fuch a number of them (as in variegated Howers) that the ftrength and glare of each confiderably abated. as they are merely fenfible qualities. they are mixed in fuch a it is manner. have a variety in the direction of tho parts but fourthly. but the colours. obje(Si: they are always diverfified. XVIII. that On the fame principle is. and with fuch graimpoilible to fix the bounds. and fo very agreeable. not only fome variety in the colour- ing. Secondly. fmall. that the dubious colour in the necks and tails is of peacocks. to have thofe parts not angular. H 4 but . SECT. Befides. to . if BEA U T I F U L. RECAPITULATION. are Firft. ON the whole. the qualities of beauty. 103 the colours be ftrong and vivid. about the heads of drakes. to be fmooth. and the is never of one ftrong colour . neither the red nor the white are ftrong and glaring. to are the following. In reality. it dations.and Thirdly.

and to g^ive it influence. Thefe than any others. the properties taftes. is capable of joining the efFe6t of cer- tain agreeable qualities of the mind 10 thofe of the body. but melted as it were into each other. in beauty. SECT. to have . to have diverfified with on which beauty depends 5 properties that operate by nature. Seventhly. the face muft be exprefTive of fuch gentle and foft- amiable qualities. fmoothncfs. . and delicacy of the outward form. Fifthly. Sixthly. The XIX. as correfpond with the nefs.104 On the SUBLIME. colours clear and bright its but not very ftrong if it it and glaring. and are lefs liable to be altered by caprice. which being obpretty correfpond regularly with them. SECT. efpecially in that of own The to mination to ferved manners give a certain deterthe countenance. Phyfiogmmy has a confiderable fhare our THE fpecies. So that to form a its full flnifhed human beauty. I believe. or {houldjhave any glaring colour. PHYSIOGNOMY. or confounded by a diverfity of are. others. without any remarkable appearance of ftrength. to be of a delicate frame.

line . and fuch the beauty. depends a good deal on particular fancies. but none are pleafed with an eye. fea. confifts. 25. that the beauty of the eye in its clearnefs . in fadl I it is think then. did not fall fo eafily under the foregoing heads. on the principle upon which we glafs. I HAVE hitherto purpofely omitted to fpeak of the Eye^ which has fo great a (hare in as It the beauty of the animal creation.and B E A UT I F U L.. with regard to it is union with the neighbouring parts. * are pleafed with the eye in We this view. like diamonds. The XX. motion of the eye contributes continually fhiftlng its is is by a diredtlon but a flow and languid motion brifk more beautiful than . Thirdly. fame it Is rule that is given of other beautiful ones not to make a ftrong deviation from the Part 4. what coloured eye fhall pleafe mofl. one . 105 SECT. tranfparent clear water. to its . like Secondly. the latter enlivening the former its lovely. firft. fubftances. reducible to the fame prin- though ciples. EYE. whofe water (to ufe that term) is dull and muddy. to hold the .

to infift here upon the nature of UgUnefs. principal fo generally arifes from this that is power what we have juft iiere» faid of the phyfiognomy applicable SECT. a perhaps appear IT mayof what we have before like tition fort of repe- faid. SECT.io6 On the S UBLIME nor to verge Befides all line of the neighbouring parts. But I would by no means infinuate that uglinefs of itfelf is a fublime idea. gine it As I ima- to be in all refpedts the oppofite to thofe qualities ftituents which we have laid down for the conBut though uglinefs be of beauty. and its . Uglinefs imagine likewife to be confiflcnt enough with an idea of the fublime. UGLINESS. this. . XXI. into any exa6l geometrical figure. the eye afFedls. unlefs united with fuch qualities as excite a flrong terror. not the oppofite to it is proportion and fitnefs. as it is expreffive of fome qualities of the mind. it is the oppofite to beauty. For pofHble that a thing tions. may be I very ugly with any proporfitnefs to and with a perfect any ufes.

SECT. as will be who confiders more obvious to any attentively the Venus de Medicis. without Ihewing any rugged1 nels . this roundnefs. as not to incumber each other. SECT. SPECIOUSNESS. Gracefulnefs pojlure and motion. an idea not very it different ^^ from beauty confifts in is much the fame things. and what called je nefcai quoi. xxir. all the its magic of grace body confifls. is WHEN upon each any body compofed of parts fmooth and polllhed. is required a fmall inflexion parts. and deit is licacy of attitude and motion. ELEGANCE and XXIII. 107 GRACE. to be grace- ful. in and a compofure of the fuch a manner. nor to appear divided by angles.and BEAUTIFUL. without preffing other. f^Racefulnefs is . it is requifite that there of difficulty J there of the body . ftiarp and fudden that is In this eafe. an idea belonging to be no appearance In both thefe. the Antlnous. or any flatue generally allowed to be graceful in an high degree.

in the afFe(5lion produced. This It correfponds the beautiful in Feeling.io8 On the SUBLIME at the nefs or confufion. it elegant. that imitate no determinate buildings. withal of great dimenfions it is full as remote from the idea of mere beauty. calculated to be affected by various forts . When any is objc61: partakes of the abovementioned qualities. \\. The beautiful in XXIV. SECT. and fame time it afFe6tIt is ing fome regular Jhape^ I call clofely allied to the beautiful. and pieces of furniture. FEELING. greatly illuftrated by defcribing the nature of which produce a I call fimilar efFecSt the touch. delicate Under this head object in nature. E foregoing defcription of beauty. and . fo is far as taken in by the eye. differing as makes a very material diiFerence. wonderfully with what caufes pleafure all the fame fpecies of to the fight. may very well conftitute I another fpecies. or of thofe of beautiful bodies.fine I call orfpecious. they of objedts. There are all is a chain in our fenfations. may be through TH objefts. only in it this regularity \ from which however. rank thofe as elegant and regular works of art. but all but different forts of feeling.

or beautiful. is agreeable. which as continually vary their furface. or to the prefTure of the parts on one another if the former . The quick ftart .and all to BEAUTIFUL. The application of any dif- thing fudden. . after the 109 be afFeded fame manner. and we pleafant.ourpleafure is greatly increafed. This is fo plain. not expedted. even though the impreffion itfelf have little or nothing of violence. in the of thefe qualities . than to be illuftrated ple. AH by Re- bodies that are pleafant to the touchy are fo the flightnefs of the refiftance they make. foft. as is in every other. fiftance is either to motion along the furface. any one that pleafes may experience. application of a finger a little notice. The chief pleafuxe one or the other we receive by feeling. (houlder. the continually prefenting find that bodies fomewhat new. never fuddenly. are much the moft to the feeling. is. be flight. has the fame Hence is that angular bodies. wc call the body. The it third property in fuch objeds furface continually varies varies it that though the its diredion. and if there be a combination of both. is fmooth if the latter. without a flight tap on the effect:. that it is rather more fit to ill uflrate other itfelf by things. bodies that fuddenly . warmer or makes us it colder than ufual. any exam- The next fource of pleafure in this fenfe.

va- unangular bodies. afpleafure to the feeling. other angular figures. fible that (as it is am apt to fancy. faid fome blind men have done) that and the fame difpofition the fame colours. fuch change in miniature a fort of climbing or falling fo that fquares. which are found beautiful to the fight. But there fuch a fimilitude in the plca(ures of thefe that I fenfes. are neither beautiful Whoever compares foft. of colouring. his ftate of riated. Feeling and fight in this refpedt. made perceptible to the touch idea of again has the advantage in new pleafure refulting from a moderate degree of warmth is . will perceive a very ftriking analogy in the efFedts of both . on feeling fmooth. triangles. to the fight nor feeling. which not primarily an object of the fight on the other hand comprehends colour. on the view of a beautiful objedl. if it were pofone might difcern colour by feeling. .no ford fo On little the S UBL I ME Every and fuddenly vary the dife£lion of the outline. which can hardly be the touch a -. mind. but the eye triumphs in the infinite its extent and multiplicity of objeds. is . dif- fer in but a few points. fight. and which may go a good way towards difcovering their common caufe. with that in which he finds himfelf. The touch takes in is the pleafure of foftnefs.

SECT. as any that ever was. and fight. man The defcription is as follows* "-'And ever agalnji eating cares^ Lap me in foft Lydian airs . BEAUTIFUL. JVith wanton heed^ and giddy cunning. SOUNDS. agree with be this fenfe INaffedcd in awe find an equal aptitude toand and delicate manner. foft how far fweet or beautiful founds our defcriptions of beauty in other fenfes. I need not fay that Milton was perfedly well verfed in that art and had as fine an ear. xrx would be found likewife moft grateful But fetting afide conjedures. *Ihe melting voice through mazes running . The beautiful in XXV.. th« experience of every one muft decide. * II allegro. In notes with many a winding bout O/" linked fweetnefs long drawn out . to the touch. Milton has defcribed this fpecies of mufic in one of his juvenile poems *. with as happy a manner of expreffing the afFedlions of one fenfe by metaphors taken from another. let us pafs to of hearing. the other fenfe . Untwifl- .

or deep it agrees beft with fuch as are clear. confident idea of the it whole. TO the abovementioned defcription I fliall add one or two remarks. excite . and great variety. than variety. the unbroken continuance. are fhrill. to obfcure by their intricacy and SECT. weak. even. The firft is . XXVL Continued. and quick tranfitions from one meafure or tone Such f tranfitions to another. which . or harfh. •j- often I ne'er am merry. will rather help to throw lights from one another to finifh one clear. the eafy gradation of the beautiful in other things . their feveral affections. that ufed to raife other paifions . the wind- ing furface. that the beautiful in mufic will not bear that loudnefs and flrength of founds. are contrary to the genius of the beautiful in mufic. Shakespear. that fmooth. may be nor notes. Let us parallel this with the foftnefs. when I hear fweet mufic. The fecond is .112 On the SUBLIME Untwifting all the chains that tye The hidden foul of harmony. and with all all the diverllties of the feveral fcnfes.

to clear and diftinguifh fome few particulars. as are fitted to raife can be no prejudice to this. efFedt of fenfe. a variety of fuch founds. the characSleriftical as it that languor. or tones. regards is every in fadl The paflion excited by beauty nearer to a fpecies of melancholy.and BEAUTIFUL. and are confiftent with them. . My fole defign I have remark to fettle a confiftent idea of beauty. It each other. the beautiful. or other fudden and tumultuous paflions . and fkilful ear. with all other fenfes in the article of their pleafures. from the immenfe croud of different. than to jollity and mirth. that belong to the fame clafs. and fometimes of thefe contradictory ideas. The infinite variety of the affections of the foul will fuggeft to a good head. And it is my intention to mark the fuch only of the leading points as fhew the conformity of the fenfe of hearing. which is u^ excite mirth. fkill. that melting. but not that linking. that rank vulgarly under the ftandard of beauty. SECT. fine mufic to any one art in neither is it which I can fay in this any great is. an I do not here mean to confpecies of notes.

but as the qualities ofbodies by which fitted to excite either pleafure they are or pain in thefe fenfes. wherein a very clofe one. nature as it were. and founds . is. . way of examining the . fcrutinized . we may with any one of them. TASTE and SMELL. By means. fimilar pleafures of other fenfes is is is for one part that fometimes clear in one of the fenfes. are not fo obvious as they are in the others. more obfcure in another . confidering We metaphorically apply the idea of fweetnefs to fights. SECT.114 On the S UBLIME XXVII. is '"p HIS general agreement of the fenfes ye« more evident on minutely thofe of tafte and fmell. we (hall refer is an explanation to confider the it of their analogy. and where there a clear concurrence of certainty fpeak of more this all. they bear witnefs to each other . but what we receive from her own information. which that part. and we report nothing of her. do not think any thing better to cftablifli a clear and fettled idea of than this vifual beauty. ta we come common all fitted efficient caufe I of beauty as regards the fenfes. SECT.

fcure . and in comcom- parifon there appears a remarkable contraft. The Sublime and Beautiful compared.. a diflindtion never to it is be forgotten by any whofe bufinefs to afFe6t the paflions. fhun the right fibly . one being founded on pain. are vaft in their dimen- beautiful ones comparatively fmall beauty fhould be fmooth. XXVIIL US SECT. and BEAUTIFUL. and even maffive. For fublime objeds fions. beauty fhould not be ob- the great ought to be dark and beauty fhould be light and delicate. rugged and negligent. clofing this general ON pare it view of beauty. often makes a gloomy. arc ftrong deviation. the other on pleafure. it naturally occurs. yet thefe caufes keep up an eternal diftin<5lion between them. the great. and when it deviates. and however they may vary afterwards from the direct nature of their caufes. the great ought to be folid. that we fliould this with the fublime . yet deviate from it infen- the great in many cafes loves the right it line. and poliflied . They indeed ideas of a very different nature. The end of the Third Part* . beauty fhould line.

.

Philofophical Enquiry I NTO T H of our E Origin Ideas O F T H E Sublime and Beautiful. I do not pretend that I (hall ever why certain afFedlions of the body produce fuch a diftin6l emotion of mind. or why the body is at all affected by the mind. that I can I would not be to the ul- come timate caufe. A little thought will fliew this to be impoffible. PART SECT. or the mind by the body. I intend to enquire WHEN be able to explain. I 3 But . the efficient caufe of the S UBLIME BEAUTIFUL. Of and IV. and no other . into the efficient caufe of fubli- mlty and beauty. underftood to fay. I fay. I.

ii8
But

On

the

SUBLIME

we can difcover what afmind produce certain emotions of the body ; and what diftindl feelings and qualities of body fhall produce certain
I conceive, if

fections of the

determinate pailions in the mind,
others, I fancy a

and no
;

great deal will be done

fomething

not

unufeful

towards a

diftin6t

knowledge of our

paffions, fo far at leaft as

we

have them

at prefent
is

under our confidebelieve,

ration.

This
ftill

all, I

we can
be

do.

If we could advance a ftep farther,

difficulties
ftill

would

remain,

as

we

fhould
caufe.

equally diftant from the

firft

When
it

Newton
tion,

firft

difcovered the property of attrac-

and

fettled its

laws, he found

ferved

very well to explain feveral of the moft re-

markable phaenomena
could confider

in nature

;

but yet with

reference to the general fyftem of things,
attracSlIon

he

but as an

efFedl,

whofe caufe at that time he did not attempt But when he afterwards began to to trace. account for it by a fubtle elaftic aether, this
great

man

(if in fo

great a

man

it

be not im-

pious to difcover any thing like a blemifli)

feemcd to have quitted

his ufual cautious

man-

ner of philofophifing; fmce, perhaps, allowing
all

that has been advanced
fufficiently

on
It

this fubje£t to

be
5is

proved, I think
as
it

leaves us with

roany

difficulties

found us.

That
great

and

BEAUTIFUL.
God

119

great chain of caufes, which linking one to

another even to the throne of

liimfelf,

can never be unravelled by any induftry of When we go but one ftep beyond the ours.
immediately fenfible qualities of things,

go out of our depth.
a faint ftruggle, that

we we do after, is but fhews we are in an eleAll
us.

ment, that does not belong to

So that

when

I fpeak

of caufe, and

efficient caufe, I

only mean, certain afFedlions of the mind, that caufe certain changes in the body ; or certain

powers and properties in bodies, that work a change in the mind. As if I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground, I would

would enwhat manner this power operated, without attempting to fhew why it operated in this manner ; or if I were to exit

fay

was caufed by

gravity, and I

deavour to fhew

after

plain the

efFecSls

of bodies ftriking one another
percuffion, I fhould

by the common laws of
not endeavour to explain

how motion

itfelf is

communicated.

I

4

SECT,

120

On

the S

UBLIME
IL

SECT.

ASSOCIATION.
IT
Is

no

fmall bar in the

way of our enqui-

ries into the caufes

of the paffions, that the

occafion of

many

of them are given, and that

their governing motions are imprefied at a time

when we have
at a time of

not capacity torefledl on them;
all forts

which

of

memory

is

worn

out of our minds.
afFedt us in

For befides fuch thino-s as various manners according to their

natural powers, there are afTociations
at that early feafon,

made
very

which we
diftinguifii

find

it

hard afterwards to
efFeds.

from natural

Not

antipathies

to mention the unaccountable which we find in many perfons,

we
fire

all

fteep

find it impoflible to remember when a became more terrible than a plain ; or or water more dreadful than a clod of
;

earth

though

all

thefe

are very probably

from experience, or arifing from the premonitions of others ; and fome of them imprefied, in all likelihood, pretty
either conclufions
late.

But

as

it

muft be allowed that many
for that purpofe,

things zffe6i us after a certain manner, not by

any natural powers they have
but by aflbciation
;

fo

it

would be abfurd on
the

and
tlie

BEAUTIFUL.

121

other hand, to fay that nothing afFe6ls us
;

otherwife
originally

fince Tome things muft have been and naturally agreeable or difagreeaf-

able,

from which the others derive their
;

fociated pow^ers
Jittle

and

it

would be,

I

fancy, to

purpofe to look for the caufes of our pafin aflbciation,
until

llons

we

fail

of them

it\

the natural properties of things,

SECT.
Caufe of

III.

PAIN

and

FEAR.
Is

IHave
not only

before obferved, f that whatever
to caufe terror,
;

qualified

is

a foundation
I add, that

capable of the fublime
t^lefe,

to

which

but

many

things from

which

we

cannot probably
efFe(Sl:,

apprehend any danger
becaufe they operate in a
obferved too,
that

have a fimilar
fimilar

manner.

I

*

whatever produces pleafure, pofitive and original pleafure,
is fit

to

have beauty engrafted

on

it.

Therefore, to clear up the nature of
it

thefe qualities,

may

be neceflary to explain

the nature of pain and pleafure on which they

depend.

A man who
;

fufFers

under violent
fccr

bodily pain

(I fuppofe the

moft violent,

t

Part

I.

fea. 8.

Part i. fed. 10.

caufe

121
caufe the
I fay a

On
man
in

the

SUBLIME
the

efFecSl

may be

more obvious.}
fet,

pain has his teeth

his eye-

brows are violently contra6led,
is

his forehead

wrinkled, his eyes are dragged inwards, and
great vehemence, his hair ftands
is

rolled with

an end, the voice
or terror, which

forced out in (hort flirieks
totters.

and groans, and the whole fabric
is

Fear

an apprehenfion of pain

or death, exhibits exadlly the fame efFeds, approaching in violence to thofe jufl mentioned
in proportion

to the nearnefs of the caufe,

and the weaknefs of the fubjecSt. This is not only fo in the human fpecies, but I have more than once obferved in dogs, under an apprehenfion of punifhment,
that they have writhif

ed their bodies, and yelped, and howled, as
they had adually
felt

the blows.

From hence
upon the

I conclude that pain,

and

fear, a6l

the fame parts of the body, and in the fame

manner, though fomewhat differing in degree. That pain and fear confift in an unnatural
tenfion of the nerves
;

that this

is

fometimes
into an ex-

accompanied

with

an

unnatural ftrength,

which fometimes fuddenly changes
traordinary weaknefs
;

that thefe

efFecSts

often

come on
ivith

alternately,

and fometimes mixed
is

each other.

This

the nature of all

convullivx agitations, efpecially in weaker fubje6ts.

contraction. examby any means whatfoever. for They it agree likewife in every appears ver}^ clearly to from this. only that difference terror. f I among will ferve my purpofe J for by tenfion. 12 j which are the moft between pain and to the fc- vereft impreflions of pain and The is. on the mind. I mean no more than a violent pulling of the fibres. that when the body is difpofed. . do not here enter into the queftion debated phyfiologifts. thing elfe . or fecondarily. in producing a tenfion. me. to fuch emotions. in which compofe any mufcle or membrane. or a tenfion of the nerves. it will of itfelf excite fomething very like that paflion in the mind. BEAU T I F U L. as well as from many other ples. either primarily. liable fear.whether pain be the efFeft of a Either contradion. by the intervention of the body . as it would acquire by the means of a certain paffion . SECT. whereas things which caufe pain operate things that caufe terror generally afFe<Sl the bodily organs by the operation of the fuggefting the danger . whatever way this is done. or violent emotion of the nerves f . mind but both agreeing.and jc<^s.

in the Re- cherches d' Antiquite. Continued. of angry.124 On the S UBLIME IV. or daring men. I have my mind I turned to that whofe appearance . I he had been changed into the have often obferved. gives us a cuthe celebrated phyfiognomift this flory of Campanella. amine as nearly as he could into the ex- a6l fimilitude of the perfon he intended to ex. it feems. to When he had mind penetrate the inclinations of thofe he had to deal with. Spon. but vi^as very expert in mimickinto ing fuch. I am convinced hard to avoid it. he was able to enter into the difpofitions and thoughts of people. he compofed his face. his gefture. as efFedually as very men. and then carefully obferved what turn fays of mind he feemed to acquire by this chansie. TO rious this purpofe Mr. man. So that. that on geftures. and his whole body. my if author. mimicking the looks and involuntarily found paffion or placid. as were a any way remarkable. S E C T. though one ftrove to feparate the paflion . endeavoured it is to imitate nay. had not only made very accurate obfervations on hu- man faces. or frighted.

Campanella.and BEAUTIFUL* 12. could ab- his attention from any pain fuiFerings of hi$ it- body. every body muft have obferved. is if on by any means the body as indifpofed to perform fuch geftures. As an fpite opiate. of all our efforts to the conin the it and this by inducing body a dif- pofition contrary to that which receives from thefe paffions. or fear. and in lefler pains. or anger.5) Our paflion from its correfpondent geftures. can employ our attention on any thing the pain has been for a time fufpended the other hand. that he was able to endure the rack felf without much . of fo whom we ftra(St have been fpeaking. that when we elfe. . . that one is incapable of pain or pleafure without the other. in trary. though its . or fpirituous liquors fhall fufpcnd the operation of grief. minds and bodies are fo clofely and intimately connected. caufe fhould be never fo it ftrongly in adion ly mental. any paffion that pailion itfelf nevei* can arife. though fhould be mere- and immediately afFecSling none of the fenfes. or to be ftimulated into fuch emotions ufually produces in it . SECT.

that whatever is fitted to produce fuch a tenfion. and confequently muft be a fource of the fublime. in the fecond part. and that can as built terror. as are this fort fitted by nature to produce of tenfion. if little be doubted. it eafily follows.126 On the S UBLIME V. are of fuch things. there can be no doubt but that they produce terror. muft be producStive of apaffion fimilar to terror ||. either by the primary ope- ration of the mind or the body. is on terror. raifes the emotions of the body juft mentioned. from what we have juft faid. and aft by fome modification of that paflion . With regard to fuch things as afFe6l by the aflibciated idea of danger. How the Sublime produced* HAVING confidered terror as producing an unnatural tenfion and certain violent emotions of the nerves . So that little remains towards (hewing the caufe of the fublime. is SECT. or But fome paf. fca. but to fhew that the inftances we gave of it. objeft the fublime it. 2. iion like which has pain for its it is prevloufly proper to enquire how any fpecies fo of delight can be derived from a caufe I Part 2. when fulfici- ently violent. though it fhould have no idea of danger conne<5led with it. ap- parently .

How VI. as not only difables the members from performing their functions. flatter fome it principle of indolence in us. as a thing abfolutely requifite to lives make us pafs for the with tolerable fatisfa<Sl:ion ^ nature of bodies to reft is to fufFer all the parts of our fall into fuch a relaxation. delight^ it is have often remarked. however may cies . its evidently different in caufe. that it and ina6lion. defpair. 127 bevery parently contrary to caufe. (hould be produ(5live of that many inconvenien- fhould generate fuch diforders. that in this languid inacSlive ftate. as may our force us to have recourfe to fome labour. and in its own nature. is the things confequence of the gloomy view v/e take of . the nerves are more liabk to the moft horrid convulfions. pain can be a caufe of delight. from adual and pofitive pleafure. but takes away that vigour towards the performing the fecretions. deand often felf-murder. SECT. PROVIDENCE has a ftate of reft fo ordered it. je6i:ion. as I I fay.and BEAUTIFUL it. which natural is requifite and necefiary At the fame time. Melancholy. than when they are fufficiently braced and ftrengthened.

a6l. but the underftanding itfclf makes ufe of fome \ fine corporeal inflruments in its operations though what they are. fite Labour not only requifit to preferve the coarfer organs in a ftate it is for their functions. weakens. that does that make ufe of fuch. on which. and by which. remedy for all thefe evils is exercife or labour and labour mufcles confifts a furmounting of diffculttes^ an exertion of the . that great bodily labour. the imagination. and where they but fomewhat hard to fettle : are. but equally neceflary to thefe finer and more delicate organs. or pain. and that without fing they rou- would become languid. that not only the inferior parts foul. as the of the pafHons are called. Now. appears from hence a long exercife of the mental powers induces a remarkable laflitude of the whole body . and fometimes adlually deftroys the mental faculties. is thing but degree.xa8 Oft the SUBLIME The beft 5 is things in this relaxed ftate of body. and difeafed. and Since perhaps the other mental powers. may be it . as a due exercife Is efTcntial to the coarfe mufcular parts this of the conftitution. and on the other hand. and clogged with heterogeneous and hurtful matter J the very fame rule holds with re- card . contradting and as fuch refembles pain. power of the which in every in tenfion or contraction. it is probable.

fent deftrudion of the tions clear the parts. is labour. as they are the moll delicate organs. 1 Part K Its . a fort of tranquility tinged with terror 5 which as it belongs to felf-prcfervation eft is one of theftrongis of all the pafiions. they muft be fhaken and them in proper worked to a proper degree.and BEAUTIFUL. fed. SECT. 2. 129 gard to the former to have order. noxious if the pain is is not carried to violence. but a fort of delightful horror. EXERCISE neceflary VII. Its object the fublime J. of a dangerous and troublefome incumbrance. AS common pain. and the terror not converfant about the preperfon. for the finer organs. if it approaches more nearly to that which has a mental caufe. which is a mode of the exercife of the grofler. a is mode of terror of the fyftem j the exercife of the finer parts if and a certain mode of pain is of fuch a nature as to a£t upon the eye or the ear. emo- whether or grofs. they are capable of producing delight 5 not pleafure. the pain and terror are fo modified as not to be adlually . In all thefe cafes. . as thefe fine.

7. and and of being thus allied to terror. fpeak of vifual objedls. Its higheft degree I call ajiomjhment the fub- ordinate degrees are awe. that fuch examples. Why things like VIII. require fomething more trouble to fhew. And of fuch objeds as are great in their I dimenfions. . SECT. the foregoing explicaIt will I believe. reverence. are capable of producing a mode of pain. and refpe£l. Part. a. as I have given of the fublime in the fecond part. to be accounted for firft on the fame principles. SECT. always terror. /\ the caufe of the fublime. fufEcient. which by the very etymology of the words (hew from what fource they are derived. For or aflbciated danger. tion is. feft* 2. fea. is f 4 Mode of terror. not dangerous produce a paflion TERROR. or of pain. and how they ftand diftinguifhed from pofitive pleafure.130 On the SUBLIME . t Part I.

membrane. or the ray from every one. muft * Part K 2 in . this and another. that a body of all great dimenfions. or Or. fea. painted piece. XL ] Why vifual obje£ls of great dimenfions are Sublime. its extent we muft fuppofe formed of a vaft number of diftincSt points. but by moving the eye. lowed. it If the former opinion be al- will be confidered. every one of which.* though the light refle<Sl« ed from it fhould ftrike the eye in one inftant. fo as to form one uniform piece. we gather up with great celerity. and another 2. 7.and BEAU S T I F U L. on the retina. 131 E C T. So that. there is but one point of any objedt painted on the eye in fuch a manner as to be perceived at once . veral parts of the objeft. the fenervous part of the eye. yet with regard to it makes an impreflion on the retina. inftantaneoufly. VISION pi6lure is performed by having a formed by the rays of light which in one laft are reflected from the obje6t. though the image of one point fhould caufe but a fmall tenfion of ther. anoftroke. according to others.

un- arrives at laft to the higheft degree and all the Vi^hole capacity of the eye. at a time. fo quickly. lighted torch or piece of wood which fire. or and makes making but one it imprefHon of a point fucceiTion of the fame. or rather will make is the origin of ihe fublime from greatnefs of dimenfion yet clearer. fignifies juft nothing to the effed produced. caufes a or others. caufes pain. guifhable at once Or if we is take that one point only of an object . united . progrefs caufe a very great one. diftin- the matter will amount it nearly to the fame thing. feems a circle of SECT. . wheits ther a its body has parts connected impreffion at once. and confequently muft pro- duce an idea of the fublime. and confequently the fine nerves and mufcles deftined to the motion of that part muft be very much ftrained and their great fenfibility muft make them the more afFecSled by it.13* in their til it On the S UBLIME . Befides. the eye muft travcrfe the vaft fpacc of fuch bodies with great quicknefs. For if but one point obferved at once. vibrating in its parts muft approach near to the nature of what it. as to make them feem as is evident from the common effedl of whirling about a . it . if done with celerity.

a very ftrong reafon for the difference. that admitting number of minous yet if rays. now now to red. though it ihould equal the number of the uniform one entire objed:. and fo on. and that therefore a great afFecSt it objedt cannot by the number of rays. that fpecies of labour to which prevents that which is allied pain. may all be objecS^ed to this theory. but Befides this. triangles. SECT. thefe rays frequently vary their nature. The mind in K3 . or the like. there is in our ftudies. or their as to a manner of termination number of petty fquares. why 133 UNITY T 1 requifite to vaftnefs. at every change. is parts compofmg fome qual in It is not ebodies. more than But that variety of objeds it which the an equal eye muft always difcern whilft remains open. to blue. and caufes the fublime. total of things of various kinds. X. to this I anfwer. to vary our la- bour and it is not fo only in our labours. that the eye generally receives an equal number of rays at times. or an equal quantity of lu- particles to ftrike the eye at all times.1 and BEAUTIFUL. whether of colour or fhape. its effedl upon the organs of our next to 'y reft in all things. For the fum reft. the organ has a fort of relaxation or tenfion.

quantity muft ne- one. little objects cannot engage the attenis the mind the objeiSi:. that the fame uniform fucceflion had a Butbecaufe the efFeiSs power in founds. artificial infinite. and I fhall one another. The artificial XI. INFINITE. In reality hardly ever can attend diligently to more than one be little. thing at a time is little. WE and that in have obferved. are much the fame in the this but the eye or the mind (for in is cafe there no difference) in great uniform ob-. its So that every thing great by ceflarily be. fimple and entire. as the caufe of the fublimity from fucceflion . it has no reft. and what does effedl. SECT.134 Oh the SUBLIME . begin with this power in founds. and that illuftrate they bear an analogy to. and what bounded by the bounds of is not attended to. if this thing the effect and a number of other tion .that a fpecies of great- nefs arifes from the this confifts in : an uniform fucccflion like of great parts we obferved too. notexift. of many things are clearer one of the all fenfes than in another. jects does not readily arrive at their bounds . is whilft it contemplates them the image much the fame every where.

I have I obferved. the expectation. is ftruck by a fingle pulfe of the air. we cxpeCl ftill more. who. they produce a fort of furprife. felves. when they arrive. that when (as at any time have wait- ed very earneftly for fome found.and ccffion is BEAUTIFUL. . befides and mechanical caufes of our the curiofity of the fubje61:. If the ftroke be ftrong. not being able to afcertain the exaCl time of their arrival. which in- creafes this tenfion yet further. expectation itfelf This is apparent in many animals. themhere and prick up their ears of the founds is . gives. the fucceffive firing of K 4 cannon . ferve. a double ftrength and luftre to rules any the we deliver on fuch matters. that return- ed at intervals. But though after a number of ftrokes. that caufes a tenfion. more obvious I ftiall 135 rather in the fenfe of all hearing. the And it an expectation of another muft be obferved. For. if they are difcovered. And here once for ob- that an inveftigation of the natural paflions. which makes the ear-drum and the other membranous parts vibrate according to the nature and fpecies of the ftroke. If the ftroke be repeated pretty foon after repetition caufes ftroke. fo that the effedl confiderably aug- mented by a new auxiliary. the organ of hearing fufFers ia confiderable degree of tenfion. when they roufe prepare for hearing any found. When it ear receives any flmple found.

it came. ftart of when . thus increafing at every blow. can it it j never reafTume the direction can never move itfelf. Even when the organs of hearing being often fucceffively ftruck in a fmiilar manner. and confequently laft can have but the cffed of that motion whereas. will continue to ofcillate in an arch of the fame circle. . and the whole body confented with tenfion of the part The itfelf. vibrations muft be fimilar. BUT and it if the vibration be not fimilar at it every imprcffion. a little the ear-drum fufFered a convul- fion. by the united forces of the ftroke the expectation. in one way. can never be carried beyond the number of aClual impreflions . to fuch a pitch as to be capable of . known it caufes in make in it but if after firft putting motion becaufe one direction. it always made mc it. The XII. .136 On the SUBLIME. for move any body. that manner fome time longer this is an additional help to the greatnefs of the efFeft. for continue to vibrate in . until the it reft . it is brought juft to the verge of the caufe has ceafed -. it is worked up the fublime pain. you pufh firft it into another. and the furprife. SECT. fully expelled the return cannon) though I the found. as a pendulum.

tigue us by an light ufelefs repetition. 137 in the it fame direction you a£l upon will defcribe a greater arch. what manner they afFecSl the To fay a great deal therefore tions of every fenfe.* and upon what principle it is enabled to make a comparatively fmall quan- tity of matter fo difpofed produce a grander effe61:. SECT. it B E A If UT I F U L. larger quantity difpofed in another manner. we fhall confider particularly fition why a fucceffive difpo- of uniform parts in the fame right line ihould be fublime. by and diffufe manner of treating am- but as in this difcourfe we it chiefly attach ourfelves to the fublime.and whereas. The efFeds XIII. and move a longer time. pillars planted in a right lines . any new ple upon the fubjecSt. of SUCCESSION in vlfual objects explained. general notions To avoid the perplexity of before our eyes a let us fet colonnade of uniform Part 2. IF we can comprehend clearly how things operate upon one of our fenfes there can j be very little difficulty in conceiving in reft. fea. as affeds the eye. than a much . feveral times. 10. upon the correfponding affecwould tend rather to fathan to throw that it .

pillar immediately fucceeding in- creafes that which follows renews and en. that the laft pillar. a alternately. In this cafe firft round and a fquare one perifhes as foon as the vibration caufed by the it is round pillar formed. and flroke after ftroke. fort (the fquare) diredlly occupies which however it refigns as quickly to the round one . and being violently roufed by prefents the continued agitation. taking up one image and laying down another. ftead of viewing a rank of uniform let us fuppofe. it is our prefent fituation plain.. that the rays from the itfelf. the impreffion is as far from continuing was at the very firft. and one of quite its another place . at From whence as it it is obvious. with a grand or fublime conception. until the eye long exercifed in one particular way cannot it lofe that obje6t immediately this . On let the SUBLIME a us take our ftand. in fuch man^ In ner. as long as the building continues. mind But inpillars that they fucceed each other. an image of the pillar The it . that the eye may (hoot along this colon- nade. 138 line . and thus the eye proceeds. alternately. becaufe in hS:. for it has its beft efFedi: in this view. repeats impulfe after impulfe. forces the impreffion each in its order as it fuccecds. the fenfory can receive no d ift ind impreffion but from 2 the . firft round pillar will caufe in the eye a vibration of that fpecies.

anabfolute uniformity in difpolition. not fo much upoQ . but then it it meets nothing which may detain a proper effect. It is for this difference. every variation the obje<Sl is a reft and relaxation to the . the eye runs along ly at its its whole fpace. of fucceffion vs^hy a long fhould not be a more fublime obje6t fince the fucceffion is no way no check than a colonnade interrupted . there fhould be a perfedl fimplicity. Jtmllar ideas it is therefore great. and uniformity bare v/'Al Upon this principle it may be afked. gans of fight and thefe produce as reliefs prevent that violent emotion fo necefTary to produce the fublime. from the evennefs of the object. is undoubtedly grand but : The this is only one idea. itfelf 139 refume ^ of ori- and can never of diflimilar impreffion: befides. fince the eye meets fince nothing A long bare wall objecSt as a more uniform can be conceived ? is certainly not fo grand an not altogether difficult to colonnade of the fame length and account a naked height. if it be of a gr^at height and length. When we look at wall. To therefore a perfed: grandeur in fuch things we have been men- tioning. . fhape and colouring. time to produce a very great and lafting view of a bare wall. and not a repetition of . and the laft . BEAU it T I F U L.. arrives quick- termination interrupt the eye meets nothing its which may progrefs . and .

night ever after becomes tion. SECT. and that. opinion concerning confidered. that a nurfe or «n old woman once aflbciated the ideas of ghofts and goblins with that of darknefs . furprife in ii.140 upon the vajlnefs. as we are with a fucceflion of limilar impulfes fenfory . Locke's XIV. unlefs it be one of a principle of infinity^ as prodigious force. that darknefs is naturally an idea of terror. light is though an exceflive troublefome. IT hot is Mr. can have no place in a bare wall. On the SUBLIME upon that of But we are not fo powerfully afFe6ted with any one impulfe. it longer than the eiFeds caufe I in a6lion befides. and . painful and horrible to the imagina- The authority of this great doubtlefs as great. becaufe the nerves of the do not (if I may ufe the expreflion) acquire a habit of repeating the fame feeling in fuch a its manner is as to continue . Locke's opinion. is that the greateft excefs of darknefs no ways having He obferves indeed in another place. all which have attributed to expedlation and fe6t. painful to the fenfe. as that of any man is man can be. darknefs.

forced to pray for light. if darknefs be no way painful or terrible to any. fed. * i^i feems to ftand in the way of our gene.. who have not had their minds early tainted with fuperftitions. it can be no fource all of the fublime to them. ral principle. deference it feems to me. darknefs for in utter darknefs. that an ciation more general nature 5 an aflbwhich takes in all mankind may make terrible . wifdom a6i: can only by guefs . in fuch a ftrength is no fure proted^ion . and he who would pray for nothing is tov/ards his defence. * Part 2. We have confidered darknefs and as a caufe of the fublime we have'all along confidered the fublime as depending on fome modification of pain or terror j fo that. 3. and and it BEAUTIFUL. we may every moment ftrike againft fome dangerous obftru<Slion we may fall down a precipice the iirft ftep we take and if any enemy approach. it is know in what degree of Mety we ftand . in cafe what quarter to defend ourfelves . But with to fuch an authority aflbciation of a . the boldeft are ftagelfe gered. we know not impoflible to . we are ignorant of the objeds that furround us. As .

that blacknefs and darknefs are in fome de- gree painful by their natural operation. that confined very cublind. that dark- nefs being originally an idea of terror. DARKNESS terrible by its own nature. as darknefs has been. he was then couched . and that they differ only in idea. could poffet fibly have been owing to a fo precarious. inde- pendent of any aflbciations whatfoever. PERHAPS XV. rious ftory of a boy. eafily Hides into The mind of man an error of the former all but it is very hard to imagine. I muft obferve. Chefeldcn has given us a this. darknefs terrible. that the ideas of darknefs and blacknefs are much the fame. that an times. and in idea Co univerfally terrible in all countries.. it may appear on enquiry. ftories. i43t On it is the S UBL I ME As furely to the aflbciation of ghofts and goblins more fit natural to think. was chofen as a tations. he was thirteen or fourfor a cataratS^. of idle trivial. who had been born and continued teen years old fo until . or to any caufe of a nature fo and of an operation SECT. fcene for fuch terrible reprefen- than that fuch rcprefentations have made very fort . blacknefs is a more Mr.

he was the fight. has the caufe of ef- on the . and there is no reafon to think. felt at it is probable. that the ill effe£ts of black on his imagination were more owing to its connexion with any difagreeable ideas. was no time for fuch an habit. difagreeable its ill only by aflbciation. there often. aflbciation was made very and the conIn our fequent impreffion repeated inftance. he would have obferved and mentioned fe6t For an idea. upon accidentally feeing a negro ftruck with great horror at woman. Among many firft remarkable particulars perceptions. can fcarcely be fuppofed to arife tion. in this cafe. indeed fre^ quently loft but this is. and judg- that attended his ments on that the it vifual objects. firft time the boy faw a black object gave him great uneafinefs after. his age one of if and therefore. it.j and tara<Et. than that the good eiFed^s of more cheerful colours were derived from their con- nexion . becaufe the original early. Chefelden tells us. paffions evident enough it is at the firft impreffion in ordinary cafes. time and that fomc . The horror. . BEA tr T I F U L. 143 his by which operation he received fight. firft the great uneafinefs he the fight of black had arifen from its connexion with any other difagreeable ideas. from any alTocia- The boy appears by and : the account to be fenfible for particularly obferving.

why DARKNES S to in fuch a IT may be worth while darknefs can operate to caufe pain thofe nerves. which form the organs of that ftill may be obferved. to produce a tenfion in fight. The caufe XVI. is nature has fo contrived that the pupil iris. it Such a feems there certainly . is. that the expanfion of the proportionably greater. It . how as manner that is. as we recede it. darknefs and that to be fo this part may by great come . efFecSs both ope- from SECT. fuppofe it that is we withdraw iris is entirely from the reafonable to think. enlarged by the retiring of the in proportion to our it recefs. nifus there as is a continual to receive light. whilft we are involved in darknefs for in fuch a ftate whilft the eye remains open. appears by the feem flaflies. and luminous appearances which often . expanded. from the light. probably their ration. is terrible. as to ftretch the nerves that compofe it far beyond their natural tone and by this means tenfion to produce a painful fenfation. in- {lead of declining from but a little.144 On the S UBLIME They had their natural nexion with pleafing ones. Now light. examine.

that they do fo . with regard to are but as among the many vacant objects we view. . 145 feem in thefe circumftances to play before it . as we ex- perience on many occafions. befides the fubftance of light itfelf. for many other ftrong impulfes will produce the idea of light in the eye. in fufFer firll. ill It may perhaps be obje6led. BLacknefs therefore is it but a partial darknefs derives and fome of its powers from being mixed bodies. or but a few rays. fidered as a colour. that the effects of darknefs or blacknefs feem rather mental than corporeal 5 and I own it is true. it cannot be conBlack bodies. this cafe. though without doubt. the bodily organs and the mind through thefe organs. and fo do all thofe that depend on the afFe6lions ill of the finer parts of our fyftem. and which can be nothing but the effc6t of fpafms. fo fpaces difperfcd When the eye light L . than in a melancholy and dejedion of fpirits. and furrounded with coloured In its own nature. BLACKNESS. SECT. produced by its own efforts in purfuit of its objed .and BEA UT I F U L. The effeas of XVIT. The elFedls of bad weather appear often no other wife. refle£ling fight. none.

w ind expedls. mean is offenfc for fome one manner. after defccnding a flight of ftairs. Ihould immediately produce a fudden convulfion . we is attempt inadvertently to take another fl:ep in the manner of the former ones. owing to having the change made contrary to expedation. is if it be fuddenly affected otherwife there enfues a con- motion . illuftrate this . And though it may appear flrange that fuch a change as produces a relaxation. the fhock violent . it is yet mofl certainly fo.146 lights On the S UBLIME on one of thefe vacuities. very much more violent than could be thought from fo flight a fall as the difference between one chair and another can poflibly make. play of the adjacent colours upon ly falls it fuddenit into a relaxation . out of which as fuddenly recovers by a convulfive fpring. that when any organ fome time vulfive affected in the. and fo in all the . extreamly rude and difagreeable art. and find when we it much is lower than was expected. When I fay. the fhock . that intend to fit on a chair. Or if. after having been kept in feme degree of tenfion by the it. fuch a convulfion as caufed when any thin^ happens againft the expedlance of the mind. when likcwife. when we exped that this is and prepare for I I it. do not mean folely. To let us confider. and by no can we caufe fuch a fhock by the fame means.

if a perfon in broad day light were falling afleep. relaxation . This I have often experienced my- and have heard the fame from obferv- ing perfons. are very favourable to it. and that this ftart was generally preceded by a fort of dream of our falling a precipice arife . and not fuddenly introduced. ture reftores which by fome mechanifm in naitfelf by as quick and vigorous an exertion of the contrading cles ? power of the muftion. . man the to fleep. that on the firft declining towards fleep. yet of murmuring founds difpofe a that is. fudden darknefs time. to introduce a would prevent his fleep for that though filence and darknefs in themfelves. have fmce experienced And I have often ex- perienced. I and he awakes.and the fenfes. In like manner. This I knew but I only by conjecture on the analogy of the fenfes when I firft digefled thefe obfervations it. 147 is fleep a where nothing adion. BEAUTIFUL. we have been fuddenly awaked with a moft violent ftart . is kfeeps the organs of hearing in in general fitteft when a fort on this relaxation . . let thcfe founds ceafe fuddenly. the dream itfelf is caufed by this relaxa- L 2 . felf. : down whence does this ftrange motion but from the too fudden relaxation of the body. and fo have a thoufand others . and the -perfon immediately awakes parts are braced up fuddenly. Every one knows that and that to bring filence.

fo. fomcthing melancholy in fory will aiways find the becaufe the fenit change to or if it from other colours too violent . foftens in fome meafure the horror and flernnefs of their original nature fion . and the fmoothnefs or gloffinefs or fome agreeable acci- dent of bodies fo coloured. yet the nature of the original imprefcontinues. I do not purpofe to go into . ftill Black will always have it. falling this . this difagreeable SECT. which is in the nature of and this accident of the body induces image in the ftate mind. ful originally. be applicable here.148 tion . tlie terror abates. On and it the is SUBLIME The parts re- of too uniform nature to be attributed to any other caufe. as lefs changes are then violent with us. When we are in a all confirmed of health and vigour. lax foo fuddenly. we can fenfa- feldom complain of tion. will . BLACKNESS moderated. it will then be and what was faid of darknefs. The efFeas of XVIII. occupy the darknefs whole compafs of the fight. the efFeds of black be pain- TH O U G H always continue every thing. we muft Cuftom not think they reconciles us to After we have been ufed to the fight of black objedls.

and the breath drawn flowly. 149 that might be faid to illuflrate this theory of the efFeds of light and darknefs neither will I examine all the different efFedls produced by the various obfervations have I conceive all modifications and If the foregoing in nature. and the hands L 3 idly . fide . The head roll reclines fomething on one the eyelids more is clofed than ufual. ry objection. The XIX. and the eyes gently with an inclination to the objedl. the mouth a little opened. the far as I body is afFe£led. and into all BEA U T I F U L. or to anfwer eve- We have only followed the moft leading roads and we fhall obferve the fame conduit in our enquiry into the caufe of beauty. fo could obferve. would be an endlefs labour. SECT. phyfical caufe of LOV E. any foundation them very fufficient to account for the phasnomena that can arife from all the combinations of black with other colours. much are in the following manner. WHEN we as have before us fuch objedls excite love and complacency. with now is and then a low figh : the fall whole body compofed.. mixtures of thefe two caufes. To enter into every particular.

and their correfpondent effects. which certainly is is not. to conclude. me to be the caufe of all pofi- This will. have each of them feparately taken a natural ten- dency to relax the fibres. ought to be kept in view. further favours this opini- we may venture. produced by this ing. when on. all thefe properties are united together before the fenfory. Thefe appearances fenfibility in are always to the degree of beauty in the objecSl. I conceive. that the appearance of the human body. accompanied proportioned with an inward fenfe of melting and languor. even to the loweft of mediocrity and indifference. the appearances of fuch a relaxation and a relaxation fomcwhat below the natural tone feems to tive pleafure. that beauty ads by re- laxing the folidsof the whole fyftem. And this gradation from the highefl pitch of beauty and fenfibility. By the fame method of reafonwhich Ave have ufed in the enquiry into the . I believe. And if it be allowed us. elfe this defcription will it it feem exaggerated. that fuch things as we can (hew we have already obferved to be the genuine conftituents of beauty.150 idly to On the SUBLIME All this is the fides. if appear beyond any reafonable doubt. is that the pafTion called love relaxation. and of the obferver. are all There . But from fible this defcription almoft impof- not to conclude.

we have before fhewn. and hearing. On the contrary. is beautiful. the true caufe of vifual I call in the affiftance it of the other fenfes. which confifts in the violent ten- iion or contraction of the mufcular fibres. XX. a relaxation of the outwill as certainly enfuein a degree ward organs proportioned to the caufe. If appears tha.and BEAUTIFUL. thecaufes of the fublime. the application of fmooth bodies relax 5 gentle ftroking with a fmooth hand al- L 4 lays . fmell. conclude. SECT. that quality all is found almoft without exception in that are by general bodies confent held beautiful. caufing a fenfe of pain. that as a beautiful object prefented to the fenfe. body. produces the paffion of love in the mind fo if by any means the paffion fliould firft have its origin in the mind. it will be eafily admitted efpecially as this a conftituent of vifual beauty.t fmoothnefs is a principal caufe of pleafure to the touch. Now with refped to the fenfe oifieling^ there can be no doubt that bodies which are rough and angular. we may by caufing a relaxation 151 Hkewife in the . roufe and vellicate the parts. tafle. is Why SMOOTHNESS explain IT to that beauty.

XXI. its nature. to be of a fmooth naand all them. a great luxury.. NOR ation. the fufFering parts from their unnatural tenfion and it has therefore very often no mean ef- fe6t in removing fwel lings and obftru6^ions. we find all things agreeable to commonly called which are fweet. The vehicles of all taftes aje ivaUr and oiL And . ture. Let us is firrt con- Since it moft eafy to en- quire into the property of liquids. and that they their refpc£live fider the tafte. 152 On the S UBLIME and rela\'es lays violent pains and cramps. that fmooth bodies caufc pofitive pleafure by relax- In the fmell and tafte. difpofing to an univerfal relaxation. is it only in the touch. that is. that fpecies of it called fleep. SWEETNESS. A is bed fmoothly the refiftance is where every inconfiderable. SECT. whh and vi^ay fmooth bodies. evidently tend to relax fenfories. and fince all things feem to want a fluid vehicle to make them taftcd at all. fenfe of feeling highly gratified laid. and inducing beyond any thing elfc. I intend rather to confider the liquid than the folid parts of our food. is The foft.

The too. cold to fimple. it follows. and is in in many cafes yet more relaxing. to the eye. touch and the is infipid as not fo grateful. which I not fo Water do not know on Suppofe what principle to account for. hefion of the on the roundnefs. were added a certain which had a power of putting .. namely. other than that is that water foft and fmooth. it is. fmoothnefs. And what or its determines the tafle fome its ^vhich afFe6ls varioufly according to nature. Oil the fome degree pleafant tafte. fomewhat infipid. and lu. inodorous. that the caufe of fluidity is like- wife the caufe of its relaxing quality . Water and oil fimply confidered are tafte. This when talle. is infipid. that to this oil or water quantity of a fpecific fait. and BEAU T I F U L. when colourlefs. according to the moft general opinion. and weak cocomponent parts of any body and as water adts merely as a fimple its fluid. it is found when not be a great refolver of fpafms. power it probably For as fluidity de- pends. and flippery texture of fimple. and fmooth. colourlefs. bricator of the fibres this owes to its fmoothnefs. other fluid vehicle of taftes is is oil. capable of giving fome pleafure to the Water. inodorous. its the fmoothnefs parts. manner of being combined with other things. It is and fmooth to the touch and fmoother than water. Is 153 fait.

is That of If nitre a . you will eafily conceive how fweetnefs. marbles with which boys amufe themfelves. Thus though in fweet liquors. and the vibratory power of the caufe the fenfe we is call fweetnefs. In all fweet bodies. by the regularity of form. and Aiding over difpofition of the one another wearinefs. own diftincS:. and the fomewhat too fudden deviation of its parts from a right line. have afFedled the touch when they are rolled backward and forward and over one another. tried you have as the how fmooth globular bodies. a fait of fuch nature. which confifts in tafte . invariable form. that of fea fait an exaft cube that of fugar a perfect globe. though fomewhat its pleafant to the feeling. pointed oblong . the parts of the fluid vehicle . ting the nervous papillae of the tongue into a gentle vibratory motion diflblved in it. for this foft variety prevents that which the uniform feveral globes would otherwife produce. as fuppofe fugar oil. fait every fpecies of its ex- amined by the microfcope has regular.T54 On the SUBLIME . The fmoothnefs of the fait. fugar. different or a fubftance very conftantly found little . afFeds the for a fingle globe. from fugar. rifes to is one and falls and this pleafure greatly increafed the globes are in motion. is nothing near to fo pleafant to the touch as feveral globes. where the hand gently another if . .

and things of it may be obferved. they have a the tafte. . clear their unveiling their figure to the microfcope. that infipid all kinds approach more nearly the nature of fweetnefs than to that of any other tafte. effeds of plain for if a fmooth bodies to the touch compofed of round be both to the parts exceffively fmall. that the particles of fugar are confiderably larger than thofe of water or oil. and confe- quently that their efFeds from their roundnefs will be more diftincSl vous papillae of that nice and palpable to the nerorgan the tongue they will induce that fenfe called fweetnels. nlceft inquifition of the micro- fcope and confequently being fort fo exceffively minute. and in a yet weaker they arc. 155 though moft probably round. . the furface wiM fight and touch as It is if it were from nearly plain and fmcoth. of flat fimplicity to refembhng the . SECT.: and BEA UT I F U L. water and water for infipid as oil are In fome degree to fweet. are yet (o minute as to concealthe figure of their component parts from the . manner we in difcover in oil. body be and packed pretty clofely together. which in a weak.

The component parts of this are water. Now it to appear that fweet things. It were worth while to examine. oil. very much taftes. to try what nature has originally pro- vided for us. are relaxing too. Sweet fmells. fweet ones. which are moft taken frequently or in a large quantity. efpecially thofe evident. whether fait are taftes of this kind. fmell of flowers difpofes people to drowfinefs and this relaxing efFecSt is further apparent from the pre- judice which people of weak nerves receive from their ufc.ought relaxing.IS6 On the SUBLIME XXII. taftes that are caufed by fmooth oils and a relaxing not the originally pleafant taftes. and . Alilk is : made and to analyfe this provi- the firft fupport of our childhood. which fhe has undoubtedly originally pleafant fion.t fweet things are generally fo fuch. becaufe all oily. SWEETNESS fenfes that the other INfmooth things arewe have remarked. relaxing. enfeeble the tone of the ftomach. which bear a great affinity to f^ycet relax very remarkably. were not agreeable at The way to examine this is. which are the fmooth of tafte. The . is Thi». For ni^y which at>all ufe has rendered fuch. SECT. firft.

that reafon we can no about longer with any fatisfa£tion them. fait called 157 the fugar a great of a very fweet All thefe of milk. of fweet- nefs. and in many cafes rough even to the touch. SECT. as fuch. and are found of a re. agreeable to the tafte. and a thoufand other caufes. adulte- and change our palates. thofe principally which and every one knows that the fweetnefs of fruit is caufed by a fubtle oil and are fweet fuch a fait as that mentioned in the laft fedion. rate. to vifual objeds. and fit to brace the fibres. we quit this article we muft that as fmooth things are. metaphorically. For the better carrying on this remarkable analogy of the we may here call fweetnefs the beautiful pf the tafte. are almoft univerfally rough and pungent to the tafte. . obferve Before . fruits. the defire of novelty. habit. and a relaxing quality to the Ikin. things which are found by experience to be of a laxing quality ftrengthening quality. We often apply the quality fenfes. cuftom. when blended have fmoothnefs to the tafte. fo mix. is fruit. The next thing children covet and of .and and a fort BEAUTIFUL. fo on the other hand. Afterwards.

XXIII. we meet the yet it is not that manner ot moving. Reft certainly tends to relax a fpecies of reft .. 158 On the S U BL I ME SECT. that manner of moving next a very gentle defcent. Nothing long continued in the fame manner. and falling. or its by the fliarpnefs of angle to caufe any twitch- ing or convulfion of the optic nerve. which gives pleafure than to be gently lifted more up and down with the manner of playing which a their nurfes ufc . nothing . in which leaft refiftance. which next the lead. objeds that the line of their its parts it is continually varying it direftion . why beautiful. A motion in a to l-ight line. all thus in is the fenfes. Rocking . fets children to is ileep better than abfolute reft there indeed fcarce any thing at that age. wearies us . very fuddenly varied can be beautiful becaufe both are oppofite to that agreeable relaxation^ which It is is th6 charadbriftic effeS: of beauty. V A R I A T I O N. yet motion which relaxes more than a rifing a gentle ofcillatory motion. never varies fo quickly as to furprife. but it varies by a very it infenfible deviation. ANOTHER tiful principal property of beauis. there is to a defcent.

its efFe6l indiredly. the beautiful. But to bring this analogy of the fenfes . which are in a continual infenfiWe deviation from the ftrongeft to the is always the cafe in a furface in it muft be exa6tly fimilar on the eye and touch . along the furface of a body of a certain is moved along my hand. home to the eye if a body prefented to that furface that the rays fenfe has fuch a waving it of light refle6ied from weakeft. 159 with children. it is actly the fame in its effect. are fo contrary to beauex- ty . and founds. whether. and the weighing and Twinging ufed afterwards by themfelves as a favourite a- mufement. fwiftly drawn in an eafy turf. I or whether fuch a body move my hand fliape. on a fmooth declivities. for inftance. the lines which compofe its furface are not . evince Moft people muft have obferved the fort of fcnfe they have had. on the other gradually unequal. felt rocky. On contrary . when one is hurried over a rough. on being coach . broken road. if And this body will be beautiful continued. the pain by thefe fudden inequalities fliews feelings why fimilar fights. with grad ual afcents and This arid will give a better idea of the point out its probable caufc better than almoft any thing elfe. or very nearly the fame. and with regard to the feeling.and BEAUTIFUL this very fufficiently. one of which operates on it diredlly.

ftandard thcfe in the individuals we may fall obfcrve fome that exceed. It is which are true. relative to the fpecies of the infinite. and of fa.. in a may or diifipate the attention. and fome that : fhort of the ordinary which greatly exceed. Concerning XXI. and the dimenfions common of that fpecies. i6(> On vv^eary the S UBLIME manner that continued. as is founded on the difpofition of quantity itfelf. or In fpcaking of the magniis tude of bodies there great uncertainty. that having once fixed the fpecies of any objedl. its quantity. provided the fpecies be not than very fmall. the qualities that conftitute beauty may poiTibly be united to thijigs of greater dimenfions . are terms almoft entirely objects. be- caufe the ideas of great and fmall. I vi^ill not enter very minutely into it every particular that regards beauty. may arife TO its avoid a famenefs vi^hich from the too frequent repetition of the illuftrations of the fame reafonings. beautiful . rather great and terrible but as in the animal world. itfelf are by that excefs. SECT. and in a good meafure in the vegetable world likewife. SMALLNESS.mc nature. even fo varied.

have before call- but this kind I imagine has not fuch a power on the paffions. But if J were to fay how I find myfelf aiFedled upon fuch occafions. I i6i when they are fo united they conftitute a {pedes fomething different both from thefub- lime and beautiful. lieved . which ed Fine '. Befides the extraordinary great in every fpecies. has nothing contrary to the idea of beauty. beauty either dead and unoperative or at moil exerted to mollify th^ rigour and fternnefs of the terror. can There lie the qualities of . I Ihould fay. the dwarfifh and diminutive ought to be confidered. which is the natural concomitant of greatnefs. than beauty does by being joined to greatnefs of quantity. that the fublime fufFers lefs by be- ing united to fome of the qualities of beauty. either as vaft bodies have which are endued with the correfpondent qualities of the fublime . Lit- merely as fuch. the oppofite to this. in things whatever which belong elfe ever fo remotely to terror. beauty have when united the fpoils of beauty. The afFedlion produced by large bodies adorned with is a tenfion continually re- which approaches nearer to the nature of mediocrity. that nothing fland in their prefence. or any other properties of the fublime. BEAUTIFUL. or as the qualities of in a fmall objecSl. llenefs. The humming bird both M in . There is fomething fo over-ruling in all infpires us with awe.and fions .

When we our imaginations loofe ranny. to the beautiful. as fomething contrary fuppofc a let The large' and gigantic.i62 in fhape On the SUBLIME yields to it is and colouring winged nefs. that of love . are unufual. of which is the leaft none of the . of a delicacy fuitablc to fuch a wife endued with the beautiful bodies . and every thing horrid .the. though is very compatible with the fubllme. fuch creatures. in romance. and are often therefore confidered monftrous. all fuppofing fuch the parts of his body fize. which grofs almoft conllantly (o and maffive comparifon of their height. and which when (if perhaps his beauty enhanced by his fmallever) But there are animals. and other- I common qualities of other am pretty well convinced .ldeas we naturally annex to that fize are thofe of tyinjuftice. they are extremely fmall are rarely beautiful. It Is impoflible to giant to be the object of love. cruelty. But if a man was found not above two or three a perfon to have feet high. that a perfon of fuch a ftature might well be confidcrcd as beautiful might be the object might give us very pleafing ideas on viewing him. that they prefent us with a very difagree- able image. however formed. The only thing which could poflibly interpofc to check this pleafure is. There in is a dwarfifh fize of is men and women. fpecies.

163 and abominable. nor docs it thor. With regard to the Trojans. The event is we all attend to with the greateft fatisfadtion their defeat and death. be ob- can never make us love him. novice to the timely fate. who make fuch a figure in romances and heroic poems. and fair. and the virtues with many his which he has adorned It mind. of youth. infinitely of the. We paint the giant ra- vaging the country. torn from his parents. whofe virtues fate he has defigned to excite our comitiore panion.' amiable focial than he has diflributed among his Greeks. Iliad fall which the of any man remarkappear that the aunature. : Cacus. bis half-Hving fiefli traveller.ro well read in human ed it fhould.and rid BEAUTIFUL. ferved. It is Simoifius in the foft bloom trem. in fpite of the many great qualities of beauty which Homer has beftow- ed on his outward form. plundering the innocent and afterwards gorging himfelf with fuch are Polyphemus. that the I do not remember in that multitude of deaths with is filled. the M 2 paflioii . field.ever intend- able for his great ftature and flrength touches us witH pity . ble for a courage fo it is ill who fuited to his ftrength another hurried by war from the . who melts us by his un- Achilles. and others. new emand a braces of his bride young. that may Homer has given the Trojans.

the principles laid down in beginning for of this part are fufficient account the . the difquifition almofl infinite. that obje6ls of great dimenfions are incompatible with beauty. not to be attributed to their SECT. The far weak . and Hedlor more than his conqueror Achilles. fail whereas the fmall. and he has done by beftowing on them the virtues which have but little to do with love. where our bufinefs the is to fliew. and thefe by lejfery and may fay. Of XXVI. the arms of He6lor comparatively feeble his courage below that of Achilles. This fhort digreffion is perhaps not wholly befide our purpofe. Yet we love Priam more than Agamemnon. Admiration is the paflion which Home? would excite in it favour of the Greeks. domcftic virtues. . he chufes to . but I conceive the to WITH is regard to colour. are far the moft amiafar their But he has made the Greeks and military councils of Priam are fuperiors in the politic virtues.greater. this failure ever they of beauty. COLOUR. more incompatible if is as they are. fize.i64 paffion On the S U BL is I ME pity . raife a paflion if I founded on love ble.

of a blue or red colour. conformable to the principles laid down in fe<5l. which without preparation change the idea.an(t BEAUTIFUL. when the glafs or liquor is are quite tranfpa- rent. whe- ther fluid or folid. as fmooth opaque bodies have on the eye and touch. M 3 . But when the ray palles without fuch oppofition through the glafs or liquor. as to prefent the colour gradually and interchangeably weakened and ftrengthened with all that variety which judg- ment in affairs of this nature fhall fuggefl. and the evennefs of the refle6led light. This pleafure may be heightened by the if com- mon principles in other things. Suppofe I look at a bottle of muddy liquor. but are fuddenly and unequally flopped by the intervention of little opaque bodies. 165 for the the effedts of them agreeable effect as well as of traniparent bodies. the light fomething foftened in the it pafTage. 24. which makes more agreeable even all and the liquor reflecting it the rays of its proper colour evenly^ has fuch an ef- on the eye. glafs the fliape of the which holds the tranfparent liquor be fo judicioufly varied. So that the pleafure here is compounded of the foftnefs of the tranffecSt mitted. the blue or red rays cannot pafs clearly to the eye. all On jl9 a review of that has been faid of the efFedts. all. as light. and change it too into one difagreeable in its own nature.

that feeling. .i66 On the SUBLIME . caufes have part. as well as the caufes of both it will appear. which is Their made the fubjedt of this fourth The end of the Fourth Part. that the fublime and beautiful are built on principles very different. which have called aftonifhment . the beautiful is founded on mere politive pleafure. and excites in the foul called love. which. and that their affections are as different its : the great has terror for it is bafis . when modified. caufes I that emotion in the mind.

archi- tedure afFcds by the laws of nature. the laws of that connexion. PART SECT. but with the fuperadded pleafure of imitation . in the whole or in fome M 4 part. I. and the law of reafon praifed . Painting afFe6ts in the fame manner. feelings in our minds. NATURAL and certain confequent things afFea us. which make a work to be or cenfured. W O R D S. Of V. . from which latter refult the rules of proportion.and BEAUTIFUL. providence has eftablifhed by which between certain motions and configurations of bodies. 167 Philofophical Enquiry INTO THE Origin of our Ideas O F T H E Sublime and Beautiful.

mind by raifing In it ideas of thofe things for which cuftom has appointed ftand. may be divided into three as reprefent the firft are fuch many fimple ideas united by nature to form fome one determinate compofition. THE common words affect the notion of the power of that they poetry and eloquence. The common by effed of II. may be requifite to obferve that words . as well as that of in ordinary converfation. SECT. is .i68 part. as man. the SUBLIME it the end for which or not properly anfwered. Thefe I call aggregate . yet words have as confidcrable a fhare in exciting ideas of beauty and of the fublime as any of thefe. it them to To examine the truth of forts this notion. horfe. caflle. tree. and fometimes a greater than any of much quiry into them . which we or by painting or architedure . therefore an enthe manner by which they excite is fuch emotions far from being unneceiTary in a difcourfe of this kind. ^'c. not raifing ideas of things. P O E T R Y. is On when is . they feem to different was defigned But as to a in words me to afFed us in manner very from that are affeded by natural things.

perfuafion. arc capable of being diftinctions . honour. any real ideas. tions. for our purpofe in and they are difpofed in that order which they are commonly taught. round. are they that ftand fome one fimple idea of fuch compofitions and no more. into more curious but thefe feem to be natural. I Words. are thofe. ajid in which the mind gets the ideas they are fubftiI fhail begin tuted for. conceives any pre- virtue. with the third fort of words . and enough . virtue. and of various relations in greater or lefler degrees of complexity. that whatever of thefe I am power they may have on the paflions. an arbitrary union of both the others. fuch as virtue. and the like .and BEAUTIFUL. they are not real effcnces. perfuafion. No immediately on hearing the founds. fquare. as union. lieve. blue. compound abftradis. clafled am fenfible. As compofiand hardly body. I be- caufe. or cife notion of the particular modes of action and thinking. . they do not derive it from any reprefentation raifed in the mind of the things for which they ftand. The third. for The fecond. together with the mixt and fimplc . honour. i6^ aggregate words. liberty. agred. honour. which are formed by an concerning them. thefe I call ftmple ahjira^ words. docility convinced. I think. magiftrate. and the like 5 thefe I call compounded abjiraif words.

in reality but founds but they are founds. For put yourfelf upon analyfing one of thefe words. and then into the fimple abftra6i:s and aggregates. though indiftindt perhaps.170 On the SUBLIME them fimple ideas. much it too long to be purfued in the ordinary converfation. I hardly ever the cafe. readily we know when- . prin- ciples of fuch compofitions and when you is have made fuch a difcovery of the original ideas. nor is it ways of mere at all neceflary that ihould. . in a much longer feries than may be at firft imagined. ral and you muft reduce it from one fet of genewords to another. wherein we receive fome good. Such words are . the efFe6t of the compofition utterly is A train of thinking of this fort. then fome of thofe particular ones. and might come foon to be perceived. neither has he any general idea. before any real idea emerges to light. or that we hear applied to other interefting things or events. loft. and which being applied in fuch a variety of cafes that by habit to what things they belong. which being ufed on particular occafions. they produce in the mind. take it. compounded of them confufed. or fufPer fome evil. and before you firft come to difcover any thing like the . for if he had. is But this. or fee others afFedled with good or evil. and the feveral relations of for which thefe words are fubftitutcd .

thofe belonging to virtue and vice. or even any word. yet the found without any- annexed notion continues to operate as before. are taught before the modes of action prefented to the to long are which they bemind . effects fimilar to thofe of their occafions. General words before III. and the abhorrence of the other fo ductile. . are 171 whenever they afterwards mentioned. or any perfon about a child. efpecially. come of is and that which pleafant often appears under the name evil i and what is difagreeable to nature called . and carrying ilill impreffions. the love of the one. SECT. IDEAS. The their founds being often ufed without reference to any firft particular occafion.and BEAUTIFUL. Locke his has fomewhere obferved with ufual fagacity. the feveral occurrences in to be applied to thefe words is . good and particular evil. they at laft utterly lofe their connection with the particular occafions that gave rife to them . for the minds of children are that a nurfe. that moft general MR. may give the difpofition of the child a fimilar turn. by feeming pleafed or difpleafed with any thing. and with them. words. When life afterwards.

172 called On the SUBLIM£ . as fuppofe. by having no to be application. Wife^ valiant y generous^ good and great* Thefe words. manner that they is do not rightly agree with each other. ought unoperative . we are afFedted by them even without the occa- When rally fo words which have been geneapplied are put together without any or in fuch a rational view. not from hypo- crify or'afFecStation. hard to repeat certain fets of words. the ftile . without being in fome degree afFedlcdi efpecially if a warm and affecting tone of voice accompanies them. and an appearance of no fmall con- tradidion acSlions. though owned by themfelves unoperative. and for it is warmly originally this reafon. There are many. very frequently adt ticulars and w^ithout the leaft remorfe becaufe thefe particular occafions never came into view. when fo the paflions on the fide of virtue were afFe6ied by certain words heated by the breath of others . good and virtuous a ftrange confufion of ideas and afFe6tions arifes in the minds of many . facred to great when words comoccafions are ufed. but monly fions. who love and this and w^ho deteft vice. Vi^ho ill notwithftanding this vi^ickedly in par. between their notions and their virtue.

horfc. The the found-. efl^*e(Si:s. man. and the greater variety may be indulged in combining them. all three of the pur- as the aggregate words. SECT. the affec^ tion of the foul produced by one or by both of the foregoing. the fecond. of arife in the IF words have all their pofiible extent power. as blue. And fenfe it 173 called bombaft.. mind of the hearer. cold. liberty. and the like. but not the Simple ahJlraHs. by the found the third is. dc2. The efFea of IV. &c. are in a yet higher ""But . guarded againft the force of fuch language becaufe the more that propriety the greater is number of thefe afFeding words may be taken into the fervlce.) firft juftice. (honour. green. fignified or reprefentation of . three efFedts firft is. are yfed to fignify fqme one fimple idea without much adverting to others which may chance to attend it. and the fecond. and the of thefe like. requires in feveral cafes much good and experience to be neglected. the thing the pi^ure. produce the we laft have been fpeaking. of which Compounded abJhaSf words. thefe are capable of afFeding pofes of words caflle. hot.rec. and is BEAUTIFUL. . WORDS.

formed. there with a vaft flood augmented by the Saave and the Drave it quits Chriften- dom. as mouncities. fee But let any body examine himfejf. when it is feen. that the moil: general efthefe words. and into where winding too and waters feveral until turning into Auflria it leaving the walls of Vienna pafies Hungary . it enters by many mouths into the Black fea. and tries rolling through the barbarous coun- which border on Tartary. does not arife fed even of their forming pidures of the feveral things . foil moift and in the heart of fro it Germany. many things are mentioned." In this de- fcription tains. not by prefenting any but by having from ufc that to the mind. we were to read a pafTage to " The river Danube rifes in a mountainous principalities. this Suppofe effcO:.174 But I On am the SUBLIME from be- of opinion. theirs. the fame efFed: their original has on being mentioned. and whether he has . But the aggregate words operate as I faid of the compound image abftra6ts. and when ef- there is moft commonly a particular fort of the imagination for that purpofe. they would reprefent in the imagination caufe on a very diligent examination of my own mind. I and getting others to confider find do not that is once in twenty times any fuch pi<Sture it ts. rivers. the fea. &c.

by words from Find. that in the ordinary courfe of we we are fufficiently without raifing any images of the things concerning which fpeak. Irom things to words. It feems to be an odd fubjec^ of difpute with any man. the word.and BEA UTI F U L. whether he has ideas iirft in his mind or in not. his Of this own at view. 175 has had imprefled on his imagination any foil. V. in the rapidity and quick fuccellion of words in con- have ideas both of the found of . fides. &c. that impracSlicable. to it is impoflible. every man. forum. are mixed with others of a general and nomiit is nal import. ner as to anfwer the purpofe^ of it neceffary that we fhould. 2 ought . mountain. nerals.to jump mannor is from fenfe to thought. Examples that WORDS may afFedl: with- out raifing IMAGES. watery Germany. S E C T. pictures of a river. Indeed verfation. it very hard to perfuade feveral that I their paffioiis are affe61:ed ideas j whence they have no converfation and yet harder to underftood convince them. from particulars to gein fuch a life . and of the thing reprefented be- fo fome words cxprefling real eflences.

and I imagine for the mofl part very rightly upon the caufe of this extraordinary phenomenon. firice fuch improprieties. Spence. Mr. that of birth. the SUBLIME as ought to judge without appeal. in an elegant preface which he has written to the works of this poet.176 On appear. or know whether we It any ideas upon fome Since I fubje6ls. that fome improprieties in language and thought which occur in thefe poems have arifen from the blind poet's impere6l conception of vifual ob- jedb. which is cannot poflibly be owing to his having a clearer conception of the things he defcribes than common to other perfons. combined new way. . wrote thefe hear papers I found two very flriking inftances of the poflibility there is. a poet blind from his Few men blefled with the moft per- fect fight fpirit can defcribe vifual objeds with more this blind and juflnefs than man .reafons very ingenioufly. is Mr. that a man may words without having any idea of the things which they in a reprefent. en- ergy and inftru£lion. and yet afterwards be capable of returning them to others. The iirfl: inftance. but I cannot altogether agree with him. But ftrange it may we are often at a lofs to what liave ideas we have at all of things. even requires fome attention to be thoroughly fatisfied on this head. and much greater. Blacklock. and with great propriety.

Saunderfon. Here afFe6led a poet doubtlefs defcriptions as is much by his own . and whatever fcienccs depend upon mathematical the moft extraordinary. any that reads them can be and yet he af- fected with this ftrong enthufiafm by things of which he neither has. anfwered to him as well as the ideas of the colours -y felves for the ideas of greater or lefler degrees of refrangibility being applied to thefe words. ory of thofe ideas which they had. is notwithftanding. Blacklock. with as little of any real ideas of the things defcribed? The fecond inftance is of Mr. he gave excellent lecStures upon light and colours . nor can poflibly have any idea further than that of a bare found . poflefTed the faculty of feeing in as its full perfedion. in aftronomy. and which he himfelf undoubtedly had is. This learned man had acquired great knowledge in natural philofophy. and why may not thofe who read his works be afFe(5led in the fame manner that he was. and the blind man being inftru6ted in what other refpeds they were found to agree or to N difagree. profeflbr of mathematics in the univerfity of Cambridge. blue. BE AUTIFUL. 177 may be found in writers even of an higher clafs than Mr. fkilL What was and the moft to my purpofe.and greater. green. and this man taught others the thenot. and who. But the truth them- that the words red. .

the country to which . When I wrote this laft fentence. Still has he any idea of Italy. and ufed the words every day I and common difcourfe^ had no images . or both 5 fomeon horfeback. know very well that the mind pofTcfles a fiiculty of raifing fuch images at pleafure . nor of I in conference with each other nor do gine that the reader will have any fuch ideas on reading had it. believe no body has by this painted in his imagination the exaft figure of the fpeaker pafling by land or by water. and green." I am well underftood. blue. On it the SUBLIME him to reafon was if it as eafy for upon the words as he had been fully mafter of the ideas. to Italy next Yet I " I fhall go fummer. in my men ima- mind of any fucceffion of time .lyS difagree. or the rays of light there di- paifing into a different medium. If I fay. Neither when I fpoke of red. fometimes in a carriage. times all with Icfs the particulars of the journey. He did nothing but what we do'every day in common difcourfe. and I verted from their courfe. I thefe feveral colours. and in ordinary converfatioii or reading all is it is very rarely that any image at excited in the mind. painted before me in the way of images. but then an ad of the will is necefl'ary to this. indeed muft be owned he could make no new difcoveries in the way of experiment. as well as of refrangibility.

and BEAUTIFUL. which are the ideas which the woxAfummer is fubftituted . that but even of particular real *beings. . HENCE we may taken in it's obfer^'^e that poetry. it is not only of called all which are commonly and of which no image at ab- can be formed. moft general cannot de- with tion. and fuch an exclufion. with the change to this warmth of from a for different feafon. an imitative art. for this word ftands for the idea of many fummers. the ripening of the fruits. which their words can exprefs j where anhni mo- N 2 ius . In fhort. PO ETRY not ftriftly VI. and the the air. ftri(St propriety be called an art of imita- It is indeed an imitation fo far as it fcribes the manners and pafHons of men. thofe ideas ftra6t. SECT. we them excited tainly appear as will cer- on a diligent ejc^amination of our own minds. but leaft of all has he any image from the word next . fenfe. with the exclufion one and furely the man who fays : of all but next fum" mer^ has no images of fuch a fucceffion. ' 179 which the I propofcd to go or of the greennefs of fields. converfe without having any idea of in the imagination .

and that Firft. realities.which by cuftom have the efFe6l of Nothing is an imitation further than fort as it re- fembles fome other thing. we are eafily afFe6led and brought into fympathy by any tokens which are (hewn of them . their might be fuppofed. But operates chiefly hy fuhjiituti on . And this arifes chiefly from thefe three caufes. but by reprefentation. and words unr doubtedly have no ideas for of refemblance to the which they fland. not by any oriit ginal power. There imitation and all merely dramatic poetry defcriptive poetry of this fort. and even than itfclf iii very many cafes.i8o On j the S UBLI ME it is firicSlIy is ius effert interprete lingua. . that we take an extraordinary part in the paf- fions of others. SECT. otherwife . How VI. words afl^c6t. yet quite we find by experience that eloas capable. that for influence over it is the paflions /hould be but light. WORDS as influence the paffions. by the means of founds. and there are no tokens which can exprcfs all the circumllances of . NO W. quence and poetry are nay indeed much more nature capable of making deep and lively impreifions than any other arts.

angels. to whom it is notwith- flanding very afFedting. i8i a of moft paflions (o fully as (o that if perfon fpeaks upon any fubje£t. death. as war. and thus they have an opportunity of making a deep impreflion and taking root in the mind. concerning them very . give a fimple objed. new life and force to the In painting we may reprefent any . conSe- veyable for the moft part by words only. as God. fubjecSl to is you. all of which have however a great influence over the paflions. By this power of combining we can.and BEAU T I F U L. he can not only convey the the it. by the addition of well-chofen circumftances. which can feldom occur but the words which reprefent them often do . was and to fome perhaps never really oc- curred in any fhape. reality. devils. famine. by words we have it in our power to make fuch combinations as we cannot pofllbly do otherwife. but likewife manner Certain in it which he is. Thirdly . Befides. himfelf afFe£ted by that the influence of moft is things on our paflions not fo much from the things themfelves. words . heaven and hell. condly there are many things of a very afin the fecting nature. whilft the idea of the reality tranfient . the opinions of other men. many ideas have never been at all prefented to the fenfes of any men but by words. from our opinions and thefe again depend as much on . &c.

As a further inftance. which it could never reprefent. but what painting can furnifh out any thing To grand as the addition of one word. but thefe mind more than the fenfible which is all I contend for. Here . Ricks^cavesjakes^fens^bogs^dens and/hades ofdeath. if it were well executed would undoubtedly be very moving . ' O^er many a dark and dreary vale ihey pafs'd^ and many a region dolorous. To reprefent an ancrd in a piiSture.i82 any grve On it the SUBLIME pleafe . but there afFe6l the words image did.els throudi their difmal habitation. O'er many a frozen^ many a fiery Alp. are very aggravating circumftances. you can only draw a beautiful young man winged . I have here no clear idea. fine figure we but we never can it thofe enlivening touches which may receive from words. is " the angel of the LordV^ It true. A picture of Priam dragged to the altar's foot. where he defcribes the tra- vels of the fallen an2. A univerfe cf death. Sanguhie fcedaniem quos ipfe facraverat ignes. and there murdered. let us confider thofe lines of Aiilton.

This idea or raifes a it is affedllon caufed by a word. a Here are again two . which nothing but a word could annex to the others. exciting a paflion fimilar to that which real objects And in proportion as words of a fublirne efFe6t. or words which are ufed to exprefs the objects of love and tendernefs. if which yet would lofe the greatefl part of their they were not the Rocks.'" what follows. this paflage Whoever afFe<5i:ing it attentively confiders all of Milton. lakes. fens andJJiades . very great degree of the fublime yet higher by . 183 Here is difplayed the force of union in Rocks. and raifed i' univerfe of death. lakes. bogs. effect. dens.and BEAUTIFUL. dens. ideas not prefentible but by language and an union of them great and amazing beyond conception. are joined in a maoner found by experience the beft for thefe purpofcsj 'in that proportion the mod perfevS kinds . that its does not in general produce end by raifing the images of things. caves. caves. and indeed of the beft and mod defcriptions of poetry. will find. bogs. fens andjhades-^ — of death. but by excite by other inftruments.

and by reprefentatives of what powers they were able ftrongly. to afFe£t us often as ftrongly as things in nature do. compafTes It other ends in a manner analogous. as to (hew upon what were capable of being the thefe natural things. fuch principles as to diftinguifli^ may tend to afcerfort and to form a of ftandard for them . more at large but it muft be ob- ferved that this matter has been handled by many authors before. to produce thefe paf- Words were only fo far to be confiprinciple they dered. from the beautiful fertility might be expeded I of the fubjedt. . but to attempt to lay down tain. and in what manner they operated iions. and fometimes much more FINIS. that it (hould confider poetry as regards the fublime and .tg4 On It the SUBLIME. which purpofes I thought might be bed efFetEled by an enquiry into' the properties of fuch things in nature as raife love and aftoniihment in us. It was not my defign to enter into the criticifm of the fublime and beautiful in any art. all its kinds of the fublime and beautiful are formed in poetry.

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