R

I
O

2
0
1
2
S
T
O
C
K
H
O
L
M

1
9
7
2
ANNUAL
REPORT
2011
United Nations Environment Programme
To view current and past issues of the UNEP Annual Report online, please visit www.unep.org/annualreport
Published: February 2012
© 2012 United Nations Environment Programme
ISBN: 978-92-807-3244-3
DCP/1492/NA
* All dollar ($) amounts refer to US dollars.
* The term ‘one billion’ in this report refers to one thousand million
* All World Wide Web addresses are prefixed http://
Cover Photo: © Getty Images
ANNUAL REPORT 2011
The mission of the United Nations Environment Programme is to provide leadership and encourage partnership
in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their
quality of life without compromising that of future generations.
UNEP promotes
environmentally sound practices
globally and in its own activities. This
report is printed on paper from sustainable
forests including recycled fbre. The paper is
chlorine free and the inks vegetable-based.
Our distribution policy aims to reduce
UNEP’s carbon footprint.
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for
educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright
holder provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate
receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this
publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever
without prior permission in writing from UNEP. The designation of geographical
entities in this report, and the presentation of the material herein, do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the publisher or the participating
organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimination of its frontiers or boundaries.
Director of Publication: Nick Nuttall
Writer and Project Coordinator: Richard Crompton
Design and Layout: Amina Darani
Cover: Enid Ngaira
Produced by: UNEP Division of Communications and Public Information
Printed by: UNON/Publishing Section Services/Nairobi, ISO 14001:2004-certified
02 Message from the UN Secretary-General
04 Introduction by the Executive Director
08
A tribute to Wangari Maathai
by the Deputy Executive Director
10
Chapter 1:
2011: A year of transformation and progress
22
Chapter 2:
Climate Change
34
Chapter 3:
Disasters and Conflicts
44
Chapter 4:
Environmental Governance
54
Chapter 5:
Ecosystem Management
62
Chapter 6:
Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste
74
Chapter 7:
Resource Efficiency
82
Chapter 8:
UNEP in the UN
87 UNEP profiles
96 2011 UNEP publications
102
Chapter 9:
Organizational Structure and Finance
107 UNEP senior staff 2011
108 UNEP Organogram
109 Index
112 Glossary
CONTENTS
Addressing inequalities, overcoming poverty,
maintaining peace and building prosperity
for the entire human family depend on
rejecting the old economics of heedless
pollution and the excessive exploitation of
the world’s natural capital.
The global population has reached 7 billion
people. In just five years, we will add another
half billion people – all needing food, jobs,
security and opportunity. Environmental,
economic and social indicators tell us
that our current model of progress is
unsustainable. Ecosystems are under
stress. Economies are faltering. We need to
chart a course that strengthens equality and
economic growth while protecting
our planet.
In less than six months, leaders from
governments, business and civil society will
meet in Rio de Janeiro for the UN Conference
on Sustainable Development. Rio+20 is a
once-in-a-generation opportunity to put
the world on a more sustainable path – to
unep annual r epor t 2011 2
MESSAGE FROM THE
UNITED NATIONS
SECRETARY-
GENERAL
BAN KI-MOON
UN SECRETARY-GENERAL
expand on the blueprint provided by the 1992
Earth Summit and create the future we want.
I expect UNEP to play a central role in helping
to deliver on the promise of Rio+20 by
continuing to provide the cutting-edge ideas
the world needs. UNEP is a pioneer of the green
economy, which is one of the themes of Rio+20.
It is also responsible for much of the science
on which a sustainable future will be built –
from its involvement in the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change to its own Global
Environment Outlook family of assessment
reports. It is essential that we act on the science
of sustainability.
This Annual Report shows the full range
of UNEP’s work for environment and
development. It also illuminates how the UN
system as a whole is increasingly Delivering
as One with respect to sustainability. Anyone
interested in making green economy and
sustainability principles an integral part of their
decision making will find this volume rich in
theory and practice. I commend it to a wide
global audience.
unep annual r epor t 2011 3
M
E
S
S
A
G
E

F
R
O
M

T
H
E

U
N
I
T
E
D

N
A
T
I
O
N
S

S
E
C
R
E
T
A
R
Y
-
G
E
N
E
R
A
L
“The gl obal popul at i on has
reached 7 bi l l i on peopl e…
We need t o chart a course
t hat st rengt hens equal i t y
and economi c growt h whi l e
prot ect i ng our pl anet .”
© UN
unep annual r epor t 2011 4
INTRODUCTION
BY THE EXECUTIVE
DIRECTOR
ACHIM STEINER
UNEP EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Propelled by the global preparations for Rio+20,
set against the backdrop of the ongoing
economic and emerging employment crisis, 2011
marked a year of reflection and re-engagement
on fresh ways of scaling-up and accelerating
sustainable development.
UNEP, through its Green Economy work
involving partners world-wide, provided to
the Rio+20 regional preparatory meetings
compelling analysis indicating investing two
per cent of global GDP in 10 key sectors of the
economy could—backed by the right kinds of
creative policy switches—grow economies and
generate jobs but in ways that keep humanity’s
footprint within ecological boundaries.
Indeed as the year closed, support for taking
forward the Green Economy in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication
at Rio+20 had gained traction across the vast
majority of member states.
The work also acted as a catalyst for improved
coordination within the United Nations System
in part via the Environmental Management
Group, which as UNEP Executive Director, I have
the honour to chair.
The EMG’s two landmark reports in 2011—one
on desertification and the other on the Green
Economy—underpinned a fresh and evolving
determination of a ‘One UN’ to put environmental
sustainability at the centre of its work. 2011 also
witnessed rapidly intensifying
unep annual r epor t 2011 5
I
N
T
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N

B
Y

T
H
E

E
X
E
C
U
T
I
V
E

D
I
R
E
C
T
O
R
debate among governments, civil society
and the private sector on the second major
theme of Rio+20—an institutional framework
for sustainable development—with UNEP
providing advice and support on the options
in respect to the international environmental
governance dimension.
The message from the UNEP Governing Council
earlier in the year, and echoed through the
Rio+20 preparatory meetings, was that the
status quo is not an option.
The structures, architecture and delivery
systems founded in a previous century need a
fresh sense of realism and direction if the aims,
ambitions and opportunities of a new century
are to be realized.
In terms of strengthening UNEP as it stands
today, 2011 also marked a moment when many
of the reform measures introduced in 2008
really began to flourish.
An i nt ernal eval uat i on,
draf t ed i n 2011, concl udes t hat
out of 21 expect ed accompl i shment s
i n t he UNEP Programme of Work,
15 are f ul l y achi eved,
5 part i al l y achi eved and
LQVXIĆFLHQWO\PHW
The Multilateral Organization Performance
Assessment Network (MOPAN) review was also
supportive of what UNEP has achieved so far in
terms of, for example, results-based management
and project accomplishments.
This year’s annual report is also rich in cutting
edge assessments and projects, some of which
were launched several years ago but reached
completion or took on fresh relevance in 2011.
Let me perhaps single out some of special
relevance and resonance for UNEP.
In August, we handed over the Environmental
Assessment of Ogoniland to Nigerian President
Goodluck Jonathan—the first report ever to
provide to the government and to the public
systematic and scientific evidence on the nature,
extent and impacts of oil contamination dating
back over half a century.
We believe that the findings can catalyse not
only significant environmental and social
improvements in the region but a strategic
policy on how the oil industry there will
function in a way that truly benefits the
lives and livelihoods of these communities
now and in the future. The decoupling report
by the UNEP-hosted International Resource
Panel estimated that the consumption of
natural resources will triple by 2050 to some
140 billion tonnes while highlighting some
countries that are starting to de-link GDP
growth from resource use.
unep annual report 2011 6
At the World Summit on Sustainable
Development in 2002, nations demonstrated
forward-looking leadership and governance
by requesting UNEP to spearhead a broad
partnership to phase out lead in petrol across
the developing world.
In 2011 UNEP supported a peer-reviewed paper
by scientists on the value to the global economy
of the phase-out: the answer, annually over 1.2
million less premature deaths and savings of
$2.4 trillion a year in terms of reduced health
costs to declines in criminality.
In a sense this brings the work of UNEP in
2011 full circle, back to the Green Economy
with its potential to deal with multiple
challenges and assist the international
community realize and implement sustainable
development while fulflling the promise and
the intent of world leaders when they met in
Rio nearly 20 years ago.
The environmental changes that have
swept the planet over the last twenty years
were spotlighted in a new compilation of
statistical data—Keeping Track of our Changing
Environment: From Rio to Rio+20.
The worrying decline in bee colonies in many
parts of the world, and the links to agricultural
productivity in respect to lost pollination
services, was also brought into sharp focus
through a UNEP-led assessment that highlighted
12 possible factors from losses of fowering
plants to insecticides and air pollution.
UNEP’s two assessment reports on the health,
agricultural and climate benefts of fast action
on short-lived climate forcers were also in
many ways special, building on over a decade's
worth of work on black carbon and other
‘non-CO
2
’ pollutants.
They and the ‘emissions gap’ report for the
Durban climate conference ofer additional
shining examples of how the organization’s
science base is responding to new challenges
and fresh opportunities for member states
alongside the maturing and evolving
partnerships being forged with research
centres world-wide.
Often, when environmental proposals are
made, there can be those registering concern
that the costs may be high or heavy—yet often
environmental action can trigger cost savings,
innovation and technology leaps.
7
International Children's Painting Competition on the Environment 2011
The theme of the competition was "Life in the Forests".
Gloabl winner by Trisha Co Reyes (13) from the Philippines.
www.unep.bayer.com/en/international-children_s-painting-competition.aspx
unep annual r epor t 2011
unep annual r epor t 2011 8
A TRIBUTE TO
WANGARI MAATHAI
It was during the 1993 Vienna World Conference
on Human Rights that I first met Wangari
Maathai. Our paths would cross many times in
the following years.
She was a woman of great integrity, who set and
achieved high standards in all aspects of her life.
Women today are striving to meet these kinds
of standards.
She was a trail-blazer in so many ways:
becoming the first woman in East and Central
Africa to obtain a PhD and, in 2004, becoming
the first environmentalist to receive the Nobel
Peace Prize for, in the words of the Nobel
Committee, standing “at the front of the fight
to promote ecologically viable social, economic
and cultural development”.
Throughout her work, she devoted just as much
time to her role as a mother, bringing up her
children well.
So numerous were her achievements, I often
wondered if she had more hours in the day than
the rest of us.
Wangari was the first to roll up her sleeves and
get her hands dirty, whether for tree planting
or at demonstrations to free political prisoners.
She was an unflinching champion of
democracy and was thorough, consistent and
unwavering in her beliefs and convictions.
AMINA MOHAMED
UNEP DEPUTY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
unep annual r epor t 2011 9
For UNEP, she was an excellent partner who
never tired of supporting the organization's
ideals, such as her co-patronage of the Billion
Tree Campaign. She represented UNEP with
grace and conviction when requested.
Yet despite her heavy workload and long string
of commitments, you would never hear her
complain. Wangari took all the challenges of
her work in her stride. For her, nothing was
a burden.
Throughout her life, people from all
backgrounds would seek her counsel on issues
relating to the environment, development or
democracy. She always made time for them.
She is one of a small handful of individuals
whose legacy will truly be felt on local,
national and international scales. In Kenya, the
Greenbelt Movement she founded continues
her work of championing women’s rights and
the environment. The 30 million trees the
organization has planted to date across Africa
will stand tall in her memory.
Elsewhere in Africa, she championed the
continent’s tropical forests, calling for better
government management of natural resources,
such as in the Congo Basin.
The tributes that continue to be paid to her work
by presidents, prime ministers and other leaders
are testament to the great impact she made
beyond her native Kenya.
Above all, Wangari will be remembered as
a great listener, an excellent teacher, a wise
counselor and a faithful friend.
T
R
I
B
U
T
E

T
O

W
A
N
G
A
R
I

M
A
A
T
H
A
I
© Ri car do Medi na/ The Gr een Bel t Movement
2011 proved a landmark year in which many of the transformational reforms, launched in 2008,
really began to bear fruit in terms of a transition to a results-based, more efective and more
responsive UNEP.
Strategies to increase regional stafng and funding under the theme of ‘strategic presence’ also
registered wins as did the move to restructure and integrate the institution’s work with the Global
Environment Facility (GEF), within UNEP's divisions.
Meanwhile, the analysis and policy options to realize a sustainable century through the lens of a
Green Economy, in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, gained almost
universal support as preparations for Rio+20 in June 2012 entered into high gear.
As the debate and discussion on Rio+20’s other key theme—an institutional framework for
sustainable development—took of, member states including their representatives at the UN in
New York, increasingly looked to UNEP to provide expert advice on how such a framework
might be evolved and structured, particularly in respect to the International Environmental
Governance dimension.
The science base was strengthened through more focused convening and partnerships in areas
such as keeping the global environment under review. Emerging issues and climate research
blossomed in 2011 through processes including the developing of the ‘state of the planet’ Global
Environment Outlook-5 report; cutting-edge climate studies such as Bridging the Gap and the
Foresight Process chaired by the UNEP chief scientist.
unep annual r epor t 2011 10
1
2011: A year of transformation
and progress
©

C
o
r
b
i
s
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 11
As UNEP enters 2012, governments and the
secretariat of the environment programme of
the UN can take credit for the fact that 40 years
after the Stockholm Conference on the Human
Environment the organization has never been
better placed to meet the challenges and realize
the opportunities emerging four decades after
its founding.
It is also better equipped to meet the very real
economic challenges which have marked the
past three years due to the on-going financial
and economic crisis, as a result of efciency
gains achieved in 2011, including among
others rationalizing stafng levels in line with
government requests.
PERFORMANCE
An internal review completed in 2011 by
the new Ofce for Operations in consultation
with the Committee of Permanent
Representatives has brought into sharp focus
where important managerial improvements
have been made and the way forward
corporately as well as across the six sub-
programmes that underpin UNEP’s Programme
of Work (PoW) and its Medium Term Strategy
2010-2013.
% Out of the 21 expected accomplishments
in the PoW, 15 have been fully achieved
including in respect to clean energy;
capacities to integrate ecosystem
management into development;
strengthening environmental law;
policy and control systems for harmful
substances, and stimulating demand for
resource efciency.
% Five expected accomplishments were
partially achieved including work on
climate adaptation, scientific knowledge
and outreach and seizing investment
opportunities for resource efciency.
% One expected accomplishment was
insufciently met which was ecosystem
services and financing.
EXPECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Gender integration has also been scaled-up
since the gender programme was introduced
in 2006.
% Close to 75 projects now have gender
integrated in their activities or have
gender-specific activities.

unep annual r epor t 2011 12
UNEP’s main delivery vehicles are projects:
in 2011 there were over 150 active ones.
The results of around 115 are already being
monitored through the new Programme
Information Management System (PIMS).
% Out of these 115 projects, just over 50, or
45 per cent, are on track with some of the
best performing in the climate change
and environmental governance portfolios.
% 14, or 12 per cent, are partly on
track with several of these in the
disasters and conflicts and resource
efciency portfolios.
% 46, or 40 per cent, are behind schedule
and thus the object of priority corrective
management actions during the course of
the biennium.
© Mar i ne Cur r ent Tur bi nes
PROJECT PORTFOLIO DELIVERY
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 13
PERFORMANCE:
CLIMATE CHANGE
Supporting the UN Framework Convention’s
processes and decisions has been one of the
core activities, as has building the capacity
of member states in areas ranging from
technology needs, accessing carbon markets,
science, strengthening the ability to participate
in the negotiations and outreach.
Over the biennium, UNEP’s climate change
work has further focused on ‘flagship’ areas—
Ecosystem Based Adaptation; Clean Tech
Readiness and readiness for taking part in
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and
Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives.
% By 2011, UNEP was assisting 20 countries
to implement clean energy and energy-
ef cient policies and activities including
Argentina, Bangladesh and Vietnam -
exceeding the indicator target by 4 and up
from 8 in 2009.
% In 2011, UNEP had mobilized over
$200 million-worth of clean energy
investments, up from $100 million in 2009
and exceeding the indicator target.
unep annual r epor t 2011 13
© Cor bi s
Tot al UNEP spendi ng on t hi s
sub-programme was
$84 mi l l i on
or just over
80 per cent
of t he al l ocat i on i n 2010-2011
unep annual r epor t 2011 14
UN-REDD—which involves UNEP, UNDP
and FAO—has expanded beyond Bolivia,
Indonesia, t he Democrat ic Republic of
Congo and t he ot her nine pilot count ries t o
provide support in over a dozen nat ions.
- In respecI Io scienIiĆc knowledge ond ouIreoch, hiIs on UNEP climoIe
relat ed web sit es has grown from 45,000 in 2009 t o close t o 170,000 in
2011, signiĆconIly exceeding Ihe indicoIor IorgeI of oround ó5,000.
- The number of UNEP climat e assessment s cit ed as being incorporat ed int o
development plans has climbed from 5 in 2009 t o 12, slight ly falling short
of t he indicat or t arget of 14.
- The number of count ries now having concret e adapt at ion plans is 4—
while Ihis folls shorI of Ihe IorgeI indicoIor by quiIe o woy, iI rećecIs o new
realism in t erms of pin-point ing where UNEP has act ually int ervened.
The African Carbon Asset Development Facilit y, founded by UNEP in 2009 and it s Risoe
colloboroIing cenIre in cooperoIion wiIh SIondord Bonk ond supporIed by Ihe Germon
government , had by 2011 approved over a dozen project s ranging from a cement fuel swit ching
project in Kenya t o a solar light ing one in Rwanda.
To dat e, over 70 high-qualit y project applicat ions and expressions of int erest have been submit t ed
from 20 African count ries including 14 Least Developed Count ries t o t he Facilit y.
The UNEP Technology Needs AssessmenI, supporIed by GEF ond o poIhwoy Io Ihe developmenI
of Nat ionally Appropriat e Mit igat ion Act ions, is support ing well over 30 developing count ries
including ArgenIino, Bonglodesh, CôIe d'Ivoire, Georgio ond VieInom.
Funding mobilized for emissions cut s from land use and forest ry including via t he UN’s capacit y-
building and t echnical assist ance programme Reducing Emissions from Deforest at ion and Forest
Degradat ion (UN-REDD) was $150 million in 2011, exceeding t he $50 million t arget and up from
$25 million in 2009.
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 15
DISASTERS
AND CONFLICTS
In 2011, UNEP continued to expand the delivery
of state-of-the-art assessments and field-based
capacity building and technical support covering
countries including Afghanistan and Haiti.
Total spending was $36 million or 95 per cent of
the 2010-2011 allocation.
% The amount of international funding
pledged to UNEP for activities in which the
environment is used to reduce conflict and
disaster risk totalled just under $10 million
in 2011, up from $2.6 million in 2009—an
increase of over 250 per cent.
% UNEP is assisting 16 countries of which 12
have adopted policies to mitigate post-conflict
and post-disaster environmental risks—
this amounts to 75 per cent of the 16
countries concerned, 15 per cent below the
indicator target.
% The percentage of inter-agency post crisis
needs assessments and early recovery plans
factoring in and pricing environmental
damage has grown from 75 per cent to
100 per cent, 10 per cent more than the
target indicator.
% The Environment and Security Initiative, a broad
partnership to which UNEP is the secretariat,
is also assisting 20 countries in the broader
European region, including Central Asia.
Total funding between 2010-2011 was around
$8.7 million
ECOSYSTEM
MANAGEMENT
Mainstreaming the ecosystem approach into
national planning and budgets through UNEP
projects and building on some of the pioneering
work of the UNEP-hosted project, The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity, proved one of the more
challenging exercises for UNEP in 2010-2011.
Indicator targets set in areas such as ecosystem
services and financing may have, in hindsight,
been over-ambitious and several key projects in the
sub-programme also sufered from a lack of funding.
Total expenditure for ecosystem management in
2010-2011 was $66 million or just over 90 per cent of
the allocation.
% UNEP asssted in increasing the number
of national development plans integrating
ecosystem services as an important
component to 14 in 2011—exceeding the
indicator target by 4.
% The number of countries with assessment
capabilities to identify changes in ecosystem
services has grown from 25 in 2009 to 29 in
2011, two short of the indicator target.
% The goal of assisting six countries to factor
priority ecosystem services into medium term
budget allocations was insuf ciently met with
only one country achieving this.
The 2011 ond 2012, UN Workplons in Sudon ond
t he Consolidat ed Appeal Process in Sout h Sudan
now conIoin environmenIol 'morkers' os o resulI
of UNEP’s support .
UNEP has screened over 820 project s
in Sudan and provided guidance t o t he
UN syst em on over 480 in order t o mit igat e
environment al impact s.
ENVIRONMENTAL
GOVERNANCE
Areas such as assisting governments to
achieve their environmental goals;
incorporating the environment into UN
Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs);
supporting the work of the Multilateral
Environment Agreements (MEAs) and
boosting coherence; and a One UN approach
in respect to the environment, met and in
many cases exceeded the indicator targets set
by the institution.
unep annual r epor t 2011 16
The evolving role and increasing relevance and effect iveness of t he UN’s Environment al
MonogemenI Group, choired by Ihe UNEP ExecuIive DirecIor, wos olso in evidence in 2011
noI leosI from Ihe producIion of Iwo londmork reporIs-one enIiIled Global Drylands aimed
DWHQKDQFLQJWKH81V\VWHPèVVXSSRUWIRUWKH81&RQYHQWLRQWR&RPEDW'HVHUWLĆFDWLRQ
and t he ot her, Working Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy.
Tot al expendi t ure was $95 mi l l i on or over 90 per cent of t he
2010-2011 allocat ion.
The number of envir onment al policy issues t ar get ed by UNEP t hat ar e now
addr essed in a complement ary manner by ot her UN ent it ies and MEAs r ose f rom 6
i n 2009 t o 10 exceedi ng t he t arget f or 2011 by 2.
The number of policies and legislat ive act ions dr af t ed by gover nment s as a r esult
of UNEP suppor t r ose f rom 12 i n 2009 t o 24 i n 2011—8 more t han t he
t arget i ndi cat or.
The number of int er nat ional or ganizat ions, oper at ing sub- r egionally, r egionally or
globally, applying UNEP guidance has climbed f rom 10 i n 2009 t o 16.
By 2011, 50 count r ies r equest ed suppor t fr om UNEP wit h nat ional development
plans t hat include envir onment al sust ainabilit y —up f rom 18 i n 2009.
17count r ies have included envir onment al sust ainabilit y in t heir development
policies wt h suppor t fr om t he Pover t y and Envir onment Init iat ive and t he number
of UNDAFs incor por at ing envir onment al issues in count r ies wher e UNEP has
inIervened reoched óó in 2011 —14 more t han t he t arget i ndi cat or and
30 more t han i n 2009.
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 17
HARMFUL
SUBSTANCES
AND HAZARDOUS
WASTE
The strong performance of the sub-programme
is evidenced by the increasing number of
countries engaging in the various chemicals
and waste MEAs—notably the Stockholm,
Rotterdam and Basel conventions—as well as
in the Strategic Approach to International
Chemicals Management.
Meanwhile, the wide range of guidance and
tools relating to harmful substances and
hazardous wastes that have been successfully
prepared and deployed by UNEP and its
partners resulted in multiple requests for further
assistance and support.
Total expenditure was $52 million or
100 per cent of the 2010-2011 allocation.
% By 2011, the number of countries and
businesses which have strengthened their
ability to better manage chemicals and
hazardous wastes through the SAICM
reporting process stood at 162, 92 more
than in 2009 and more than 60 above the
target indicator.
% Over 140 projects in 103 countries have
been approved for funding under the
SAICM Quick Start programme, up from
75 in 2009 and over 40 more than the
target indicator for 2011.
% Nearly 50 countries have adopted
incentives and other market-based
policies to promote environmentally-
friendly products and processes that
reduce releases of and exposure to harmful
chemicals and hazardous wastes—up from
just over 30 in 2009.
% The number of governments and other
stakeholders applying UNEP policy advice,
guidelines and tools rose to just under 100 in
2011, up from 50 in 2009 and well above the
indicator target.
% By 2011, 10 additional hazardous substances
were put on the international chemicals
agenda against an indicator target of 3.
RESOURCE
EFFICIENCY
The Resource Efciency and Sustainable
Consumption and Production sub-programme
made good progress on mainstreaming resource
efciency, including sustainable consumption
and the Green Economy. Good progress was
made in working with business and the financial
community and in promoting the life-cycle
approach including capacity-building work
on eco-labelling.
The International Resource Panel launched
two assessment reports, one on decoupling
natural resource use and environmental impacts
from economic growth; and one on recycling
rates of metals.
At a global level, the consensus reached on a
10 year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable
Consumption and Production during CSD 19—
though not formally adopted—is the result of
UNEP and partners’ eforts that have worked for
unep annual r epor t 2011 18
global recognition of sustainable consumption
and production practices as an objective for
sustainable development.
Tot al expendi t ure was
$59 mi l l i on or 97 per cent
of t he 2010-2011 al l ocat i on.
The number of nat i onal and l ocal government s
support ed t o adopt pol i ci es, regul at i ons, or
economi c i nst rument s promot i ng resource
efĆciency and / or sustainabIe consumption and
product i on was 46, exceedi ng t he
t arget of 20
The number of businesses supported in
adopting resource-ef cient management
practises was 330, exceeding the target of 300.
30 governments (exceeding the target) and
216 large-scale businesses (more than double
the target) were supported to make investments
and are adapting technologies favouring
resource ef ciency or sustainable production
and consumption.
The number of national cleaner production
centres adding the business case for
resource ef ciency and / or sustainable
consumption and production to their portfolio
of activities and advisory services was 14, one
short of the target.
17 national and local governments (exceeding
the target of 15) and 242 businesses (far
exceeding the target of 100) have adopted
regulations, economic instruments or voluntary
measures influencing customer purchases.
UNEP GEF
RESTRUCTURING
UNEP’s Division of the Global Environment
Facility (DGEF) was disbanded at the
beginning of 2011 as part of a key reform
aimed at mainstreaming, anchoring and
making the institution’s GEF-funded activities
more relevant and responsive to UNEP’s
overall activities.
The decision is already delivering positive
results, improved performance and positively
changing the way UNEP works.
By the end of 2011, 60 per cent or nearly
$96 million of the $170 million-worth of
projects submitted to the GEF for support
were ‘blended’ with UNEP’s cross divisional
activities — a rise from an average of around
11 per cent over previous years.
% 12 staf from across UNEP’s divisions
are now collaborating with GEF staf
in order to prepare projects in areas
from disasters and conflicts to
chemicals and access and benefit
sharing of genetic resources.
% The former Directorate of the
DGEF consisted of 11 staf: the
new GEF Coordination Of ce
employs seven which represents a
36 per cent reduction.
% In 2011 several key UNEP/GEF funded
projects were completed.
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 19
% “Water funds” for improved management
of ecosystems have been established
between communities and municipalities
in Latin America.
% In partnership with the GLOBE
International Commission, a capacity
building project has led to increased
commitment to legislative change among
parliamentarians in 40 countries in
respect to global environmental issues.
% A project in the Bahamas has increased
marine protected areas including the new
Westside National Park by 250 per cent
to over 550,000 hectares in support of
global targets under the Convention on
Biological Diversity.
% The Africa Cogeneration project, a
UNEP and African Development Bank
initiative, has made investments worth
close to $21 million and realized over
20 Megawatts of cogeneration.
SCIENCE
THE FORESIGHT
PROCESS:
21 ‘EMERGING ISSUES’
FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
In 2011, UNEP undertook a significant
consultative exercise to more comprehensively
identify and rank areas of likely future
environmental change and ones which need to
be firmly on the radar of policymakers.
The Foresight Process brought together a panel
of 22 distinguished scientists drawn from
developed and developing countries to review an
initial list of 95 emerging issues.
The process was informed by experts within
UNEP and close to 430 external scientists who
responded to a questionnaire.
The 21 issues identified and rated by the Panel
will now inform UNEP’s current and future PoW.
They include:-
% Aligning governance to the challenges of
global sustainability.
% New challenges for ensuring food safety
and food security for 9 billion people.
% Managing the unintended consequences
of climate change mitigation and
adaptation.
% The new rush for land: responding to new
national and international pressures.
% Solving the impending scarcity of strategic
minerals and avoiding electronic waste.
% The decommissioning of nuclear reactors
and their environmental consequences.
% Coping with migration caused by new
aspects of environmental change.
% Consequences of glacier retreat: economic
and social impacts.
www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/
ForesightReport/
unep annual r epor t 2011 20
STRATEGIC
PRESENCE
EVOLVING UNEP DELIVERY
IN THE REGIONS
Significant progress has been made in realizing
the strategic presence policy adopted in 2009.
The financial and human resources of the
UNEP regional and country of ces have
been increased in order to assist regions
and countries in areas such as enhanced
capacity-building and technology support;
execution of projects including ones supported
by GEF and implementation of MEA policies,
targets and timetables.
The strategic presence policy has also assisted
UNEP make important strides in building
‘One UNEP’ and the UN’s ‘Delivering as One’
through for example working with a wider
number of UN Country teams and contributing
to UNDAFs.
% In 2008-2009, the number of staf working
in the regions stood at 240,
up 22 per cent from 2006-2007.
% By the end of 2011, that number had
increased to close to 260—a further
rise of 8 per cent.
The largest increase in staf ng numbers,
achieved mainly through out-posting from the
centralized divisions, has occurred in Africa, Asia
Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean.
% Since 2006 the f unding from the
Environment Fund to the regional of ces,
excluding staf costs, has grown from $10
million to around $15 million in 2011.
% Over the same period, extra budgetary
allocations have climbed by around a
third from just under $40 million to over
$60 million.
HUMAN RESOURCES :
2006/07 TO 2010/11

+32 per cent
Overal l regi onal human resource i ncrease

+30 per cent
ProfessionaI Pe¿ionaI OfĆces-core staff increase

4 t o 45
Increase i n number of prof essi onal out -post ed
st af f f rom Di vi si ons

+20 per cent
Prof essi onal project st af f i ncrease:
14
Number of Pe¿ionaI OfĆces core posts to be
frozen for the 2012/13 biennium

Support st af f i ncrease:
+7 per cent
for Pe¿ioaI OfĆces-core support staff and
+17 per cent
f or out post ed support st af f
1
2
0
1
1
:

A

Y
E
A
R

O
F

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

A
N
D

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 21
PERFORMANCE
THE INDEPENDENT
MOPAN REVIEW
In 2011, the Multilateral Organization
Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN),
led by Switzerland and the UK, assessed
UNEP based on information collected at
its headquarters and in eight countries:
Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Ecuador,
Nepal, Peru, and Tanzania.
The survey targeted UNEP’s direct partners,
peer organizations and MOPAN donors based
in-country and at headquarters.
SOME KEY MOPAN FINDINGS
UNEP has made considerable progress in
becoming a more results-oriented organization.
UNEP’s new matrix management approach also
provides a more coherent and results-oriented
approach to programming.
UNEP was rated highly for mainstreaming
environmental governance and integrating
gender equality as thematic priorities in to
policies, projects and programmes.
UNEP is highly valued by its stakeholders for
its contributions to policy dialogue, its respect
for partner views and perspectives and its
significant influence on environmental policies.
UNEP’s Programme Performance Reports
present generally clear information on
progress toward expected accomplishments
but UNEP needs to strengthen the use of
performance information.
The organization could strengthen and make
more evident its process for resource allocation.
UNEP has developed a partnership strategy to
institutionalize and enhance its engagement
and collaboration with partners.
It manages relationships with a complex
array of partners: governments; businesses
and industries, academic and research
institutions, local authorities, parliamentarians,
international non-governmental organizations,
and intergovernmental organizations, including
UN agencies.
UNEP’s Evaluation Of ce works independently
from programmatic divisions and meets UN
norms and standards for independence. It has
also established acceptable approaches to
ensure the quality of evaluations.
Many stakeholders agree that UNEP ofers
a global reference point on a wide range of
critical environmental issues of concern for the
international community and commended the
organization for the way it uses its normative
role and related scientific expertise.
UNEP has integrated a focus on human well-
being in a number of initiatives such as its
Green Economy Initiative and the Poverty and
Environment Initiative. However, there is no
evidence of a wider programmatic approach or
organizational policy in this area.
Many respondents mentioned UNEP’s
contributions to policy dialogue and its
significant influence on environmental
policies. Its contributions to policy dialogue
also received the highest score of all key
performance indicators in the survey.
2
ADDRESSING THE CLIMATE
CHANGE CHALLENGE
The climate change sub-programme focuses on
strengthening the ability of countries, particularly
developing countries, to integrate climate change responses
into national development processes.
RESULTS TARGETED
Mitigating Climate Change
UNEP supports countries in making sound policy, technology
and investment choices that lead to greenhouse gas emission
reductions, with a focus on scaling-up clean and renewable
energy sources, energy efficiency and energy conservation.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (REDD)
UNEP supports developing countries to reduce
emissions from deforestation and degradation through
the development of REDD+ strategies, including the
consideration of parallel benefits such as biodiversity
and livelihoods. UN-REDD is the vehicle for this initiative,
in partnership with the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO).
unep annual r epor t 2011 22
CLIMATE CHANGE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
CLIMATE CHANGE
$50,965,000
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
©

C
o
r
b
i
s
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 23
Adapting to Climate Change
UNEP assists countries reduce their vulnerability
and use ecosystem services to build natural
resilience against the impacts of climate change.
Enhancing scientific knowledge
and communication
UNEP works to improve understanding of climate
change science and raise awareness of the
impacts of climate change among policy-makers
and the public.
2011
THE YEAR IN
CLIMATE CHANGE
% The findings of the two-part study, REDDy
— Set — Grow: Opportunities and Roles
of Financial Institutions in Forest-Carbon
Markets, stressed that the financial sector
must step up its engagement in the
emerging green market, and made the case
for its improved regulation to facilitate
this, as well as calling for Forestry-based
Carbon Markets.
% UNEP released a Guide for Practitioners on
Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation
into Development Planning. Drawing
on experience and lessons learned by
the UNEP-UNDP Poverty-Environment
Initiative, the guide provides practical
guidance on how governments and
other national agencies can mainstream
climate change adaptation into national
development planning.
% The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, established by UNEP and WMO,
launched its Special Report on Renewable
Energy Sources and Climate Change
Mitigation (SRREN). The report indicated
that under the most optimistic scenario
close to 80 per cent of the world's energy
supply could be met by renewables
by mid-century if backed by the right
enabling public policies.
% A UNEP-World Meteorological
Organization report — Integrated
Assessment of Black Carbon and
Tropospheric Ozone, launched in
mid-June, revealed that fast action on
pollutants such as black carbon and
methane may help limit near term
global temperature rise and significantly
increase the chances of keeping
temperature rise below 2° Celsius, and
perhaps even 1.5 degrees.
% Under the Caring for Climate initiative,
UNEP, UN Global Compact, Oxfam and
the World Resources Institute launched a
joint report entitled Adapting for a Green
Economy: Companies, Communities
and Climate Change, highlighting the
importance of climate change adaptation
to companies and identifying how
climate adaptation ofers competitive
advantages to businesses worldwide. With
nearly 400 signatories, Caring for Climate
is the world’s largest voluntary business
and climate initiative.
% In the run up to the UN climate convention
in Durban, South Africa, UNEP launched
the report HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting
Climate and the Ozone Layer. The report
projects that by 2050 HFCs could be
responsible for emissions equivalent
to 3.5 to 8.8 Gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon
dioxide (Gt CO
2
eq) — comparable to total
current annual emissions from transport,
estimated at around 6-7 Gt annually.
unep annual r epor t 2011 24
% The report Bridging the Emissions Gap
was launched in the run up to Durban and
became an important reference point for
the negotiations. It showed that cutting
emissions by 2020 to a level that could
keep a global, 21st century, temperature
rise under 2° Celsius is technologically
and economically feasible, but that
current pledges and ambitions left a gap
of 6 to 11 gigatonnes. Accelerated uptake
of renewable energy, fuel switching and
energy ef ciency improvements can
deliver a large slice of the necessary
cuts. Other measures include sectoral
improvements ranging from increased
penetration of public transport and
more fuel-ef cient vehicles to ones in
areas, such as, agriculture and waste
management. The report cites aviation
and shipping as a special but important
case, as currently these ‘international
emissions’ fall outside the Kyoto
Protocol—the emission reduction treaty.
% The report Actions for Controlling
Short-Term Climate Forcers was the
last pre-COP17 report to be launched.
It presented a package of 16 measures
which could, if fully implemented across
the globe, save close to 2.5 million lives
a year; avoid crop losses amounting to
32 million tonnes annually and deliver
near-term climate protection of about half
a degree C by 2040.
% During the Durban Climate meeting,
UNEP launched Women at the Frontline
of Climate Change. According to the
report, women, particularly those living
in mountain regions in developing
countries, are facing disproportionately
high risks to their livelihoods and health
from climate change, as well as associated
risks such as human traf cking.
% The Durban climate talks ended with hope
for a new more comprehensive legally-
binding agreement. Several important
steps forward were agreed on including an
agreement to negotiate a new and more
inclusive treaty and the establishment of
a Green Climate Fund. The outcome in
Durban however has left the world with
some serious and urgent challenges if a
global temperature rise is to be kept under
2° Celsius in the 21st century.
% UNEP successfully set up climate change
networks in SE Asia and Latin America
and the Caribbean, with work under way
to launch similar networks in Africa and
West Asia. The Southeast Asia Network of
Climate Change Focal Points (SEAN-CC)
will improve the development and
exchange of knowledge among experts
and professionals in members of the
ASEAN regional group. The Regional
Gateway for Technology Transfer and
Climate Change Action in Latin America
and the Caribbean (REGATTA) aims to
improve efectiveness and cooperation in
existing networks in the region.
% In association with the Frankfurt School of
Finance & Management, UNEP launched
a new Collaborating Centre for Climate &
Sustainable Energy Finance. Its goal is to
work with financial institutions to develop
cost-efective ways to reduce energy-
related carbon emissions through access
to energy investments and markets.
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
CLIMATE CHANGE
HIGHS AND LOWS
PERU
It’s often sea-level communities who are seen as
the most threatened by climate change.
But those at altitude are at risk too. Indeed, it is
at the extremes of human settlement that the
first indications of how climate change afects
people’s lives are being felt.
Peru will have increased temperatures, reduced
rainfall, rising sea levels and increased frequency
of extreme weather due to climate change.
In Peru, UNEP is working with UNDP, FAO and
PAHO/WHO to monitor and mitigate the efects
of climate change among the communities of
the High Andes.
unep annual r epor t 2011 25
Part of this involves helping communities to
work together. A series of Municipal
Environmental Commissions (MECs) have
been created to harmonise local environmental
policies and to promote dialogue and
cooperation between public, private and civil
society on environmental issues.
UNEP has been involved in training the MECs,
and also in running workshops on socio-
environmental conflicts. Where communities,
land and resources come under threat from
climate change, the danger of conflict is
never far away. In the Andes, the issue is
complicated by the presence of formal and
informal mining. UNEP helped develop a
training guide and ran a series of workshops
on mediation and conflict resolution to provide
communities the skills and resources to head of
problems before they arise.
While local issues such as forest fires
and overgrazing remain the most visible
environmental challenges in the Andes,
climate change is never far away. UNEP-
trained educators have been addressing local
populations though drama productions,
schools outreach and further education
programmes—2011 saw the graduation of the
second year of the UNEP-designed Diploma
in Adaptation to Climate Change and Adaptive
Management of Environmental Resources in
High Mountain Areas, with 30 students
awarded their diplomas.
Monitoring the efects of climate change
is another vital part of UNEP’s work in the
High Andes. UNEP has been advising the
Peruvian government on their acquisition
and management of two meteorological
stations and working to ensure the widespread
dissemination of the data gathered.
© Ci nthi a Soto
unep annual r epor t 2011 26
ECOSYSTEM-BASED ADAPTATION
These projects will now be complemented by
the UNEP, UNDP and IUCN ecosystem-based
adaptation programme in Peru. Warming in the
Andes is damaging high mountain ecosystems,
including the drying of wetlands and the
disappearance of snowcapped terrain.
Many Andean glaciers are retreating, and this
could seriously afect seasonal water flows and
the availability of water for human consumption,
hydropower, and agriculture.
The UNEP collaborating project is promoting
improved natural resource and farming
management to help people and ecosystems
to adapt.
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN
MOUNTAIN REGIONS
Under a major part nershi p programme on Ecosyst em
Based Adapt at i on i n Mount ai n Ecosyst ems, UNEP
i s hel pi ng t o i mprove underst andi ng and bui l d t he
resi l i ence and i nt egri t y of mount ai n ecosyst ems i n
Nepal , Peru and Uganda. The project i s a joi nt ef f ort
of UNEP, UNDP and IUCN and i s support ed by t he
government of Germany. The successf ul part nershi p i s
now bei ng expanded i nt o ot her count ri es and regi ons.
UNEP, i n part nershi p wi t h t he EU, al so compl et ed
t wo successf ul project s i n t he Al ps. Worki ng across
nat i onal borders, Cl i mat e Change and Spat i al Pl anni ng
i n t he Al pi ne Space (CLISP) and Cl i mat e Change and
Touri sm i n t he Al pi ne Space (Cl i mAl pTour) bot h
ai med t o bri ng t oget her nat i onal and regi onal
government s and st akehol ders t o address t he ri sks of
cl i mat e change.
The l essons l earned f rom t hese project s wi l l be shared
wi t h ot her mount ai n regi ons.
© Cor bi s
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
proved costly and they consumed fossil
fuel, resulting in the emission of more
greenhouse gases.
The Climate Change & Development –
Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability
Programme (CC DARE) project is a collaboration
between UNEP, UNDP, and the government
of Denmark, with involvement from UNICEF,
WMO, national governments, NGOs and civil
society organizations.
CC DARE, in collaboration with the Danish
International Development Agency (DANIDA),
piloted a rainwater harvesting project at eight
schools. The resultant water bill savings have
been re-invested in education. Meanwhile, the
success of the project has provided a template
for new building design. The government of the
Seychelles has decided to integrate rainwater
harvesting into the national building code. This
recognition through legislation is a testament
that small but well-timed and targeted
interventions can have significant impact: an
important aspect in the transition from practical
demonstration to far-reaching policy actions.
unep annual r epor t 2011 27
SEYCHELLES
From the heights of the Alps and the Andes, to
the low-lying islands of the Indian Ocean, the
Seychelles have been identified as particularly at
risk from rising sea levels. But it’s a lack, rather
than an abundance of water, which is one of
the Republic’s most pressing concerns. The
archipelago of over 100 islands has experienced
changes in rainfall patterns over recent years,
with short periods of heavy rainfall punctuated
by long, severe dry seasons. Drought has
become a regular occurrence, especially with a
rise in urbanisation and population growth.
Various solutions have been tried, such as
increased reservoir capacity and the use of
desalination plants. But these, in particular,
© Cor bi s
PRESIDENT
JAMES ALIX
MICHEL
PRESIDENT OF
THE REPUBLIC OF
THE SEYCHELLES
“Thi s UNEP/ UNDP CC DARE i s a wort hwhi l e
proj ect whi ch I f ul l y endorsed. It i s t he way
f orward. If we al l do our part i n harvest i ng
rai nwat er and are seri ous about i t , we coul d
al l cont ri but e t o al l evi at i ng t he seri ous
short ages we f ace i n t he dry season.”
unep annual r epor t 2011 28
PROMOTING LOW CARBON
TRANSPORT IN
INDIA
India is currently the fourth largest greenhouse
gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its
transport sector being the second largest
contributor of CO
2
emissions. The sector
also exacerbates road congestion, local air
pollution, noise and accidents, particularly
in urban areas.
UNEP and partners in India have embarked
on a new initiative to support a low carbon
transport pathway in India. The three-year
2.49 million Euro project is funded under
the International Climate Initiative of the
German Government, and is designed in
support of India’s National Climate
Action Plan.
The expected outcome of the three-year project
will be the creation of a National Transport
Action Plan for India; specific Low-Carbon
Mobility Plans for up to four cities; and the
development of an information sharing and
co-ordination website.
The greatest challenges in the transport sector
are establishing the right policy framework,
legal and regulatory aspects, infrastructure
and services to manage the growing demand
for mobility, while reducing negative impacts
locally and globally. As in the case of India,
interventions such as enhancing public
transport and non-motorised transport systems
require surmounting institutional, financial and
social barriers. This project will help improve
the understanding and enhance institutional
capacity for charting a sustainable low-carbon
transport development and provide a framework
for similar interventions in other countries.
©UNEP
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 29
UN-REDD
UN-REDD is a Collaborative Programme
between the FAO, UNDP and UNEP on Reducing
Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation in Developing Countries.
Having grown to over $100 million in funding,
the UN-REDD Programme has not only been
a model of inter-agency collaboration and UN
Delivering as One but it has also surpassed its
original direct support to 9 countries to
14 countries and now has an additional
21 partner countries that benefit from work at
the global level. At the international level, the
UN-REDD Programme seeks to build consensus
and knowledge about REDD+ and raise
awareness about the importance of including
a REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate
change agreement. The UN-REDD Programme
is undertaking a variety of activities from
awareness raising to capacity building to ensure
that countries are ready for REDD+ and that
more funding becomes available as the demand
for REDD+ Readiness support continues
to increase. UNEP's contributions towards
realising REDD+ as an opportunity to
simultaneously combat emissions, spur
development and secure conservation is
helping countries like Indonesia, the DRC and
Panama, to name just three, identify means
to safeguard these multiple benefits, and turn
them into opportunities for a
green economy.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, a high
level meeting in November, supported by
UN-REDD and UNEP, has come to a similar
conclusion about REDD+ and development,
based on the ongoing work by the UN-REDD
Programme. UNEP, through the UN-REDD
Programme launched a policy brief in late
November titled "REDD+ and a Green Economy:
Opportunities for a mutually supportive
relationship," which has resonated positively
with Parties at the recently concluded UNFCCC
COP 17. In this regard, Indonesia and Norway
acknowledged the importance of linking REDD+
to the green economy and UNEP's contributions
to this. The UN-REDD Programme also worked
to ensure that its activities contribute efectively
to promoting social and environmental benefits
and minimise potential risk from REDD+. To
this end, a set of Social and Environmental
Principles and Criteria (SEPC) are being
developed. Broad consultations on the draft
have included engagement with the Convention
on Biological Diversity’s regional workshops on
REDD+ safeguards and consultations at national
level. The latest version is currently open for
public consultation. These outcomes are now
a concrete focus of work with Indonesia and
the Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as
work that is commencing in a number of
other countries.
© Cor bi s
REDD+ IN
INDONESIA
Indonesia is at the forefront of international
eforts to develop REDD+ as a viable opportunity
for climate change mitigation and sustainable
development – particularly in the country’s
Kalimantan region.
Significant areas of Kalimantan’s forests have
been cleared for cash crops such as cofee
and palm oil. But ongoing research led by the
National REDD+ Task Force in partnership
unep annual r epor t 2011 30
with the United Nations, supported by UNEP
and other stakeholders, indicates that this is
coming at a cost to other productive sectors
such as mining, fisheries and the livelihoods of
local people as well as challenging Indonesia’s
biodiversity including the iconic orangutan. As
part of its REDD+ Programme, Indonesia plans
to plant palm oil and other crops on degraded
lands rather than clearing virgin forest.
Overall the REDD+ funding, backed by
smart public policies and both direct foreign
investment and private sector funding, should
assist Indonesia in its stated aims of realizing
7 per cent GDP growth per annum by 2014;
reducing unemployment to between 5 and 6
per cent and achieving a 26-41 per cent
reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases
by 2020. UNEP and other UN agencies have
been requested to advise on a number of areas
for intervention in Kalimantan, that would help
realize multiple benefits from REDD+ for these
stated goals.
The Heart of Borneo project, supported by the
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), aims to protect
biodiversity by creating a network of protected
forest areas.
DR. KUNTORO
MANGKUSUBROTO
HEAD OF THE PRESIDENT’S DELIVERY UNIT FOR
DEVELOPMENT MONITORING AND OVERSIGHT
AND THE CHAIR OF THE NATIONAL REDD+ TASK
FORCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA.
“A green economy t ranst i on i s wort h pursui ng
not onl y because i t i s t he best way f orward,
but al so f or what i t does t o bri ng mi l l i ons
of peopl e out of povert y whi l e conservi ng
t hei r ecosyst ems, i mprovi ng t hei r l i ves and
enhanci ng t hei r l i vel i hood opport uni t i es.”
CARBON BENEFITS PROJECT
The UNEP-GEF Carbon BeneĆts Project: ModeIIin¿,
Measurement and Monit oring has developed a set of
scientiĆcaIIy ri¿orous, cost-effective tooIs to estabIish
the carbon beneĆts of sustainabIe Iand mana¿ement
int ervent ions. The online t ools are designed t o est imat e
and modeI carbon stocks and ćows and ¿reenhouse ¿as
emissions under present and alt ernat ive management ,
and measure and monit or carbon changes under
speciĆed Iand use.
The approach allows f or large area landscape
assessment s of above and below ground carbon f or plans
t o mit igat e climat e change t hrough REDD policies.
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
COOLING THE USE OF
HCFCs
China is the largest producer and consumer
of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which
are used as a coolant, solvent and propellant.
These substances damage the ozone layer and
contribute to global warming.
In 2011, $265 million was granted to China by
the Multilateral Fund for the implementation
of the Montreal Protocol. The grant aims to
help China eliminate 3,320 tonnes of HCFC
consumption by 2015. It will also yield a
cumulative CO
2
equivalent emission reduction
of about 672 million tonnes by 2015. The
Multilateral Fund also approved a $5.24 million
component for UNEP for the Refrigeration
Servicing Sector.
Also in 2011, more countries were added to
the list of those preparing action plans for the
phase-out of HCFCs. The total worldwide is
now 75.
RENEWABLES INVESTING IN THE FUTURE
2011 was another difĆcuIt year for the worId
economy. But one sect or bucked t he t rend:
Renewabl e Energy. In 2011, i nvest ors pumped
a record $211 bi l l i on i nt o renewabl e energy.
That ’s about one-t hi rd more t han t he $160
bi l l i on i nvest ed i n 2009, and a 540 per cent
ri se si nce 2004.
Wi nd f arms i n Chi na and smal l -scal e sol ar
panel s i n Europe were t he key dri vers of t he
ri se, accordi ng t o UNEP’s report , Gl obal Trends
i n Renewabl e Energy Invest ment 2011.
unep annual r epor t 2011 31
SOUTH EAST ASIA
UNEP ACTS ON IMPROVING
AIR CONDITIONERS
UNEP’s South East Asian network of Climate
Change focal points (SEAN-CC) have developed
a Strategic Framework on Energy Ef ciency
Harmonisation for room air conditioners
across the ASEAN member states (Brunei,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and
Vietnam). The strategic framework will allow
better sharing of best practises between
manufacturers and designers in reducing
emissions from this energy-hungry sector.
The potential for total electricity saving from
harmonization of standards for ACs in ASEAN
countries is 5.374 terawatt hours per year. This
would result in reduction in Green House Gas
emissions amounting to 3.401 million tonnes.
© Cor bi s
UNEP’s Technology Needs Assessment (TNA)
project helps countries identify their most
urgent technological needs and provide policy-
makers with the research and resources they
need to make the change.
2011 saw the project move into a new phase with
the number of participating countries more
than doubling from 15 to 36.
There was also a substantial acceleration in
the pace of implementation, due to lessons
learned from the first round of participants. A
series of new guidebooks prepared by UNEP
and the online support portal www.tech-action.
org, backed up national and regional capacity-
building workshops. As a result, the project
has seen a strengthening of government
commitment and more ef cient working of
national TNA teams.
DR. RENÉ CASTRO
MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND
TELECOMMUNICATIONS, COSTA RICA
“Technol ogy Needs Assessment (TNA) has come
t o be a met hodol ogi cal gui de f or conduct i ng
DQRUGHUO\SURFHVVIURPLGHQWLĆFDWLRQRI
mi t i gat i on and adapt at i on t echnol ogi es
t o t hei r depl oyment i n t he market .”
unep annual r epor t 2011 32
TECHNOLOGY
MATTERS
MITIGATING
CLIMATE CHANGE
THROUGH INNOVATION
UNEP, on behalf of GEF, has been at
the forefront of promoting technological
solutions to mitigate the causes and efects of
climate change.
But this can be a challenge, especially for
developing countries which face considerable
barriers to the rapid adoption of such
technologies, including high costs and a
skills deficit.
EMERGING WORLD INVESTMENT
IN RENEWABLES (2010 Ć¿ures)
China
$48.9bn up 28 per cent
Sout h and Cent ral America
$13.1bn up 39 per cent
Middle East & Af rica
$5bn up 104 per cent
India
$3.8bn up 25 per cent
Asian developing st at es
(exc. China and India)
$4bn up 31 per cent
unep annual r epor t 2011 33
TECHNOLOGY NEEDS
TECHNOLOGY ACTION
The next stage, once the findings of the TNA
are in place, is the development of a national
Technology Action Plan (TAP) that prioritises
technologies, recommends an enabling
framework for the difusion of these
technologies and facilitates identification of
good technology transfer projects and their
links to relevant financing sources. The TAP
aims to systematically address practical actions
necessary to reduce or remove policy, finance
and technology related barriers.
In 2011, draft TNA reports were produced in ten
countries and draft TAP reports produced in
four: Morocco, Mali, Thailand, and Costa Rica.
2
C
L
I
M
A
T
E

C
H
A
N
G
E
The en.Ii¿hten GIobaI EfĆcient Li¿htin¿
Part nership Programme was launched
in 2011 t o provide an opport unit y f or
count ries around t he world t o achieve a
coordinated ¿IobaI transition to efĆcient
light ing. Over 55 count ries have signed
ofĆciaI decIarations a¿reein¿ that the
phase-out of incandescent bulbs is
one of t he easiest ways t o reduce CO
2

emissions and achieve si¿niĆcant ener¿y
and ĆnanciaI savin¿s, and 26 countries
have ofĆciaIIy joined the partnership.
An ambit ious t arget dat e of 2016 has
been set t o phase-out incandescent
lamps globally.
www.enlight en-init iat ive.org
IRAQ
TACKLING
CLIMATE CHANGE

Iraq is emerging from nearly three decades of
international isolation and recovering from
war and its aftermath. It is just now turning its
attention to environmental issues.

In 2009, Iraq ratified international standards
on climate change set by the UNFCCC.
The framework, among other goals, set
requirements for emission reduction targets.

In the past two years, UNEP has worked with
the UNDP as part of the ‘ONE UN’ programme
to help the country’s fledgling environmental
ministry kick-start climate change initiatives.

As a result of UNEP’s coordinated eforts, Iraq
is already looking into emission management
plans for oil companies and considering climate
change as it tackles water and agriculture
development issues.

In 2011 Iraq has:

% Created three new climate change
projects that have received funding
or are being considered for funding.
The projects promote renewable
energy and clean development, bolster
wetlands initiatives, and set up national
communication with the United Nations’
Climate Change convention.
% Paved the way for national emission
reduction requirements. For example,
Iraq’s oil ministry has started developing
GHG emission management plans for
oil companies.
3
unep annual r epor t 2011 34
DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS
©

M
a
z
e
n

S
a
g
g
a
r
/
U
N
E
P

MINIMISING THE THREATS
AND IMPACTS OF CRISES
UNEP aims to minimise threats to human wellbeing from
the environmental causes and consequences of disasters
and conflicts.
UNEP supports member states to address environmental
degradation and the mismanagement of natural resources
as underlying risk factors for conflicts and natural hazards.
UNEP focuses in integrating environmental concerns into
risk reduction policies and practices.
In the aftermath of a crisis, vital natural resources are
often degraded or destroyed, leaving entire communities
vulnerable. Assessments to gauge the risks posed by these
environmental impacts on human health, livelihoods and
security form the foundation of UNEP’s response.
UNEP also uses environmental assessments to develop
recovery programmes that address environmental needs
and priorities and support peace-building strategies and
long-term sustainable development.
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS
$17,998,000
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
unep annual r epor t 2011 35
RESULTS TARGETED
Enhancing the environmental management
capacity of member states to reduce the risks of
man-made and natural disasters.
Conducting rapid and reliable environmental
assessments following conflicts and disasters,
as requested.
Contributing to improved environmental
management and sustainable use of natural
resources through assessment and recovery
efforts in post-crisis situations.
2011
THE YEAR
IN DISASTERS
AND CONFLICTS
% UNEP played an active role in reducing
the risk of disasters and conflicts and
addressing post-conflict environmental
challenges in more than 30 countries,
both through its ongoing country-
based operations and environmental
assessments, and following requests
for technical assistance during disaster
recovery eforts in such countries as
Japan, Thailand and Kenya.
% Natural disasters caused a record $366
billion damage in 2011, with the Great East
Japan Earthquake and major floods in
Thailand accounting for more than
two thirds of this total. Also according to
UN figures, some 29,700 people lost their
lives in 302 disasters during the year.
% Yet in countries that have been pro-active
in taking adaptation and preparedness
measures, such as Bangladesh, the
death toll from comparable disasters
was considerably lower than it was
20 years ago. UNEP continued to
advocate for greater understanding
of the critical role of ecosystems in
reducing the risk and impact of natural
hazards. Through its role in the global
Partnership for Environment and Disaster
Risk Reduction (PEDRR), UNEP delivered
training on the environment and disaster
risk reduction in Sri Lanka, India and
Thailand. This included the first ever
Training of Trainers course to enable
staf from regional and national disaster
management training institutions and
universities in more than 10 Asian
countries to integrate the National
Training Course on Ecosystem-based
Disaster Risk Reduction into their
ongoing training programmes.
% A major UNEP environmental
assessment — Rwanda: From Post-
Conflict to Environmentally Sustainable
Development — provides a critical
analysis of environmental issues facing
Rwanda and proposes solutions. The
report recommends reinforced policies
and investments in large-scale ecosystem
rehabilitation, renewable energy,
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
sustainable agriculture and regional
environmental cooperation, including
natural resource trade initiatives.
% To mark 25 years of UNEP’s Awareness
and Preparedness for Emergencies at
Local Level (APELL) programme, a global
forum was held in China, attracting
participants from 17 countries. As a
result, the University of Bahia Blanca in
Argentina and Tsinghua University in
China are to become new APELL
Research Centres.
% A UN review of civilian capacity in post-
conflict settings, Independent Report
of the Senior Advisory Group to the
Secretary General on Civilian Capacity in
the Aftermath of Conflict (February 2011),
identified natural resources as a priority
area and nominated UNEP as the sub-
cluster lead on the issue based on its
track record for conducting post-conflict
environmental assessments and recovery
work. This is a major recognition of
UNEP’s eforts to integrate environmental
considerations into UN conflict
prevention and peacebuilding operations.
% Fieldwork began in the border zone of
Haiti and the Dominican Republic for
a new UNEP study examining potential
sources of transboundary tensions
and opportunities for cooperation over
the use of water, timber and other
natural resources.
% In Sierra Leone, 93 barrels of toxic waste
were removed from a disused oil refinery
near a densely populated neighbourhood
near the capital, Freetown. With technical
assistance and funding from UNEP, the
national Environment Protection Agency
supervised the clean-up of almost 12,000
litres, or 19 metric tonnes, of tetra-ethyl
lead (TEL). Training covered techniques
for extracting toxic substances and the safe
storage and containment of chemicals.
% Under the Environment and Security
Initiative (ENVSEC), Georgia’s capital,
Tbilisi, was the focus of the latest Global
Environment Outlook at the municipal
level. Released in December, the GEO-
Cities Tbilisi report recommends increased
environmental monitoring, a greater
emphasis on renewable energy and
modernizing waste treatment, and a shift
to an integrated river-basin approach to
water resource management.
unep annual r epor t 2011 36
© UNEP
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 37 unep annual r epor t 2011 37
OGONILAND
NIGERIA
A major independent scientific assessment,
completed by UNEP in 2011, shows that
pollution from over 50 years of oil operations
in the region has penetrated further and deeper
than previously thought.
It is UNEP’s hope that its findings will help break
the decades of deadlock in the region and lead
to the environmental restoration of Ogoniland,
and catalyse improved environmental
standards for the oil industry in Nigeria and
around the world.
Drawing on the best available science and
expertise, the Ogoniland project is a key step in
helping the government take action to clean up
contaminated areas and restore people’s lives
and livelihoods in the region.
It could take 25 to 30 years to bring
contaminated drinking water, land, creeks and
important ecosystems such as mangroves back
to full, productive health.
The scale and scope of UNEP’s assessment has
been unprecedented (see box).
The report discovered that some areas, which
appear unafected at the surface, are in reality
severely contaminated underground and
action to protect human health and reduce the
risks to afected communities should occur
without delay.
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
UNEP Ogoni l and
Assessment
24
mont hs durat i on
200+
l ocat i ons exami ned
122km
of pi pel i ne ri ght s of way surveyed
5,000+ medi cal records revi ewed
23,000+
at t endees at l ocal communi t y meet i ngs
69
si t es i nvest i gat ed i n det ai l f or soi l
and groundwat er cont ami nat i on
1,300m² -
790,000m²
si ze-range of si t es i nvest i gat ed
4,000±
sampl es anal ysed
142
groundwat er wel l s dri l l ed f or t he st udy
780
borehol es exami ned
CHINA:
BUILDING BACK BETTER
Contaminated site assessment and remediation
was also the focus of a study tour by a Chinese
delegation to Switzerland and Germany,
hosted by UNEP. Further to its post-earthquake
recovery support to China since 2008, UNEP
responded to a government request for
technical assistance to inform the development
of standards for contaminated site management
in China.
The tour focused on European approaches to
site and risk assessments, clean-up standards
and the varying scale and cost of environmental
remediation projects. It included presentations
from UNEP experts and visits to remediated
sites and specialised laboratories.
unep annual r epor t 2011 38
In one community, at Nisisioken Ogale, in
western Ogoniland, families were discovered
to be drinking water from wells contaminated
with benzene—a known carcinogen—at levels
over 900 times above WHO guidelines.
UNEP scientists found an 8cm layer of refined
oil floating on the groundwater which serves
the wells. This was reportedly linked to an oil
spill which occurred more than six years ago.
This was the most severe example, and
prompted the State Government to begin
deliveries of potable water to the
afected communities.
Among other findings, the report noted that
mangroves—an essential coastal habitat—
have been disastrously hit. That when oil
spills occur on land, plant growth is stifled,
often under a crust of tar. Fires are a regular
occurrence. Air pollution impacts the lives
of an estimated one million people.
According to the report, all sources of ongoing
contamination must be brought to an end
before the clean-up of the creeks, sediments
and mangroves can begin.
The report recommends establishing three
new institutions in Nigeria to support a
comprehensive environmental restoration
exercise, and an initial capital injection
of $1bn, contributed by the oil industry
and the government, to cover the first
five years of the clean-up project.
Reforms of environmental government
regulation, monitoring and enforcement are
also recommended in the report.
© UNEP
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
The scope of the mission was to provide
scientific information on the extent and nature
of pollution and to assist the decision-making
and priority-setting by the authorities and
other actors for follow-up activities on the
afected site.
The main conclusion of the mission was that
the fire was not caused by a pipeline explosion
as reported initially in the media, but by an
industrial accident that caused a large amount
of petrol to enter a storm water drainage system.
A further conclusion was that a repetition of
a similar type of accident is considered as
highly likely.
As an investigation which was mobilised and
in situ within days of a request from a national
government, the joint UNEP/OCHA mission
will provide a model for future inter-agency
co-operation and rapid response.
unep annual r epor t 2011 39
These before
and after images
captured by the
UN's satellite
imaging service
show the extent
of the disaster
in Nairobi.
© UNITAR/
UNOSAT
BEFORE
AFTER
NIGERIA:
LEAD POISONING IN
ZAMFARA STATE
Also in Nigeria, abnormally high rates of
death and illness among children since early
2010 caused alarm in Zamfara State in the
north of the country. Over 18,000 people were
afected and 200 children reportedly died
as a result of acute lead poisoning from the
processing of lead-rich ore for gold extraction
taking place inside houses and compounds.
Investigation by the joint UNEP/OCHA
Environment Unit detected high levels of lead
in groundwater, surface water and soil, and
mercury in the air.
The multi-agency response involved intensive
treatment for the most severe cases of
children under five, the decontamination of
homes and villages, and the remediation of
afected wells.
NAIROBI
PIPELINE DISASTER
On 12th September 2011, over 100 people
perished and a similar number were
hospitalised with serious wounds when an
explosion and fire ripped through the slum of
Mukuru-Sinai in Nairobi, Kenya.
The Kenyan government made an urgent
appeal to the UN for environmental
emergency response services. UNEP and the
United Nations Of ce for the Coordination
of Humanitarian Afairs (OCHA), through
their Joint Environment Unit, subsequently
compiled an expert team to undertake a rapid
environmental emergency assessment.
opportunities to restore livelihoods, promote
good governance and support the sustainability
of the DRC's post-conflict economic
reconstruction, and reinforce ongoing
peace consolidation.
Providing a strong foundation for UNEP’s
recovery programme in the DRC, the report
advocates a ‘Green Economy’ transition
whereby sustainable reconstruction includes
capitalising on the country’s emerging social
economy to create ‘green jobs’, including for
former combatants.
Among the focus areas recommended for
UNEP’s ongoing support to the government
were overcoming the environmental liabilities
of a century of mining by modernising the
sector, including formalising artisanal mining,
and promoting greater trans-boundary
collaboration for sustainable fisheries
management in the Great Rift Valley Lakes.
Strengthening institutional capacities for
disaster preparedness—such as epidemics,
volcanic eruptions, floods and forest fires—
including early warning systems, was also
singled out.
unep annual r epor t 2011 40
DEMOCRATIC
REPUBLIC OF
CONGO
With half of Africa's forests and water resources
and trillion-dollar mineral reserves, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) could
become a powerhouse of African development.
But such a goal will only be attained if the
intensive pressure on the country’s natural
resources is urgently addressed.
That was the conclusion of a major Post-
Conflict Environmental Assessment of
the DRC completed by UNEP in 2011. The
two-year assessment highlighted increasing
deforestation, species depletion, heavy metal
pollution and land degradation from mining, as
well as an acute drinking water crisis which has
left an estimated 51 million Congolese without
access to potable water.
Conducted in conjunction with the DRC's
Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation
and Tourism, the assessment also hails
successful initiatives and identifies strategic
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 41
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
41
SUDAN
In July, UNEP reaf rmed its long-term
commitment to assisting the people of Sudan
and South Sudan. In conjunction with its
major donor, UKaid from the Department for
International Development, UNEP realigned
its plans for both countries, focusing on policy
reform and partnerships.
Ahead of the Darfur International Water
Conference in June, UNEP joined an
international call for urgent action to address
critical water issues in Darfur. Groundwater
tables in many urban areas and IDP camps had
dropped dramatically (by up to 7-10 metres)
and UNEP voiced its concern that forthcoming
periods of below-average rainfall could cause
even more severe shortages in the region.
A breakthrough was achieved in influencing
government policy with a decision to proceed
with Integrated Water Resource Management as
a national policy, in collaboration with UNEP.
With UNEP’s technical assistance, Sudan’s
Higher Council for Environment and Natural
Resources made significant progress in
preparing the country’s Second National
Communication under the UNFCCC. By the end
of 2011, data collection was under way in each
of the 15 states for a major national vulnerability
and adaptation assessment.
Seven villages in North Darfur became the first
pilot sites for a UNEP-Darfur Development
and Reconstruction Agency project aimed at
empowering communities to assess and solve
local environmental issues.
© UNEP
SOUTH SUDAN
2011 saw the birth of a new nation, and a new
member state of the UN: The Republic of South
Sudan. Thanks to the strong relationship
fostered between UNEP and the new
government, environmental considerations
were included in all five pillars of the South
Sudan Development Plan, a blueprint for the
new country.
UNEP has long had a presence in Juba, one
of the world’s fastest-growing cities. Waste
management is one of the biggest challenges
the municipality faces, and UNEP assisted
with drawing up a masterplan. An estimated
420,000 of 1.2m residents now benefit from
regular solid waste collection.
Forests provide an important development
opportunity for South Sudan, yet deforestation
continues at alarming levels. UNEP’s
ongoing technical assistance supported
progress with the enforcement of logging bans.
unep annual r epor t 2011 42
© UNEP
ENVIRONMENTAL
COOPERATION FOR
PEACEBUILDING
During the Durban climate meeting, UNEP and
its partners released new evidence of changing
climate trends in the Sahel and West Africa and
their potentially profound implications for food
security and regional stability.
Livelihood Security: Climate Change, Migration
and Conflict in the Sahel analyses regional
trends in temperature, rainfall, droughts and
flooding over the past 40 years and their
implications for the availability of natural
resources, livelihoods, migration and conflict in
17 countries in the Sahel and West Africa. The
study was conducted by UNEP in cooperation
with the IOM, OCHA, the United Nations
University (UNU), the Permanent Interstate
Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
(CILSS) and the University of Salzburg.
The analysis detected significant changes in
regional climatic conditions, including an
overall rise in mean seasonal temperature from
1970 to 2006 of approximately 1°C, with a greater
increase of between 1.5°C to 2°C observed in far
eastern Chad and northern Mali and Mauritania.
According to the study, the frequency of
floods and the area covered by flooding have
increased in parts of the region over the past
24 years. An innovative mapping process
identified 19 "climate hotspots" where climatic
changes have been the most severe and which
warrant focused adaptation planning and other
follow-up activities. Many of the hotspots are in
the central part of the Sahel, in Niger, Burkina
Faso, northern and coastal Ghana, as well as
northern Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
3
D
I
S
A
S
T
E
R
S

A
N
D

C
O
N
F
L
I
C
T
S
unep annual r epor t 2011 43
Such projects have also contributed to increased
land degradation and damage to soils.
The Aral Sea, which relies in part from water
from the Amu Darya, remains severely degraded
with the report’s estimates indicating that “the
volume and surface area of the sea have now
decreased tenfold”.
Water levels in the southern part have dropped
by 26 metres and the shoreline there has now
receded by several hundred kilometres.
Boosting cooperation between countries sharing
the waters of the Amu Darya could be key to
future peace and security in the region, according
to a flagship report from UNEP, launched in 2011.
Environment and Security in the Amu Darya
Basin recommends heightened cooperation
between the states which share this resource;
more exchange of information on projects such
as irrigation and hydropower which impact
downstream regions; and the sharing of the
burden of maintaining the water infrastructure.
unep annual r epor t 2011 43
© UNEP
The study found that the impacts of such
changing climatic conditions on the availability
of natural resources, combined with factors
such as population growth and weak
governance, have led to greater competition
over scarce resources, and to changing
migration patterns in the region.
With a foreword by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf,
President of Liberia and 2011 Nobel Peace Prize
Laureate, ‘High-Value Natural Resources and
Post-Conflict Peacebuilding’ represents one of
the most comprehensive studies to date of the
link between post-conflict peacebuilding and
managing high-value natural resources such as
oil, diamonds, gold and timber.
The research programme, which UNEP and
the Law Institute have been coordinating, will
yield more than 150 case studies from over 50
countries, assembled into a seven volume series.
The research outcomes will be used for further
policy development, UN staf training and field-
level capacity building programmes.
AMU DARYA RIVER
The Amu Darya is the longest river in Central
Asia, flowing from the highlands of Afghanistan
to the deserts of Turkmenistan, passing through
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Water resources in the region are already
impacted by decades of often unsustainable
development dating back to the era of the
Soviet Union.
Large-scale engineering projects dammed and
diverted substantial flows from the Amu Darya
river basin into activities such as cotton, wheat
and fodder farming in arid and desert regions.
4
unep annual r epor t 2011 44
STRENGTHENING GOVERNANCE
UNEP helps governments and regional institutions
place environmental sustainability at the heart of their
development policies, supporting informed international
decision-making processes based on accurate and timely
environmental data and information.
UNEP catalyses international eforts to implement
internationally agreed environmental objectives.
UNEP also helps governments to further strengthen and
develop their policies, laws and institutions in the field
of environmental governance, and develop tools and
processes for environmental management.
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
$48,191 ,000
ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
©

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 45
RESULTS TARGETED
The United Nations system, respecting the
mandates of other entities, progressively
achieves synergies and demonstrates increasing
coherence in international decision-making
processes related to the environment,
including those under multilateral
environmental agreements.
The capacity of member states to implement
their environmental obligations and achieve
their environmental goals through strengthened
laws and institutions is enhanced.
National development processes and
UN country programming processes increasingly
prioritise environmental sustainability in the
implementation of their programmes of work.
Access by policy-makers and national and
international stakeholders to sound science and
advice is improved.
2011
THE YEAR IN
ENVIRONMENTAL
GOVERNANCE
% The InforMEA portal (www.informea.
org) was launched in 2011 to provide a
one-stop shop for MEA information—COP
decisions, MEA news and events, MEA
membership and national focal points.
It is the first project developed under
the UNEP-supported MEA Information
and Knowledge Management Initiative
which currently includes 24 international
instruments from 13 MEA secretariats
hosted by three UN organizations and
the IUCN.
% The UNEP Yearbook 2011, Emerging Issues
in Our Global Environment, issued key
findings on the hazards of plastic marine
debris to the food chain and on the use
of phosphorus in food production. It also
revealed that halting the loss of forest
diversity is vital to maintaining these
ecosystems, and detailed the rapid growth
in renewable energy supply.
% UNEP launched a series of bulletins
which provide a succinct overview of
timely and thematic early warnings.
The “Global Environment Alert Service”
(GEAS) bulletins, communicate in a
simple language, using visual tools,
the scientific evidence of emerging
environmental issues, trends and threats
of international significance.
http://na.unep.net/geas/
% The UNEP-GEF Project for Continued
Enhancement of Building Capacity for
Efective Participation in the Biosafety
Clearing House (BCHII) was developed
in order to assist parties in efectively
fulfilling their obligations under the
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
% CITES also launched the CITES Virtual
College. The online college is composed
of interactive courses, a library and
training centre with networks for tutors
and students.
http://campusvirtual.unia.es/cites/
4
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L

G
O
V
E
R
N
A
N
C
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 46
% The five winners of the UNEP Champions
of the Earth were announced in May.
Mexican President Felipe Calderon, global
music legend Angélique Kidjo, adventurer
Louis Palmer, green entrepreneur Zhang
Yue and scientist and campaigner Dr.
Olga Speranskaya received their awards
at a ceremony (above) hosted by UNEP
Goodwill Ambassador, Gisele Bündchen,
at the American Museum of Natural
History in New York.
% The International Consortium on
Combating Wildlife Crime began full
activities in 2011. A partnership of
CITES, INTERPOL, UNODC, The
World Bank and the World Customs
Organization, it supports national
wildlife law enforcement agencies and
regional networks.
© Stephani e Badi ni / UNEP
CASPIAN SEA
The waters of the Caspian Sea are shared by five
nations—Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia
and Turkmenistan. As a significant source of
oil and gas, the region is currently enjoying an
“oil boom”. But the rapid development of the
extraction industry has brought environmental
risk. Over the last two decades, the sea has
become increasingly exposed to the threat of
pollution, with traf c in oil products estimated
at around 10,000 annual shipping movements.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of
water on Earth and sustains the livelihoods of
over 15 million coastal inhabitants. Due to its
isolation from the world’s oceans for millennia,
the Caspian has formed a highly valuable
ecosystem with unique biodiversity and a
wealth of natural resources.
But the protection of this ecosystem depends
upon trans-national cooperation between
all five neighbouring states, with the active
engagement of the oil and gas sector. To
this end, UNEP, in association with the IMO,
facilitated the Protocol Concerning Regional
Preparedness, Response and Cooperation in
Combating Oil Pollution Incidents, known as
the Aktau Protocol.
The protocol introduces common rules for
countries to assess any planned activities which
are likely to cause significant adverse efects
upon the sea’s environment. It will
also require countries to notify one another
of such activities.
unep annual r epor t 2011 47
4
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L

G
O
V
E
R
N
A
N
C
E
ASIA-PACIFIC:
PUTTING THE ENVIRONMENT AT THE HEART OF DECISION-MAKING
The continued economic deveIopment of the Asia-PaciĆc re¿ion has seen a host of
new environment al issues come t o t he f ore. UNEP has been involved in a number of
bilat eral part nerships t o help nat ional government s t o develop legislat ion t o deal
wit h such issues.
In t he landlocked st at e of Laos, major environment al concerns have t o be balanced
wit h t he need f or economic progress. The count ry is an export er of hydroelect ric
power, yet plans f or a dam on t he Mekong River have caused alarm in neighbouring
Viet nam. Def orest at ion t hrough logging is deplet ing t he count ry’s t imber resources
and damaging biodiversit y. And t he demand f or coal and valuable met als, especially
f rom China, has led t o a boom in mining in recent years. All of t hese sect ors require
regulat ion and scrut iny f rom a dedicat ed government depart ment , and so UNEP
assist ed and advised Laos on t he creat ion of t heir new Minist ry of Nat ural Resources
and Environment . UNEP aided t he draf t ing of t he count ry’s new environment al
f ramework law f or approval by t he Nat ional Assembly.
The young st at e of Timor-Lest e also called upon UNEP’s expert ise in 2011 wit h
assist ance in draf t ing it s own environment al f ramework law. At t he end of 2011 t he
draft was under pubIic consuItation as a Ćrst step towards adoption into Iaw.
UNEP also assist ed t he government of t he Maldives wit h draf t ing t he revision of t heir
environmentaI framework Iaw. OfĆciaIs from the Ministry of Housin¿, Transport and
Environment and t he Maldives At t orney General’s depart ment were provided wit h
UNEP’s input and advice prior t o t he bill being present ed t o t he Nat ional Assembly.
Mongolia request ed UNEP’s assist ance in revising and st rengt hening it s
Environment al Impact Assessment law. Viet nam was aided by UNEP expert s in t he
deveIopment of a nationaI Ie¿isIation for promotin¿ resource efĆciency, sustainabIe
consumpt ion and product ion, and a green economy.
unep annual r epor t 2011 48
EYE ON EARTH
In December 2011, Abu Dhabi hosted the
Eye on Earth Summit. UNEP was the lead
agency leading the negotiations on a
commitment to take to Rio +20.
The Summit brought together over
600 participants representing governments,
UN organizations and civil society.
The aim was to converge thinking around
the most pressing challenges faced by
the world today, in the context of
opportunities presented by rapid technological
advances. As a key outcome of the Eye on
Earth Summit, UNEP lead the preparation of
the Summit's Rio+20 submission on access to
environmental information.
The principle outcome was the drafting of an
Eye on Earth declaration which was of cially
signed by UNEP, the Abu Dhabi Environmental
Data Initiative and the UAE government.
The declaration reflects an agreement by
international bodies, governments and research
communities to collaborate on a range of
initiatives aimed at compiling and providing
access to the data and information needed to
monitor the global environment.
UNEP also hosted the UN Pavilion at the
Summit, with contributions from a wide range
of agencies, organizations and programmes.
The theme of the pavilion was “Bridging
the Data Gap” and it consisted of interactive
multimedia presentations of examples of UN
bodies coming together to share and exchange
data for the benefit of the environment.
unep annual r epor t 2011 48
© UNEP
4
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L

G
O
V
E
R
N
A
N
C
E
scientific evidence and policy making in the
environment field. Its approach is that a sound
knowledge base will lead to more efective
environment policies.
KNOSSOS therefore starts by taking stock of
EU and international environmental scientific
research activities, filtering out key information
for decision makers & policy makers. Civil
society groups are also woven into the project’s
outputs, especially those who promote
environmental issues publicly.
www.unep.org/research4policy/
unep annual r epor t 2011 49
RESEARCH4LIFE / OARE
KNOWLEDGE &
RESEARCH
FOR DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES
Ten years ago, the UN identified a problem.
The vast majority of cutting-edge scientific
research is published in peer-review journals,
subscription to which can cost thousands of
dollars a year. Research institutions in the
developing world were at a disadvantage.
Without access to the most up-to-date
information on environmental, medical,
agricultural and technological innovations, they
would lag behind.
A decade later, over nine thousand journals
are available to researchers in 109 developing
countries, free of charge, thanks to an agreement
between UNEP, WHO, FAO and WIPO, together
with academic publishers and Microsoft. At an
event marking the tenth anniversary in 2011,
the participating publishers signed a pledge to
continue their support until 2020.
RESEARCH4POLICY
KNOSSOS
Launched in 2011, Research4Policy showcases
European Commission - UNEP collaboration in
an innovative manner to make environmental
science actionable for policy making and civil
society action to solve pressing ecological
questions of our time.
As part of the Knowledge from Science to
SOcietieS (KNOSSOS) project, Research4Policy
aims to bridge the gap between available
WILKISTA
NYAORA MOTURI
HEAD OF
ENVIRONMENT
STUDIES DEPARTMENT
EGERTON UNIVERSITY
KENYA
“My access t o OARE when I di d my PhD programme
di d not onl y enabl e me as a person achi eve my
t arget but al so t o i mprove t he qual i t y of l i f e among
t he Ogi ek peopl e i n Mauche and Newsi i t where
di arrhoea and coughs, among ot her prevent abl e
ai l ment s, have been ravagi ng l i ves of chi l dren
and many adul t s i n a vi ci ous di sease ci rcl e."
PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH4LIFE
unep annual r epor t 2011 50
SCIENCE FOR POLICY
SCIENCE FOR
THE ENVIRONMENT
Completed in 2011, the UNEP Foresight Report
provides a description of the 21 emerging
environmental issues identified through the
UNEP Foresight Process. The process, which
was led by the UNEP Chief Scientist involved
the identification of emerging issues by UNEP
colleagues and a Foresight Panel comprising
of 22 distinguished members of the scientific
community cutting across a wide spectrum
of environmental and environmental-related
disciplines and world regions. Together, the
experts debated and prioritised the issues
identified by the Foresight Panel. These issues
were then scored via an electronic consultation
involving more than 400 scientists worldwide.
The process resulted in a list of "21 Emerging
Environmental Issues" covering the major
themes of the global environment including
food, land, freshwater, marine, biodiversity,
climate, energy, waste, and technology, as well
important cross-cutting issues ranging from the
need for better environmental governance to
the need for human behavioral change towards
the environment.
In addition, UNEP's flagship assessment process
— Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) — and
the Foresight process together sent out an
electronic questionnaire to a wider group of
stakeholders in all regions to get their feedback
on the emerging issues identified through
both processes.
Results from both processes were used in
UNEP's submission for Rio+20. The emerging
issues submitted include:
% Food and nutrition security, land, water
and biodiversity resources.
% Marine resources.
% Cities.
% Chemicals, wastes and human health.
© Cor bi s
4
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L

G
O
V
E
R
N
A
N
C
E
GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENT
OUTLOOK
LOOKING AHEAD
TO PLAN AHEAD
Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is a
consultative, participatory process that
builds capacity for conducting integrated
environmental assessments for reporting
on the state, trends and outlooks of the
environment. GEO is also a series of products
that informs environmental decision-making
and aims to facilitate the interaction between
science and policy.
The rigorous assessment process aims to
make GEO products scientifically credible
and policy relevant, providing information to
support environmental management and
policy development. GEO also supports
multi-stakeholder networking and intra and
inter-regional cooperation to identify and
assess key priority environmental issues at the
regional levels.
A world-wide network of Collaborating
Centre partners; a nomination process that
allows governments and other stakeholders
to nominate experts to the process; advisory
groups to provide guidance on scientific
and policy issues; and a comprehensive
peer review processes, are some of the integral
elements of GEO.
Using the integrated environmental assessment
(IEA) methodology, UNEP has produced four
GEO reports thus far, which have analysed
environmental statuses and trends at the global
and regional scales, described plausible
unep annual r epor t 2011 51
outlooks for various time frames, and
formulated policy options.
Each GEO report builds on the assessment
findings of its predecessor and draws from
lessons learnt.
The fifth GEO report is currently being
produced. It will be available in June 2012.
See GEO website (www.unep.org/geo) for details
on experts, partners and the process.
The report will be published prior to the
UN Conference on Sustainable Development
in June 2012. It will track progress in the
achievement of internationally agreed goals.
GEO-5 will also provide the state, trends and
outlook of the global environment. It will
analyse selected goals, consider various policy
options that could help countries speed-up
implementation and realization of these goals
and finally, GEO-5 will assess options for global
action and transformative change.
POVERTY-
ENVIRONMENT
INITIATIVE
The Poverty-Environment Initiative, a joint
programme between UNEP and UNDP,
aims to support the integration of pro-poor
environmental sustainability objectives in
national development plans and budgets, so
that the economic benefits of natural resource
use are enhanced or maintained to contribute to
poverty alleviation.
Since the PEI was scaled up in 2008:
% UNEP has received 50 requests from
Governments and UNDP Country Of ces
to establish PEI country programmes.
unep annual r epor t 2011 52
% Environmental sustainability has been
integrated as an objective in national and/
or sectoral development plans such as
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)
in 16 countries.
% The operationalization of these objectives
has already resulted in budget increases
in Rwanda and Uruguay, where the
Ministry of Social Development increased
the budgetary allocation for PEI sectors
(poverty, environment and waste
management) sixfold – from $350,000 in
2010 to $2.15 million in 2014.
% PEI provides support to building
blocks towards the Green Economy in
developing countries.
© Al ber t Gonzal ez Far r an / Unami d
4
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L

G
O
V
E
R
N
A
N
C
E
In 2011 PEI has been successful in increasing
Green Economy investments in a number
of countries:
% In Bangladesh, the government has
begun to revise some of their largest
capital development projects to reduce
their vulnerability to climate change.
% In Bhutan, the government has agreed to
sustain their high level of environmental
investment at just over 2 per cent of
public expenditure.
% PEI has facilitated the engagement
of Burkina Faso in an investment
programme on environment and
sustainable development in key PEI
priority areas (generic, cotton and
mining) in close collaboration with
UNEP’s Green Economy initiative.
% In Laos the Government has drawn up
a strategy to move away from natural
resource extractive investments towards
more sustainable investments.
% In Malawi, PEI helped design the
Government co-ordination mechanism
for responding to climate change, with
the UN Resident Coordinator promoting
the PEI model of having a cross-
government approach led by the Ministry
of Planning.
In 2011 the continuation of the joint
UNDP-UNEP PEI was endorsed by an external,
independent Mid-Term Review and the PEI
Donor Steering Group.
In 2012, UNDP and UNEP, in collaboration with
their partners, will initiate a planning process
for the elaboration of the next phase to ensure
that the PEI continues its substantial unique
contribution to the poverty-environment
mainstreaming agenda and the IFSD.
© Cor bi s
© UN
unep annual r epor t 2011 53
5
unep annual r epor t 2011 54
5
MAINTAINING
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
FOR HUMAN WELLBEING
UNEP aims to ensure that countries utilise the ecosystem
approach to enhance human wellbeing.
UNEP provides three core services to governments:
1. Building capacity on the critical role of sustainably
managed ecosystems in supporting social and
economic development.
2. Assisting national and regional governments to
determine which ecosystem services to prioritise,
based on their economic and developmental needs.
3. Enabling governments to incorporate the ecosystem
approach into their national and developmental
planning and investment strategies.
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
$39,632,000
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
©

C
o
r
b
i
s
% To mark World Water Day 2011, a Rapid
Response Assessment by UNEP and
UN-Habitat was launched. The assessment
showed that African urbanization -
growing at a faster rate than anywhere else
in the world - is afecting water supplies
and sanitation.
% On World Oceans Day, 08 June 2011,
UNEP launched a Guide to Marine and
Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management.
The guide showed that declines in
marine and coastal ecosystems due to
human activities such as overfishing
and pollution could be reversed
if organizations, communities
and other stakeholders adopt a more
integrated approach to managing
coastal environments.
unep annual r epor t 2011 55
RESULTS TARGETED
Countries and regions increasingly integrate
an ecosystem management approach into
development and planning processes.
Countries and regions acquire the capacity to use
ecosystem management tools.
Countries and regions begin to realign their
environmental programmes and financing to
tackle the degradation of selected priority
ecosystem services.
2011
ECOSYSTEMS
AT THE HEART OF
DECISION-MAKING
% The report ‘Reefs at Risk Revisited’ presented
a comprehensive analysis of threats to
coral reefs including, threats from climate
change — warming seas and rising ocean
acidification. It also showed that local
pressures — such as overfishing, coastal
development and pollution — pose the most
immediate and direct risks, threatening
more than 60 per cent of coral reefs today.
% A new UNEP report, ‘Colony Disorders and
other Threats to Insect Pollinators’, shows
that more than a dozen factors, ranging
from declines in flowering plants and the
use of memory-damaging insecticides to the
world-wide spread of pests and air pollution,
may be behind the emerging decline of bee
colonies across many parts of the globe.
5
E
C
O
S
Y
S
T
E
M

M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 56
% A new report by the UNEP-WCMC gave eight
million seven hundred thousand
(give or take 1.3 million) as the latest
estimated total number of species on
Earth and the most precise calculation ever
ofered. The report said that 91 per cent of
species in the seas have yet to be discovered,
described or catalogued.
% At the 10th Conference of Parties (COP 10)
to the Convention on Migratory Species
(CMS) held in Bergen, Norway from 20-25
November, eforts to conserve seven
migratory species, from the Giant Manta Ray
to the Saker Falcon, were strengthened.
% 2011 was declared the International Year of
Forests (IYF) with the theme 'Celebrating
Forests for People'. UNEP launched a
new forest-focused cofee table book
in collaboration with such famous
photographers as Yann Arthus-Bertrand; a
special media pack and a new website on
forests at www.unep.org/forests.
PROTECTING
ECOSYSTEMS
ABERDARE FENCE
The now completed 400 km electrified fence
enclosing the Aberdare Conservation Area (ACA)
has improved the livelihoods of millions of people
in central Kenya, according to an independent
study commissioned by UNEP in 2011.
The study, The Environmental, Social and
Economic Assessment of the Fencing of the
Aberdare Conservation Area, also attributes
improved forest cover, safer living conditions
for local communities and greater security for
wildlife to the fence, which was completed in
2009 after 20 years of construction.
The study was requested by The Rhino Ark
Trust, the Kenya conservation charity that
has pioneered the fence project, with funding
support from thousands of Kenyans and friends
of Kenya overseas. The study was co-funded by
UNEP, Rhino Ark and Kenya Forests Working
Group and supported by the Kenya Wildlife
Service, the Kenya Forest Service and the
Greenbelt Movement.
"The study af rms that the fence has proved a
prime management tool in the process of both
conservation integrity and ensuring better
incomes for all — fence edge farmers, as well as
the national and global interests that are
derived from the Aberdares as a prime
water, forest and biodiversity hot spot," said
Colin Church, Chairman of the Rhino Ark
Management Committee.
47
per cent
i ncrease i n exot i c
pl ant at i ons out si de
t he f enced area
20.6
per cent
i ncrease i n f orest
cover bet ween
2005 and 2010
ABERDARE FENCE:
RESULTS
unep annual r epor t 2011 57
"The study re-af rms that the Aberdares is
ofering a management and policy blue print
for the precious 'water towers' of Kenya and
other tropical mountain ecosystems and upon
which so much human resource is increasingly
dependent", he added.
Over the last 15 years, UNEP has been
highlighting the vital role of Kenya's "water
towers", such as the Aberdare Range and the
Mau Forest complex, in securing environmental
stability, economic development and human
well-being. The financial and technical support
to the Aberdare assessment study is part of
UNEP's ongoing work in enhancing
the understanding of the importance of
ecosystem services.
ABERDARE
REPORT
KEY FINDINGS
The report attributes these improvements to
the efects of the fence and associated fence
management guidelines as well as more
assertive policy interventions.
It emphasizes that there should be an
integrated management plan for the
Aberdares and by inference that future
government policy should incorporate holistic
approaches to the way high value mountain
forest ecosystems are managed.
It concludes by af rming that management
of the bufer zone — the five kilometre area
around the fence — should be clearly identified
and every efort made to create "positive
benefits by deliberate investment in support of
local livelihoods."
5
E
C
O
S
Y
S
T
E
M

M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
© Col i n Chur ch, Rhi no Ar k
© Col i n Chur ch, Rhi no Ar k
unep annual r epor t 2011 58
SUSTAINABLE
MANAGEMENT IN
THE ARCTIC
A partnership on sustainable management
in the Arctic was established in 2011 under
the leadership of the Russian Government
and UNEP.
The purpose of this initiative is to develop and
implement a long-term, multi-purpose
programme on environmental cooperation in
the Russian Arctic.
In September, Arctic Agenda 2020 was
submitted to the Global Environment Facility
for funding.
The following institutions and groups are
engaged in this partnership: the Government of
the Russian Federation, GEF, UNEP, The World
Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction
and Development, UNDP, Nordic Environment
Finance Corporation, United States
Environmental Protection Agency, regional
administrations of the Arctic regions in Russia,
extractive companies, NGOs and Indigenous
Peoples of the Arctic.
© Cor bi s
5
E
C
O
S
Y
S
T
E
M

M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
unep annual r epor t 2011 59
THE PACIFIC YEAR OF
THE DUGONG
They’re the gentle giants of the oceans. In 2011,
the Convention on Migratory Species launched
the Pacific year of the Dugong. Among the
initiatives was a new pilot project using
financial incentives to address direct hunting
and the incidental capture of dugongs by
improving the livelihoods of local communities.
The campaign was launched in Palau, which
hosts the smallest, most remote and critically
endangered dugong population in the region.
Dugongs, which play a significant ecological
role in the functioning of coastal habitats,
live in warm coastal and island waters from
East Africa to Vanuatu in the Pacific.
The action plan developed under the CMS
Dugong project provides the framework for
the regional cooperation for the long-term
protection of dugongs in the Indian Ocean,
South East Asia, South Asia, Australia and the
Pacific Islands.
Two pilot projects are currently being developed
in Daru, Papua New Guinea, and Bazaruto
Bay in Mozambique to reduce hunting and
accidental trapping by encouraging behavioural
change — this might be in the form of loans, or
payments for ecosystem services, for lessening
their catches or for changes to more dugong-
friendly fishing gear.
In some parts of the Pacific Islands, such as
the Torres Strait between Papua New Guinea
and Australia, hunting for direct consumption
is the legal right of traditional inhabitants and
sustainable hunting levels need to be agreed as
part of the action plan.
Most of the world’s remaining dugong
populations outside of Australia and the
United Arab Emirates are at serious risk of
disappearing without efective and timely
conservation action. The major causes of
dugong mortality are poaching, unsustainable
hunting, entanglement in fishing gear, vessel
strikes and habitat degradation.
At least five projects will be tested in sites
across the Indian Ocean, South East Asia,
South Asia, and Pacific Islands regions, and will
be funded over a three-year period (2011-2013).
Community organizations, NGOs, government
of cials and individuals will participate in
developing and implementing the projects.
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 60
WORLD
ENVIRONMENT
DAY 2011
World Environment Day (WED) is the biggest,
most widely recognized and celebrated UN-led
global day for positive environmental action
across all sectors of society. In line with the
UN International Year of Forests, the 2011 theme
for WED was Forests: Nature at Your Service.
The day aimed to raise global recognition of the
role and value of forests in the transition to a
Green Economy.
The participation and response to WED this
year reflected signs of the event evolving into a
global movement. WED 2011, hosted primarily
in India, strategically engaged Bollywood and
global celebrities (including UNEP Goodwill
Ambassadors) to build on the WED Legacy
initiative. This resulted in pledges to plant
a mini forest, based on activities registered
worldwide. According to activities registered
on the WED website, over 2 million people
participated in more than 4,200 activities
worldwide. An online media survey revealed
that more that 4,800 WED-related news
articles were published in just the week of the
celebration – 2 to 6 June. Social media activity
grew by more than 100 per cent over 2010
figures and in some instances quadrupling,
such as views on YouTube and blogging activity.
UNEP SASAKAWA
PRIZE 2011
The 2011 UNEP Sasakawa Prize continued the
focus on forestry and sustainable development
with awards for projects in Latin America and
the Himalayas. and Nepal. The Asociación
Forestal Integral San Andrés, Petén (AFISAP),
from Guatemala and the Manahari Development
Institute from Nepal were joint winners
around the theme “Forests for People, Forests
for Green Growth”.
AFISAP safeguards the preservation of forests
in the 52,000-hectare concession within the
Mayan Biosphere Reserve. MDI-Nepal has
introduced agroforestry to help improve crop
productivity and reduce soil erosion on the
forested hills and mountain areas of Nepal.
4,229
act i vi t i es were
regi st ered on t he
WED websi t e
(183 per cent
growt h), i nvol vi ng
over 2 mi l l i on
part i ci pant s
worl dwi de.
2.9
mi l l i on
vi si t s t o t he WED
websi t e bet ween
Jan-June, a
14 per cent
i ncrease over
2010 Ć¿ures in
t he same peri od
4,517
ext ernal websi t es l i nki ng t o t he
WED websi t e, a 39 per cent i ncrease
WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY
SPREADING THE MESSAGE
unep annual r epor t 2011 61
PLANT FOR THE PLANET
BILLION TREE
CAMPAIGN
UNEP’s Billion Tree Campaign, which has
planted over 12 billion trees worldwide, entered
a new phase with the of cial handing-over
of the project to the Plant For The Planet
Foundation, a youth-led environmental
organization based in Germany.
The original goal of one billion trees was quickly
surpassed soon after the campaign’s launch and
the 12 billion landmark was reached in October
2011. Inspired by the late Wangari Maathai, the
Billion Tree Campaign’s partners included the
Green Belt Movement, the World Agroforestry
Centre, FAO and the Prince Albert II of
Monaco Foundation.
5
E
C
O
S
Y
S
T
E
M

M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
© UNEP
© UNEP
© UNEP
© UNEP
6
62
HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
6
HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
& HAZARDOUS WASTE:
2011 IN REVIEW
% In April, Representatives from 127 Governments
meeting in Geneva for the fifth meeting of the
Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm
Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
agreed to add endosulfan to the United
Nations' list of persistent organic pollutants
to be eliminated worldwide. The action put
the widely-used pesticide on course for
elimination, with specific exemptions, from
the global market by 2012. The conference also
endorsed seven new Stockholm Convention
regional centres in Algeria, Kenya, India,
Iran, Senegal, South Africa and the Russian
Federation.
% In June, the fifth meeting of the Conference of
the Parties to the Rotterdam Convention on the
Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND
HAZARDOUS WASTE
$25,619,000
unep annual r epor t 2011
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
©

C
o
r
b
i
s
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in
International Trade held in Geneva agreed
to add three pesticides; alachlor, aldicarb
and endosulfan, to the Convention.
% The 10th meeting of the Conference of
the Parties to the Basel Convention, the
global treaty on waste management,
reached an agreement unblocking an
amendment that will ban the export
of hazardous wastes from OECD to
non-OECD countries. The decision
included a set of measures aimed at
strengthening international control of
transboundary movements of hazardous
wastes, while establishing a regime for
countries who may wish to trade in waste
to ensure the minimization of health
and environment impacts, adequate
labour and social conditions, and the
creation of new economic opportunities.
The Conference also adopted a 10-year
Strategic Framework for implementation
of the Convention designed to strengthen
the environmentally sound management
of wastes.
MERCURY RISING
ON THE AGENDA:
TOWARDS
AN INTERNATIONAL
TREATY
Mercury can exist in its familiar liquid metal
form (sometimes called quicksilver), as a
vapour, or as a compound in inorganic salts.
In all of these forms, it is toxic and can be
highly detrimental to human health and that
of the environment.
As a vapour, mercury is capable of wide-
spread travel in the atmosphere. The metal
accumulates in ecosystems and in living
organisms, including humans. Of particular
concern is mercury’s efect on the developing
nervous system of infants and children. Because
the substance can be passed from mother to
unborn child, women of child-bearing age are
also at risk.
Mercury and its compounds are extensively
used in industry. The element can be released to
the atmosphere during coal combustion and it
is a component is some fluorescent light bulbs.
One of the major areas of concern is mercury’s
use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining
(see overleaf).
unep annual r epor t 2011 63
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 64
QUICKSILVER AND GOLD
Because t hese operat i ons t end t o be poorl y
regul at ed, t he mi ners, t hei r communi t y and
t he l ocal envi ronment al l come i nt o cont act
wi t h mercury. It i s est i mat ed t hat t here
are 10-15 mi l l i on art i sanal and smal l -scal e
gol d mi ners i n 70 count ri es of t he worl d. An
est i mat ed 2000 t onnes of mercury are used
every year i n t he sect or. Yet l ow-mercury
and mercury-f ree sol ut i ons are avai l abl e
To combat t he use of mercury i n t he gol d-
mi ni ng i ndust ry, UNEP has spearheaded a
project t o encourage t ougher regul at i on
and devel op capaci t y-bui l di ng among
nat i ons wi t h ext ensi ve art i sanal and smal l -
scal e gol d mi ni ng operat i ons. Wi t h UNEP’s
advi ce and assi st ance, t he Phi l i ppi nes and
Cambodi a have t aken t he l ead. UNEP has
al so devel oped draf t gui dance f or ot her
government s t o consi der i n drawi ng up
nat i onal st rat egi c pl ans on t he i ssue.
10-15
MILLION
art i sanal and smal l scal e
gol d mi ners gl obal l y
2000
TONNES
mercury used annual l y
© UNEP
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 65
UNEP has taken the global lead in facilitating
a global treaty on mercury and its uses. In 2011
this treaty came one step closer to reality, with
two intergovernmental and several regional
meetings to negotiate a global legally binding
instrument on mercury. The intergovernmental
negotiations took place in Nairobi, Kenya, in
October-November 2011, following a session
earlier in the year in Japan.
The Japanese meeting was marked by moving
presentations from suferers of Minamata
disease. This crippling disease is caused by
exposure to mercury, sometimes even before
birth. It is named after the city of Japanese
city of Minamata where mercury pollution
from industry was allowed to bioaccumulate in
seafood over many decades. The subsequent
outcry and investigation led to Japan taking
a global lead in combating mercury pollution,
and it is planned that the UNEP-brokered treaty
will be signed in Japan in 2013, to be called the
Minamata Convention.
DDT ELIMINATION
& DISPOSAL IN
MEXICO AND
CENTRAL AMERICA
DDT’s danger as a persistent organic pollutant
(POP) is not in doubt. But nor is its efectiveness
in fighting malaria. As an insecticide, it was
used around the world in the years following
World War 2, with a significant impact on
malaria cases. But a chemical which is so
devastating to malaria’s vector, the mosquito,
has also proved extremely hazardous to other
plant and animal life, including humans.
Since 2003, the Central America and
Mexico Regional DDT project encouraged
the use of DDT alternatives to suppress the
spread of the malaria parasite. Alternatives
to persistent pesticides were demonstrated
in eight countries: Belize, Costa Rica,
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua and Panama. The project created
a multidisciplinary approach, working
with doctors, epidemiologists, nurses,
educators, local communities and politicians
to fight malaria.
2011 saw the final phase of the programme: the
safe disposal of vast stockpiles of DDT which
had been presenting an environmental hazard
for decades.
© Cor bi s
200
TONNES
amount of DDT and ot her POPs
saf el y di sposed of i n Mexi co &
Cent ral Ameri ca
unep annual r epor t 2011 66
PROTECTING
THE CHILDREN:
UNEP / WHO PROJECT
ON CHILDREN’S
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Healthy children in healthy environments are
essential for sustainable development. However,
the health and well-being of children around
the world is being compromised by a range
of adverse environmental factors. Developing
regions carry a disproportionately heavy share
of the environmental disease burden and
children in developing nations have the
highest death rates. An estimated 4 million
child deaths each year (mostly in developing
countries) are linked to both traditional
environmental hazards (unsafe water, lack
of sanitation, contaminated food, indoor
air pollution) and modern environmental
hazards (outdoor air pollution, climate change,
hazardous chemicals and waste).
In April 2011, UNEP concluded a major study on
the impact of chemicals on children’s health.
Results of an intensive review of Children’s
Environmental Health (CEH) studies done in
developing countries (Africa, the Asia Pacific
and Latin America) confirmed the crucial role of
environmental protection in the prevention of
childhood exposure to chemical risks.
The findings of the report are an important
contribution to the ongoing eforts to
achieve global harmonisation of exposure
(environment) and outcome (health) measures
to promote risk management strategies for
Children’s Environmental Health.
© Kai Loeffel bei n/ UNI CEF
4 MILLION
Est i mat ed chi l d deat hs
gl obal l y per annum due t o
envi ronment al hazards
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 67
139 Project s approved
$30.18m
f undi ng as of end 2011
CAREFULLY
CONTROLLING
CHEMICALS:
THE STRATEGIC APPROACH
TO INTERNATIONAL
CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT
In 2002, the Johannesburg World Summit
on Sustainable Development declared the
goal that, by the year 2020, chemicals will be
produced and used in ways that minimise
significant adverse impacts on the environment
and human health. 2011 marked the half-way
point towards the achievement of that goal,
whose custodian is the Strategic Approach to
International Chemicals Management (SAICM).
By the end of 2011, SAICM has mobilised a
total of over $30 million for the Quick Start
Programme (QSP). The funding has been
allocated to 139 projects in 103 countries, 53
of which are least developed nations or Small
Island Developing States. The QSP aims to:
% develop or update national chemical
profiles and the identification of capacity
needs for sound chemicals management;
% develop and strengthen national
chemicals management institutions; and
% undertake analysis, interagency
coordination, and public participation
activities directed at enabling the
implementation of SAICM in
national strategies.
SAICM’s guidance has been instrumental in
draft legislation by the Cambodian Ministry of
the Environment for policy to cover the whole
life-cycle of chemicals in the country. Similar
projects are under way in countries such as
Uruguay, Nigeria and Belize.
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 68
SAICM held the first meeting of its open-ended
Working Group in November 2011 in Belgrade,
Serbia, to review SAICM’s progress to date
and to identify future priority areas. Also
in 2011, a draft health sector strategy was
developed to increase the involvement of the
health sector in the implementation of SAICM’s
strategic approach.
In addition to its work on traditional chemicals,
SAICM has also been concerned with
developing overarching strategies to manage
novel materials such as nanotechnologies
and nanomaterials.
As technology in this field continues apace,
SAICM concluded in 2011 a report on such
materials with particular reference to related
issues for developing countries and economies
in transition.
BRIDGING THE
INFORMATION GAP
Under the auspices of SAICM, the Chemical
Information Exchange Network (CIEN) aims
to enhance the capabilities of countries to
obtain and share the Information needed for
their national decision-making on the sound
management of chemicals. UNEP has
supported the extension of CIEN to Peru,
Uruguay and Bolivia.
POP CHARTS:
MONITORING
PERSISTENT
ORGANIC
POLLUTANTS
AROUND THE WORLD
To efectively deal with Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs), it is necessary to have
timely and accurate data on their presence
in the environment. Between 2009 and
2011, UNEP assisted 32 countries with
training and capacity-building in monitoring
POPs. 20 training courses have been held
at POPs laboratories in developing countries
by experts from the Netherlands, Sweden
and Spain.
In cooperation with WHO, mothers’ milk
samples from 55 countries showed which
nations have most exposure to certain
POPs. DDT, for example, was highest in
Tajikistan and the Solomon Islands.
An interesting source of dioxin exposure
was identified in some African countries
where traditionally, pregnant women
eat certain types of clay to overcome
nausea: this geophagy results in
concentrations higher than normally
found in Africa.
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 69
© Cor bi s
A BREATH OF FRESH AIR:
INDIA AND CHINA
PHASE OUT
CFC-BASED INHALERS
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease (COPD) are considered significant
health problems across the globe. It is estimated
that this disease afects over 300 million people
worldwide and the death toll has been estimated
at 250,000. More than 20 million Chinese are
estimated to be sufering from asthma with
a morbidity rate at 2 per cent. Every year,
according to statistics, it kills nearly 62,000
people in China and the trend is rising.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are commonly used
as chemical propellant in metered-dose inhalers
(MDIs), but CFCs deplete the stratospheric
ozone layer. Ozone layer depletion can lead
to an overexposure to ultraviolet radiation.
China, the largest consumer of CFCs in the MDI
manufacturing sector, uses CFCs for both local
consumption and export. CFCs in China have
been phased out since 2010 as stipulated by the
Montreal Protocol but have remained available for
use in MDIs through Essential Use provisions in
the agreement.
Some developing countries have taken the lead
in the CFC phase-out eforts and the industry
has played an important role in supporting the
national initiatives. India is one of the states
where the industry has taken a lead in the MDI
sector and has successfully eliminated CFCs
from their products.
In 2011, facilitated by UNEP Ozonaction as
part of UNEP’s mandate as an implementing
agency of the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund,
experts from the Chinese government and
the pharmaceutical industry visited India to
gain experience from India’s CFC-based MDI
phase-out.
“After discussion with the of cials from Ministry
of Environment and Forests, Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare, and Food and Drug
Administration of Government of India, we have
understood India’s strategies, policies and basic
approaches on phase-out of CFC MDIs,” said
Ms. Zhang Peipei, Deputy Director of the Centre
for Drug Evaluation of the Chinese State Food
and Drug Administration. “The experiences are
useful for China’s CFC MDI phase-out. Under
the framework of the strategies, guidelines and
technical requirements for CFC MDI phase-out,
we are concreting the communication with MDI
industry, meanwhile the fast track of CFC-free
MDIs approved is being set up.
“ The phase-out of CFC-MDIs in China will
be finished, premising upon the assurance of
alternative products’ safety and ef ciency for
patients in China. ”
Ms Zhang Peipei,
Chinese State Food & Drug Administration
too. Wild flora and fauna, as well as harmful
chemicals and hazardous waste, are
increasingly being transported across
borders illicitly.
In the Greater Mekong subregion of south-
east Asia, the borders are porous and often ill-
guarded. Yet increased economic activity and
greater social migration are putting border
patrols under ever greater pressure. Crimes
like illegal logging and the traf cking in forest
products often go hand-in-hand with other
criminal activity.
To fight the trend, UNEP has teamed up with the
UN Of ce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and
two leading NGOs in the region, to coordinate
their eforts and to learn from each other’s
expertise through PATROL: Partnership on
Combating Transnational Crime through
Regional Organized Law Enforcement. Of cials
(such as immigration of cers, police, customs
and trade control) and policymakers in
Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam have already
started training and an assessment of training
needs has been conducted in Myanmar.
unep annual r epor t 2011 70
CHEMICALS
IN PRODUCTS
Since 2009, UNEP has been conducting
an in-depth survey into the use of chemicals
in everyday products. In 2011 the
project completed investigations into
four key groups: textiles, electronics, toys
and construction materials.
The study concluded that the current level of
information that is provided about chemicals
in products is not enough to allow consumers
and other stakeholders to practise sound
management of chemicals throughout the
lifetime of the products. This is despite the
fact that many sources of information exist,
ranging from detailed substance lists to
complex databases reporting on the chemical
constituents of various products.
Many end-users have been able to successfully
access such information, but others still feel
they need more.
UNEP’s workshop on the issue in early 2011
recommended the development of a non-legally
binding framework to facilitate information
exchange between producers and users
of products.
BATTLING
ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME
ACROSS BORDERS
PROJECT PATROL
Cross-border smuggling: the crime is often
associated with drugs or human traf cking.
But it’s a large-scale environmental problem
© UNEP
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
© Br i ti sh Antar cti c Sur vey
FIFTH INTERNATIONAL
MARINE DEBRIS
CONFERENCE
Marine debris is an increasing threat to
livelihoods, wildlife, and human health. Marine
litter is found in all the oceans of the world. It
is estimated that as many as 8 million items of
marine litter enter the world’s waters every day.
These range from street litter, domestic and
industrial rubbish, and sea-based litter such as
fishing nets and containers.
An estimated 100,000 turtles and marine
mammals such as dolphins, whales and seals,
are killed by plastic marine litter every year.
Despite decades of eforts to prevent and reduce
marine debris, the problem continues to grow,
and by 2050 it is projected that the world will
produce over 13.1 billion tonnes of waste—
20 per cent more than present levels.
Against this backdrop, scientists, policy-
makers and representatives of industry met in
March 2001, in Honolulu, Hawaii, for the 5th
International Marine Debris Conference. They
were greeted by schoolchildren chanting: “Be
fantastic, don’t use plastic”: and indeed, one of
the major eforts of the conference was to bring
together manufacturers such as Coca-Cola
and Plastics Europe, to sign up to the Honolulu
Commitment, a new, cross-sectoral approach to
help reduce marine debris.
The commitment marks the first step in the
development of a comprehensive global
framework for the prevention, reduction and
management of marine debris, to be known as
the Honolulu Strategy.
unep annual r epor t 2011 71
In 2011, the Parties to the Basel, Rotterdam
and Stockholm conventions embarked on
a new, innovative and tangible phase of the
synergies process.
At the three meetings of the Conferences of the
Parties to the Stockholm, Rotterdam and Basel
conventions held in April, June and October
2011, respectively, parties reached consensus on
a path forward on synergies, as well as a number
of significant technical and policy matters.
The Stockholm and Rotterdam meetings in
Geneva resulted in new listings for control
of hazardous chemicals and pesticides and
new initiatives to strengthen the scientific
underpinnings of chemicals management.
The Basel and Stockholm COPs also agreed to
new synergistic relations between an expanded
number of designated Regional Centres serving
to bolster implementation on the ground.
Meeting in Cartagena, Colombia, Parties at
Basel COP10 agreed on a way forward on
the amendment banning transboundary
movements of hazardous wastes from OECD
countries to developing countries. For a
number of reasons, the Ban Amendment
has not yet entered into force, while trade in
hazardous waste for resource recovery has
grown significantly in the intervening decades,
including between developing countries.
Basel COP10 recognized this shift and in a
historic decision agreed to an approach that will
unep annual r epor t 2011 72
A BREAKTHROUGH YEAR
OF SYNERGIES FOR THE
BASEL, ROTTERDAM
AND STOCKHOLM
CONVENTIONS
BY JIM WILLIS
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY OF THE BASEL,
ROTTERDAM AND STOCKHOLM CONVENTIONS
6
H
A
R
M
F
U
L

S
U
B
S
T
A
N
C
E
S

A
N
D

H
A
Z
A
R
D
O
U
S

W
A
S
T
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 73
allow the Ban Amendment to enter into force
for those countries who wish to adhere to it.
At the same time, Parties agreed to a framework
to build a regime for countries who may wish
to trade in waste to ensure the minimization of
health and environmental impacts.
In launching the synergies process, Parties
established the goal of strengthening
implementation of each convention while
delivering services in an efcient, cost-efective
manner. Improving the delivery of service to
parties is the sine qua non of the Secretariat.
Among the most visible benefits to Parties has
been the integration of conference services
and meeting support, which contributed to
successfully holding our first three paperless
COPs. The recent conferences drew praise
for being among the smoothest and most
productive meetings in the entire history of the
conventions (the “miracle of Cartagena”).
The COPs approved the proposed cross-
cutting and joint activities for inclusion in the
programmes of work of the three Secretariats
for 2012–2013 and authorized the Executive
Secretary to determine the stafng levels,
numbers and structure of the Secretariat in a
flexible manner within the ceiling established
by the decision on financing and budget for the
biennium 2012–2013.
Working in consultation with Parties through
the bureaux, I have submitted a proposal for
the organization of the Secretariats, including
stafng levels, numbers and structure, to be
implemented by 31 December 2012. The proposed
future structure would establish a single
integrated secretariat dedicated to serving all
three conventions equally, and would consist of
four branches covering administrative services,
convention operations, technical assistance and
scientific support.
The proposed future structure would also
considerably simplify the organization of the
secretariat, and ultimately reduce the number
of senior managers.
Eliminating redundancies, identifying resource
savings, building upon best practices, and
strengthening the focus on delivery of services
to Parties are key considerations that should
translate into increased support to Parties.
A secretariat better able to deliver services
related to all three MEAs simultaneously would
be better able to influence synergies externally,
for example through supporting synergistic
projects delivered through regional centres or
by IGO partners.
The synergies process of the chemicals and
waste MEAs is part of a larger efort aimed at
overcoming fragmentation within the global
system of environmental governance. Our
experience shows that it is indeed possible to
break away from “business as usual” and do much
more through cooperation and collaboration in
ways that were once hardly considered possible.
7
unep annual r epor t 2011 74
7
ACCELERATING THE
TRANSITION TO
RESOURCE-EFFICIENT
SOCIETIES
UNEP aims to ensure that natural resources are
produced, processed and consumed in a more
environmentally sustainable way. UNEP’s work
focuses on four key areas:
% Conducting assessments of trends in
the extraction and use of resources in the
global economy.
% Supporting governments in developing
national policies and implementing national
solutions through regulatory and economic
instruments and policy initiatives.
% Leveraging insights from scientific and
macroeconomic analyses to identify
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011
RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
$32,787,000
$OOĆJXUHVLQ000s
RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
AND THE GREEN ECONOMY
©

C
o
r
b
i
s
unep annual r epor t 2011 75
investment opportunities for alternative
business models and improvements
in the processes of existing, resource-
intensive industries and supply chains.
% Raising awareness and influencing
the purchasing choices of individual
and institutional consumers as well as
changing the way products and services
are designed, produced and disposed of.
RESULTS TARGETED
Resource efficiency is increased and pollution
is reduced over product life-cycles and along
supply chains.
Increased investment in clean, efficient and safe
production methods through public policy and
private-sector action.
Enhance and inform consumer choice to favour
more resource-efficient and environmentally-
friendly purchases.
2011
TOWARDS
A GREEN ECONOMY
AND RESOURCE
EFFICIENCY
% 2011 saw the launch of the flagship report
of the International Resource Panel,
Decoupling Natural Resource Use and
Environmental Impacts from Economic
Growth. The report provides empirical
evidence of the links between economic
growth and resource use, and lays the
foundation for action to decouple.
% The International Resoure Panel (IRP) also
published Recycling Rates of Metals: A status
report. The report quantified recycling rates
of metals, with the surprising finding that
recycling rates of many strategic metals are
less than 1 per cent.
% UNEP, through the IRP, partnered with
the World Resources Forum Secretariat to
organise the 2011 World Resources Forum.
This multidisciplinary event brought
together experts and stakeholders from
around the world to share information
on resources. A declaration was developed
at the conclusion of the conference calling
for transformative improvements in
resource efciency.
% 2011 saw extended work in Green Economy
Advisory Services and Capacity Building.
UNEP is working with over 20 countries
in Asia and Pacific, Latin America and
the Caribbean, and the Middle East, at the
regional and national levels, to conduct
scoping studies, provide technical advice
and foster multi-stakeholder dialogues.
% In November 2011, UNEP supported a
workshop in Rwanda, where East African
nations examined policies required for
implementing a green economy transition.
Also in November, the Arab Forum for
Environment and Development launched
a report, ‘Green Economy in a Changing
Arab World’ at a conference in Lebanon,
where over 500 delegates adopted
recommendations for transitioning to a
7
R
E
S
O
U
R
C
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

A
N
D

T
H
E

G
R
E
E
N

E
C
O
N
O
M
Y
unep annual r epor t 2011 unep annual r epor t 2011 76
Green Economy. Technical meetings were
held in China to advance its national Green
Economy plans.
% UNEP and the Inter-American Development
Bank co-organized a meeting to
explore support for Green Economy
initiatives in Latin America and the
Caribbean, and studies to advance Green
Economy initiatives are underway in
Brazil and Mexico.
% In September 2011 Ivory Coast adopted
its National Sustainable Development
Strategy (NSDS), coordinated by the National
Sustainable Development Commission.
UNEP has provided advisory services,
technical and financial assistance to Ivory
Coast since 2009 to mainstream Sustainable
Consumption and Production in the NSDS,
which will be a key element in the countries'
national development strategy.
% In January 2011, the Global Partnership
for Sustainable Tourism was launched.
The Global Partnership already has
more than 85 members, including
19 governments, 8 UN agencies
and programmes, 33 non-for-profit
organizations, and 10 business groups.
% The 2011 Business and Industry Global
Dialogue (BIGD), held in April 2011,
introduced the key findings of the Green
Economy Report and solicited feedback from
business and industry – being a key partner
in the transition to a resource ef cient
and Green Economy. The 200 participants
from over 20 countries made renewed
commitments to work together towards
Rio+20 and beyond.
WHAT IS
A GREEN ECONOMY?
UNEP defines a green economy as one that
results in improved human wellbeing and
social equity, while significantly reducing
environmental risks and ecological scarcities.
In its simplest expression, a green economy
can be thought of as one which is low carbon,
resource ef cient and socially inclusive.
Practically speaking, a green economy is
one whose growth in income and employment
is driven by public and private investments
that reduce carbon emissions and pollution,
enhance energy and resource ef ciency,
unep annual r epor t 2011 77
that it is also a vital strategy for the elimination
of persistent poverty. The report also seeks to
motivate policy makers to create the enabling
conditions for increased investments in a
transition to a Green Economy.
Launching the report, UN Secretary-General
Ban Ki Moon said: "With the world looking
ahead to the Rio+20 UN Conference on
Sustainable Development in June 2012, the
UNEP Green Economy report challenges the
myth that there is a trade-of between the
economy and the environment. With smart
public policies, governments can grow their
economies, generate decent employment and
accelerate social progress in a way that keeps
humanity's ecological footprint within the
planet's carrying capacity."
CASE STUDY FOR
THE GREEN ECONOMY
BARBADOS
Barbados is one of the Caribbean nations
spearheading the transition to a Green
Economy. And, with the help of UNEP and
experts from the University of the West Indies,
2011 saw the first steps taken along that route.
In March, a Green Economy Scoping Study was
launched, to help establish a resource-ef cient
economy in Barbados. The study focuses on
areas identified by the Barbados government:
housing and construction, transport,
agriculture, fisheries and tourism. It will also
examine the impact that Green Economy
policies would have on issues such as water,
waste, energy and land use. When the study
is complete in late 2012, it will function as a
long-term guide for integrated policies in other
Caribbean nations and around the world.
and prevent the loss of biodiversity and
ecosystem services. These investments
need to be catalysed and supported by
targeted public expenditure, policy reforms
and regulation changes.
This development path should maintain,
enhance and, where necessary, rebuild
natural capital as a critical economic asset and
source of public benefits, especially for poor
people whose livelihoods and security depend
strongly on nature.
PATHWAYS TO
A GREEN ECONOMY
2011 saw the publication of UNEP’s flagship
report, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways
to Sustainable Development and Poverty
Eradication. Launched in Beijing in September,
it was the culmination of a three-year research
efort compiled by UNEP’s Green Economy
Initiative, in collaboration with economists and
experts worldwide. It demonstrates that the
greening of economies is not generally a drag
on growth but rather a new engine of growth;
that it is a net generator of decent jobs, and
unep annual r epor t 2011 77
7
R
E
S
O
U
R
C
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

A
N
D

T
H
E

G
R
E
E
N

E
C
O
N
O
M
Y
TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY REPORT
200
aut hors
500
ext ernal revi ewers
800
cont ri but ors
unep annual r epor t 2011 unep annual r epor t 2011 78
UNEP
FINANCE
INITIATIVE
UNEP Finance Initiative’s 13th Global
Roundtable drew record attendance and
featured high-level speakers including Gordon
Brown, Mary Robinson, Lisa Jackson, as well
as CEOs and top executives from various
financial institutions. Key outcomes of the
meeting include proposed policy and regulatory
interventions required to make a real change to
the “rules of the game” – shifting the focus away
from short-termism, and placing environmental
and social factors at the heart of financial
decision-making.
© Cor bi s
10-YEAR FRAMEWORK
OF PROGRAMMES
The 10-Year Framework of Programmes
i s a gl obal i ni t i at i ve assi st i ng count ri es
del i ver t he shi f t t owards sust ai nabl e
consumpt i on and product i on and
resource efĆciency.
In 2011 a f ul l agreement was reached
at t he Commi ssi on on Sust ai nabl e
Devel opment 19 on i t s el ement s. Key
resul t s are t ool s f or i mpl ement i ng
pol i ci es on areas, i ncl udi ng sust ai nabl e
publ i c procurement , a Green Passport
campai gn t o promot e sust ai nabl e
t ouri sm, t he devel opment of an Af ri can
eco-l abel l i ng syst em, t he i mpl ement at i on
of project s on sust ai nabl e l i f est yl es,
project s on educat i on f or sust ai nabl e
consumpt i on i n t hree count ri es, and a
st udy on bui l di ngs and cl i mat e change
wi t h t he devel opment of Common
Carbon Met ri c.
The chal l enge now i s t o scal e up
t hese pract i cal sol ut i ons. To t hi s end,
UNEP set up i n 2011 a Gl obal Part nershi p
f or Sust ai nabl e Touri sm and an Agri -Food
Syst em Taskf orce t oget her wi t h ot her
UN agenci es, as wel l as cont ri but i ng
act i vel y t o t he Part nershi p on Educat i on
and Research on Sust ai nabl e Li vi ng.
UNEP al so engaged wi t h t he pri vat e
sect or, t hrough t he Busi ness and Indust ry
Gl obal Di al ogue, t he Sust ai nabl e
Bui l di ngs and Cl i mat e Ini t i at i ve and t he
Sust ai nabl e Ri ce Pl at f orm.
unep annual r epor t 2011 79
7
R
E
S
O
U
R
C
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

A
N
D

T
H
E

G
R
E
E
N

E
C
O
N
O
M
Y
unep annual r epor t 2011 79
CITIES
TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE
URBAN FUTURE
UNEP is supporting developing countries
cities and city networks to develop and
implement appropriate policies, through
capacity building, technology and knowledge
support on low-carbon urban development and
resource ef ciency.
In particular, UNEP, in collaboration with
partners such as UN-HABITAT, the World
Bank and Cities Alliance is supporting cities in
better accessing carbon finance mechanisms
and in assessing the city’s environmental
performance. These two major activities have
been announced at the Gwangju Summit of the
Urban Environmental Accords in October 2011
with representatives of local authorities from
more than 100 cities worldwide.
WASTE NOT
WANT NOT
A NEW STRATEGY
FOR SOLID WASTE
UNEP is assisting governments and the waste
management industry to develop Integrated
Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plans based on
the 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) approach for
cities and towns.
% To raise awareness, political will and capacity
for waste management comprising all stages
of the waste management chain including
waste minimization, waste collection
and transportation, waste recycling and
appropriate treatment, and disposal of waste.
% To increase the ef ciency of resources
and interaction among stakeholders by
supporting an umbrella plan to integrate
the management of all waste streams within
administrative boundaries.
% To promote waste management as a business
by encouraging local private sector and
community enterprises to participate in
waste collection, recycling, and proper
treatment and disposal.
An ISWM plan for Wuxi, PR China
% Awareness raising for source segregation
may result into diverting 30 per cent of waste
for recycling, improved technologies at
transfer station may lead achieve
60 per cent material recovery for recycling,
and installation of biogas plants may
convert 80 per cent of organic waste into
energy source.
CREATING CAPACITY IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
AT CITY LEVEL
UNEP' s project Sust ai nabl e Bui l di ngs
Pol i ci es i n Devel opi ng Count ri es
i nt ends t o creat e capaci t y f or
devel opi ng count ri es t o est abl i sh a
pol i cy f oundat i on f or mai nst reami ng
sust ai nabl e const ruct i on of bui l di ngs,
resul t i ng i n reduced greenhouse gas
emi ssi ons. The project i s current l y
pi l ot t est i ng t ool s and met hodol ogi es
i n t wo Af ri can ci t i es, Nai robi i n Kenya
and Ouagadougou i n Burki na Faso.
unep annual r epor t 2011 80
BUILDING A
SUSTAINABLE
FUTURE
How and where we live not only shapes
our daily experience, but defines the global
urban landscape. Many of us do not consider
the impact of our homes and of ces on the
environment — either positive or negative —
but buildings are responsible for more than
one-third of global energy use, and in most
countries are the largest source of greenhouse
gas emissions.
Commercially available technologies have the
potential to cut energy consumption in new and
existing buildings by 30-50 per cent without
significantly increasing investment costs.
UNEP’s Sustainable Buildings and Climate
Initiative (SBCI) is in the final stages of
developing a sustainable building index and has
piloted a standard methodology for building
energy ef ciency metrics and accounting: the
Common Carbon Metric (CCM). Approximately
20 companies, green building councils,
universities, and cities have participated in two
pilot phases of the CCM over the last 18 months.
EVERY PURCHASE COUNTS:
PROCUREMENT AND
SUSTAINABILITY
“Sustainable Procurement is a process whereby
organizations meet their needs for goods,
services, works and utilities in a way that
achieves value for money on a whole life basis
in terms of generating benefits not only to the
organization, but also to society and
the economy, whilst minimising damage to
the environment.” Procuring the Future — UK
Sustainable Procurement Task Force, June 2011
This definition was adopted by the Marrakech
Task Force on Sustainable Public Procurement
(SPP), led by Switzerland. Public spending can
represent up to 30 per cent of national GDP
and every purchase is an opportunity to drive
markets towards innovation and sustainability.
Through Sustainable Public Procurement,
governments can lead by example and deliver
key objectives in the environmental, social and
economic fields.
UNEP has been assisting seven countries
(Chile, Uruguay, Colombia, Costa Rica, Tunisia,
Mauritius and Lebanon) in the design and
implementation of their sustainable public
procurement policies and action plans.
These countries have selected a set
of sustainable products and services that
will be progressively introduced in their
procurement systems.
© UNEP
unep annual r epor t 2011 81
THE YEAR OF
LIVING
SUSTAINABLY
UNEP’s Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles
was one of the first global surveys on the subject
conducted at such a large scale, involving more
than 8000 young adults from 20 countries. The
aim was to listen to young adults’ voices from
around the world, to hear what they think,
their aspirations for the future and reactions
to sustainable lifestyles. The survey’s results,
which are presented in UNEP’s report Visions for
Change: Recommendations for Effective Policies
on Sustainable Lifestyles, reveal that young
people, from Australia to Vietnam and Ethiopia
to Mexico, want to be a force for change and
create their own vision of sustainable societies.
But at the same time, young adults need more
information on what they can do to be part of
the solution to address global challenges and
how they relate to their lifestyles.
7
R
E
S
O
U
R
C
E

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

A
N
D

T
H
E

G
R
E
E
N

E
C
O
N
O
M
Y
© Cor bi s
unep annual r epor t 2011 82
8
UNEP IN THE UN
THE ENVIRONMENT
AT THE HEART OF THE
GLOBAL COMMUNITY
UNEP’s mandate
Established in 1972, UNEP’s mission is “to provide
leadership and encourage partnership in caring
for the environment by inspiring, informing,
and enabling nations and peoples to improve
their quality of life without compromising that of
future generations”.
UNEP’s mandate was expanded and rearticulated
by the Nairobi Declaration adopted in 1997 “to be
the leading global environmental authority that sets
the global environmental agenda, that promotes
the coherent implementation of the environmental
dimensions of sustainable development within
the United Nations system and that serves as an
authoritative advocate for the global environment”.
The graphic on the right shows just some of the
UN agencies and programmes with whom UNEP
cooperates on a daily basis, listing a select few of
the myriad of joint activites covered.
UNDP
Povert y Environment
Init iat ive, Sust ainable
development
UNESCO
Biodiversit y &
ecosyst em services
UNHABITAT
Urban planning,
t ransport
UNCTAD
Capacit y building
for sust ainable
development
WTO
Trade and
climat e change
WIPO
Int ellect ual
propert y and
Green Economy
IFAD
Sust ainable
agricult ure
FAO
REDD+
WFP
Climat e
adapt at ion
©

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
D P
U N
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 83
UNESCAP UNESCWA
UNECLAC
UNECE UNECA
IMF
Major
funding
part ners
GEF
WORLD BANK
WHO
Environment al
healt h
UNFCCC
Key non-UNEP
administ ered MEA
UNITAR
UNOSAT
UNV
Skills exchange
IMO
Marine
pollut ion
prevent ion
UPU
Green
post al
services
ILO
Green jobs
UNOCHA
Disast er response
UNHCR
3RVWFRQćLFWDQGHDUO\ZDUQLQJ
OCHA
UN REGIONAL
COMMISSIONS
UNCCD
Key non-UNEP
administ ered MEA
UNIDO
Cleaner
product ion
unep annual r epor t 2011 84
THE ROAD
TO RIO+20
2012 will mark some major milestones in the
race to realize sustainable development as
nations navigate the final laps on the Road
to Rio+20.
The UN Conference on Sustainable Development
(UNCSD) as it is formally known, scheduled for
June, will address two over-arching themes: a
Green Economy in the context of sustainable
development; and an institutional framework
for sustainable development.
RIO+20, a head-of-state level summit, comes
20 years after the Rio Earth Summit of 1992 that
set the course for contemporary sustainable
development and established the Climate
Change, biodiversity and desertification treaties
as well as a forum on forests.
Throughout 2011 and into 2012, UNEP has been
increasingly geared towards preparations for
the summit.
UNEP’s Secretariat, through the chairing of the
UN’s High-Level Committee on Programmes
(HLCP) by the UNEP Executive Director,
prepared a report on moving towards a fairer,
greener, more sustainable globalization, and on
several issues related to Rio+20 that warrant a
common UN system-wide approach.
In his capacity as HLCP Chair, the Executive
Director also facilitated the preparation of a
common statement on the outcome of UNCSD
by all UN system organizations, which they
have submitted as a preface to their individual
agency contributions to the compilation for the
zero draft outcome document of UNCSD.
A milestone UNEP report, ‘Keeping Track of our
Changing Environment: from Rio to Rio+20’.
Based on environmental data and satellite
imagery, this publication tracks changes in
the human and natural environment that have
occurred since the first Rio Conference in 1992
until the present day. The document shows
that while some improvements in environment
and human development have occurred, in
most realms the environment continues to
deteriorate or remain in a “steady state” at best.
It highlights the need for more systematic data
collection and monitoring, in order to support
“evidence-based” policy-making.
The UNEP Year Book will be launched
covering emerging environmental issues,
such as the benefits of soil carbon and the
decommissioning of nuclear reactors.
The Global Environment Outlook-5 (GEO-5)
assessment report, with related publications
© Cor bi s
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 85
for Policy Makers, Local Authorities and Youth,
will be published to contribute to the Rio+20
programme.
UNEP’s regional of ces have been consulting
with member states and regional bodies to
both solicit feedback and garner support for
the Rio+20 summit agenda. In addition, the
Global Major Groups and Stakeholders Forum
in February, alongside the UNEP Governing
Council, will allow civil society groups to
consolidate positions and make alliances
ahead of the negotiations.
UNEP is organising the World Congress on
Justice, Governance and Law for Environmental
Sustainability, to be held just prior to Rio+20.
The World Congress will bring together
Attorneys-General, Chief Prosecutors, Auditors-
General (Cour des Comptes), Chief Justices and
Senior Judges from around the world. The aim
of the World Congress is to foster a common
vision among those key stakeholders of how
to transform discussions into action and
use law, justice and governance to promote
sustainable development.
UNEP’s Green Economy team are organising a
series of workshops and events in the run-up to,
and on the fringes of Rio+20, focusing on the
Green Economy and Sustainable Development.
The Partnership on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles
will be relaunched 10 years after its inception,
with a shift in focus from fuels to cleaner
vehicles. The Global Partnership on Resource
Ef cient Cities will aim to enhance the
quality of life in urban area, particularly in the
developing world. Additionally, there will be an
online social game, Forward Rio+50, to educate
and empower player to act on Climate Change
and sustainable development.
UNEP’s GreenUp campaign and its website,
www.unep.org/greenup, aims to enhance public
awareness of, and participation in Rio+20.
In late 2011, the fashion designer Vivienne
Westwood launched an exclusive t-shirt linked
to the campaign.
The UNEP Finance Initiative will put forward
its Principles for Sustainable Insurance, a
global best practice framework for insurance
companies to embed environmental, social
and governance issues in their core businesses
and strategies. UNEP FI will also use the
platform of Rio+20 to launch the Neutral Capital
Declaration, calling on financial institutions to
commit to working towards integrating natural
capital criteria in their products and services.
© UNEP
unep annual r epor t 2011 86
ENVIRONMENT
MANAGEMENT
GROUP:
ACROSS THE UN
The Environment Management Group (EMG) is
the UN system-wide coordination body on the
Environment. Its membership consists of the
specialized agencies, programmes and organs
of the UN including the secretariats of the
MEAs. It is chaired by the Executive Director of
UNEP and supported by a secretariat provided
by UNEP.
In 2011, EMG produced the first ever inter-
agency report on the Green Economy,
representing a collaboration between UN
agencies, the Bretton Woods Institutions and
other intergovernmental bodies. Working
Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green
Economy highlights the need for more
integrated approaches between international
bodies, and emphasises that a Green Economy
must be a “people-centred” economy.
The 2011 report Global Drylands: a UN system-
wide response was EMG’s setting out of
a common vision for action on drylands
management and the UN’s role in addressing
climate change and food insecurity through a
positive development and investment approach.
The report is a milestone in the UN system’s
support for UNCCD’s strategic plan, aiming to
bring together the UN’s expertise, operational
and logistic capabilities, and powerful advocacy
role in the fight against dryland degradation.
GREENING
THE BLUE
Greening the Blue is EMG’s system-wide
approach to making the UN carbon-neutral in
its operations.
Greening the Blue is the pan-UN initiative to
make the operations of the United Nations
carbon-neutral.
2011 was the year all UN organizations started
work on Emission Reduction Plans, a key
component in achieving carbon neutrality.
One mission which has already reached that
target is the UNDP of ce in Bratislava, Slovakia,
who, following the example of the new UNEP
HQ in Nairobi, have installed an extensive solar
energy network to achieve carbon neutrality.
Meanwhile in New York, the headquarters of
the UN were plunged into darkness as the lights
went out in support of Earth Hour, making a
dramatic statement on the Manhattan skyline.
www.greeningtheblue.org/
© Bo Li / DPI
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 87
On her way to her family home near the
northern Thai city of Chiang Mai, Ampai
Harakunarak knew that something
was wrong.
“Travelling through the central rice plains, I
was astonished by the huge volume of water
there,” she recalls. “It was shocking. I remember
thinking at the time, I wonder if this is headed
for Bangkok?”
Her fears were well-founded: by mid-October,
parts of the capital were under two metres of
water. By November, at the height of the floods,
over three million people had been afected and
more than 500 had lost their lives.
Ampai knows better than most the devastating
power of water. It’s her area of specialty,
focusing on freshwaters, international
and coastal waters. She currently manages
four large-scale projects (budgeted at over $1m)
and three medium-scale projects
(below $1m). The geographic range is
enormous: from the Russian Arctic to the
Cook Islands of the South Pacific. In China,
her project looks directly at the issue of flood
prevention and control. Yet the Thai floods of
2011 really struck home.
“The scale of this was unprecedented,” Ampai
recounts. “There had been terrible flooding
50, 70 years ago—but the memories had
faded. No-one really wanted to think about
it happening again. But we’ve seen such
development in Thailand in the last few
decades, especially around Bangkok. It’s no
wonder the city was hit so hard.”
Now Ampai is looking forward to bringing some
of her experience from China and elsewhere to
the efort in preventing a recurrence of the great
floods of 2011. She want to share UNEP’s wealth
of expertise and skills, and discussions with the
Thai Ministry of Natural Resources are already
under way.
“Thailand has a great capacity for learning
from disasters,” she says. “We saw that after the
2004 tsunami. Now, we have to look at proper
management of water resources, and issues
such as building and development controls.”
AMPAI
HARAKUNARAK
GEF Task Manager
Bangkok, Thailand
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 88 unep annual r epor t 2011 88
There was a time when it was hard to stir the
public interest in finance and economics. But
that was before the Financial Crisis. And now,
projects and initiatives that UNEP and its partners
have been developing for years, are attracting the
attention of an increasingly wide audience.
Thats something Barbara Krumsiek welcomes.
As co-chair of UNEP’s Finance Initiative, she
welcomes the heightened awareness of the
role finance has to play in people’s lives. “We
were holding our 2011 Global Round Table in
Washington, DC,” she recalls, “just as the Occupy
movement was taking of in Wall Street. Occupy
DC had set up camp just down the block from
our meeting. There’s been an enormous backlash
against some of the outcomes of the work of our
industry as a whole. It certainly served to focus
the thinking at our meeting, about how we can be
part of the solution.”
With over 200 institutional members, UNEP
FI is beginning to get the message through to
investors, that the superficial profit line is
not the only consideration they need to take
into account.
“Our Integrating Reporting Initiative shows
investors need not only financial data, but also
‘of-balance’ information: environmental,
social and governance considerations,” Barbara
explains. “Getting this information in a consistent
form means that we can speed the flow of
capital to worthy projects. Capital moves when
there is good data—without it, you can only
make short-term decisions.”
As President of the Calvert Investments, a leading
US investment company, Barbara is aware that
the finance industry and the environmental and
development movements have not traditionally
been easy allies. “Historically barriers have existed
on both sides,” she admits. “But they’re being
lowered. I think both sides realise that we can get
more done by breaching those barriers than by
hiding behind them.”
With Rio+20 rapidly approaching, UNEP FI will
launch its Principles for Sustainable Insurance,
extending its guidance into another branch of
financial services. “I have no doubt,” says Barbara,”
that in years to come, we’re going to see more and
more dollars flowing into the sustainable economy.”
BARBARA J.
KRUMSIEK
Co-Chair
UNEP Finance Initiative
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 89
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 89
“The Green Economy is being debated in Rio,
and New York,” says Kamal Gheye, “but it’s being
implemented on the ground. and in many cases,
people don’t even know it.”
Part of Kamal’s job is enhancing the
understanding of the Green Economy at a
country level, usually in developing states.
“We gather together a wide range of partners—
governments, the private sector, civil society,
academia—and encourage them to take an
overview of projects which many of them
are working on separately,” he explains.
“The concept of the Green Economy may
be new but corporate social responsibility,
environmental concerns, green energy—
many of these are already being addressed.
So this helps us dispel the perception that
Green Economy is a buzzword imposed by
the North. In fact, many states are already
working towards a Green Economy.”
Helping countries scale-up what may be already
successful—but small—projects, is the other
major part of his role. Kamal works with a team
to undertake scoping missions and draft
Green Economy action plans for countries
which request them.
“Sometimes governments say we just want you
to help us spread the message of the Green
Economy, and we’ll take it from there,” he
says. “Others want us to help them integrate
it into every aspect of their economic and
development agenda.”
2011 saw Kamal holding seminars at the Durban
summit in South Africa, as part of 12 national
workshops that UNEP organized around the
world. It was a proud achievement for the
Senegalese national, who cites South Africa as
one of the countries where his team has had
most success in mainstreaming the concept.
“South Africa is very pro-active,” he says.
“President Zuma himself has taken on board
the concept and been very involved with
advocating it to other states. It was incredibly
exciting to see the participants in the
conference exchanging ideas and learning from
each others’ experiences. In a way, that’s what
the Green Economy is all about.”
MOUSTAPHA
KAMAL GUEYE
Acting Head
Green Economy
Advisory Services Unit
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 90 unep annual r epor t 2011 90
Tunza is a Swahili word meaning “Treat With
Care”. It’s also the umbrella title for UNEP’s
outreach activities with children and youth, and
couldn’t be more appropriate, explains Joyce.
“Kids have a very sophisticated understanding
of environmental issues,” Joyce explains. “They
may be attracted to the subject out of care
for wildlife. But once they are introduced to
concepts like ecosystems, climate change and
the Green Economy, they really get it. And they
want to be involved.”
With a background mentoring inner-city
children in Minneapolis, USA, Joyce knows that
once children and youth are given a voice, the
outcomes can be inspiring.
“Every year we organise the Tunza conference,”
she says. “In 2011, it was in Bandung, Indonesia.
Over 1400 young people gathered together to
issue the Bandung Declaration for us to take
forward to Rio+20. That’s a statement from the
next generation that cannot be ignored.” That
declaration—calling on the summit to move
towards a sustainable development pathway—
also involved a commitment from the young
people to advocate and campaign in their
own communities.
“This is a very plugged-in generation,” says
Joyce. “They understand how to spread
messages very widely, very fast. They are using
social media in a powerful way, networking
with each other to push their agendas—and
they’re actually prepared to hold governments
responsible for the promises they make.”
Part of the Bandung Conference involved
bringing together the youth of today with youth
delegates from the original Rio Earth Summit
20 years ago, to share their experiences and
to mentor the next generation. In particular,
many of the youngsters expressed their
determination to make this summit the one
which really brings a change to thinking on
sustainable development.
“There is a great deal of excitement about
Rio+20,” Joyce adds. “I’m pretty confident that
this generation will make things happen. They
know how to get things done.”
JOYCE SANG
Programme Of cer
Children and
Youth, Nairobi
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 91
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 91
Having worked with four Executive Directors
—starting with Dr MK Tolba, back in 1978—
Joseph probably has a longer history than
anyone else at UNEP. Now approaching
his final year—he retires at the end of
2012—he is one of the programme’s
keenest advocates.
“UNEP is a family,” he says, “and like in a family,
people get on best when they’re happy. I always
try to make people happy, with a smile, or a joke.
It’s such important work that we do here. I see
my duty as helping them to do it.”
Starting as a messenger, Joseph is a familiar
face around the Gigiri campus. He now gives
clerical and administrative support to the
Executive Of ce, which at times has involved
meeting dignitaries such as Kofi Annan and
Ban Ki-moon.
An avid reader of UNEP’s publications, he
intends to spend his retirement spreading the
organization’s message.
“When I grew up in Machakos, we were
surrounded by trees and wildlife,” he recalls.
“There was no conflict between humans and
animals. Kenya was very diferent then.
My family are farmers. Since those days,
we’ve had to relocate many times, mostly
because water has dried up. You could say
we’re environmental refugees. So what
I read about in the publications, the things that
UNEP is warning about, I am seeing it in my
everyday life.”
Joseph is proud of the work that UNEP has
done in Kenya—campaigning to protect the
Mau forest, the Aberdates ecosystem—but
stresses that small eforts can be as powerful
as big ones. That’s why, once he leaves UNEP
and relocates to his family farm, Joseph
has pledged to make his neighbours and
community aware of how they can safeguard
their future.
“I will always be working for UNEP, even when
I’m not here,” he adds with a grin.
JOSEPH
KILONZO
Team Assistant
Executive Of ce, Nairobi
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 92 unep annual r epor t 2011 92
As a teenager growing up in Venice, Italy,
Pier Carlo Sandei used to listen to the NATO
warplanes taking of from nearby Udine
airbase, bound for the Balkans. Today he
works in the region as UNEP’s Programme
Of cer, co-ordinating the Environmental
Security Initiative—a multi-agency project
bringing together groups including UNDP, the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe (OSCE) and NATO.
With so many agencies involved, it might be
reasonable to anticipate difering agendas
or clashes of institutional cultures. Not a bit
of it, says Pier Carlo. “The partnership works
really well,” he says. “No-one is trying to eat
from the other’s plate. Sure, it’s challenging at
times, when it comes to setting out priorities
or dealing with international counterparts. But
that’s the part I like most. And we all share the
same vision.”
That vision is a secure, stable Balkans. But while
the ethnic tensions which tore Yugoslavia apart
in the 1990s might now be less visible, many
underlying environmental problems are just
coming to the surface.
“We’re dealing with the legacy the collapse
of a state,” Pier Carlo explains. “We have
Communist-era industry right at the heart of
some very vulnerable communities. Mining
sites which have been abandoned without any
proper regulation or closure. In one case, toxic
waste from industrial smelters right next to a
local hospital.”
The end of the Balkan wars left the region
fractured. The Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska exist
side-by-side, yet co-operation between the
two entities is virtually non-existent. But
environmental issues do not recognise ethnic or
political boundaries. When the Environmental
Security Initiative undertook the first ever
consultation on a State of the Environment
report for Bosnia-Herzegovina (which includes
both entities), Pier Carlo was concerned that it
would reopen old tensions.
“I thought people might complain that we were
trying to make a political statement by dealing
with Bosnia-Herzegovina as one country,” he
says. “But in the end, everyone realised that
environmentally, this was the most sensible
approach. We didn’t have one complaint.”
In September 2011, he capped of the
achievement with a major meeting between
delegates from both political groupings —a real
example of communities coming together to
address over-arching environmental issues.
PIER CARLO SANDEI
Programme Of cer
Regional Of ce for
Europe, Vienna
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 93
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 93
She describes it as one of the most magical
places on Earth. And when she talks of Lake
Titicaca, it is evident that Isabel Martinez
is dedicated to her work protecting South
America’s largest lake. “It’s a place where people
are very attuned to nature,” she explains. “Of
course, a lot of the environmental problems
there are caused by human activity. But once
you meet the local communities, and begin to
explain to them the importance of preserving
the ecosystem, it’s wonderful to see the goodwill
in their response.”
Although she has other projects under her
supervision—rainwater harvesting in Guatemala
and Coastal Ecosystem Management to name
but two—for the last two years it’s Lake Titicaca
which has taken centre stage.
As well as educating and capacity-building
within local communities to mitigate their
environmental impact—projects in which
Isabel works closely with UNDP and UNICEF—
she has been driving moves to strengthen the
relationship between the two states which share
the lake, Bolivia and Peru. Just as the seemingly
placid waters of the lake can be dangerously
deceptive, the politics of international waters
can be dif cult to navigate. “It was not easy
when we first started,” she recalls. “The political
relationship between the two governments was
stuck. But somehow we managed to gain the
confidence of both countries. In 2011, we saw
them begin to refresh their diplomatic agenda,
and now there’s a real will to efectively manage
this shared resource.”
As well as a bilateral masterplan for the lake, Isabel
has been overseeing the monitoring eforts which
are crucial to provide early warnings of dangers to
this fragile ecosystem. With financial assistance
from the government of Spain, thirteen laboratories
have been set up and fully equipped at various
locations on both the Bolivian and Peruvian shores.
With so much good work achieved, Isabel
anticipates that other projects in the region will
begin to take more of her time in 2012 than Lake
Titicaca. But she will always retain a passion for the
area. A Venezuelan, she is proud of having helped
to preserve one of South America’s wonders. But as
she says of her work: “when we join the UN we are
no longer nationals of one country—but become
citizens of the planet”.
ISABEL MARTINEZ
Programme Of cer
Regional Of ce for
Latin America & the Caribbean
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 94 unep annual r epor t 2011 94
2011 was the year when things began to return to
normal in Haiti—if normal is a word which can
ever be used about the poorest country in the
western hemisphere.
The exact reason for Haiti’s continued presence
at the bottom of the development tables is
unclear. “Over the years, millions and millions
of dollars have been spent,” says Antonio Perera,
UNEP’s Country Programme Manager. “But even
as aid increased, in many cases results got worse.”
It was an attempt to solve this conundrum which
led Antonio and his colleagues to develop a study
into ‘Lessons Learned’—looking at those aid and
development projects which had succeeded in
Haiti, and why—with a view to implementing
the findings in UNEP’s mission. The report was
complete, and just days away from launch in
January 2010.
Then the earthquake struck.
The exact death toll is disputed, but the Haitian
government estimates 316,000 people perished.
In the worst tragedy to ever befall the UN, 103
colleagues were killed. Mercifully none of the
UNEP staf lost their lives—although there was
hardly a person in the unit who was unafected
by the disaster.
“You live through a situation like this, you
establish a relationship with a country and a
people,” says Antonio, a Cuban. “There are many
similarities between my country and Haiti but
also many diferences. But after the disaster, our
team was more determined than ever to assist
the Haitian people.”
The environment is a major factor in rebuilding
Haiti. Since the quake, the UNEP country team
moved their HQ out of Port-au-Prince to Port
Salut, five hours to the south-west. It’s an area
renowned for its natural beauty—but also for the
massive developmental challenges it faces.
“We’ve discovered that UNEP can have a big
impact working in the field, focused one
geographical area,” explains Antonio. “With an
intensive push on sustainable development
projects we’re seeing dramatic results, which we
hope can be replicated elsewhere in the country.”
One more lesson learned in Haiti—and more
valuable experience to be shared with UNEP
projects around the globe.
ANTONIO
PERERA
UNEP Haiti Country
Programme Manager
UNEP
PROFILES
unep annual r epor t 2011 95
8
U
N
E
P

I
N

T
H
E

U
N
unep annual r epor t 2011 95
Nyala means “the place of chatting” in the
Daju language, and it’s a description which
Magda Nassef finds appropriate. “It’s a lively,
vibrant, bustling city,” she explains. “There are
so many ethnicities, so much atmosphere.
A very interesting place to live and work.
And mercifully,” she jokes, “the climate is
cooler than Khartoum.”
Magda and her colleague, Dr Abuelgasim
Adam, are the sole UNEP representatives in
Nyala, where they are based at the UNOCHA
compound. There, in partnership with Tufts
University of the US, they are primarily
occupied with research and advocacy projects
around the pastoral communities of South
Darfur.
Darfur has become less prominent in the
international media as tensions eased slightly
following the Doha Agreement in 2011. But
that does not mean that underlying problems
have gone away. And, as Magda explains, the
environment is often at the heart of the issue.
“Before the conflict, there tended to be a
symbiotic relationship between the pastoralists
and the agricultural communities. The
pastoralists timed their annual migration to the
agricultural areas just after harvest—allowing
their stock to consume the plant waste and
providing manure to the fields. But that’s all
been disrupted. Conflict for natural resources
is commonplace. And too often, we’re seeing
skirmishes between rival groups.”
Learning more about the pastoralists’ needs
and lifestyles will, Magda hopes, allow policy-
makers to help resolve some of those issues.
Despite Darfur’s bleak reputation, Magda feels
optimistic about the future. “The political
dimension here is out of our hands,” she
concedes, “but where it comes to building
relationships between communities over
natural resources, there is a lot of potential.
I feel that if we can crack the environmental
governance issue here, we can do so much work
in terms of rebuilding from the ground up.”
MAGDA NASSEF
Project Manager
Environment &
Livelihoods Initiative
Nyala, Darfur, Sudan
UNEP
PROFILES
Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to sustainable
development and poverty eradication
This report demonstrates that the greening of
economies is not generally a drag on growth but rather
a new engine of growth; that it is a net generator of
decent jobs, and that it is also a vital strategy for the
elimination of persistent poverty. The report also
seeks to motivate policy makers to create the enabling
conditions for increased investments in a transition to
a green economy.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9
Working towards a Balanced and Inclusive
Green Economy
A key report of the UNEnvironment Management
Group on how the United Nations system can
coherently support countries in transitioning to a
green economy. The report aims to facilitate a common
understanding of the green economy approach and the
measures required for the transition.
Forests in a Green Economy: A Synthesis
Produced during the International Year of Forests,
this synthesis addresses the value of forests and their
role in transitioning to a green economy, with a call to
invest in forests to aid the realization of a more socially
inclusive, low-carbon and resource ef cient economy.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9
Why a Green Economy Matters for Least
Developed Countries
This joint report, issued by UNEP, UNCTAD and
the UN Of ce of the High Representative for the
Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing
Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-
OHRLLS), points to the economic and human
development opportunities of a green economy
transition for the world’s least developed countries.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9
Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest
Management in Sumatra
Deforestation is responsible for approximately 17
per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is
therefore a major contributor to climate change, but
also to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services
and a direct threat to Asia’s great ape, the orangutan.
ISBN No: 978-82-7701-095-3
Share the Road: Investment in Walking and Cycling Road
Infrastructure
Share the Road works to help re-balance the current
state of road investments across all modes of transport.
Current road investment trends and institutional/
policy developments and options for mobilising
investments are discussed, as well as the costs and
benefits of non-motorised transport infrastructure.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3125-5
unep annual r epor t 2011 96
2011 UNEP PUBLICATIONS
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
Pathways for Implementing REDD+
REDD+ ofers significant potential for rapid and
low-cost emission reductions, with the added co-
benefits of biodiversity, water and soil conservation,
as well as poverty reduction. To date, more than four
billion dollars in additional funding have been pledged
by developed countries to support REDD+ activities in
developing countries, which have in turn announced
ambitious targets for emission reductions in the
forestry sector.
ISBN No: 978-87-550-3854-7
REDDy, Set, Grow - Opportunities and Roles for Financial
Institutions in ForestCarbon Markets
This publication - the first of a two-part report - is
designed to identify and tackle barriers to investment
in forest-related projects, such as the UN-backed
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest
Degradation (REDD) scheme.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3171-2
REDDy-Set-Grow Part II: Private Sector Suggestions for
International Climate Change Negotiators
In this report, the financial sector voices suggestions
to international climate change negotiators on how
an efective regime for forest-based climate change
mitigation should be designed to mobilise private
finance engagement and investment.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3207-8
Economic Analysis of Mangrove Forests: A case study in
Gazi Bay, Kenya
The report features a detailed economic analysis of the
mangrove forest in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It promotes the
ecosystem as a valuable source of income for the local
community. The results and methods can be applied to
other sites in Africa in order to determine
the importance of including the coastal forest into
national accounts.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3187-3
Global Guidance Principles for Life Cycle Assessment
Databases: A Basis for Greener Processes and Products
LCA databases provide fundamental energy, materials,
land, water consumption data and emissions
data into water, air and soil for a wide range of
processes, products and materials, in order to
provide the bridge between the data users and
providers, making basic information easily accessible
for environmental choices.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3174-3
Decoupling: Natural Resource Use And Environmental
Impacts From Economic Growth
By 2050, humanity could devour an estimated 140
billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass
per year unless economic growth rate is decoupled
from the rate of natural resource consumption, warns
this report by UNEPs International Resource Panel. A
massive investment in technological, financial and
social innovation could lead to a more sustainable path.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3167-5
Recycling Rates of Metals: A status report
Smarter product designs, support for developing
country waste management schemes, and encouraging
developed country households not to 'squirrel away'
old electronic goods in drawers and closets could help
boost recycling of metals world-wide.

ISBN No: 978-92-807-3161-3
unep annual r epor t 2011 97
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
unep annual r epor t 2011 98
Visions for Change - Recommendations for Efective
Policies on Sustainable Lifestyles
Recommendations to develop ef cient sustainable
lifestyles policies and initiatives based on the Global
Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles (GSSL). It is aimed at
policy-makers and all relevant stakeholders on how
best to help support the shift to sustainable lifestyles,
through efective communication and awareness-
raising campaigns.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3116-3
Resource Ef ciency: Economics and Outlook for
Asia and The Pacific (REEO)
The first Resource Ef ciency: Economics and Outlook
for Asia and The Pacific (REEO) report focuses on
natural resources both as drivers and as consequences
of economic activity and social development.
The report highlights the recent history of natural
resource use in the Asia-Pacific region, covering
the period from 1970 to 2005, which has been a time
of unprecedented economic development in many
countries in the region.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3100-2
Green Hills, Blue Cities: An Ecosystems Approach to
Water Resources Management for African Cities
Africa is the least urbanised region in the world, but
this is changing fast. Of 1bn people, about 40 per cent
live in urban areas—60 per cent in slum conditions.
Africa is likely to experience some of the most severe
impacts of climate change, particularly when it comes
to water and food security.
ISBN: 978-92-807-3154-5
The Bioenergy And Water Nexus
Bioenergy and water are inextricably linked. For
the first time, this report examines in depth these
interlinkages, highlights the risks and opportunities,
and ofers an outlook on ways to address them. It
provides policymakers with scientific
information to support informed
strategies and policies. The report also
points to the need for further research,
filling data gaps, and the development
of regionalized tools. Water quantity and
quality are factors that determine the
extent to which bioenergy can contribute
to the overall energy mix.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3157-6
Here and now! Education for Sustainable Consumption.
Recommendations and Guidelines
Provides policymakers with a rationale for education
for sustainable consumption, including suggestions for
action plans, with resources for educational authorities,
teacher trainers, teachers and educators.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3073-9
Bridging the Emissions Gap: A UNEP Synthesis Report
A follow-on to the UNEP 2010 report Emissions Gap:
A Preliminary Assessment. It explains to decision-
makers and stakeholders the range of potential options
available to close the emissions gap in 2020.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3229-0
Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits:
Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers -
A UNEP Synthesis Report
This report addresses the mitigation of short-lived
climate forcers (SLCFs) and its key role in air pollution
reduction, climate protection and sustainable
development. The focus is on three SLCFs - black
carbon, tropospheric ozone and methane - because
reducing them will provide significant benefits through
improved air quality and a slowing of near-term
climate change.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3232-0
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
Bri dgi ng t he Emi ssi ons Gap
A UNEP Synt hesi s Repor t
unep annual r epor t 2011 99
Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and
Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers
The assessment looks into all aspects of anthropogenic
emissions of black carbon and tropospheric ozone
precursors, such as methane. It examines a large
number of potential measures to reduce harmful
emissions, identifying a small set of specific
measures that would likely produce the greatest
benefits, and which could be implemented with
currently available technology.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3142-2
HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the
Ozone Layer
This report describes the linkages between
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions, climate
protection, and protection of the ozone layer.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3228-3
Livelihood Security: Climate Change, Conflict And
Migration In The Sahel
The Sahelian countries are among the poorest in the
world with the most degraded environments. They are
also among the most vulnerable to climate change.
UNEP’s study focuses on Senegal, Guinea Bissau,
Cape Verde, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger, Gambia and
Burkina Faso.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3198-9
Environment And Security In The Amu Darya Basin
This report analyses the environment and security risks
in the Amu Darya river basin, and suggests solutions
to the challenges identified during the assessment
process. The report concludes that boosting
cooperation between countries sharing the waters of
the Amu Darya, Central Asia’s longest river, could be
key to future peace and security in the region.
Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011
Global investment in renewable energy jumped 32
per cent in 2010, to a record $211 billion. In addition
to this eye-catching record, the investment activity in
developing countries increased strongly. It is the first
time the developing world has overtaken the richer
countries in terms of financial new investment.
The Global Trends Report 2011 ofers an elaborate
analysis of trends and issues in the financing of
renewable energy.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3183-5
Technologies for Adaptation Perspectives and
Practical Experiences
This edition of the Technology Transfer Perspectives
Series collects ten articles from adaptation experts
and practitioners around the globe. The articles
discuss the concept of 'technologies for adaptation',
divided into three broad themes: Concept and
Context of Technologies for Adaptation; Assessments
of Adaptation Technology Needs; and Practical
Experiences from Working with Technologies
for Adaptation
ISBN No: 978-87-550-3939-1
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
1
AMU DARYA BASIN
Women At The Frontline Of Climate Change -
Gender Risks And Hopes
Women are often in the frontline in respect to the
impacts of a changing climate. More frequent droughts
and floods have economic and social consequences.
Asia is currently at greatest risk with over 100 million
people afected annually.
ISBN: 978-82-7701-099-1
IEA Training Manual Volume Two: Vulnerability and
Impact Assessment for Adaptation to Climate Change
The publication presents a methodology to assess
vulnerability to, and impacts of climate change, in the
context of other development priorities.
ISBN: 978-92-807-3163-7
Global Drylands: A United Nations system-wide response
This publication, produced under the auspices of
the Environment Management Group of the United
Nations, argues that drylands in developing countries
should be ‘re-capitalized’. This will require a cross-
sectoral approach, something that the United Nations,
with its global reach and wide range of activities and
expertise, is uniquely positioned to catalyse.
Ecosystems For Water And Food Security
Against the current challenges to enhance food
security worldwide, the publication aims at
illustrating the importance of healthy ecosystems
for the provisioning of key services that contribute to
food security.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3170-5
Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP):
Volume 1 - 6 Methodology for the Assessment of
Transboundary Aquifers, Lake Basins, River Basins, Large
Marine Ecosystems and the Open Ocean.
Many of the world’s vital water systems are shared
by two or more nations and these transboundary
resources are interlinked by a complex web of
environmental, political, economic and security
interdependencies.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3239-9
Marine and coastal ecosystem services
Economic valuation of marine and coastal ecosystem
services is increasingly of critical importance for
informed decision-making and efective management
of marine and coastal resources. This report provides
an overview of the main methods of economic
valuation, their strengths and weaknesses,
and practical applications.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3160-6
unep annual r epor t 2011 100
Global Drylands:
A UNsystem-wide response
Prepared by the Environment Management Group
UNITEDNATIONS
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
unep annual r epor t 2011 101
Taking Steps toward Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-
Based Management - An Introductory Guide
With this new guide on Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-
Based Management (EBM), UNEP seeks to assist
countries and communities to take steps towards
making marine and coastal ecosystem-based
management operational - from strategic planning to
on-site implementation.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3173-6
Guidance Manual For The Valuation of Regulating
Services
This manual is directed towards practitioners in the
field of environmental economics, and designed as a
supporting tool for estimating the economic value of
regulating services.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3131-6
Living Planet: Connected Planet – Preventing the
End of the World’s Wildlife Migrations through
Ecological Networks
By air, land and water, millions of animals travel the
world in a network of migratory paths. The loss of
a single point in their migration can jeopardize the
entire population, while their concentrations make
them vulnerable to overharvesting and poaching.
ISBN: 978-82-7701-098-4
Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland
A major new independent scientific assessment,
carried out by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), shows that pollution from over
50 years of oil operations in the region has penetrated
further and deeper than many may have supposed. The
report recommends direct actions in order to address
the Niger Delta contamination.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3130-9
Africa Environment Outlook 3 -
Authors guide
These guidelines are a reference point for all involved
in the AEO-3 production process. The aim is to ensure
consistency in the contributions to the report and
guide the editorial and review processes. They should
be used through all stages of the production process.
ISBN No: 978-82-770-1093-9
UNEP year book 2011: Emerging Issues In Our Global
Environment
Focuses include marine waste and the use of
phosphorus in food production. A special report on
how biodiversity conservation can be integrated in
forest management. How cutting edge science can
mitigate climate change while improving air quality.
The growth of renewable energy. These and other
developments are summarized in key environmental
indicators that present the latest data and trends for the
global environment.
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3101-9
w
w
w
.
u
n
e
p
.
o
r
g
/
p
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
unep annual r epor t 2011 102
UNEP’s mandate and focus are determined by its Governing Council, comprising
58 Member States. Member States to the Governing Council are elected by the UN
General Assembly, for four-year terms, taking into account the principle of equitable
regional representation.
There are 16 seats for African states, 13 seats for Asian states, six seats for Eastern
European states, 10 seats for Latin American and Caribbean states, and 13 seats for
Western European and other states.
The Committee of Permanent Representatives (CPR), which is made up of
government delegates who are assigned to monitor UNEP’s work, is a subsidiary of
the Governing Council. The mandate of the CPR includes reviewing, monitoring and
assessing the implementation of Governing Council decisions, reviewing the UNEP
Programme of Work and budget and its subsequent implementation, and preparing
draft decisions for consideration by the Governing Council.
Full information on the composition, functions and responsibilities of the UNEP
Governing Council and the Committee of Permanent Representatives is available at
www.unep.org/resources/gov
9
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
AND FINANCE
©

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
9
O
R
G
A
N
I
Z
A
T
I
O
N
A
L

S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E

A
N
D

F
I
N
A
N
C
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 103
UNEP FUNDING
IN 2011
% Estimated requirements for the approved
Programme of Work and budget for the
biennium 2010-2011 total $448.0 million,
including $2.0 from the UN Development
Account (UNDA), $180 million from the
Environment Fund, $228.2 million in Trust
and Earmarked Funds and $40 million in
other funds (including programme support
costs and the UN regular budget). This
translates into an estimated requirement of
$224 million for 2011.
% In 2011, 104 countries made their
contributions to the Environment Fund;
about 70 per cent of them paid close to,
or above, the Voluntary Indicative Scale
of Contributions (VISC). 51 per cent of
the income was received by 30 June 2011
with the remainder received in the second
six months with 14 per cent not received
until December 2011. Member States are
encouraged to make their contributions
as early as possible for timely and more
efcient delivery of UNEP’s Programme
of Work. The five highest contributors
were Germany, the Netherlands, UK, USA
and France.
% The ongoing financial crisis being
experienced by UNEP’s major donors, the
unfavourable fluctuation in exchange rates,
and reduced payments by two major donors
afected the total amount of funds mobilized
through the Environment Fund. As of
31 December 2011, Environment Fund
income totalled $81.1 million comprising
2011 pledges received of $80.6 and a further
$0.5 million being 2010 pledges paid in
2011. The total income for the 2010-2011
biennium was $162.7 million against a
programme of work budget of $180.0 million
resulting in a deficit of $17.3 million or
9.6 per cent.
2011 CONTRIBUTIONS AND PLEDGES ($'000)
unep annual r epor t 2011 104
% Current 2012 Environment Fund income
forecasts indicate that the budget of
$95.5 million might not be realized. In this
regard, UNEP will continue to work on the
basis of a reduction in the funding levels,
which will have a negative impact on the
implementation of its PoW. It must be noted
that 2011 Environment Fund expenditures
totalled $85.5 million, which was $4.9 million
more than income with the diference
being financed by fund balance. UNEP will,
in 2012, take a precautionary approach to
expenditures, particularly the filling of vacant
positions, until such time as more income is
secured.
% Income and expenditure performance
in 2011 for Trust and Earmarked Funds
exceeded the estimates reflected in the
2010-2011 budget. Income for 2011
totalled $127.6 million. Expenditure totalled
$131.7 million — $17.7 million (or 15 per cent)
above the annualized expenditures of
$114 million included in the 2010-2011
budget approved by the Governing Council.
An accelerated rate of expenditure for Trust
and Earmarked Funds in 2011 has ensured
full delivery of the 2010-2011 Programme
of Work.
% The highest overall Trust and Earmarked
Funds contribution was provided by the
Government of Norway. The Programme
Cooperation Agreement for NOK 200 million
for the 2010-2011 biennium is the second
programmatic agreement between Norway
and UNEP, which earmarks funds at the
sub-programme level. Similar arrangements
have been established with the Swedish
International Development Cooperation
Agency (Sida), resulting in a commitment
of SEK 95 million in support of four
sub-programmes during the period
2010-2013. Negotiations are ongoing
with other major donors for the set-up of
similar partnerships.
ENVIRONMENT FUND - TREND IN CONTRIBUTION
IN 2009-2011, TOP 20 DONORS ($'000)
9
O
R
G
A
N
I
Z
A
T
I
O
N
A
L

S
T
R
U
C
T
U
R
E

A
N
D

F
I
N
A
N
C
E
unep annual r epor t 2011 105
EARMARKED CONTRIBUTIONS AND TRUST FUNDS
TOP 20 DONORS IN 2011 ($'000)
% Additional earmarked contributions were
leveraged through increased collaboration
with UN agencies. $19.6 million was received
through the United Nations Development
Programme in the framework of joint
cooperation programmes implemented
by UNEP and UNDP. Additional funds
were raised, for example, in collaboration
with UN-HABITAT, the UN Department of
Political Afairs (DPA), the UN Peacebuilding
Support Ofce (PBSO) and the UN
Department of Economic and Social Afairs
(UNDESA) to support countries to improve
natural resource management for conflict
prevention and peacebuilding.
% In addition to resources made available
by donors for multilateral aid, UNEP has
been exploring opportunities to access
aid funds provided at the bilateral level by
Member States, including the European
Union which has committed €30 million, to
further broaden its funding base. UNEP is
also engaging with private sector and other
non-State entities including foundations.
% As an example, two projects that have been
funded through the bilateral aid channel by
the Government of Denmark are the Kenya
National State of Environment Report 2009
and Kenya Renewable Energy, for $710,000.
Over 190 institutions, including banks and
insurance companies supported the UNEP
Finance Initiative to analyse the impacts of
environmental and social considerations on
financial performance. Their contributions in
2011 totalled over $2 million.
% While encouraging Member States to move
towards contributions to the Environment
Fund in preference to extra-budgetary funds
in line with UNEP Governing Council’s
Decision 25/1 (IV), UNEP is working to leverage
further extra-budgetary funds through new
partnerships to catalyse wider change and
achieve the results targeted for 2010-2011.
unep annual r epor t 2011 106
COUNTRY
2011 PLEDGES/
PAYMENT
1 Andorra 42,192
2 Angola 1,200
3 Antigua & Barbuda 1,000
4 Argentina 70,000
5 Armenia 2,500
6 Australia 1,167,503
7 Austria 550,140
8 Bangladesh* 653
9 Barbados 5,000
10 Belarus 16,000
11 Belgium 4,809,494
12 Belize 900
13 Benin* 900
14 Bhutan* 1,450
15 Bulgaria 17,000
16 Burkina Faso 6,540
17 Burundi 640
18 Cambodia 2,000
19 Canada 2,800,000
20 Chile 20,000
21 China 500,000
22 Colombia 36,448
23 Congo 850
24 Costa Rica 4,054
25 Croatia 33,000
26 Cyprus 40,000
27 Czech Republic 38,038
28 Denmark 4,568,213
29 Djibouti* 900
30 Dominica 1,000
31 Ecuador 3,800
32 Egypt 25,000
33 El Salvador* 3,700
34 Equatorial Guinea* 12,000
35 Eritrea* 900
36 Estonia 13,974
37 Fiji 4,500
38 Finland 4,556,340
39 France 5,440,000
40 Gambia 1,000
41 Georgia 2,200
42 Germany 10,496,639
43 Guatemala 2,900
44 Guyana 1,000
45 Honduras 1,000
46 India* 100,000
47 Indonesia 37,000
48 Iraq* 2,700
49 Ireland 432,008
50 Japan 2,818,436
51 Jordan 3,500
52 Kazakhstan 22,975
53 Kenya 30,000
COUNTRY
2011 PLEDGES/
PAYMENT
54 Korea (Republic of ) 221,722
55 Kuwait* 200,000
56 Liechtenstein 9,000
57 Lithuania 23,000
58 Luxembourg* 704,225
59 Malawi* 900
60 Malaysia 40,000
61 Maldives 2,000
62 Mali* 1,500
63 Mauritius 5,000
64 Mexico 350,000
65 Moldova 900
66 Monaco* 28,782
67 Mongolia* 1,000
68 Morocco* 12,079
69 Namibia 1,750
70 Netherlands 10,368,800
71 New Zealand* 230,000
72 Niger* 900
73 Norway 3,000,000
74 Pakistan 10,981
75 Panama 10,000
76 Papua New Guinea 1,000
77 Philippines 18,000
78 Poland 150,000
79 Romania* 60,000
80 Russian Federation* 900,000
81 Rwanda 900
82 Samoa 450
83 Serbia 14,000
84 Sierra Leone 140
85 Singapore* 40,000
86 Slovak Rep. 55,000
87 Slovenia 86,000
88 South Africa 63,000
89 Spain 1,741,720
90 Sri Lanka 5,100
91 Suriname 883
92 Sweden 4,200,000
93 Switzerland 4,744,591
94 Thailand 25,000
95 Timor-Leste* 900
96 Togo 900
97 Trinidad & Tobago 10,000
98 Tunisia 8,700
99 Turkey 300,000
100 Tuvalu 900
101 Uganda 5,000
102
United Kingdom of Great Britian
and Northern Ireland
8,211,870
103 United States of America 6,000,000
104 Vietnam* 7,500
TOTAL 80,623,280
ENVIRONMENT FUND — CONTRIBUTIONS IN 2011 * Pledge
unep annual r epor t 2011 107
1 2
16
18
17
14
15
13
1. STEINER, ACHIM
UNEP Executive Director
and Under-Secretary-
General of the
United Nations
2. MOHAMED, AMINA
UNEP Deputy Executive
Director and Assistant
Secretary General of the
United Nations
UNEP SENIOR STAFF 2011
3. ALCAMO, JOSEPH
Chief Scientist
4. BOUVIER, CHRISTOPHE
Chief
Of ce of Operations
5. CANDOTTI, MICHELE
Chief, Executive Of ce and Principal
Advisor to the Executive Director
6. GILRUTH, PETER
Director
Division of Early Warning and Assessment
(DEWA)
7. KANTE, BAKARY
Director
Division of Environmental Law and
Conventions (DELC)
8. LEMMET, SYLVIE
Director
Division of Technology, Industry and
Economics (DTIE)
9. NIAMIR-FULLER, MARYAM
Director
GEF Coordination Of ce
10. NISHIMOTO, TOMOKO
Director
Division of Regional Cooperation
(DRC)
11. NUTTALL, NICK
Acting Director
Division of Communications & Public
Information (DCPI)
12. THIAW, IBRAHIM
Director
Division of Environmental Policy
Implementation (DEPI)
REGIONAL DIRECTORS & REPRESENTATIVES
13. ABDEL-KADER, ADEL FARID
Of cer-in-Charge
Regional Of ce for West Asia (ROWA)
14. ASTRÁLAGA, MARGARITA
Director
Regional Of ce for Latin America & the
Caribbean (ROLAC)
15. DUSIK, JAN
Acting Director
Regional Of ce for Europe (ROE)
16. FRAENKEL, AMY
Director
Regional Of ce for North America (RONA)
17. GOUMANDAKOYE, MOUNKAILA
Director
Regional Of ce for Africa (ROA)
18. PARK, YOUNG-WOO
Director
Regional Of ce for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP)
3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12
unep annual r epor t 2011 108
UNEP ORGANOGRAM
Secretariat Governing Bodies.
Jamil Ahmad
Spokesperson
Nick Nuttall
GEF Coordination Ofce
Maryam Niamir-Fuller
ŗ STAP Secretariat
Ofce for Operations and
Corporate Services (OfO)
Christophe Bouvier
ŗ Resource mobilisation and
partnerships
ŗ Quality assurance and legal
ŗ Administration and finance
ŗ Gender
Secretariat of the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD)
Braulio Dias
Secretariat of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITES)
John Scanlon
Secretariat of the Convention on
Migratory Species (CMS)
Elizabeth Mrema
Secretariat of the Vienna Convention
for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
and the Montreal Protocol
on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer
Marco Gonzalez
Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund
for the Implementation of
Montreal Protocol (MFS)
Maria Nolan
Secretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and
Stockholm Conventions
Jim Willis
KEY:
AI: Ad Interim
EO: Executive Ofce
IETC: International Environmental
Technology Centre
OIC: Ofcer in Charge
STAP: Scientific and Technical
Advisory Panel
UNSCEAR: United Nations
Scientific Committee on the Efects of
Atomic Radiation
WCMC: World Conservation
MonitoringCentre
Environmental Management Group
Hossein Fadaei (O-I-C)
Evaluation Unit
Segbedzi Norgbey
Chief Scientist
Joseph Alcamo
Chief, EO
Michele Candotti
Deputy Executive Director
Amina Mohamed
EXECUTIVE OFFICE
Executive Director
Achim Steiner
Division of Early Warning
and Assessment (DEWA)
Peter Gilruth
ŗ Ofce of Chief Scientist
ŗ Scientific Assessment
ŗ Early Warning
ŗ Capacity Development
ŗ UNEP-WCMC
ŗ UNSCEAR
Division of Regional
Cooperation (DRC)
Tomoko Nishimoto
Coordinates:
ŗ UN Delivering as One at
regional / country level
ŗ South-South Cooperation
ŗ Collaboration with Major
Groups and Stakeholders

ŗ UNEP regional ofces:
Africa (Nairobi), Asia/Pacific
(Bangkok), Europe (Geneva),
Latin America and Caribbean
(Panama City), North America
(Washington DC), West Asia
(Manama)
ŗ UNEP liaison ofces
(Addis Ababa, Brussels, Cairo,
New York) and country ofces
(Beijing, Brasilia, Mexico City,
Moscow, Pretoria)
Division of Technology,
Industry and Economics
(DTIE)
Sylvie Lemmet
ŗ Sustainable Consumption
and Production
ŗ Energy
ŗ International Environmental
Technology Centre (IETC)
ŗ Chemicals
ŗ Economics & Trade
ŗ OzonAction
Division of Environmental
Law and Conventions
(DELC)
Bakary Kante
ŗ MEA Implementation
Support
ŗ Environmental Law
and Governance
ŗ Strategic Policy
and Facilitation
Division of Communications
and Public Information
(DCPI)
Nick Nuttall (a.i.)
ŗ Media
ŗ Speech-Writing & Editing
ŗ Internet
ŗ Publishing
ŗ Audio-Visual
ŗ Library
ŗ Special Events
ŗ Billion Tree Campaign
ŗ Children, Youth,
Sports and Environment
Division of Environmental
Policy Implementation
(DEPI)
Ibrahim Thiaw
ŗ Coastal and Marine
ŗ Fresh water and
Terrestrial Ecosystems
ŗ Climate Change Adaptation
ŗ Ecosystem Services
ŗ Conflict and
Disaster Management
ŗ Environmental
Education Training
ŗ Programme Planning
ŗ UNEP / UNDP Poverty &
Environment Facility
AS OF SEPTEMBER 2011
unep annual r epor t 2011 109
Abu Dhabi 50
Afghanistan 17, 45
African Carbon Asset Development Facility (ACAD) 16
African Development Bank 21
Algeria 64
Alps 28
Amu Darya river 45
Arctic 60
Argentina 15, 16, 38
Australia 61, 83
Azerbaijan 48
Bahamas 21
Bangladesh 15, 16, 37, 55
Barbados 79
Belize 67, 69
Benin 44
Bhutan 55
Black Carbon 25
Bolivia 16, 70, 95
Bosnia-Herzegovina 94
Brazil 78, 86
Bridging the Gap 12
Brunei 32
Burkina Faso 44, 55
Cambodia 32, 66, 69, 81
Caspian Sea 48
CFCs 71
Chad 44
Chile 82
China 32, 38, 40, 49, 71, 78, 79, 81, 89
Convention on Int’l Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 47,48
Climate change 15-16, 24-35
Climate Change & Development Adapting (CC DARE) 29
Colombia 74, 82
Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) 16, 31, 42
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) 58, 61
Costa Rica 35, 67, 82
Cote d’Ivoire 16, 78
Cuba 96
Denmark 29, 107
Disasters and Conflicts 17, 36-45
Dominican Republic 38
Drylands 18, 88
Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, The (TEEB) 17
Ecosystem Management 17, 56-63
El Salvador 67
En.lighten Initiative 35
Environmental Governance 18, 46-55
Ethiopia 83
European Union (EU) 28, 51, 107
INDEX
unep annual r epor t 2011 110
Finance Initiative 80, 88, 90
Foresight Process 12, 21, 52
France 105
Frankfurt School of Finance & Management 26
Gender integration 14
Georgia 16, 38
Germany 30, 40, 63, 105
Ghana 44
Global Environment Facility (GEF) 12, 16, 20, 34, 47, 60
Global Environment Outlook 5 (GEO-5) 12, 52, 53, 86
Green Economy 12, 18, 19, 31, 62, 76-83, 87, 91
Guatemala 62, 67, 95
Haiti 17, 38, 96
Harmful Substances and Hazardous Wastes 19, 64-73
HCFCs 32
HFCs 25
Honduras 67
India 30, 34, 37, 62, 71
Indonesia 16, 31-32, 64, 92
InforMEA 47
International Resource Panel 19, 77
Iran 48, 64
Iraq 35
Italy 94
Japan 37, 67
Laos 32, 49, 55
Lebanon 77, 82
Liberia 45
Kazakhstan 48
Kenya 16, 37, 41, 58, 81, 93
Malawi 55
Malaysia 32
Maldives 49
Mali 35, 44
Mauritania 44
Mauritius 82
Mexico 67, 78, 83
Mongolia 49
Montreal Protocol 32
MOPAN review 23
Morocco 35
Mozambique 61
Myanmar 32
Nepal 28, 62
Netherlands 70, 105
Nicaragua 67
Niger 44
Nigeria 17, 39-40, 41, 44, 69
Norway 31, 106
Papua New Guinea 61
Panama 31, 67
Peru 27-28, 70, 95
Philippines 32, 66
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation (REDD) 15, 24, 25, 31-32
Renewable energy 15, 33, 37
unep annual r epor t 2011 111
Research4Life 51
Research4Policy 51
Resource Efficiency 19, 76-83
Rio+20 Summit (UN Conference on Sustainable Devt.) 12, 50, 53, 86-87, 90, 92
Russia 48
Rwanda 16, 37, 54, 60, 64, 77, 89
Senegal 64
Serbia 70
Seychelles 29
Sierra Leone 38
Singapore 32
Slovakia 88
Solomon Islands 70
South Africa 24-25, 64, 91
South Sudan 17, 44
Spain 70, 95
Sri Lanka 37
Stockholm, Rotterdam & Basel Conventions 19, 64-65, 74-75
Strategic Approach to International Chemicals (SAICM) 19, 67
Sudan 17, 43, 97
Sweden 70
Switzerland 23, 40
Tajikistan 45, 70
Thailand 32, 35, 37, 89
Timor-Leste 49
Togo 44
Tunisia 82
Turkmenistan 45, 48
Uganda 28
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 50, 61
United Kingdom (UK) 23, 105
UNITED NATIONS
- Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 29
- Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs) 18
- Development Programme (UNDP) 24, 29, 54-55, 60, 107
- Environment Management Group (EMG) 18, 88
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 24
- Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 15, 88
- HABITAT 81, 107
- INTERPOL 48
- Office on Drugs & Crime (ODC) 48
- Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 41
- Poverty Environment Initiative (PEI) 18, 25, 54
United States of America (USA) 60, 73, 88, 90, 92, 105
Uruguay 54, 69, 70
Uzbekistan 45
Vanuatu 61
Venezuela 95
Vietnam 15,16, 32, 49, 83
World Bank 60
World Conservation & Monitoring Centre 57
World Health Organisation 51, 67
World Meteorological Association (WMO) 25, 29
World Resources Institute 25
unep annual r epor t 2011 112
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
CMS Convention on Migratory Species
EMG Environment Management Group
FI UNEP Finance Initiative
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GEF Global Environment Facility
ILO International Labour Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
MEA Multilateral Environment Agreement
OARE Online Access to Research in the Environment
OCHA Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
PEI Poverty Environment Initiative
POP Persistent Organic Pollutant
REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
TEEB The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
UNDAF UN Development Assistance Frameworks
UNDP UN Development Programme
UNESCO UN Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization
UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNICEF UN Children’s Fund
WHO World Health Organization
GLOSSARY OF COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS
ISBN: 978-92-807-3244-3
DCP/1492/NA

ANNUAL REPORT 2011
The mission of the United Nations Environment Programme is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.
To view current and past issues of the UNEP Annual Report online, please visit www.unep.org/annualreport Published: February 2012 © 2012 United Nations Environment Programme ISBN: 978-92-807-3244-3 DCP/1492/NA Director of Publication: Writer and Project Coordinator: Design and Layout: Cover: Produced by: Printed by:
* All dollar ($) amounts refer to US dollars. * The term ‘one billion’ in this report refers to one thousand million * All World Wide Web addresses are prefixed http://
Cover Photo: © Getty Images

Nick Nuttall Richard Crompton Amina Darani Enid Ngaira UNEP Division of Communications and Public Information UNON/Publishing Section Services/Nairobi, ISO 14001:2004-certified

UNEP promotes environmentally sound practices globally and in its own activities. This report is printed on paper from sustainable forests including recycled fibre. The paper is chlorine free and the inks vegetable-based. Our distribution policy aims to reduce UNEP’s carbon footprint.

This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from UNEP. The designation of geographical entities in this report, and the presentation of the material herein, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the publisher or the participating organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimination of its frontiers or boundaries.

CONTENTS

02 04 08

Message from the UN Secretary-General Introduction by the Executive Director A tribute to Wangari Maathai by the Deputy Executive Director Chapter 1: 2011: A year of transformation and progress Chapter 2: Climate Change Chapter 3: Disasters and Conflicts Chapter 4: Environmental Governance Chapter 5: Ecosystem Management Chapter 6: Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste Chapter 7: Resource Efficiency Chapter 8: UNEP in the UN UNEP profiles 2011 UNEP publications Chapter 9: Organizational Structure and Finance UNEP senior staff 2011 UNEP Organogram Index Glossary

10

22

34

44

54

62

74

82 87 96 102 107 108 109 112

Environmental. Economies are faltering. Ecosystems are under stress. business and civil society will meet in Rio de Janeiro for the UN Conference on Sustainable Development. We need to chart a course that strengthens equality and economic growth while protecting our planet. economic and social indicators tell us that our current model of progress is unsustainable. In just five years. security and opportunity. we will add another half billion people – all needing food.MESSAGE FROM THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARYGENERAL Addressing inequalities. leaders from governments. jobs. overcoming poverty. In less than six months. maintaining peace and building prosperity for the entire human family depend on rejecting the old economics of heedless pollution and the excessive exploitation of the world’s natural capital. The global population has reached 7 billion people. Rio+20 is a once-in-a-generation opportunity to put the world on a more sustainable path – to BAN KI-MOON UN SECRETARY-GENERAL 2 unep annual report 2011 .

It is essential that we act on the science of sustainability. © UN “The global population has reached 7 billion people… We need to chart a course that strengthens equality and economic growth while protecting our planet. I expect UNEP to play a central role in helping to deliver on the promise of Rio+20 by continuing to provide the cutting-edge ideas the world needs. It also illuminates how the UN system as a whole is increasingly Delivering as One with respect to sustainability. I commend it to a wide global audience. Anyone interested in making green economy and sustainability principles an integral part of their decision making will find this volume rich in theory and practice.” unep annual report 2011 3 . UNEP is a pioneer of the green economy.MESSAGE FROM THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL expand on the blueprint provided by the 1992 Earth Summit and create the future we want. This Annual Report shows the full range of UNEP’s work for environment and development. which is one of the themes of Rio+20. It is also responsible for much of the science on which a sustainable future will be built – from its involvement in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to its own Global Environment Outlook family of assessment reports.

2011 also witnessed rapidly intensifying 4 unep annual report 2011 .INTRODUCTION BY THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Propelled by the global preparations for Rio+20. Indeed as the year closed. provided to the Rio+20 regional preparatory meetings compelling analysis indicating investing two per cent of global GDP in 10 key sectors of the economy could—backed by the right kinds of creative policy switches—grow economies and generate jobs but in ways that keep humanity’s footprint within ecological boundaries. support for taking forward the Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication at Rio+20 had gained traction across the vast majority of member states. The EMG’s two landmark reports in 2011—one on desertification and the other on the Green Economy—underpinned a fresh and evolving determination of a ‘One UN’ to put environmental sustainability at the centre of its work. through its Green Economy work involving partners world-wide. I have the honour to chair. UNEP. ACHIM STEINER UNEP EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR The work also acted as a catalyst for improved coordination within the United Nations System in part via the Environmental Management Group. set against the backdrop of the ongoing economic and emerging employment crisis. 2011 marked a year of reflection and re-engagement on fresh ways of scaling-up and accelerating sustainable development. which as UNEP Executive Director.

The structures. ambitions and opportunities of a new century are to be realized. extent and impacts of oil contamination dating back over half a century. 5 partially achieved and unep annual report 2011 5 . we handed over the Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland to Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan—the first report ever to provide to the government and to the public systematic and scientific evidence on the nature. In August. results-based management and project accomplishments. and echoed through the Rio+20 preparatory meetings. architecture and delivery systems founded in a previous century need a fresh sense of realism and direction if the aims. out of 21 expected accomplishments in the UNEP Programme of Work. We believe that the findings can catalyse not only significant environmental and social improvements in the region but a strategic policy on how the oil industry there will function in a way that truly benefits the lives and livelihoods of these communities now and in the future. 2011 also marked a moment when many of the reform measures introduced in 2008 really began to flourish. Let me perhaps single out some of special relevance and resonance for UNEP. was that the status quo is not an option. The Multilateral Organization Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN) review was also supportive of what UNEP has achieved so far in terms of. some of which were launched several years ago but reached completion or took on fresh relevance in 2011. This year’s annual report is also rich in cutting edge assessments and projects. for example. The message from the UNEP Governing Council earlier in the year. drafted in 2011. concludes that 15 are fully achieved. civil society and the private sector on the second major theme of Rio+20—an institutional framework for sustainable development—with UNEP providing advice and support on the options in respect to the international environmental governance dimension. In terms of strengthening UNEP as it stands today. The decoupling report by the UNEP-hosted International Resource Panel estimated that the consumption of natural resources will triple by 2050 to some 140 billion tonnes while highlighting some countries that are starting to de-link GDP growth from resource use.INTRODUCTION BY THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR debate among governments. An internal evaluation.

nations demonstrated forward-looking leadership and governance by requesting UNEP to spearhead a broad partnership to phase out lead in petrol across the developing world. At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. Often. was also brought into sharp focus through a UNEP-led assessment that highlighted 12 possible factors from losses of flowering plants to insecticides and air pollution. and the links to agricultural productivity in respect to lost pollination services. agricultural and climate benefits of fast action on short-lived climate forcers were also in many ways special. UNEP’s two assessment reports on the health. The worrying decline in bee colonies in many parts of the world.4 trillion a year in terms of reduced health costs to declines in criminality. They and the ‘emissions gap’ report for the Durban climate conference offer additional shining examples of how the organization’s science base is responding to new challenges and fresh opportunities for member states alongside the maturing and evolving partnerships being forged with research centres world-wide. there can be those registering concern that the costs may be high or heavy—yet often environmental action can trigger cost savings.2 million less premature deaths and savings of $2. building on over a decade's worth of work on black carbon and other ‘non-CO2’ pollutants. when environmental proposals are made. back to the Green Economy with its potential to deal with multiple challenges and assist the international community realize and implement sustainable development while fulfilling the promise and the intent of world leaders when they met in Rio nearly 20 years ago. innovation and technology leaps.The environmental changes that have swept the planet over the last twenty years were spotlighted in a new compilation of statistical data—Keeping Track of our Changing Environment: From Rio to Rio+20. 6 unep annual report 2011 . In a sense this brings the work of UNEP in 2011 full circle. annually over 1. In 2011 UNEP supported a peer-reviewed paper by scientists on the value to the global economy of the phase-out: the answer.

www.com/en/international-children_s-painting-competition.bayer.aspx unep annual report 2011 7 . Gloabl winner by Trisha Co Reyes (13) from the Philippines.unep.International Children's Painting Competition on the Environment 2011 The theme of the competition was "Life in the Forests".

consistent and unwavering in her beliefs and convictions. she devoted just as much time to her role as a mother. bringing up her children well. So numerous were her achievements. Women today are striving to meet these kinds of standards. who set and achieved high standards in all aspects of her life. whether for tree planting or at demonstrations to free political prisoners. Wangari was the first to roll up her sleeves and get her hands dirty. She was a woman of great integrity. I often wondered if she had more hours in the day than the rest of us. Our paths would cross many times in the following years. She was a trail-blazer in so many ways: becoming the first woman in East and Central Africa to obtain a PhD and. in 2004. in the words of the Nobel Committee. AMINA MOHAMED UNEP DEPUTY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 8 unep annual report 2011 . She was an unflinching champion of democracy and was thorough. becoming the first environmentalist to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for. standing “at the front of the fight to promote ecologically viable social.A TRIBUTE TO WANGARI MAATHAI It was during the 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights that I first met Wangari Maathai. Throughout her work. economic and cultural development”.

nothing was a burden. Above all. The 30 million trees the organization has planted to date across Africa will stand tall in her memory.TRIBUTE TO WANGARI MAATHAI For UNEP. such as her co-patronage of the Billion Tree Campaign. She represented UNEP with grace and conviction when requested. a wise counselor and a faithful friend. she was an excellent partner who never tired of supporting the organization's ideals. The tributes that continue to be paid to her work by presidents. prime ministers and other leaders are testament to the great impact she made beyond her native Kenya. For her. calling for better government management of natural resources. an excellent teacher. the Greenbelt Movement she founded continues her work of championing women’s rights and the environment. people from all backgrounds would seek her counsel on issues relating to the environment. Throughout her life. she championed the continent’s tropical forests. you would never hear her complain. She always made time for them. development or democracy. national and international scales. Wangari took all the challenges of her work in her stride. In Kenya. such as in the Congo Basin. © Ricardo Medina/The Green Belt Movement unep annual report 2011 9 . Wangari will be remembered as a great listener. She is one of a small handful of individuals whose legacy will truly be felt on local. Yet despite her heavy workload and long string of commitments. Elsewhere in Africa.

As the debate and discussion on Rio+20’s other key theme—an institutional framework for sustainable development—took off. The science base was strengthened through more focused convening and partnerships in areas such as keeping the global environment under review. gained almost universal support as preparations for Rio+20 in June 2012 entered into high gear. Strategies to increase regional staffing and funding under the theme of ‘strategic presence’ also registered wins as did the move to restructure and integrate the institution’s work with the Global Environment Facility (GEF). within UNEP's divisions. launched in 2008. 10 unep annual report 2011 . member states including their representatives at the UN in New York. Meanwhile. particularly in respect to the International Environmental Governance dimension.© Corbis 1 2011: A year of transformation and progress 2011 proved a landmark year in which many of the transformational reforms. in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. the analysis and policy options to realize a sustainable century through the lens of a Green Economy. really began to bear fruit in terms of a transition to a results-based. cutting-edge climate studies such as Bridging the Gap and the Foresight Process chaired by the UNEP chief scientist. more effective and more responsive UNEP. increasingly looked to UNEP to provide expert advice on how such a framework might be evolved and structured. Emerging issues and climate research blossomed in 2011 through processes including the developing of the ‘state of the planet’ Global Environment Outlook-5 report.

15 have been fully achieved including in respect to clean energy. EXPECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS unep annual report 2011 11 . as a result of efficiency gains achieved in 2011. scientific knowledge and outreach and seizing investment opportunities for resource efficiency. including among others rationalizing staffing levels in line with government requests. It is also better equipped to meet the very real economic challenges which have marked the past three years due to the on-going financial and economic crisis. policy and control systems for harmful substances. 1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS PERFORMANCE An internal review completed in 2011 by the new Office for Operations in consultation with the Committee of Permanent Representatives has brought into sharp focus where important managerial improvements One expected accomplishment was insufficiently met which was ecosystem services and financing. governments and the secretariat of the environment programme of the UN can take credit for the fact that 40 years after the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment the organization has never been better placed to meet the challenges and realize the opportunities emerging four decades after its founding.As UNEP enters 2012. have been made and the way forward corporately as well as across the six subprogrammes that underpin UNEP’s Programme of Work (PoW) and its Medium Term Strategy 2010-2013. Out of the 21 expected accomplishments in the PoW. strengthening environmental law. capacities to integrate ecosystem management into development. Five expected accomplishments were partially achieved including work on climate adaptation. and stimulating demand for resource efficiency.

© Marine Current Turbines UNEP’s main delivery vehicles are projects: in 2011 there were over 150 active ones. Out of these 115 projects. just over 50. Gender integration has also been scaled-up since the gender programme was introduced in 2006. or 45 per cent. Close to 75 projects now have gender integrated in their activities or have gender-specific activities. are behind schedule and thus the object of priority corrective management actions during the course of the biennium. The results of around 115 are already being monitored through the new Programme Information Management System (PIMS). 14. are on track with some of the best performing in the climate change and environmental governance portfolios. 46. are partly on track with several of these in the disasters and conflicts and resource efficiency portfolios. PROJECT PORTFOLIO DELIVERY 12 unep annual report 2011 . or 12 per cent. or 40 per cent.

as has building the capacity of member states in areas ranging from technology needs. strengthening the ability to participate in the negotiations and outreach. In 2011. science. UNEP had mobilized over $200 million-worth of clean energy investments.1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS © Corbis PERFORMANCE: CLIMATE CHANGE Supporting the UN Framework Convention’s processes and decisions has been one of the core activities. Total UNEP spending on this sub-programme was $84 million or just over of the allocation in 2010-2011 80 per cent unep annual report 2011 13 . accessing carbon markets. By 2011. UNEP was assisting 20 countries to implement clean energy and energyefficient policies and activities including Argentina. UNEP’s climate change work has further focused on ‘flagship’ areas— Ecosystem Based Adaptation. Clean Tech Readiness and readiness for taking part in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. Bangladesh and Vietnam exceeding the indicator target by 4 and up from 8 in 2009. up from $100 million in 2009 and exceeding the indicator target. Over the biennium.

is supporting well over 30 developing countries Funding mobilized for emissions cuts from land use and forestry including via the UN’s capacitybuilding and technical assistance programme Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (UN-REDD) was $150 million in 2011. The number of countries now having concrete adaptation plans is 4— realism in terms of pin-pointing where UNEP has actually intervened. Indonesia. slightly falling short of the indicator target of 14. UN-REDD—which involves UNEP. founded by UNEP in 2009 and its Risoe government. 14 unep annual report 2011 . related web sites has grown from 45. To date. the Democratic Republic of Congo and the other nine pilot countries to provide support in over a dozen nations. UNDP and FAO—has expanded beyond Bolivia.000 in 2009 to close to 170. over 70 high-quality project applications and expressions of interest have been submitted from 20 African countries including 14 Least Developed Countries to the Facility. exceeding the $50 million target and up from $25 million in 2009.000 in The number of UNEP climate assessments cited as being incorporated into development plans has climbed from 5 in 2009 to 12. of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions.The African Carbon Asset Development Facility. had by 2011 approved over a dozen projects ranging from a cement fuel switching project in Kenya to a solar lighting one in Rwanda.

the Consolidated Appeal Process in South Sudan of UNEP’s support. proved one of the more challenging exercises for UNEP in 2010-2011. The Environment and Security Initiative. is also assisting 20 countries in the broader European region.7 million 1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT Mainstreaming the ecosystem approach into national planning and budgets through UNEP projects and building on some of the pioneering work of the UNEP-hosted project. including Central Asia. in hindsight. The goal of assisting six countries to factor priority ecosystem services into medium term budget allocations was insufficiently met with only one country achieving this. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. two short of the indicator target. up from $2. The amount of international funding pledged to UNEP for activities in which the environment is used to reduce conflict and disaster risk totalled just under $10 million in 2011. 15 per cent below the indicator target. The number of countries with assessment capabilities to identify changes in ecosystem services has grown from 25 in 2009 to 29 in 2011. Total funding between 2010-2011 was around $8. Indicator targets set in areas such as ecosystem services and financing may have. UNEP asssted in increasing the number of national development plans integrating ecosystem services as an important component to 14 in 2011—exceeding the indicator target by 4. Total spending was $36 million or 95 per cent of the 2010-2011 allocation.6 million in 2009—an increase of over 250 per cent. UNEP has screened over projects in Sudan and provided guidance to the UN system on over 480 in order to mitigate environmental impacts.DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS In 2011. The percentage of inter-agency post crisis needs assessments and early recovery plans factoring in and pricing environmental damage has grown from 75 per cent to 100 per cent. been over-ambitious and several key projects in the sub-programme also suffered from a lack of funding. 10 per cent more than the target indicator. a broad partnership to which UNEP is the secretariat. UNEP is assisting 16 countries of which 12 have adopted policies to mitigate post-conflict and post-disaster environmental risks— this amounts to 75 per cent of the 16 countries concerned. UNEP continued to expand the delivery of state-of-the-art assessments and field-based capacity building and technical support covering countries including Afghanistan and Haiti. 820 unep annual report 2011 15 . Total expenditure for ecosystem management in 2010-2011 was $66 million or just over 90 per cent of the allocation.

ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Areas such as assisting governments to achieve their environmental goals. applying UNEP guidance has climbed from 10 in 2009 to 16. $95 million or over 90 per cent of the The number of environmental policy issues targeted by UNEP that are now addressed in a complementary manner by other UN entities and MEAs rose from 6 in 2009 to 10 exceeding the target for 2011 by 2. The number of policies and legislative actions drafted by governments as a result of UNEP support rose from 12 in 2009 to 24 in 2011— 8 more than the target indicator. 50 17countries have included environmental sustainability in their development 30 more than in 2009.regionally. The evolving role and increasing relevance and effectiveness of the UN’s Environmental Global Drylands aimed and the other. By 2011. met and in many cases exceeded the indicator targets set by the institution. and a One UN approach in respect to the environment. regionally or globally. operating sub . policies wth support from the Poverty and Environment Initiative and the number of UNDAFs incorporating environmental issues in countries where UNEP has — 14 more than the target indicator and 16 unep annual report 2011 . The number of international organizations. incorporating the environment into UN Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). supporting the work of the Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs) and boosting coherence. Total expenditure was 2010-2011 allocation. Working Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy. countries requested support from UNEP with national development plans that include environmental sustainability — up from 18 in 2009.

Good progress was made in working with business and the financial community and in promoting the life-cycle approach including capacity-building work on eco-labelling. By 2011. 1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS RESOURCE EFFICIENCY The Resource Efficiency and Sustainable Consumption and Production sub-programme made good progress on mainstreaming resource efficiency. up from 75 in 2009 and over 40 more than the target indicator for 2011. the consensus reached on a 10 year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production during CSD 19— though not formally adopted—is the result of UNEP and partners’ efforts that have worked for unep annual report 2011 17 .HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE The strong performance of the sub-programme is evidenced by the increasing number of countries engaging in the various chemicals and waste MEAs—notably the Stockholm. Over 140 projects in 103 countries have been approved for funding under the SAICM Quick Start programme. By 2011. the number of countries and businesses which have strengthened their ability to better manage chemicals and hazardous wastes through the SAICM reporting process stood at 162. including sustainable consumption and the Green Economy. 92 more than in 2009 and more than 60 above the target indicator. The number of governments and other stakeholders applying UNEP policy advice. Nearly 50 countries have adopted incentives and other market-based policies to promote environmentally- friendly products and processes that reduce releases of and exposure to harmful chemicals and hazardous wastes—up from just over 30 in 2009. Total expenditure was $52 million or 100 per cent of the 2010-2011 allocation. At a global level. 10 additional hazardous substances were put on the international chemicals agenda against an indicator target of 3. Rotterdam and Basel conventions—as well as in the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management. one on decoupling natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. Meanwhile. The International Resource Panel launched two assessment reports. and one on recycling rates of metals. the wide range of guidance and tools relating to harmful substances and hazardous wastes that have been successfully prepared and deployed by UNEP and its partners resulted in multiple requests for further assistance and support. guidelines and tools rose to just under 100 in 2011. up from 50 in 2009 and well above the indicator target.

improved performance and positively changing the way UNEP works. or economic instruments promoting resource 46. UNEP GEF RESTRUCTURING UNEP’s Division of the Global Environment Facility (DGEF) was disbanded at the beginning of 2011 as part of a key reform aimed at mainstreaming. anchoring and making the institution’s GEF-funded activities more relevant and responsive to UNEP’s overall activities. 18 unep annual report 2011 . exceeding the target of 300. 60 per cent or nearly $96 million of the $170 million-worth of projects submitted to the GEF for support were ‘blended’ with UNEP’s cross divisional activities — a rise from an average of around 11 per cent over previous years. Total expenditure was $59 million or 97 per cent of the 2010-2011 allocation. The number of national and local governments supported to adopt policies. 12 staff from across UNEP’s divisions are now collaborating with GEF staff in order to prepare projects in areas from disasters and conflicts to chemicals and access and benefit sharing of genetic resources.global recognition of sustainable consumption and production practices as an objective for sustainable development. The former Directorate of the DGEF consisted of 11 staff: the new GEF Coordination Office employs seven which represents a 36 per cent reduction. The number of national cleaner production centres adding the business case for resource efficiency and / or sustainable consumption and production to their portfolio of activities and advisory services was 14. By the end of 2011. economic instruments or voluntary measures influencing customer purchases. In 2011 several key UNEP/GEF funded projects were completed. The decision is already delivering positive results. 30 governments (exceeding the target) and 216 large-scale businesses (more than double the target) were supported to make investments and are adapting technologies favouring resource efficiency or sustainable production and consumption. exceeding the target of 20 production was The number of businesses supported in adopting resource-efficient management practises was 330. 17 national and local governments (exceeding the target of 15) and 242 businesses (far exceeding the target of 100) have adopted regulations. regulations. one short of the target.

The new rush for land: responding to new national and international pressures. Coping with migration caused by new aspects of environmental change. Managing the unintended consequences of climate change mitigation and adaptation.org/publications/ebooks/ ForesightReport/ 1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS SCIENCE THE FORESIGHT PROCESS: 21 ‘EMERGING ISSUES’ FOR THE 21ST CENTURY In 2011.“Water funds” for improved management of ecosystems have been established between communities and municipalities in Latin America. has made investments worth close to $21 million and realized over 20 Megawatts of cogeneration. The decommissioning of nuclear reactors and their environmental consequences. a UNEP and African Development Bank initiative. The process was informed by experts within UNEP and close to 430 external scientists who responded to a questionnaire. New challenges for ensuring food safety and food security for 9 billion people. www. Solving the impending scarcity of strategic minerals and avoiding electronic waste. A project in the Bahamas has increased marine protected areas including the new Westside National Park by 250 per cent to over 550. Consequences of glacier retreat: economic and social impacts. The 21 issues identified and rated by the Panel will now inform UNEP’s current and future PoW. The Foresight Process brought together a panel of 22 distinguished scientists drawn from developed and developing countries to review an initial list of 95 emerging issues.unep. a capacity building project has led to increased commitment to legislative change among parliamentarians in 40 countries in respect to global environmental issues.000 hectares in support of global targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity. They include:Aligning governance to the challenges of global sustainability. The Africa Cogeneration project. UNEP undertook a significant consultative exercise to more comprehensively identify and rank areas of likely future environmental change and ones which need to be firmly on the radar of policymakers. In partnership with the GLOBE International Commission. unep annual report 2011 19 .

STRATEGIC PRESENCE HUMAN RESOURCES : EVOLVING UNEP DELIVERY IN THE REGIONS Significant progress has been made in realizing the strategic presence policy adopted in 2009. that number had increased to close to 260—a further rise of 8 per cent. extra budgetary allocations have climbed by around a third from just under $40 million to over $60 million. excluding staff costs. The financial and human resources of the UNEP regional and country offices have been increased in order to assist regions and countries in areas such as enhanced capacity-building and technology support. the number of staff working in the regions stood at 240. +32 per cent Overall regional human resource increase +30 per cent 4 to 45 Increase in number of professional out-posted staff from Divisions +20 per cent Professional project staff increase: 14 Support staff increase: +7 per cent +17 per cent for out posted support staff Over the same period. targets and timetables. Since 2006 the funding from the Environment Fund to the regional offices. 20 unep annual report 2011 . execution of projects including ones supported by GEF and implementation of MEA policies. has occurred in Africa. has grown from $10 million to around $15 million in 2011. In 2008-2009. By the end of 2011. The largest increase in staffing numbers. achieved mainly through out-posting from the centralized divisions. Asia Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategic presence policy has also assisted UNEP make important strides in building ‘One UNEP’ and the UN’s ‘Delivering as One’ through for example working with a wider number of UN Country teams and contributing to UNDAFs. up 22 per cent from 2006-2007.

The survey targeted UNEP’s direct partners. and Tanzania. Its contributions to policy dialogue also received the highest score of all key performance indicators in the survey. the Multilateral Organization Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN). its respect for partner views and perspectives and its significant influence on environmental policies. and intergovernmental organizations. It manages relationships with a complex array of partners: governments. The organization could strengthen and make more evident its process for resource allocation. international non-governmental organizations. projects and programmes. including UN agencies.PERFORMANCE THE INDEPENDENT MOPAN REVIEW In 2011. UNEP’s Programme Performance Reports present generally clear information on progress toward expected accomplishments but UNEP needs to strengthen the use of performance information. 1 2011: A YEAR OF TRANSFORMATION AND PROGRESS SOME KEY MOPAN FINDINGS UNEP has made considerable progress in becoming a more results-oriented organization. assessed UNEP based on information collected at its headquarters and in eight countries: Bangladesh. businesses and industries. Nepal. Many stakeholders agree that UNEP offers a global reference point on a wide range of critical environmental issues of concern for the international community and commended the organization for the way it uses its normative role and related scientific expertise. local authorities. Ecuador. Burundi. there is no evidence of a wider programmatic approach or organizational policy in this area. It has also established acceptable approaches to ensure the quality of evaluations. However. UNEP was rated highly for mainstreaming environmental governance and integrating gender equality as thematic priorities in to policies. parliamentarians. unep annual report 2011 21 . UNEP is highly valued by its stakeholders for its contributions to policy dialogue. led by Switzerland and the UK. UNEP’s new matrix management approach also provides a more coherent and results-oriented approach to programming. UNEP has developed a partnership strategy to institutionalize and enhance its engagement and collaboration with partners. Peru. Brazil. peer organizations and MOPAN donors based in-country and at headquarters. academic and research institutions. UNEP has integrated a focus on human wellbeing in a number of initiatives such as its Green Economy Initiative and the Poverty and Environment Initiative. UNEP’s Evaluation Office works independently from programmatic divisions and meets UN norms and standards for independence. Bolivia. Many respondents mentioned UNEP’s contributions to policy dialogue and its significant influence on environmental policies.

technology and investment choices that lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions. particularly developing countries.965. including the consideration of parallel benefits such as biodiversity and livelihoods. with a focus on scaling-up clean and renewable energy sources.© Corbis 2 CLIMATE CHANGE TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 CLIMATE CHANGE $50. 000s 22 unep annual report 2011 . Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) UNEP supports developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation through the development of REDD+ strategies. UN-REDD is the vehicle for this initiative. to integrate climate change responses into national development processes. in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). energy efficiency and energy conservation.000 ADDRESSING THE CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGE The climate change sub-programme focuses on strengthening the ability of countries. RESULTS TARGETED Mitigating Climate Change UNEP supports countries in making sound policy.

Enhancing scientific knowledge and communication UNEP works to improve understanding of climate change science and raise awareness of the impacts of climate change among policy-makers and the public. and made the case for its improved regulation to facilitate this. Mitigation (SRREN). Drawing on experience and lessons learned by the UNEP-UNDP Poverty-Environment Initiative. estimated at around 6-7 Gt annually. UN Global Compact. With nearly 400 signatories. In the run up to the UN climate convention in Durban. UNEP. South Africa. UNEP released a Guide for Practitioners on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning.5 to 8. Caring for Climate is the world’s largest voluntary business and climate initiative. as well as calling for Forestry-based Carbon Markets.Adapting to Climate Change UNEP assists countries reduce their vulnerability and use ecosystem services to build natural resilience against the impacts of climate change. 2 CLIMATE CHANGE 2011 THE YEAR IN CLIMATE CHANGE The findings of the two-part study. the guide provides practical guidance on how governments and other national agencies can mainstream climate change adaptation into national development planning. and perhaps even 1. REDDy — Set — Grow: Opportunities and Roles of Financial Institutions in Forest-Carbon Markets. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. established by UNEP and WMO. launched in mid-June. launched its Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change unep annual report 2011 23 . stressed that the financial sector must step up its engagement in the emerging green market. Oxfam and the World Resources Institute launched a joint report entitled Adapting for a Green Economy: Companies. A UNEP-World Meteorological Organization report — Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone. The report indicated that under the most optimistic scenario close to 80 per cent of the world's energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century if backed by the right enabling public policies. revealed that fast action on pollutants such as black carbon and methane may help limit near term global temperature rise and significantly increase the chances of keeping temperature rise below 2° Celsius. UNEP launched the report HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer. Under the Caring for Climate initiative. Communities and Climate Change. The report projects that by 2050 HFCs could be responsible for emissions equivalent to 3.5 degrees. highlighting the importance of climate change adaptation to companies and identifying how climate adaptation offers competitive advantages to businesses worldwide.8 Gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2eq) — comparable to total current annual emissions from transport.

During the Durban Climate meeting. save close to 2. According to the report. The outcome in Durban however has left the world with some serious and urgent challenges if a global temperature rise is to be kept under 2° Celsius in the 21st century. Its goal is to work with financial institutions to develop cost-effective ways to reduce energyrelated carbon emissions through access to energy investments and markets. such as. UNEP launched Women at the Frontline of Climate Change. as currently these ‘international emissions’ fall outside the Kyoto Protocol—the emission reduction treaty. countries. Accelerated uptake of renewable energy. It presented a package of 16 measures which could.The report Bridging the Emissions Gap was launched in the run up to Durban and became an important reference point for the negotiations. The Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (REGATTA) aims to improve effectiveness and cooperation in existing networks in the region. fuel switching and energy efficiency improvements can deliver a large slice of the necessary cuts. In association with the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. UNEP launched a new Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance. as well as associated risks such as human trafficking. if fully implemented across the globe. Several important steps forward were agreed on including an agreement to negotiate a new and more inclusive treaty and the establishment of a Green Climate Fund.5 million lives a year. particularly those living in mountain regions in developing 24 unep annual report 2011 . are facing disproportionately high risks to their livelihoods and health from climate change. The report Actions for Controlling Short-Term Climate Forcers was the last pre-COP17 report to be launched. Other measures include sectoral improvements ranging from increased penetration of public transport and more fuel-efficient vehicles to ones in areas. temperature rise under 2° Celsius is technologically and economically feasible. agriculture and waste management. but that current pledges and ambitions left a gap of 6 to 11 gigatonnes. It showed that cutting emissions by 2020 to a level that could keep a global. The Durban climate talks ended with hope for a new more comprehensive legallybinding agreement. with work under way to launch similar networks in Africa and West Asia. women. The Southeast Asia Network of Climate Change Focal Points (SEAN-CC) will improve the development and exchange of knowledge among experts and professionals in members of the ASEAN regional group. avoid crop losses amounting to 32 million tonnes annually and deliver near-term climate protection of about half a degree C by 2040. UNEP successfully set up climate change networks in SE Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. The report cites aviation and shipping as a special but important case. 21st century.

A series of Municipal Environmental Commissions (MECs) have been created to harmonise local environmental policies and to promote dialogue and cooperation between public. UNEP is working with UNDP. private and civil society on environmental issues. with 30 students awarded their diplomas. While local issues such as forest fires and overgrazing remain the most visible environmental challenges in the Andes. But those at altitude are at risk too. unep annual report 2011 25 . land and resources come under threat from climate change. Indeed. and also in running workshops on socioenvironmental conflicts. climate change is never far away. UNEP has been involved in training the MECs. UNEPtrained educators have been addressing local populations though drama productions. reduced rainfall. the danger of conflict is never far away. rising sea levels and increased frequency of extreme weather due to climate change. Monitoring the effects of climate change is another vital part of UNEP’s work in the High Andes. the issue is complicated by the presence of formal and informal mining. FAO and PAHO/WHO to monitor and mitigate the effects of climate change among the communities of the High Andes. it is at the extremes of human settlement that the first indications of how climate change affects people’s lives are being felt. schools outreach and further education programmes—2011 saw the graduation of the second year of the UNEP-designed Diploma in Adaptation to Climate Change and Adaptive Management of Environmental Resources in High Mountain Areas. In Peru. In the Andes. UNEP has been advising the Peruvian government on their acquisition and management of two meteorological stations and working to ensure the widespread dissemination of the data gathered. 2 CLIMATE CHANGE © Cinthia Soto PERU It’s often sea-level communities who are seen as the most threatened by climate change.CLIMATE CHANGE HIGHS AND LOWS Part of this involves helping communities to work together. Peru will have increased temperatures. Where communities. UNEP helped develop a training guide and ran a series of workshops on mediation and conflict resolution to provide communities the skills and resources to head off problems before they arise.

UNDP and IUCN ecosystem-based adaptation programme in Peru. Climate Change and Spatial Planning in the Alpine Space (CLISP) and Climate Change and Tourism in the Alpine Space (ClimAlpTour) both aimed to bring together national and regional governments and stakeholders to address the risks of climate change. and agriculture. The successful partnership is now being expanded into other countries and regions. 26 unep annual report 2011 . also completed two successful projects in the Alps. and this could seriously affect seasonal water flows and the availability of water for human consumption. including the drying of wetlands and the disappearance of snowcapped terrain. Peru and Uganda. in partnership with the EU. The lessons learned from these projects will be shared with other mountain regions. Working across national borders. UNEP is helping to improve understanding and build the resilience and integrity of mountain ecosystems in Nepal. UNDP and IUCN and is supported by the government of Germany.ECOSYSTEM-BASED ADAPTATION These projects will now be complemented by the UNEP. Warming in the Andes is damaging high mountain ecosystems. hydropower. © Corbis UNEP. The project is a joint effort of UNEP. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS Under a major partnership programme on Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Mountain Ecosystems. Many Andean glaciers are retreating. The UNEP collaborating project is promoting improved natural resource and farming management to help people and ecosystems to adapt.

with involvement from UNICEF. Various solutions have been tried. From the heights of the Alps and the Andes. to the low-lying islands of the Indian Ocean. in particular. Drought has become a regular occurrence. with short periods of heavy rainfall punctuated by long. The resultant water bill savings have been re-invested in education. piloted a rainwater harvesting project at eight schools. The government of the Seychelles has decided to integrate rainwater harvesting into the national building code. WMO. If we all do our part in harvesting rainwater and are serious about it. But these. the success of the project has provided a template for new building design. Meanwhile. which is one of the Republic’s most pressing concerns. national governments. rather than an abundance of water. severe dry seasons. we could all contribute to alleviating the serious shortages we face in the dry season. This recognition through legislation is a testament that small but well-timed and targeted interventions can have significant impact: an important aspect in the transition from practical demonstration to far-reaching policy actions.SEYCHELLES 2 PRESIDENT JAMES ALIX MICHEL PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE SEYCHELLES CLIMATE CHANGE © Corbis “This UNEP/UNDP CC DARE is a worthwhile project which I fully endorsed. The Climate Change & Development – Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability Programme (CC DARE) project is a collaboration between UNEP. unep annual report 2011 27 . But it’s a lack. and the government of Denmark. resulting in the emission of more greenhouse gases. CC DARE. in collaboration with the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). UNDP. The archipelago of over 100 islands has experienced changes in rainfall patterns over recent years. It is the way forward. NGOs and civil society organizations. such as increased reservoir capacity and the use of desalination plants. especially with a rise in urbanisation and population growth. the Seychelles have been identified as particularly at risk from rising sea levels.” proved costly and they consumed fossil fuel.

As in the case of India. and the development of an information sharing and co-ordination website.49 million Euro project is funded under the International Climate Initiative of the German Government.©UNEP PROMOTING LOW CARBON TRANSPORT IN INDIA India is currently the fourth largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world. interventions such as enhancing public transport and non-motorised transport systems require surmounting institutional. This project will help improve the understanding and enhance institutional capacity for charting a sustainable low-carbon transport development and provide a framework for similar interventions in other countries. legal and regulatory aspects. UNEP and partners in India have embarked on a new initiative to support a low carbon transport pathway in India. particularly in urban areas. local air pollution. infrastructure and services to manage the growing demand for mobility. noise and accidents. and is designed in support of India’s National Climate Action Plan. financial and social barriers. The sector also exacerbates road congestion. 28 unep annual report 2011 . with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. The expected outcome of the three-year project will be the creation of a National Transport Action Plan for India. The greatest challenges in the transport sector are establishing the right policy framework. specific Low-Carbon Mobility Plans for up to four cities. The three-year 2. while reducing negative impacts locally and globally.

The latest version is currently open for public consultation. the UN-REDD Programme has not only been a model of inter-agency collaboration and UN Delivering as One but it has also surpassed its original direct support to 9 countries to 14 countries and now has an additional 21 partner countries that benefit from work at the global level. as well as work that is commencing in a number of other countries. a high level meeting in November. the UN-REDD Programme seeks to build consensus and knowledge about REDD+ and raise awareness about the importance of including a REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate change agreement. the DRC and Panama. At the international level.more funding becomes available as the demand for REDD+ Readiness support continues to increase." which has resonated positively with Parties at the recently concluded UNFCCC COP 17. supported by UN-REDD and UNEP. UNEP. identify means to safeguard these multiple benefits. to name just three. through the UN-REDD Programme launched a policy brief in late November titled "REDD+ and a Green Economy: Opportunities for a mutually supportive relationship. Indonesia and Norway acknowledged the importance of linking REDD+ to the green economy and UNEP's contributions to this. Broad consultations on the draft have included engagement with the Convention on Biological Diversity’s regional workshops on REDD+ safeguards and consultations at national level. spur development and secure conservation is helping countries like Indonesia. The UN-REDD Programme is undertaking a variety of activities from awareness raising to capacity building to ensure that countries are ready for REDD+ and that unep annual report 2011 29 . To this end. UNDP and UNEP on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. and turn them into opportunities for a green economy. The UN-REDD Programme also worked to ensure that its activities contribute effectively to promoting social and environmental benefits and minimise potential risk from REDD+. 2 CLIMATE CHANGE © Corbis UN-REDD UN-REDD is a Collaborative Programme between the FAO. a set of Social and Environmental Principles and Criteria (SEPC) are being developed. has come to a similar conclusion about REDD+ and development. based on the ongoing work by the UN-REDD Programme. UNEP's contributions towards realising REDD+ as an opportunity to simultaneously combat emissions. These outcomes are now a concrete focus of work with Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Having grown to over $100 million in funding. In the Democratic Republic of Congo. In this regard.

Indonesia plans to plant palm oil and other crops on degraded lands rather than clearing virgin forest. Overall the REDD+ funding. and measure and monitor carbon changes under The approach allows for large area landscape assessments of above and below ground carbon for plans to mitigate climate change through REDD policies. DR. KUNTORO MANGKUSUBROTO HEAD OF THE PRESIDENT’S DELIVERY UNIT FOR DEVELOPMENT MONITORING AND OVERSIGHT AND THE CHAIR OF THE NATIONAL REDD+ TASK FORCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. backed by smart public policies and both direct foreign investment and private sector funding. reducing unemployment to between 5 and 6 per cent and achieving a 26-41 per cent reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020. indicates that this is coming at a cost to other productive sectors such as mining. As part of its REDD+ Programme. that would help realize multiple benefits from REDD+ for these stated goals. Significant areas of Kalimantan’s forests have been cleared for cash crops such as coffee and palm oil. The online tools are designed to estimate emissions under present and alternative management. The Heart of Borneo project. But ongoing research led by the National REDD+ Task Force in partnership Measurement and Monitoring has developed a set of interventions. 30 unep annual report 2011 .” CARBON BENEFITS PROJECT Indonesia is at the forefront of international efforts to develop REDD+ as a viable opportunity for climate change mitigation and sustainable development – particularly in the country’s Kalimantan region. supported by UNEP and other stakeholders. UNEP and other UN agencies have been requested to advise on a number of areas for intervention in Kalimantan. but also for what it does to bring millions of people out of poverty while conserving their ecosystems. improving their lives and enhancing their livelihood opportunities. fisheries and the livelihoods of local people as well as challenging Indonesia’s biodiversity including the iconic orangutan. “A green economy transtion is worth pursuing not only because it is the best way forward. should assist Indonesia in its stated aims of realizing 7 per cent GDP growth per annum by 2014. supported by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).REDD+ IN INDONESIA with the United Nations. aims to protect biodiversity by creating a network of protected forest areas.

the Philippines. In 2011. The strategic framework will allow better sharing of best practises between manufacturers and designers in reducing emissions from this energy-hungry sector. Singapore. The potential for total electricity saving from harmonization of standards for ACs in ASEAN countries is 5. Laos.401 million tonnes. It will also yield a cumulative CO2equivalent emission reduction of about 672 million tonnes by 2015. unep annual report 2011 31 . Wind farms in China and small-scale solar panels in Europe were the key drivers of the rise. which are used as a coolant. solvent and propellant. RENEWABLES INVESTING IN THE FUTURE economy. Also in 2011.SOUTH EAST ASIA COOLING THE USE OF UNEP ACTS ON IMPROVING AIR CONDITIONERS HCFCs China is the largest producer and consumer of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Myanmar. These substances damage the ozone layer and contribute to global warming. investors pumped a record $211 billion into renewable energy. The total worldwide is now 75.374 terawatt hours per year. more countries were added to the list of those preparing action plans for the phase-out of HCFCs. Indonesia. The Multilateral Fund also approved a $5. $265 million was granted to China by the Multilateral Fund for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. This would result in reduction in Green House Gas emissions amounting to 3. That’s about one-third more than the $160 billion invested in 2009.320 tonnes of HCFC consumption by 2015. 2 CLIMATE CHANGE © Corbis UNEP’s South East Asian network of Climate Change focal points (SEAN-CC) have developed a Strategic Framework on Energy Efficiency Harmonisation for room air conditioners across the ASEAN member states (Brunei. The grant aims to help China eliminate 3. In 2011.24 million component for UNEP for the Refrigeration Servicing Sector. Thailand and Vietnam). and a 540 per cent rise since 2004. Cambodia. But one sector bucked the trend: Renewable Energy. Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011. according to UNEP’s report. Malaysia.

9bn up 28 per cent South and Central America $13. backed up national and regional capacitybuilding workshops. RENÉ CASTRO MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT. MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH INNOVATION UNEP. As a result.” TECHNOLOGY MATTERS UNEP’s Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project helps countries identify their most urgent technological needs and provide policymakers with the research and resources they need to make the change. including high costs and a skills deficit. COSTA RICA “Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) has come to be a methodological guide for conducting mitigation and adaptation technologies to their deployment in the market. on behalf of GEF. 2011 saw the project move into a new phase with the number of participating countries more than doubling from 15 to 36. 32 unep annual report 2011 . the project has seen a strengthening of government commitment and more efficient working of national TNA teams.1bn up 39 per cent Middle East & Africa $5bn up 104 per cent India $3. But this can be a challenge.EMERGING WORLD INVESTMENT IN RENEWABLES China $48. ENERGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS. China and India) $4bn up 31 per cent DR. There was also a substantial acceleration in the pace of implementation. due to lessons learned from the first round of participants. especially for developing countries which face considerable barriers to the rapid adoption of such technologies. has been at the forefront of promoting technological solutions to mitigate the causes and effects of climate change.8bn up 25 per cent Asian developing states (exc.tech-action. org. A series of new guidebooks prepared by UNEP and the online support portal www.

The TAP aims to systematically address practical actions necessary to reduce or remove policy. UNEP has worked with the UNDP as part of the ‘ONE UN’ programme to help the country’s fledgling environmental ministry kick-start climate change initiatives. is the development of a national Technology Action Plan (TAP) that prioritises technologies. recommends an enabling framework for the diffusion of these technologies and facilitates identification of good technology transfer projects and their links to relevant financing sources. Iraq ratified international standards on climate change set by the UNFCCC. draft TNA reports were produced in ten countries and draft TAP reports produced in four: Morocco. The framework. Over 55 countries have signed phase-out of incandescent bulbs is one of the easiest ways to reduce CO2 An ambitious target date of 2016 has been set to phase-out incandescent lamps globally.org Created three new climate change projects that have received funding or are being considered for funding. among other goals. The projects promote renewable energy and clean development. Paved the way for national emission reduction requirements. IRAQ TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE Iraq is emerging from nearly three decades of international isolation and recovering from war and its aftermath. It is just now turning its attention to environmental issues. In the past two years.TECHNOLOGY NEEDS TECHNOLOGY ACTION The next stage. In 2011. bolster wetlands initiatives. once the findings of the TNA are in place. Iraq’s oil ministry has started developing GHG emission management plans for oil companies. For example. In 2011 Iraq has: 2 CLIMATE CHANGE Partnership Programme was launched in 2011 to provide an opportunity for countries around the world to achieve a lighting. In 2009. Thailand. and set up national communication with the United Nations’ Climate Change convention. www. Iraq is already looking into emission management plans for oil companies and considering climate change as it tackles water and agriculture development issues. unep annual report 2011 33 . set requirements for emission reduction targets. As a result of UNEP’s coordinated efforts.enlighten-initiative. finance and technology related barriers. Mali. and Costa Rica.

998. livelihoods and security form the foundation of UNEP’s response. UNEP also uses environmental assessments to develop recovery programmes that address environmental needs and priorities and support peace-building strategies and long-term sustainable development. In the aftermath of a crisis. Assessments to gauge the risks posed by these environmental impacts on human health.000 MINIMISING THE THREATS AND IMPACTS OF CRISES UNEP aims to minimise threats to human wellbeing from the environmental causes and consequences of disasters and conflicts. UNEP focuses in integrating environmental concerns into risk reduction policies and practices. vital natural resources are often degraded or destroyed.© Mazen Saggar/UNEP 3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS $17. UNEP supports member states to address environmental degradation and the mismanagement of natural resources as underlying risk factors for conflicts and natural hazards. 000s 34 unep annual report 2011 . leaving entire communities vulnerable.

A major UNEP environmental assessment — Rwanda: From PostConflict to Environmentally Sustainable Development — provides a critical analysis of environmental issues facing Rwanda and proposes solutions. Also according to UN figures. Contributing to improved environmental management and sustainable use of natural resources through assessment and recovery efforts in post-crisis situations. Conducting rapid and reliable environmental assessments following conflicts and disasters.RESULTS TARGETED Enhancing the environmental management capacity of member states to reduce the risks of man-made and natural disasters. and following requests for technical assistance during disaster recovery efforts in such countries as Japan. renewable energy. such as Bangladesh. as requested. Through its role in the global Partnership for Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR). both through its ongoing countrybased operations and environmental assessments. Thailand accounting for more than two thirds of this total. Yet in countries that have been pro-active in taking adaptation and preparedness measures. the death toll from comparable disasters was considerably lower than it was 20 years ago. some 29. This included the first ever Training of Trainers course to enable staff from regional and national disaster management training institutions and universities in more than 10 Asian countries to integrate the National Training Course on Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reduction into their ongoing training programmes. with the Great East Japan Earthquake and major floods in unep annual report 2011 35 . India and Thailand. UNEP continued to advocate for greater understanding of the critical role of ecosystems in reducing the risk and impact of natural hazards. Natural disasters caused a record $366 billion damage in 2011. 3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS 2011 THE YEAR IN DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS UNEP played an active role in reducing the risk of disasters and conflicts and addressing post-conflict environmental challenges in more than 30 countries.700 people lost their lives in 302 disasters during the year. UNEP delivered training on the environment and disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka. The report recommends reinforced policies and investments in large-scale ecosystem rehabilitation. Thailand and Kenya.

a greater emphasis on renewable energy and modernizing waste treatment. identified natural resources as a priority area and nominated UNEP as the subcluster lead on the issue based on its track record for conducting post-conflict environmental assessments and recovery work. 36 unep annual report 2011 . Georgia’s capital. To mark 25 years of UNEP’s Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL) programme. 93 barrels of toxic waste were removed from a disused oil refinery near a densely populated neighbourhood near the capital. Independent Report of the Senior Advisory Group to the Secretary General on Civilian Capacity in the Aftermath of Conflict (February 2011). Training covered techniques for extracting toxic substances and the safe storage and containment of chemicals. the national Environment Protection Agency supervised the clean-up of almost 12. and a shift to an integrated river-basin approach to water resource management. With technical assistance and funding from UNEP. timber and other natural resources. the GEOCities Tbilisi report recommends increased environmental monitoring.000 litres. Tbilisi. Fieldwork began in the border zone of Haiti and the Dominican Republic for a new UNEP study examining potential sources of transboundary tensions and opportunities for cooperation over the use of water. was the focus of the latest Global Environment Outlook at the municipal level. As a result. Released in December. of tetra-ethyl lead (TEL). including natural resource trade initiatives. attracting participants from 17 countries. This is a major recognition of UNEP’s efforts to integrate environmental considerations into UN conflict prevention and peacebuilding operations. a global forum was held in China. © UNEP A UN review of civilian capacity in postconflict settings. the University of Bahia Blanca in Argentina and Tsinghua University in China are to become new APELL Research Centres. or 19 metric tonnes. Freetown. In Sierra Leone. Under the Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC).sustainable agriculture and regional environmental cooperation.

which appear unaffected at the surface.000+ 69 attendees at local community meetings 24 duration months 200+ locations examined sites investigated in detail for soil and groundwater contamination 122km 5. The report discovered that some areas. are in reality severely contaminated underground and action to protect human health and reduce the risks to affected communities should occur without delay. productive health. It could take 25 to 30 years to bring contaminated drinking water. 3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS UNEP Ogoniland Assessment 23. land. and catalyse improved environmental standards for the oil industry in Nigeria and around the world. Drawing on the best available science and expertise.000m² size-range of sites investigated boreholes examined of pipeline rights of way surveyed 4. It is UNEP’s hope that its findings will help break the decades of deadlock in the region and lead to the environmental restoration of Ogoniland. creeks and important ecosystems such as mangroves back to full. completed by UNEP in 2011. shows that pollution from over 50 years of oil operations in the region has penetrated further and deeper than previously thought.000± samples analysed medical records reviewed 142 groundwater wells drilled for the study unep annual report 2011 37 .300m² 790. The scale and scope of UNEP’s assessment has been unprecedented (see box).OGONILAND NIGERIA A major independent scientific assessment.000+ 780 1. the Ogoniland project is a key step in helping the government take action to clean up contaminated areas and restore people’s lives and livelihoods in the region.

Further to its post-earthquake recovery support to China since 2008. families were discovered to be drinking water from wells contaminated with benzene—a known carcinogen—at levels over 900 times above WHO guidelines. This was the most severe example. monitoring and enforcement are also recommended in the report. the report noted that mangroves—an essential coastal habitat— have been disastrously hit. at Nisisioken Ogale. and an initial capital injection of $1bn. The report recommends establishing three new institutions in Nigeria to support a comprehensive environmental restoration exercise. According to the report. BUILDING BACK BETTER © UNEP Contaminated site assessment and remediation was also the focus of a study tour by a Chinese delegation to Switzerland and Germany. all sources of ongoing contamination must be brought to an end before the clean-up of the creeks. clean-up standards and the varying scale and cost of environmental remediation projects. Among other findings. It included presentations from UNEP experts and visits to remediated sites and specialised laboratories. UNEP responded to a government request for technical assistance to inform the development of standards for contaminated site management in China. 38 unep annual report 2011 . That when oil spills occur on land. sediments and mangroves can begin. UNEP scientists found an 8cm layer of refined oil floating on the groundwater which serves the wells. in western Ogoniland. often under a crust of tar. and prompted the State Government to begin deliveries of potable water to the affected communities. This was reportedly linked to an oil spill which occurred more than six years ago.CHINA: In one community. contributed by the oil industry and the government. Fires are a regular occurrence. to cover the first five years of the clean-up project. hosted by UNEP. Air pollution impacts the lives of an estimated one million people. Reforms of environmental government regulation. plant growth is stifled. The tour focused on European approaches to site and risk assessments.

000 people were affected and 200 children reportedly died as a result of acute lead poisoning from the processing of lead-rich ore for gold extraction taking place inside houses and compounds. Investigation by the joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit detected high levels of lead in groundwater. but by an industrial accident that caused a large amount of petrol to enter a storm water drainage system. and the remediation of affected wells. unep annual report 2011 39 . UNEP and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The Kenyan government made an urgent appeal to the UN for environmental emergency response services. These before and after images captured by the UN's satellite imaging service show the extent of the disaster in Nairobi. subsequently compiled an expert team to undertake a rapid environmental emergency assessment.NIGERIA: BEFORE LEAD POISONING IN ZAMFARA STATE Also in Nigeria. over 100 people perished and a similar number were hospitalised with serious wounds when an explosion and fire ripped through the slum of Mukuru-Sinai in Nairobi. through their Joint Environment Unit. the joint UNEP/OCHA mission will provide a model for future inter-agency co-operation and rapid response. surface water and soil. Kenya. The main conclusion of the mission was that the fire was not caused by a pipeline explosion as reported initially in the media. Over 18. the decontamination of homes and villages. The multi-agency response involved intensive treatment for the most severe cases of children under five. As an investigation which was mobilised and in situ within days of a request from a national government. and mercury in the air. A further conclusion was that a repetition of a similar type of accident is considered as highly likely. abnormally high rates of death and illness among children since early 2010 caused alarm in Zamfara State in the north of the country. The scope of the mission was to provide scientific information on the extent and nature of pollution and to assist the decision-making and priority-setting by the authorities and other actors for follow-up activities on the affected site. © UNITAR/ UNOSAT AFTER 3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS NAIROBI PIPELINE DISASTER On 12th September 2011.

including for former combatants. including formalising artisanal mining. the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) could become a powerhouse of African development. the report advocates a ‘Green Economy’ transition whereby sustainable reconstruction includes capitalising on the country’s emerging social economy to create ‘green jobs’. Nature Conservation and Tourism. Providing a strong foundation for UNEP’s recovery programme in the DRC. heavy metal pollution and land degradation from mining. species depletion. But such a goal will only be attained if the intensive pressure on the country’s natural resources is urgently addressed. and reinforce ongoing peace consolidation. and promoting greater trans-boundary collaboration for sustainable fisheries management in the Great Rift Valley Lakes. That was the conclusion of a major PostConflict Environmental Assessment of the DRC completed by UNEP in 2011. the assessment also hails successful initiatives and identifies strategic opportunities to restore livelihoods. was also singled out. Strengthening institutional capacities for disaster preparedness—such as epidemics. as well as an acute drinking water crisis which has left an estimated 51 million Congolese without access to potable water. volcanic eruptions. Among the focus areas recommended for UNEP’s ongoing support to the government were overcoming the environmental liabilities of a century of mining by modernising the sector. floods and forest fires— including early warning systems.© Corbis DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO With half of Africa's forests and water resources and trillion-dollar mineral reserves. promote good governance and support the sustainability of the DRC's post-conflict economic reconstruction. Conducted in conjunction with the DRC's Ministry of Environment. 40 unep annual report 2011 . The two-year assessment highlighted increasing deforestation.

A breakthrough was achieved in influencing government policy with a decision to proceed with Integrated Water Resource Management as a national policy. UNEP reaffirmed its long-term commitment to assisting the people of Sudan and South Sudan. Ahead of the Darfur International Water Conference in June. in collaboration with UNEP. UKaid from the Department for International Development. By the end of 2011. data collection was under way in each of the 15 states for a major national vulnerability and adaptation assessment. unep annual report 2011 41 . focusing on policy reform and partnerships. UNEP realigned its plans for both countries.3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS © UNEP SUDAN In July. UNEP joined an international call for urgent action to address critical water issues in Darfur. Groundwater tables in many urban areas and IDP camps had dropped dramatically (by up to 7-10 metres) and UNEP voiced its concern that forthcoming periods of below-average rainfall could cause even more severe shortages in the region. Seven villages in North Darfur became the first pilot sites for a UNEP-Darfur Development and Reconstruction Agency project aimed at empowering communities to assess and solve local environmental issues. With UNEP’s technical assistance. In conjunction with its major donor. Sudan’s Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources made significant progress in preparing the country’s Second National Communication under the UNFCCC.

Waste management is one of the biggest challenges the municipality faces. and UNEP assisted with drawing up a masterplan. UNEP and its partners released new evidence of changing climate trends in the Sahel and West Africa and their potentially profound implications for food security and regional stability.2m residents now benefit from regular solid waste collection. Burkina Faso. and a new member state of the UN: The Republic of South Sudan. livelihoods. According to the study. Benin and Nigeria. with a greater increase of between 1. droughts and flooding over the past 40 years and their implications for the availability of natural resources. in Niger. the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) and the University of Salzburg. 42 unep annual report 2011 . environmental considerations were included in all five pillars of the South Sudan Development Plan.5°C to 2°C observed in far eastern Chad and northern Mali and Mauritania. The analysis detected significant changes in regional climatic conditions. northern and coastal Ghana. © UNEP SOUTH SUDAN 2011 saw the birth of a new nation. Thanks to the strong relationship fostered between UNEP and the new government. UNEP’s ongoing technical assistance supported progress with the enforcement of logging bans. Migration and Conflict in the Sahel analyses regional trends in temperature. An estimated 420.ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION FOR PEACEBUILDING During the Durban climate meeting. migration and conflict in 17 countries in the Sahel and West Africa. the frequency of floods and the area covered by flooding have increased in parts of the region over the past 24 years. The study was conducted by UNEP in cooperation with the IOM. rainfall. as well as northern Togo. the United Nations University (UNU). Forests provide an important development opportunity for South Sudan. An innovative mapping process identified 19 "climate hotspots" where climatic changes have been the most severe and which warrant focused adaptation planning and other follow-up activities. OCHA. yet deforestation continues at alarming levels. Livelihood Security: Climate Change. a blueprint for the new country. Many of the hotspots are in the central part of the Sahel. one of the world’s fastest-growing cities.000 of 1. including an overall rise in mean seasonal temperature from 1970 to 2006 of approximately 1°C. UNEP has long had a presence in Juba.

Boosting cooperation between countries sharing the waters of the Amu Darya could be key to future peace and security in the region. remains severely degraded with the report’s estimates indicating that “the volume and surface area of the sea have now decreased tenfold”. ‘High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding’ represents one of the most comprehensive studies to date of the link between post-conflict peacebuilding and managing high-value natural resources such as oil. With a foreword by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. The Aral Sea. combined with factors such as population growth and weak governance. wheat and fodder farming in arid and desert regions. The research outcomes will be used for further policy development. will yield more than 150 case studies from over 50 countries. Environment and Security in the Amu Darya Basin recommends heightened cooperation between the states which share this resource. © UNEP 3 DISASTERS AND CONFLICTS The research programme. Such projects have also contributed to increased land degradation and damage to soils. Large-scale engineering projects dammed and diverted substantial flows from the Amu Darya river basin into activities such as cotton. AMU DARYA RIVER The Amu Darya is the longest river in Central Asia. according to a flagship report from UNEP. unep annual report 2011 43 . assembled into a seven volume series. which UNEP and the Law Institute have been coordinating. more exchange of information on projects such as irrigation and hydropower which impact downstream regions. President of Liberia and 2011 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate. passing through Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.The study found that the impacts of such changing climatic conditions on the availability of natural resources. Water resources in the region are already impacted by decades of often unsustainable development dating back to the era of the Soviet Union. have led to greater competition over scarce resources. gold and timber. flowing from the highlands of Afghanistan to the deserts of Turkmenistan. and to changing migration patterns in the region. and the sharing of the burden of maintaining the water infrastructure. diamonds. UN staff training and fieldlevel capacity building programmes. Water levels in the southern part have dropped by 26 metres and the shoreline there has now receded by several hundred kilometres. which relies in part from water from the Amu Darya. launched in 2011.

000 STRENGTHENING GOVERNANCE UNEP helps governments and regional institutions place environmental sustainability at the heart of their development policies. 000s 44 unep annual report 2011 . UNEP also helps governments to further strengthen and develop their policies. laws and institutions in the field of environmental governance.© UN 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE $48.191 . and develop tools and processes for environmental management. supporting informed international decision-making processes based on accurate and timely environmental data and information. UNEP catalyses international efforts to implement internationally agreed environmental objectives.

The online college is composed of interactive courses. a library and training centre with networks for tutors and students. The capacity of member states to implement their environmental obligations and achieve their environmental goals through strengthened laws and institutions is enhanced. and detailed the rapid growth in renewable energy supply. using visual tools.net/geas/ 2011 THE YEAR IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE The InforMEA portal (www. CITES also launched the CITES Virtual College. respecting the mandates of other entities. It also revealed that halting the loss of forest diversity is vital to maintaining these ecosystems. Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment. including those under multilateral environmental agreements. The “Global Environment Alert Service” (GEAS) bulletins. communicate in a simple language. progressively achieves synergies and demonstrates increasing coherence in international decision-making processes related to the environment. instruments from 13 MEA secretariats hosted by three UN organizations and the IUCN. the scientific evidence of emerging environmental issues. http://campusvirtual. National development processes and UN country programming processes increasingly prioritise environmental sustainability in the implementation of their programmes of work. Access by policy-makers and national and international stakeholders to sound science and advice is improved. 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE UNEP launched a series of bulletins which provide a succinct overview of timely and thematic early warnings. trends and threats of international significance. issued key findings on the hazards of plastic marine debris to the food chain and on the use of phosphorus in food production. The UNEP Yearbook 2011. MEA membership and national focal points.informea. org) was launched in 2011 to provide a one-stop shop for MEA information—COP decisions. http://na. It is the first project developed under the UNEP-supported MEA Information and Knowledge Management Initiative which currently includes 24 international The UNEP-GEF Project for Continued Enhancement of Building Capacity for Effective Participation in the Biosafety Clearing House (BCHII) was developed in order to assist parties in effectively fulfilling their obligations under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.unia.unep. MEA news and events.es/cites/ unep annual report 2011 45 .RESULTS TARGETED The United Nations system.

in association with the IMO. Iran. UNODC. global music legend Angélique Kidjo. it supports national wildlife law enforcement agencies and regional networks. the region is currently enjoying an “oil boom”. © Stephanie Badini/UNEP The five winners of the UNEP Champions of the Earth were announced in May.CASPIAN SEA The waters of the Caspian Sea are shared by five nations—Azerbaijan. As a significant source of oil and gas. Kazakhstan. To this end. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth and sustains the livelihoods of over 15 million coastal inhabitants. UNEP. the sea has become increasingly exposed to the threat of pollution. Gisele Bündchen. with the active engagement of the oil and gas sector. facilitated the Protocol Concerning Regional Preparedness. Response and Cooperation in Combating Oil Pollution Incidents. Russia and Turkmenistan. adventurer Louis Palmer.000 annual shipping movements. the Caspian has formed a highly valuable ecosystem with unique biodiversity and a wealth of natural resources. But the protection of this ecosystem depends upon trans-national cooperation between all five neighbouring states. The World Bank and the World Customs Organization. But the rapid development of the extraction industry has brought environmental risk. Mexican President Felipe Calderon. A partnership of CITES. green entrepreneur Zhang Yue and scientist and campaigner Dr. 46 unep annual report 2011 . The protocol introduces common rules for countries to assess any planned activities which are likely to cause significant adverse effects upon the sea’s environment. Due to its isolation from the world’s oceans for millennia. at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Olga Speranskaya received their awards at a ceremony (above) hosted by UNEP Goodwill Ambassador. Over the last two decades. INTERPOL. with traffic in oil products estimated at around 10. known as the Aktau Protocol. It will also require countries to notify one another of such activities. The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime began full activities in 2011.

The young state of Timor-Leste also called upon UNEP’s expertise in 2011 with assistance in drafting its own environmental framework law. In the landlocked state of Laos. At the end of 2011 the 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE UNEP also assisted the government of the Maldives with drafting the revision of their Environment and the Maldives Attorney General’s department were provided with UNEP’s input and advice prior to the bill being presented to the National Assembly. Mongolia requested UNEP’s assistance in revising and strengthening its Environmental Impact Assessment law. Deforestation through logging is depleting the country’s timber resources and damaging biodiversity. The country is an exporter of hydroelectric power. has led to a boom in mining in recent years. and so UNEP assisted and advised Laos on the creation of their new Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.ASIA-PACIFIC: PUTTING THE ENVIRONMENT AT THE HEART OF DECISION-MAKING new environmental issues come to the fore. UNEP has been involved in a number of bilateral partnerships to help national governments to develop legislation to deal with such issues. And the demand for coal and valuable metals. especially from China. major environmental concerns have to be balanced with the need for economic progress. and a green economy. UNEP aided the drafting of the country’s new environmental framework law for approval by the National Assembly. yet plans for a dam on the Mekong River have caused alarm in neighbouring Vietnam. Vietnam was aided by UNEP experts in the consumption and production. All of these sectors require regulation and scrutiny from a dedicated government department. unep annual report 2011 47 .

organizations and programmes. The principle outcome was the drafting of an Eye on Earth declaration which was officially signed by UNEP. the Abu Dhabi Environmental Data Initiative and the UAE government. governments and research communities to collaborate on a range of initiatives aimed at compiling and providing access to the data and information needed to monitor the global environment. in the context of opportunities presented by rapid technological advances. The theme of the pavilion was “Bridging the Data Gap” and it consisted of interactive multimedia presentations of examples of UN bodies coming together to share and exchange data for the benefit of the environment. The aim was to converge thinking around the most pressing challenges faced by the world today. UNEP also hosted the UN Pavilion at the Summit. Abu Dhabi hosted the Eye on Earth Summit. UNEP was the lead agency leading the negotiations on a commitment to take to Rio +20. UN organizations and civil society. The declaration reflects an agreement by international bodies. with contributions from a wide range of agencies. 48 unep annual report 2011 . The Summit brought together over 600 participants representing governments. UNEP lead the preparation of the Summit's Rio+20 submission on access to environmental information.© UNEP EYE ON EARTH In December 2011. As a key outcome of the Eye on Earth Summit.

At an event marking the tenth anniversary in 2011. FAO and WIPO. Research4Policy showcases European Commission . the UN identified a problem. A decade later. together with academic publishers and Microsoft. WILKISTA NYAORA MOTURI HEAD OF ENVIRONMENT STUDIES DEPARTMENT EGERTON UNIVERSITY KENYA “My access to OARE when I did my PhD programme did not only enable me as a person achieve my target but also to improve the quality of life among the Ogiek people in Mauche and Newsiit where diarrhoea and coughs. medical. Civil society groups are also woven into the project’s outputs. www. WHO. filtering out key information for decision makers & policy makers. Without access to the most up-to-date information on environmental. thanks to an agreement between UNEP.unep. Research institutions in the developing world were at a disadvantage. subscription to which can cost thousands of dollars a year. KNOSSOS therefore starts by taking stock of EU and international environmental scientific research activities. have been ravaging lives of children and many adults in a vicious disease circle. over nine thousand journals are available to researchers in 109 developing countries. the participating publishers signed a pledge to continue their support until 2020. especially those who promote environmental issues publicly. among other preventable ailments.org/research4policy/ PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH4LIFE RESEARCH4POLICY KNOSSOS Launched in 2011. The vast majority of cutting-edge scientific research is published in peer-review journals. As part of the Knowledge from Science to SOcietieS (KNOSSOS) project. free of charge. Its approach is that a sound knowledge base will lead to more effective environment policies.RESEARCH4LIFE / OARE KNOWLEDGE & RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Ten years ago.UNEP collaboration in an innovative manner to make environmental science actionable for policy making and civil society action to solve pressing ecological questions of our time. agricultural and technological innovations. Research4Policy aims to bridge the gap between available unep annual report 2011 49 ." 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE scientific evidence and policy making in the environment field. they would lag behind.

In addition. as well important cross-cutting issues ranging from the need for better environmental governance to the need for human behavioral change towards the environment. Together. Cities. UNEP's flagship assessment process — Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) — and the Foresight process together sent out an electronic questionnaire to a wider group of stakeholders in all regions to get their feedback on the emerging issues identified through both processes. 50 unep annual report 2011 . water and biodiversity resources. Chemicals. wastes and human health. energy.© Corbis SCIENCE FOR POLICY SCIENCE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Completed in 2011. The process. the UNEP Foresight Report provides a description of the 21 emerging environmental issues identified through the UNEP Foresight Process. climate. the experts debated and prioritised the issues identified by the Foresight Panel. land. Results from both processes were used in UNEP's submission for Rio+20. which was led by the UNEP Chief Scientist involved the identification of emerging issues by UNEP colleagues and a Foresight Panel comprising of 22 distinguished members of the scientific community cutting across a wide spectrum of environmental and environmental-related disciplines and world regions. waste. The process resulted in a list of "21 Emerging Environmental Issues" covering the major themes of the global environment including food. and technology. freshwater. marine. The emerging issues submitted include: Food and nutrition security. These issues were then scored via an electronic consultation involving more than 400 scientists worldwide. Marine resources. biodiversity. land.

It will analyse selected goals. described plausible 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE outlooks for various time frames. It will track progress in the achievement of internationally agreed goals. GEO also supports multi-stakeholder networking and intra and inter-regional cooperation to identify and assess key priority environmental issues at the regional levels. Using the integrated environmental assessment (IEA) methodology. trends and outlook of the global environment. The rigorous assessment process aims to make GEO products scientifically credible and policy relevant. GEO is also a series of products that informs environmental decision-making and aims to facilitate the interaction between science and policy. advisory groups to provide guidance on scientific and policy issues. a nomination process that allows governments and other stakeholders to nominate experts to the process. consider various policy options that could help countries speed-up implementation and realization of these goals and finally. are some of the integral elements of GEO. partners and the process. Each GEO report builds on the assessment findings of its predecessor and draws from lessons learnt. and formulated policy options. and a comprehensive peer review processes.unep.GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK LOOKING AHEAD TO PLAN AHEAD Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is a consultative. which have analysed environmental statuses and trends at the global and regional scales. GEO-5 will also provide the state. The report will be published prior to the UN Conference on Sustainable Development in June 2012. The fifth GEO report is currently being produced.org/geo) for details on experts. It will be available in June 2012. providing information to support environmental management and policy development. unep annual report 2011 51 . GEO-5 will assess options for global action and transformative change. See GEO website (www. A world-wide network of Collaborating Centre partners. trends and outlooks of the environment. participatory process that builds capacity for conducting integrated environmental assessments for reporting on the state. UNEP has produced four GEO reports thus far.

environment and waste management) sixfold – from $350. a joint programme between UNEP and UNDP. The operationalization of these objectives has already resulted in budget increases in Rwanda and Uruguay. 52 unep annual report 2011 . where the Ministry of Social Development increased the budgetary allocation for PEI sectors (poverty.© Albert Gonzalez Farran / Unamid POVERTYENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE The Poverty-Environment Initiative. Since the PEI was scaled up in 2008: UNEP has received 50 requests from Governments and UNDP Country Offices to establish PEI country programmes.15 million in 2014. aims to support the integration of pro-poor environmental sustainability objectives in national development plans and budgets.000 in 2010 to $2. Environmental sustainability has been integrated as an objective in national and/ or sectoral development plans such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) in 16 countries. so that the economic benefits of natural resource use are enhanced or maintained to contribute to poverty alleviation. PEI provides support to building blocks towards the Green Economy in developing countries.

will initiate a planning process for the elaboration of the next phase to ensure that the PEI continues its substantial unique contribution to the poverty-environment mainstreaming agenda and the IFSD. In Bhutan. In 2011 the continuation of the joint UNDP-UNEP PEI was endorsed by an external. In Malawi. the government has agreed to sustain their high level of environmental investment at just over 2 per cent of public expenditure. unep annual report 2011 53 . with the UN Resident Coordinator promoting the PEI model of having a crossgovernment approach led by the Ministry of Planning. © Corbis 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE PEI has facilitated the engagement of Burkina Faso in an investment programme on environment and sustainable development in key PEI priority areas (generic. PEI helped design the Government co-ordination mechanism for responding to climate change.In 2011 PEI has been successful in increasing Green Economy investments in a number of countries: In Bangladesh. In Laos the Government has drawn up a strategy to move away from natural resource extractive investments towards more sustainable investments. in collaboration with their partners. © UN In 2012. UNDP and UNEP. independent Mid-Term Review and the PEI Donor Steering Group. the government has begun to revise some of their largest capital development projects to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. cotton and mining) in close collaboration with UNEP’s Green Economy initiative.

© Corbis 5 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT $39.000 MAINTAINING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES FOR HUMAN WELLBEING UNEP aims to ensure that countries utilise the ecosystem approach to enhance human wellbeing. 3. Enabling governments to incorporate the ecosystem approach into their national and developmental planning and investment strategies.632. 2. Assisting national and regional governments to determine which ecosystem services to prioritise. based on their economic and developmental needs. 000s 54 unep annual report 2011 . Building capacity on the critical role of sustainably managed ecosystems in supporting social and economic development. UNEP provides three core services to governments: 1.

RESULTS TARGETED
Countries and regions increasingly integrate an ecosystem management approach into development and planning processes. Countries and regions acquire the capacity to use ecosystem management tools. Countries and regions begin to realign their environmental programmes and financing to tackle the degradation of selected priority ecosystem services.

To mark World Water Day 2011, a Rapid Response Assessment by UNEP and UN-Habitat was launched. The assessment showed that African urbanization growing at a faster rate than anywhere else in the world - is affecting water supplies and sanitation. On World Oceans Day, 08 June 2011, UNEP launched a Guide to Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management. The guide showed that declines in marine and coastal ecosystems due to human activities such as overfishing and pollution could be reversed if organizations, communities and other stakeholders adopt a more integrated approach to managing coastal environments.

2011 ECOSYSTEMS AT THE HEART OF DECISION-MAKING
The report ‘Reefs at Risk Revisited’ presented a comprehensive analysis of threats to coral reefs including, threats from climate change — warming seas and rising ocean acidification. It also showed that local pressures — such as overfishing, coastal development and pollution — pose the most immediate and direct risks, threatening more than 60 per cent of coral reefs today. A new UNEP report, ‘Colony Disorders and other Threats to Insect Pollinators’, shows that more than a dozen factors, ranging from declines in flowering plants and the use of memory-damaging insecticides to the world-wide spread of pests and air pollution, may be behind the emerging decline of bee colonies across many parts of the globe.

5
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

© Corbis

unep annual report 2011 55

A new report by the UNEP-WCMC gave eight million seven hundred thousand (give or take 1.3 million) as the latest estimated total number of species on Earth and the most precise calculation ever offered. The report said that 91 per cent of species in the seas have yet to be discovered, described or catalogued. At the 10th Conference of Parties (COP 10) to the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) held in Bergen, Norway from 20-25 November, efforts to conserve seven migratory species, from the Giant Manta Ray to the Saker Falcon, were strengthened. 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests (IYF) with the theme 'Celebrating Forests for People'. UNEP launched a new forest-focused coffee table book in collaboration with such famous photographers as Yann Arthus-Bertrand; a special media pack and a new website on forests at www.unep.org/forests.

for local communities and greater security for wildlife to the fence, which was completed in 2009 after 20 years of construction. The study was requested by The Rhino Ark Trust, the Kenya conservation charity that has pioneered the fence project, with funding support from thousands of Kenyans and friends of Kenya overseas. The study was co-funded by UNEP, Rhino Ark and Kenya Forests Working Group and supported by the Kenya Wildlife Service, the Kenya Forest Service and the Greenbelt Movement. "The study affirms that the fence has proved a prime management tool in the process of both conservation integrity and ensuring better incomes for all — fence edge farmers, as well as the national and global interests that are derived from the Aberdares as a prime water, forest and biodiversity hot spot," said Colin Church, Chairman of the Rhino Ark Management Committee.

PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS
ABERDARE FENCE
The now completed 400 km electrified fence enclosing the Aberdare Conservation Area (ACA) has improved the livelihoods of millions of people in central Kenya, according to an independent study commissioned by UNEP in 2011. The study, The Environmental, Social and Economic Assessment of the Fencing of the Aberdare Conservation Area, also attributes improved forest cover, safer living conditions

ABERDARE FENCE: RESULTS

20.6

per cent
increase in forest cover between 2005 and 2010

47

per cent
increase in exotic plantations outside the fenced area

56 unep annual report 2011

"The study re-affirms that the Aberdares is offering a management and policy blue print for the precious 'water towers' of Kenya and other tropical mountain ecosystems and upon which so much human resource is increasingly dependent", he added. Over the last 15 years, UNEP has been highlighting the vital role of Kenya's "water towers", such as the Aberdare Range and the Mau Forest complex, in securing environmental stability, economic development and human well-being. The financial and technical support to the Aberdare assessment study is part of UNEP's ongoing work in enhancing the understanding of the importance of ecosystem services.

© Colin Church, Rhino Ark

ABERDARE REPORT
KEY FINDINGS
The report attributes these improvements to the effects of the fence and associated fence management guidelines as well as more assertive policy interventions. It emphasizes that there should be an integrated management plan for the Aberdares and by inference that future government policy should incorporate holistic approaches to the way high value mountain forest ecosystems are managed. It concludes by affirming that management of the buffer zone — the five kilometre area around the fence — should be clearly identified and every effort made to create "positive benefits by deliberate investment in support of local livelihoods."

5
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
© Colin Church, Rhino Ark

unep annual report 2011 57

The following institutions and groups are engaged in this partnership: the Government of the Russian Federation.© Corbis SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT IN THE ARCTIC A partnership on sustainable management in the Arctic was established in 2011 under the leadership of the Russian Government and UNEP. 58 unep annual report 2011 . Arctic Agenda 2020 was submitted to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Nordic Environment Finance Corporation. multi-purpose programme on environmental cooperation in the Russian Arctic. extractive companies. UNDP. NGOs and Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic. The World Bank. In September. regional administrations of the Arctic regions in Russia. the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. United States Environmental Protection Agency. GEF. UNEP. The purpose of this initiative is to develop and implement a long-term.

Dugongs. and will be funded over a three-year period (2011-2013). Australia and the Pacific Islands. which play a significant ecological role in the functioning of coastal habitats. NGOs. At least five projects will be tested in sites across the Indian Ocean. entanglement in fishing gear. most remote and critically endangered dugong population in the region. Two pilot projects are currently being developed in Daru.The action plan developed under the CMS Dugong project provides the framework for the regional cooperation for the long-term protection of dugongs in the Indian Ocean. Community organizations. or payments for ecosystem services. which hosts the smallest. Most of the world’s remaining dugong populations outside of Australia and the United Arab Emirates are at serious risk of disappearing without effective and timely conservation action. vessel strikes and habitat degradation. Among the initiatives was a new pilot project using financial incentives to address direct hunting and the incidental capture of dugongs by improving the livelihoods of local communities. unsustainable hunting. the Convention on Migratory Species launched the Pacific year of the Dugong. South Asia. live in warm coastal and island waters from East Africa to Vanuatu in the Pacific. 5 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT unep annual report 2011 59 . The campaign was launched in Palau. and Bazaruto Bay in Mozambique to reduce hunting and accidental trapping by encouraging behavioural change — this might be in the form of loans. © Corbis THE PACIFIC YEAR OF THE DUGONG They’re the gentle giants of the oceans. The major causes of dugong mortality are poaching. for lessening their catches or for changes to more dugongfriendly fishing gear. Papua New Guinea. South Asia. In some parts of the Pacific Islands. In 2011. and Pacific Islands regions. hunting for direct consumption is the legal right of traditional inhabitants and sustainable hunting levels need to be agreed as part of the action plan. such as the Torres Strait between Papua New Guinea and Australia. South East Asia. South East Asia. government officials and individuals will participate in developing and implementing the projects.

800 WED-related news articles were published in just the week of the celebration – 2 to 6 June. An online media survey revealed that more that 4.200 activities worldwide. a 2. Social media activity grew by more than 100 per cent over 2010 figures and in some instances quadrupling. a 39 per cent increase 4. 4. based on activities registered worldwide. strategically engaged Bollywood and global celebrities (including UNEP Goodwill Ambassadors) to build on the WED Legacy initiative.WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY 2011 WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY SPREADING THE MESSAGE visits to the WED website between Jan-June. According to activities registered on the WED website. most widely recognized and celebrated UN-led global day for positive environmental action across all sectors of society. In line with the UN International Year of Forests. MDI-Nepal has introduced agroforestry to help improve crop productivity and reduce soil erosion on the forested hills and mountain areas of Nepal. and Nepal. AFISAP safeguards the preservation of forests in the 52. the 2011 theme for WED was Forests: Nature at Your Service. 60 unep annual report 2011 .9 million 14 per cent increase over the same period World Environment Day (WED) is the biggest. This resulted in pledges to plant a mini forest. involving over 2 million participants worldwide. The Asociación Forestal Integral San Andrés. hosted primarily in India.229 external websites linking to the WED website. over 2 million people participated in more than 4. WED 2011. such as views on YouTube and blogging activity. from Guatemala and the Manahari Development Institute from Nepal were joint winners around the theme “Forests for People. The day aimed to raise global recognition of the role and value of forests in the transition to a Green Economy.517 UNEP SASAKAWA PRIZE 2011 The 2011 UNEP Sasakawa Prize continued the focus on forestry and sustainable development with awards for projects in Latin America and the Himalayas.000-hectare concession within the Mayan Biosphere Reserve. The participation and response to WED this year reflected signs of the event evolving into a global movement. Forests for Green Growth”. Petén (AFISAP). activities were registered on the WED website (183 per cent growth).

© UNEP

© UNEP

PLANT FOR THE PLANET

BILLION TREE CAMPAIGN

5
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
© UNEP

UNEP’s Billion Tree Campaign, which has planted over 12 billion trees worldwide, entered a new phase with the official handing-over of the project to the Plant For The Planet Foundation, a youth-led environmental organization based in Germany. The original goal of one billion trees was quickly surpassed soon after the campaign’s launch and the 12 billion landmark was reached in October 2011. Inspired by the late Wangari Maathai, the Billion Tree Campaign’s partners included the Green Belt Movement, the World Agroforestry Centre, FAO and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation.

© UNEP

unep annual report 2011

61

© Corbis

6

HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE $25,619,000

HARMFUL SUBSTANCES & HAZARDOUS WASTE:

2011 IN REVIEW
In April, Representatives from 127 Governments meeting in Geneva for the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants agreed to add endosulfan to the United Nations' list of persistent organic pollutants to be eliminated worldwide. The action put the widely-used pesticide on course for elimination, with specific exemptions, from the global market by 2012. The conference also endorsed seven new Stockholm Convention regional centres in Algeria, Kenya, India, Iran, Senegal, South Africa and the Russian Federation. In June, the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain

000s

62 unep annual report 2011

HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE

Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade held in Geneva agreed to add three pesticides; alachlor, aldicarb and endosulfan, to the Convention. The 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, the global treaty on waste management, reached an agreement unblocking an amendment that will ban the export of hazardous wastes from OECD to non-OECD countries. The decision included a set of measures aimed at strengthening international control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes, while establishing a regime for countries who may wish to trade in waste to ensure the minimization of health and environment impacts, adequate labour and social conditions, and the creation of new economic opportunities. The Conference also adopted a 10-year Strategic Framework for implementation of the Convention designed to strengthen the environmentally sound management of wastes.

© Corbis

6

MERCURY RISING ON THE AGENDA:
TOWARDS AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY

As a vapour, mercury is capable of widespread travel in the atmosphere. The metal accumulates in ecosystems and in living organisms, including humans. Of particular concern is mercury’s effect on the developing nervous system of infants and children. Because the substance can be passed from mother to unborn child, women of child-bearing age are also at risk. Mercury and its compounds are extensively used in industry. The element can be released to the atmosphere during coal combustion and it is a component is some fluorescent light bulbs. One of the major areas of concern is mercury’s use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (see overleaf).

Mercury can exist in its familiar liquid metal form (sometimes called quicksilver), as a vapour, or as a compound in inorganic salts. In all of these forms, it is toxic and can be highly detrimental to human health and that of the environment.

unep annual report 2011 63

10-15 MILLION artisanal and small scale gold miners globally 64 unep annual report 2011 . the Philippines and Cambodia have taken the lead. their community and the local environment all come into contact with mercury. Yet low-mercury and mercury-free solutions are available 2000 TONNES mercury used annually To combat the use of mercury in the goldmining industry. With UNEP’s advice and assistance. An estimated 2000 tonnes of mercury are used every year in the sector. UNEP has spearheaded a project to encourage tougher regulation and develop capacity-building among nations with extensive artisanal and smallscale gold mining operations. It is estimated that there are 10-15 million artisanal and small-scale gold miners in 70 countries of the world. UNEP has also developed draft guidance for other governments to consider in drawing up national strategic plans on the issue.© UNEP QUICKSILVER AND GOLD Because these operations tend to be poorly regulated. the miners.

But a chemical which is so devastating to malaria’s vector. The subsequent outcry and investigation led to Japan taking a global lead in combating mercury pollution. educators. It is named after the city of Japanese city of Minamata where mercury pollution from industry was allowed to bioaccumulate in seafood over many decades. Guatemala. in October-November 2011. sometimes even before birth. Since 2003. to be called the Minamata Convention. The project created a multidisciplinary approach. and it is planned that the UNEP-brokered treaty will be signed in Japan in 2013. the mosquito. it was used around the world in the years following 200 TONNES amount of DDT and other POPs safely disposed of in Mexico & Central America unep annual report 2011 65 . Costa Rica. El Salvador. But nor is its effectiveness in fighting malaria. As an insecticide. the Central America and Mexico Regional DDT project encouraged the use of DDT alternatives to suppress the spread of the malaria parasite. Nicaragua and Panama. The intergovernmental negotiations took place in Nairobi.HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE UNEP has taken the global lead in facilitating a global treaty on mercury and its uses. Honduras. local communities and politicians to fight malaria. The Japanese meeting was marked by moving presentations from sufferers of Minamata disease. working with doctors. © Corbis World War 2. Mexico. with two intergovernmental and several regional meetings to negotiate a global legally binding instrument on mercury. In 2011 this treaty came one step closer to reality. 2011 saw the final phase of the programme: the safe disposal of vast stockpiles of DDT which had been presenting an environmental hazard for decades. nurses. This crippling disease is caused by exposure to mercury. including humans. has also proved extremely hazardous to other plant and animal life. following a session earlier in the year in Japan. Alternatives to persistent pesticides were demonstrated in eight countries: Belize. DDT ELIMINATION & DISPOSAL IN 6 MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA DDT’s danger as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) is not in doubt. epidemiologists. Kenya. with a significant impact on malaria cases.

the health and well-being of children around the world is being compromised by a range of adverse environmental factors. the Asia Pacific and Latin America) confirmed the crucial role of environmental protection in the prevention of childhood exposure to chemical risks. Developing regions carry a disproportionately heavy share of the environmental disease burden and children in developing nations have the highest death rates. An estimated 4 million child deaths each year (mostly in developing countries) are linked to both traditional environmental hazards (unsafe water.© Kai Loeffelbein/UNICEF PROTECTING THE CHILDREN: UNEP / WHO PROJECT ON CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Healthy children in healthy environments are essential for sustainable development. However. In April 2011. indoor air pollution) and modern environmental hazards (outdoor air pollution. lack of sanitation. Results of an intensive review of Children’s Environmental Health (CEH) studies done in developing countries (Africa. UNEP concluded a major study on the impact of chemicals on children’s health. contaminated food. hazardous chemicals and waste). climate change. The findings of the report are an important contribution to the ongoing efforts to achieve global harmonisation of exposure (environment) and outcome (health) measures to promote risk management strategies for Children’s Environmental Health. 4 MILLION Estimated child deaths globally per annum due to environmental hazards 66 unep annual report 2011 .

The funding has been allocated to 139 projects in 103 countries. Nigeria and Belize. develop and strengthen national chemicals management institutions. and public participation activities directed at enabling the implementation of SAICM in national strategies. SAICM has mobilised a total of over $30 million for the Quick Start Programme (QSP). the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development declared the goal that. © Corbis 6 CAREFULLY CONTROLLING CHEMICALS: THE STRATEGIC APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL CHEMICALS MANAGEMENT In 2002.HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE 139 Projects approved $30. The QSP aims to: develop or update national chemical profiles and the identification of capacity needs for sound chemicals management. Similar projects are under way in countries such as Uruguay. chemicals will be produced and used in ways that minimise significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health.18m funding as of end 2011 whose custodian is the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM). SAICM’s guidance has been instrumental in draft legislation by the Cambodian Ministry of the Environment for policy to cover the whole life-cycle of chemicals in the country. by the year 2020. 53 of which are least developed nations or Small Island Developing States. unep annual report 2011 67 . 2011 marked the half-way point towards the achievement of that goal. By the end of 2011. interagency coordination. and undertake analysis.

Between 2009 and 2011. POP CHARTS: MONITORING PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AROUND THE WORLD To effectively deal with Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). SAICM concluded in 2011 a report on such materials with particular reference to related issues for developing countries and economies in transition. Sweden and Spain. UNEP has supported the extension of CIEN to Peru. In addition to its work on traditional chemicals. 68 unep annual report 2011 . DDT. the Chemical Information Exchange Network (CIEN) aims to enhance the capabilities of countries to obtain and share the Information needed for their national decision-making on the sound management of chemicals.SAICM held the first meeting of its open-ended Working Group in November 2011 in Belgrade. pregnant women eat certain types of clay to overcome nausea: this geophagy results in concentrations higher than normally found in Africa. Serbia. mothers’ milk samples from 55 countries showed which nations have most exposure to certain POPs. 20 training courses have been held at POPs laboratories in developing countries by experts from the Netherlands. was highest in Tajikistan and the Solomon Islands. it is necessary to have timely and accurate data on their presence in the environment. UNEP assisted 32 countries with training and capacity-building in monitoring POPs. Also in 2011. Uruguay and Bolivia. a draft health sector strategy was developed to increase the involvement of the health sector in the implementation of SAICM’s strategic approach. An interesting source of dioxin exposure was identified in some African countries where traditionally. In cooperation with WHO. to review SAICM’s progress to date and to identify future priority areas. SAICM has also been concerned with developing overarching strategies to manage novel materials such as nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAP Under the auspices of SAICM. As technology in this field continues apace. for example.

experts from the Chinese government and the pharmaceutical industry visited India to gain experience from India’s CFC-based MDI phase-out. Chinese State Food & Drug Administration unep annual report 2011 69 . ” Ms Zhang Peipei. Zhang Peipei. we have understood India’s strategies. premising upon the assurance of alternative products’ safety and efficiency for patients in China. China. “After discussion with the officials from Ministry of Environment and Forests. It is estimated that this disease affects over 300 million people worldwide and the death toll has been estimated at 250. Deputy Director of the Centre for Drug Evaluation of the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration. but CFCs deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. uses CFCs for both local consumption and export. facilitated by UNEP Ozonaction as part of UNEP’s mandate as an implementing agency of the Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund. © Corbis A BREATH OF FRESH AIR: INDIA AND CHINA PHASE OUT CFC-BASED INHALERS Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are considered significant health problems across the globe. India is one of the states where the industry has taken a lead in the MDI sector and has successfully eliminated CFCs from their products.000 people in China and the trend is rising. according to statistics. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are commonly used as chemical propellant in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). Some developing countries have taken the lead in the CFC phase-out efforts and the industry has played an important role in supporting the national initiatives. we are concreting the communication with MDI industry. In 2011. guidelines and technical requirements for CFC MDI phase-out.HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE been phased out since 2010 as stipulated by the Montreal Protocol but have remained available for use in MDIs through Essential Use provisions in the agreement. Under the framework of the strategies. More than 20 million Chinese are estimated to be suffering from asthma with a morbidity rate at 2 per cent. Ozone layer depletion can lead to an overexposure to ultraviolet radiation. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. “The experiences are useful for China’s CFC MDI phase-out. and Food and Drug Administration of Government of India. CFCs in China have 6 “ The phase-out of CFC-MDIs in China will be finished. meanwhile the fast track of CFC-free MDIs approved is being set up. the largest consumer of CFCs in the MDI manufacturing sector.000. it kills nearly 62. Every year.” said Ms. policies and basic approaches on phase-out of CFC MDIs.

ranging from detailed substance lists to complex databases reporting on the chemical constituents of various products. Crimes like illegal logging and the trafficking in forest products often go hand-in-hand with other criminal activity. are increasingly being transported across borders illicitly. Yet increased economic activity and greater social migration are putting border patrols under ever greater pressure. the borders are porous and often illguarded. In 2011 the project completed investigations into four key groups: textiles. © UNEP too. But it’s a large-scale environmental problem 70 unep annual report 2011 . customs and trade control) and policymakers in Cambodia.CHEMICALS IN PRODUCTS Since 2009. Officials (such as immigration officers. as well as harmful chemicals and hazardous waste. Wild flora and fauna. This is despite the fact that many sources of information exist. The study concluded that the current level of information that is provided about chemicals in products is not enough to allow consumers and other stakeholders to practise sound management of chemicals throughout the lifetime of the products. In the Greater Mekong subregion of southeast Asia. toys and construction materials. Thailand and Viet Nam have already started training and an assessment of training needs has been conducted in Myanmar. but others still feel they need more. UNEP has been conducting an in-depth survey into the use of chemicals in everyday products. BATTLING ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME ACROSS BORDERS PROJECT PATROL Cross-border smuggling: the crime is often associated with drugs or human trafficking. Many end-users have been able to successfully access such information. UNEP’s workshop on the issue in early 2011 recommended the development of a non-legally binding framework to facilitate information exchange between producers and users of products. to coordinate their efforts and to learn from each other’s expertise through PATROL: Partnership on Combating Transnational Crime through Regional Organized Law Enforcement. UNEP has teamed up with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and two leading NGOs in the region. To fight the trend. police. electronics.

Despite decades of efforts to prevent and reduce marine debris. These range from street litter. They were greeted by schoolchildren chanting: “Be fantastic. The commitment marks the first step in the development of a comprehensive global framework for the prevention. reduction and management of marine debris. one of the major efforts of the conference was to bring together manufacturers such as Coca-Cola and Plastics Europe. and by 2050 it is projected that the world will produce over 13. Marine litter is found in all the oceans of the world.000 turtles and marine mammals such as dolphins. and human health. are killed by plastic marine litter every year. the problem continues to grow. a new. Hawaii. cross-sectoral approach to help reduce marine debris. policymakers and representatives of industry met in March 2001. in Honolulu. to be known as the Honolulu Strategy. An estimated 100. Against this backdrop. and sea-based litter such as fishing nets and containers. for the 5th International Marine Debris Conference. scientists.1 billion tonnes of waste— 20 per cent more than present levels. domestic and industrial rubbish. to sign up to the Honolulu Commitment. wildlife. It is estimated that as many as 8 million items of marine litter enter the world’s waters every day.HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE © British Antarctic Survey FIFTH INTERNATIONAL MARINE DEBRIS CONFERENCE Marine debris is an increasing threat to livelihoods. 6 unep annual report 2011 71 . don’t use plastic”: and indeed. whales and seals.

the Parties to the Basel.In 2011. ROTTERDAM AND STOCKHOLM CONVENTIONS 72 unep annual report 2011 . as well as a number of significant technical and policy matters. Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions embarked on a new. Basel COP10 recognized this shift and in a historic decision agreed to an approach that will A BREAKTHROUGH YEAR OF SYNERGIES FOR THE BASEL. June and October 2011. the Ban Amendment has not yet entered into force. ROTTERDAM AND STOCKHOLM CONVENTIONS BY JIM WILLIS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY OF THE BASEL. Parties at Basel COP10 agreed on a way forward on the amendment banning transboundary movements of hazardous wastes from OECD countries to developing countries. At the three meetings of the Conferences of the Parties to the Stockholm. parties reached consensus on a path forward on synergies. respectively. For a number of reasons. Meeting in Cartagena. The Stockholm and Rotterdam meetings in Geneva resulted in new listings for control of hazardous chemicals and pesticides and new initiatives to strengthen the scientific underpinnings of chemicals management. including between developing countries. The Basel and Stockholm COPs also agreed to new synergistic relations between an expanded number of designated Regional Centres serving to bolster implementation on the ground. innovative and tangible phase of the synergies process. Rotterdam and Basel conventions held in April. Colombia. while trade in hazardous waste for resource recovery has grown significantly in the intervening decades.

which contributed to successfully holding our first three paperless COPs. The proposed future structure would also considerably simplify the organization of the secretariat. 6 unep annual report 2011 73 . Parties established the goal of strengthening implementation of each convention while delivering services in an efficient. Our experience shows that it is indeed possible to break away from “business as usual” and do much more through cooperation and collaboration in ways that were once hardly considered possible. and ultimately reduce the number of senior managers. identifying resource savings. The COPs approved the proposed crosscutting and joint activities for inclusion in the programmes of work of the three Secretariats for 2012–2013 and authorized the Executive Secretary to determine the staffing levels. Eliminating redundancies. At the same time. I have submitted a proposal for the organization of the Secretariats. numbers and structure of the Secretariat in a flexible manner within the ceiling established by the decision on financing and budget for the biennium 2012–2013. for example through supporting synergistic projects delivered through regional centres or by IGO partners. to be implemented by 31 December 2012. technical assistance and scientific support. The proposed future structure would establish a single integrated secretariat dedicated to serving all three conventions equally. including staffing levels. cost-effective manner. In launching the synergies process.HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTE allow the Ban Amendment to enter into force for those countries who wish to adhere to it. The synergies process of the chemicals and waste MEAs is part of a larger effort aimed at overcoming fragmentation within the global system of environmental governance. and would consist of four branches covering administrative services. Among the most visible benefits to Parties has been the integration of conference services and meeting support. and strengthening the focus on delivery of services to Parties are key considerations that should translate into increased support to Parties. numbers and structure. Improving the delivery of service to parties is the sine qua non of the Secretariat. building upon best practices. convention operations. The recent conferences drew praise for being among the smoothest and most productive meetings in the entire history of the conventions (the “miracle of Cartagena”). Parties agreed to a framework to build a regime for countries who may wish to trade in waste to ensure the minimization of health and environmental impacts. A secretariat better able to deliver services related to all three MEAs simultaneously would be better able to influence synergies externally. Working in consultation with Parties through the bureaux.

processed and consumed in a more environmentally sustainable way.© Corbis 7 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND THE GREEN ECONOMY TOTAL EXPENDITURE 2011 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY $32. UNEP’s work focuses on four key areas: Conducting assessments of trends in the extraction and use of resources in the global economy. Leveraging insights from scientific and macroeconomic analyses to identify 000s 74 unep annual report 2011 . Supporting governments in developing national policies and implementing national solutions through regulatory and economic instruments and policy initiatives.787.000 ACCELERATING THE TRANSITION TO RESOURCE-EFFICIENT SOCIETIES UNEP aims to ensure that natural resources are produced.

at the regional and national levels. and lays the foundation for action to decouple. and the Middle East. evidence of the links between economic growth and resource use. 2011 saw extended work in Green Economy Advisory Services and Capacity Building. Decoupling Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts from Economic Growth. through the IRP. Increased investment in clean. UNEP. Latin America and the Caribbean. to conduct scoping studies. efficient and safe production methods through public policy and private-sector action. Also in November. This multidisciplinary event brought together experts and stakeholders from around the world to share information on resources. Raising awareness and influencing the purchasing choices of individual and institutional consumers as well as changing the way products and services are designed. Enhance and inform consumer choice to favour more resource-efficient and environmentallyfriendly purchases. ‘Green Economy in a Changing Arab World’ at a conference in Lebanon. with the surprising finding that recycling rates of many strategic metals are less than 1 per cent. A declaration was developed at the conclusion of the conference calling for transformative improvements in resource efficiency. The report provides empirical 7 unep annual report 2011 75 . 2011 TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY AND RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 2011 saw the launch of the flagship report of the International Resource Panel. the Arab Forum for Environment and Development launched a report. produced and disposed of. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND THE GREEN ECONOMY The International Resoure Panel (IRP) also published Recycling Rates of Metals: A status report. The report quantified recycling rates of metals. UNEP is working with over 20 countries in Asia and Pacific. where East African nations examined policies required for implementing a green economy transition. resourceintensive industries and supply chains. where over 500 delegates adopted recommendations for transitioning to a RESULTS TARGETED Resource efficiency is increased and pollution is reduced over product life-cycles and along supply chains. In November 2011. UNEP supported a workshop in Rwanda. partnered with the World Resources Forum Secretariat to organise the 2011 World Resources Forum.investment opportunities for alternative business models and improvements in the processes of existing. provide technical advice and foster multi-stakeholder dialogues.

The Global Partnership already has more than 85 members. held in April 2011. In January 2011. while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. UNEP and the Inter-American Development Bank co-organized a meeting to explore support for Green Economy initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean. 33 non-for-profit organizations. UNEP has provided advisory services. a green economy is one whose growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution.Green Economy. technical and financial assistance to Ivory Coast since 2009 to mainstream Sustainable Consumption and Production in the NSDS. WHAT IS A GREEN ECONOMY? UNEP defines a green economy as one that results in improved human wellbeing and social equity. enhance energy and resource efficiency. The 2011 Business and Industry Global Dialogue (BIGD). including 19 governments. Practically speaking. 8 UN agencies and programmes. 76 unep annual report 2011 . and 10 business groups. a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon. coordinated by the National Sustainable Development Commission. In September 2011 Ivory Coast adopted its National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS). introduced the key findings of the Green Economy Report and solicited feedback from business and industry – being a key partner in the transition to a resource efficient and Green Economy. Technical meetings were held in China to advance its national Green Economy plans. The 200 participants from over 20 countries made renewed commitments to work together towards Rio+20 and beyond. which will be a key element in the countries' national development strategy. resource efficient and socially inclusive. the Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism was launched. In its simplest expression. and studies to advance Green Economy initiatives are underway in Brazil and Mexico.

These investments need to be catalysed and supported by targeted public expenditure. rebuild natural capital as a critical economic asset and source of public benefits. and CASE STUDY FOR THE GREEN ECONOMY BARBADOS Barbados is one of the Caribbean nations spearheading the transition to a Green Economy. And. that it is a net generator of decent jobs. In March. It will also examine the impact that Green Economy policies would have on issues such as water. When the study is complete in late 2012. With smart public policies. it will function as a long-term guide for integrated policies in other Caribbean nations and around the world. policy reforms and regulation changes." RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND THE GREEN ECONOMY PATHWAYS TO A GREEN ECONOMY 2011 saw the publication of UNEP’s flagship report. a Green Economy Scoping Study was launched. fisheries and tourism. This development path should maintain. with the help of UNEP and experts from the University of the West Indies. Launching the report. The study focuses on areas identified by the Barbados government: housing and construction. where necessary.and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. in collaboration with economists and experts worldwide. 2011 saw the first steps taken along that route. enhance and. The report also seeks to motivate policy makers to create the enabling conditions for increased investments in a transition to a Green Economy. Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. to help establish a resource-efficient economy in Barbados. It demonstrates that the greening of economies is not generally a drag on growth but rather a new engine of growth. that it is also a vital strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty. 7 TOWARDS A GREEN ECONOMY REPORT 200 authors contributors 800 500 external reviewers unep annual report 2011 77 . governments can grow their economies. especially for poor people whose livelihoods and security depend strongly on nature. energy and land use. transport. generate decent employment and accelerate social progress in a way that keeps humanity's ecological footprint within the planet's carrying capacity. the UNEP Green Economy report challenges the myth that there is a trade-off between the economy and the environment. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon said: "With the world looking ahead to the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development in June 2012. Launched in Beijing in September. waste. it was the culmination of a three-year research effort compiled by UNEP’s Green Economy Initiative. agriculture.

the development of an African eco-labelling system. through the Business and Industry Global Dialogue. The challenge now is to scale up these practical solutions. a Green Passport campaign to promote sustainable tourism. Key results are tools for implementing policies on areas. UNEP set up in 2011 a Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism and an Agri-Food System Taskforce together with other UN agencies. as well as CEOs and top executives from various financial institutions. 78 unep annual report 2011 . the implementation of projects on sustainable lifestyles. as well as contributing actively to the Partnership on Education and Research on Sustainable Living. and placing environmental and social factors at the heart of financial decision-making. Mary Robinson. UNEP also engaged with the private sector. Key outcomes of the meeting include proposed policy and regulatory interventions required to make a real change to the “rules of the game” – shifting the focus away from short-termism. Lisa Jackson. and a study on buildings and climate change with the development of Common Carbon Metric. To this end. projects on education for sustainable consumption in three countries. FINANCE INITIATIVE UNEP Finance Initiative’s 13th Global Roundtable drew record attendance and featured high-level speakers including Gordon Brown.10-YEAR FRAMEWORK OF PROGRAMMES The 10-Year Framework of Programmes is a global initiative assisting countries deliver the shift towards sustainable consumption and production and © Corbis UNEP In 2011 a full agreement was reached at the Commission on Sustainable Development 19 on its elements. the Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative and the Sustainable Rice Platform. including sustainable public procurement.

reuse and recycle) approach for cities and towns. improved technologies at transfer station may lead achieve 60 per cent material recovery for recycling. recycling. the World Bank and Cities Alliance is supporting cities in better accessing carbon finance mechanisms and in assessing the city’s environmental performance. To promote waste management as a business by encouraging local private sector and community enterprises to participate in waste collection. waste collection and transportation. technology and knowledge support on low-carbon urban development and resource efficiency. WASTE NOT WANT NOT A NEW STRATEGY FOR SOLID WASTE UNEP is assisting governments and the waste management industry to develop Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plans based on the 3R (reduce. and proper treatment and disposal. PR China Awareness raising for source segregation may result into diverting 30 per cent of waste for recycling. In particular. through capacity building. resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions. 7 unep annual report 2011 79 . and disposal of waste. RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND THE GREEN ECONOMY CREATING CAPACITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AT CITY LEVEL UNEP's project Sustainable Buildings Policies in Developing Countries intends to create capacity for developing countries to establish a policy foundation for mainstreaming sustainable construction of buildings. The project is currently pilot testing tools and methodologies in two African cities. in collaboration with partners such as UN-HABITAT. and installation of biogas plants may convert 80 per cent of organic waste into energy source. UNEP. An ISWM plan for Wuxi. political will and capacity for waste management comprising all stages of the waste management chain including waste minimization. To raise awareness. To increase the efficiency of resources and interaction among stakeholders by supporting an umbrella plan to integrate the management of all waste streams within administrative boundaries.CITIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE URBAN FUTURE UNEP is supporting developing countries cities and city networks to develop and implement appropriate policies. Nairobi in Kenya and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. These two major activities have been announced at the Gwangju Summit of the Urban Environmental Accords in October 2011 with representatives of local authorities from more than 100 cities worldwide. waste recycling and appropriate treatment.

and in most countries are the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions.” Procuring the Future — UK Sustainable Procurement Task Force. June 2011 This definition was adopted by the Marrakech Task Force on Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP). governments can lead by example and deliver key objectives in the environmental. Tunisia. led by Switzerland. and cities have participated in two pilot phases of the CCM over the last 18 months. Colombia. UNEP’s Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative (SBCI) is in the final stages of developing a sustainable building index and has piloted a standard methodology for building energy efficiency metrics and accounting: the Common Carbon Metric (CCM). UNEP has been assisting seven countries (Chile. Commercially available technologies have the potential to cut energy consumption in new and existing buildings by 30-50 per cent without significantly increasing investment costs. These countries have selected a set of sustainable products and services that will be progressively introduced in their procurement systems. Costa Rica. 80 unep annual report 2011 . universities. Many of us do not consider the impact of our homes and offices on the environment — either positive or negative — but buildings are responsible for more than one-third of global energy use. Through Sustainable Public Procurement. “Sustainable Procurement is a process whereby organizations meet their needs for goods. Uruguay. but also to society and the economy. works and utilities in a way that achieves value for money on a whole life basis in terms of generating benefits not only to the organization. social and economic fields. whilst minimising damage to the environment. services. Mauritius and Lebanon) in the design and implementation of their sustainable public procurement policies and action plans. green building councils. Approximately 20 companies.EVERY PURCHASE COUNTS: PROCUREMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY © UNEP BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE How and where we live not only shapes our daily experience. Public spending can represent up to 30 per cent of national GDP and every purchase is an opportunity to drive markets towards innovation and sustainability. but defines the global urban landscape.

7 unep annual report 2011 81 . The survey’s results. want to be a force for change and create their own vision of sustainable societies. to hear what they think.RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND THE GREEN ECONOMY © Corbis THE YEAR OF LIVING SUSTAINABLY UNEP’s Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles was one of the first global surveys on the subject conducted at such a large scale. which are presented in UNEP’s report Visions for Change: Recommendations for Effective Policies on Sustainable Lifestyles. young adults need more information on what they can do to be part of the solution to address global challenges and how they relate to their lifestyles. But at the same time. involving more than 8000 young adults from 20 countries. reveal that young people. from Australia to Vietnam and Ethiopia to Mexico. their aspirations for the future and reactions to sustainable lifestyles. The aim was to listen to young adults’ voices from around the world.

UNEP’s mandate was expanded and rearticulated by the Nairobi Declaration adopted in 1997 “to be the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda. UNHABITAT UNDP UN DP UNESCO Biodiversity & ecosystem services Poverty Environment Initiative. informing. listing a select few of the myriad of joint activites covered.© iStockphoto WIPO Intellectual property and Green Economy 8 UNCTAD Capacity building for sustainable development WTO Trade and climate change UNEP IN THE UN Urban planning. transport THE ENVIRONMENT AT THE HEART OF THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY UNEP’s mandate Established in 1972. that promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimensions of sustainable development within the United Nations system and that serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment”. UNEP’s mission is “to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring. The graphic on the right shows just some of the UN agencies and programmes with whom UNEP cooperates on a daily basis. Sustainable development WFP Climate adaptation IFAD Sustainable agriculture FAO REDD+ 82 unep annual report 2011 . and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations”.

IMF WORLD BANK GEF Major funding partners Key non-UNEP administered MEA UNFCCC UNCCD Key non-UNEP administered MEA UNIDO UNHCR Cleaner production UPU Green postal services ILO UNEP IN THE UN Green jobs UN REGIONAL COMMISSIONS OCHA UNOCHA Disaster response IMO Marine pollution prevention UNECA UNESCAP UNECE UNESCWA UNV Skills exchange 8 UNECLAC Environmental health UNITAR WHO UNOSAT unep annual report 2011 83 .

in most realms the environment continues to deteriorate or remain in a “steady state” at best. UNEP’s Secretariat. this publication tracks changes in the human and natural environment that have occurred since the first Rio Conference in 1992 until the present day. which they have submitted as a preface to their individual agency contributions to the compilation for the zero draft outcome document of UNCSD. UNEP has been increasingly geared towards preparations for the summit. and on several issues related to Rio+20 that warrant a common UN system-wide approach. The UNEP Year Book will be launched covering emerging environmental issues. In his capacity as HLCP Chair. comes 20 years after the Rio Earth Summit of 1992 that set the course for contemporary sustainable development and established the Climate Change. greener. biodiversity and desertification treaties as well as a forum on forests. scheduled for June. such as the benefits of soil carbon and the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. Based on environmental data and satellite imagery. more sustainable globalization. through the chairing of the UN’s High-Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP) by the UNEP Executive Director. A milestone UNEP report. RIO+20. The UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) as it is formally known. ‘Keeping Track of our Changing Environment: from Rio to Rio+20’. and an institutional framework for sustainable development.Throughout 2011 and into 2012. will address two over-arching themes: a Green Economy in the context of sustainable development. 84 unep annual report 2011 . The Global Environment Outlook-5 (GEO-5) assessment report. in order to support “evidence-based” policy-making. the Executive Director also facilitated the preparation of a common statement on the outcome of UNCSD by all UN system organizations. The document shows that while some improvements in environment and human development have occurred. a head-of-state level summit. prepared a report on moving towards a fairer. It highlights the need for more systematic data collection and monitoring. with related publications © Corbis THE ROAD TO RIO+20 2012 will mark some major milestones in the race to realize sustainable development as nations navigate the final laps on the Road to Rio+20.

org/greenup. The World Congress will bring together Attorneys-General. with a shift in focus from fuels to cleaner vehicles.for Policy Makers. particularly in the developing world. social and governance issues in their core businesses and strategies. Forward Rio+50. a global best practice framework for insurance companies to embed environmental. AuditorsGeneral (Cour des Comptes). 8 unep annual report 2011 85 . In late 2011. UNEP’s Green Economy team are organising a series of workshops and events in the run-up to. alongside the UNEP Governing Council. focusing on the Green Economy and Sustainable Development. aims to enhance public awareness of. The aim of the World Congress is to foster a common vision among those key stakeholders of how to transform discussions into action and use law. © UNEP UNEP IN THE UN UNEP’s GreenUp campaign and its website. In addition. Chief Prosecutors. and participation in Rio+20. will allow civil society groups to consolidate positions and make alliances ahead of the negotiations. UNEP FI will also use the platform of Rio+20 to launch the Neutral Capital Declaration. Local Authorities and Youth.unep. UNEP is organising the World Congress on Justice. Additionally. to be held just prior to Rio+20. will be published to contribute to the Rio+20 programme. Governance and Law for Environmental Sustainability. the fashion designer Vivienne Westwood launched an exclusive t-shirt linked to the campaign. there will be an online social game. Chief Justices and Senior Judges from around the world. www. justice and governance to promote sustainable development. calling on financial institutions to commit to working towards integrating natural capital criteria in their products and services. The Global Partnership on Resource Efficient Cities will aim to enhance the quality of life in urban area. UNEP’s regional offices have been consulting with member states and regional bodies to both solicit feedback and garner support for the Rio+20 summit agenda. the Global Major Groups and Stakeholders Forum in February. and on the fringes of Rio+20. The Partnership on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles will be relaunched 10 years after its inception. The UNEP Finance Initiative will put forward its Principles for Sustainable Insurance. to educate and empower player to act on Climate Change and sustainable development.

the Bretton Woods Institutions and other intergovernmental bodies. and powerful advocacy role in the fight against dryland degradation. In 2011.ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT GROUP: ACROSS THE UN The Environment Management Group (EMG) is the UN system-wide coordination body on the Environment. It is chaired by the Executive Director of UNEP and supported by a secretariat provided by UNEP. 2011 was the year all UN organizations started work on Emission Reduction Plans.greeningtheblue. The report is a milestone in the UN system’s support for UNCCD’s strategic plan. programmes and organs of the UN including the secretariats of the MEAs. One mission which has already reached that target is the UNDP office in Bratislava.org/ 86 unep annual report 2011 . © Bo Li/DPI GREENING THE BLUE Greening the Blue is EMG’s system-wide approach to making the UN carbon-neutral in its operations. operational and logistic capabilities. have installed an extensive solar energy network to achieve carbon neutrality. Greening the Blue is the pan-UN initiative to make the operations of the United Nations carbon-neutral. who. and emphasises that a Green Economy must be a “people-centred” economy. The 2011 report Global Drylands: a UN systemwide response was EMG’s setting out of a common vision for action on drylands management and the UN’s role in addressing climate change and food insecurity through a positive development and investment approach. Slovakia. Meanwhile in New York. Its membership consists of the specialized agencies. a key component in achieving carbon neutrality. aiming to bring together the UN’s expertise. EMG produced the first ever interagency report on the Green Economy. the headquarters of the UN were plunged into darkness as the lights went out in support of Earth Hour. representing a collaboration between UN agencies. Working Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy highlights the need for more integrated approaches between international bodies. following the example of the new UNEP HQ in Nairobi. making a dramatic statement on the Manhattan skyline. www.

and issues such as building and development controls. international and coastal waters. “We saw that after the 2004 tsunami. we have to look at proper management of water resources. at the height of the floods. 70 years ago—but the memories had faded.” unep annual report 2011 87 UNEP IN THE UN 8 . and discussions with the Thai Ministry of Natural Resources are already under way. Now.” Now Ampai is looking forward to bringing some of her experience from China and elsewhere to the effort in preventing a recurrence of the great floods of 2011. Ampai knows better than most the devastating power of water. She want to share UNEP’s wealth of expertise and skills. It’s no wonder the city was hit so hard.” Ampai recounts. The geographic range is enormous: from the Russian Arctic to the Cook Islands of the South Pacific.UNEP PROFILES AMPAI HARAKUNARAK GEF Task Manager Bangkok. parts of the capital were under two metres of water. “Travelling through the central rice plains. especially around Bangkok. It’s her area of specialty. “It was shocking. “There had been terrible flooding 50. But we’ve seen such development in Thailand in the last few decades. I was astonished by the huge volume of water there. In China. “Thailand has a great capacity for learning from disasters. Yet the Thai floods of 2011 really struck home. “The scale of this was unprecedented.” she recalls. over three million people had been affected and more than 500 had lost their lives. I wonder if this is headed for Bangkok?” Her fears were well-founded: by mid-October. I remember thinking at the time. Thailand On her way to her family home near the northern Thai city of Chiang Mai. By November. her project looks directly at the issue of flood prevention and control. focusing on freshwaters.” she says. She currently manages four large-scale projects (budgeted at over $1m) and three medium-scale projects (below $1m). Ampai Harakunarak knew that something was wrong. No-one really wanted to think about it happening again.

Capital moves when there is good data—without it. you can only make short-term decisions. KRUMSIEK Co-Chair UNEP Finance Initiative There was a time when it was hard to stir the public interest in finance and economics. UNEP FI is beginning to get the message through to investors. social and governance considerations. we’re going to see more and more dollars flowing into the sustainable economy. As co-chair of UNEP’s Finance Initiative.” she recalls. And now. Barbara is aware that the finance industry and the environmental and development movements have not traditionally been easy allies.” As President of the Calvert Investments.” says Barbara. But that was before the Financial Crisis. I think both sides realise that we can get more done by breaching those barriers than by hiding behind them. “We were holding our 2011 Global Round Table in Washington. It certainly served to focus the thinking at our meeting.” 88 unep annual report 2011 .” Barbara explains. Occupy DC had set up camp just down the block from our meeting. “just as the Occupy movement was taking off in Wall Street.” With Rio+20 rapidly approaching. “Our Integrating Reporting Initiative shows investors need not only financial data. about how we can be part of the solution. UNEP FI will launch its Principles for Sustainable Insurance. that the superficial profit line is not the only consideration they need to take into account. but also ‘off-balance’ information: environmental. “I have no doubt. DC.” that in years to come.” With over 200 institutional members.” she admits. “But they’re being lowered. Thats something Barbara Krumsiek welcomes. she welcomes the heightened awareness of the role finance has to play in people’s lives. a leading US investment company. are attracting the attention of an increasingly wide audience.UNEP PROFILES BARBARA J. projects and initiatives that UNEP and its partners have been developing for years. “Historically barriers have existed on both sides. “Getting this information in a consistent form means that we can speed the flow of capital to worthy projects. There’s been an enormous backlash against some of the outcomes of the work of our industry as a whole. extending its guidance into another branch of financial services.

“We gather together a wide range of partners— governments. “South Africa is very pro-active. people don’t even know it. “Sometimes governments say we just want you to help us spread the message of the Green Economy. So this helps us dispel the perception that Green Economy is a buzzword imposed by the North. as part of 12 national workshops that UNEP organized around the world. In fact. the private sector. academia—and encourage them to take an overview of projects which many of them are working on separately. and New York. and we’ll take it from there. is the other major part of his role. Kamal works with a team to undertake scoping missions and draft Green Economy action plans for countries which request them.” 2011 saw Kamal holding seminars at the Durban summit in South Africa. who cites South Africa as one of the countries where his team has had most success in mainstreaming the concept.” says Kamal Gheye.” he says. It was incredibly exciting to see the participants in the conference exchanging ideas and learning from each others’ experiences. that’s what the Green Economy is all about.UNEP PROFILES MOUSTAPHA KAMAL GUEYE Acting Head Green Economy Advisory Services Unit “The Green Economy is being debated in Rio. green energy— many of these are already being addressed.” Part of Kamal’s job is enhancing the understanding of the Green Economy at a country level. “Others want us to help them integrate it into every aspect of their economic and development agenda.” unep annual report 2011 89 UNEP IN THE UN 8 .” he explains. “The concept of the Green Economy may be new but corporate social responsibility.” he says. “but it’s being implemented on the ground. environmental concerns. and in many cases. “President Zuma himself has taken on board the concept and been very involved with advocating it to other states. many states are already working towards a Green Economy. civil society. It was a proud achievement for the Senegalese national. usually in developing states. In a way.” Helping countries scale-up what may be already successful—but small—projects.

“Every year we organise the Tunza conference. They are using social media in a powerful way. the outcomes can be inspiring. it was in Bandung. Joyce knows that once children and youth are given a voice. very fast. networking with each other to push their agendas—and they’re actually prepared to hold governments responsible for the promises they make.” says Joyce. “Kids have a very sophisticated understanding of environmental issues. Over 1400 young people gathered together to issue the Bandung Declaration for us to take forward to Rio+20. “This is a very plugged-in generation.” Part of the Bandung Conference involved bringing together the youth of today with youth delegates from the original Rio Earth Summit 20 years ago. That’s a statement from the next generation that cannot be ignored. they really get it.” she says. “They understand how to spread messages very widely. many of the youngsters expressed their determination to make this summit the one which really brings a change to thinking on sustainable development.” With a background mentoring inner-city children in Minneapolis.” Joyce explains. USA. They know how to get things done.” Joyce adds. And they want to be involved. Indonesia. But once they are introduced to concepts like ecosystems.” 90 unep annual report 2011 . “There is a great deal of excitement about Rio+20. and couldn’t be more appropriate. Nairobi Tunza is a Swahili word meaning “Treat With Care”. In particular. to share their experiences and to mentor the next generation. It’s also the umbrella title for UNEP’s outreach activities with children and youth. climate change and the Green Economy.UNEP PROFILES JOYCE SANG Programme Officer Children and Youth. “They may be attracted to the subject out of care for wildlife. “In 2011. “I’m pretty confident that this generation will make things happen. explains Joyce.” That declaration—calling on the summit to move towards a sustainable development pathway— also involved a commitment from the young people to advocate and campaign in their own communities.

we’ve had to relocate many times. Now approaching his final year—he retires at the end of 2012—he is one of the programme’s keenest advocates.” he adds with a grin.” Joseph is proud of the work that UNEP has done in Kenya—campaigning to protect the Mau forest. So what I read about in the publications. You could say we’re environmental refugees. he intends to spend his retirement spreading the organization’s message. Since those days. people get on best when they’re happy. or a joke. “I will always be working for UNEP. He now gives clerical and administrative support to the Executive Office. which at times has involved meeting dignitaries such as Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon.” he recalls. I am seeing it in my everyday life. An avid reader of UNEP’s publications. I always try to make people happy. even when I’m not here. It’s such important work that we do here. I see my duty as helping them to do it. the things that UNEP is warning about. “and like in a family. mostly because water has dried up. back in 1978— Joseph probably has a longer history than anyone else at UNEP.” Starting as a messenger. with a smile.” he says. we were surrounded by trees and wildlife. Joseph is a familiar face around the Gigiri campus. That’s why. “There was no conflict between humans and animals. My family are farmers. the Aberdates ecosystem—but stresses that small efforts can be as powerful as big ones. “When I grew up in Machakos.UNEP PROFILES JOSEPH KILONZO Team Assistant Executive Office. “UNEP is a family. once he leaves UNEP and relocates to his family farm. Joseph has pledged to make his neighbours and community aware of how they can safeguard their future. Nairobi Having worked with four Executive Directors —starting with Dr MK Tolba. Kenya was very different then. unep annual report 2011 UNEP IN THE UN 8 91 .

yet co-operation between the two entities is virtually non-existent. says Pier Carlo. bound for the Balkans. everyone realised that environmentally. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska exist side-by-side. it’s challenging at times. But while the ethnic tensions which tore Yugoslavia apart in the 1990s might now be less visible.” he says.” In September 2011. Pier Carlo was concerned that it would reopen old tensions. “We’re dealing with the legacy the collapse of a state.UNEP PROFILES PIER CARLO SANDEI Programme Officer Regional Office for Europe. Pier Carlo Sandei used to listen to the NATO warplanes taking off from nearby Udine airbase. We didn’t have one complaint. When the Environmental Security Initiative undertook the first ever consultation on a State of the Environment report for Bosnia-Herzegovina (which includes both entities). it might be reasonable to anticipate differing agendas or clashes of institutional cultures. this was the most sensible approach. Mining sites which have been abandoned without any proper regulation or closure.” The end of the Balkan wars left the region fractured. the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and NATO. But that’s the part I like most. he capped off the achievement with a major meeting between delegates from both political groupings —a real example of communities coming together to address over-arching environmental issues. “But in the end. co-ordinating the Environmental Security Initiative—a multi-agency project bringing together groups including UNDP. when it comes to setting out priorities or dealing with international counterparts.” That vision is a secure. stable Balkans.” Pier Carlo explains. Italy. “I thought people might complain that we were trying to make a political statement by dealing with Bosnia-Herzegovina as one country. 92 unep annual report 2011 . But environmental issues do not recognise ethnic or political boundaries. And we all share the same vision. “The partnership works really well. Today he works in the region as UNEP’s Programme Officer.” he says. Vienna As a teenager growing up in Venice. “We have Communist-era industry right at the heart of some very vulnerable communities. “No-one is trying to eat from the other’s plate. Sure. Not a bit of it. With so many agencies involved. many underlying environmental problems are just coming to the surface. In one case. toxic waste from industrial smelters right next to a local hospital.

But she will always retain a passion for the area.” she explains.” Although she has other projects under her supervision—rainwater harvesting in Guatemala and Coastal Ecosystem Management to name but two—for the last two years it’s Lake Titicaca which has taken centre stage.” she recalls. As well as educating and capacity-building within local communities to mitigate their environmental impact—projects in which Isabel works closely with UNDP and UNICEF— she has been driving moves to strengthen the relationship between the two states which share the lake. the politics of international waters can be difficult to navigate. “Of course. With so much good work achieved. In 2011. “The political relationship between the two governments was stuck. she is proud of having helped to preserve one of South America’s wonders. thirteen laboratories have been set up and fully equipped at various locations on both the Bolivian and Peruvian shores. it is evident that Isabel Martinez is dedicated to her work protecting South America’s largest lake.UNEP PROFILES ISABEL MARTINEZ Programme Officer Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean She describes it as one of the most magical places on Earth. Bolivia and Peru. unep annual report 2011 93 UNEP IN THE UN 8 . and now there’s a real will to effectively manage this shared resource. And when she talks of Lake Titicaca. a lot of the environmental problems there are caused by human activity. Isabel anticipates that other projects in the region will begin to take more of her time in 2012 than Lake Titicaca. “It’s a place where people are very attuned to nature. But somehow we managed to gain the confidence of both countries. “It was not easy when we first started. With financial assistance from the government of Spain. Isabel has been overseeing the monitoring efforts which are crucial to provide early warnings of dangers to this fragile ecosystem. But as she says of her work: “when we join the UN we are no longer nationals of one country—but become citizens of the planet”. we saw them begin to refresh their diplomatic agenda. and begin to explain to them the importance of preserving the ecosystem. Just as the seemingly placid waters of the lake can be dangerously deceptive. A Venezuelan. it’s wonderful to see the goodwill in their response.” As well as a bilateral masterplan for the lake. But once you meet the local communities.

five hours to the south-west. Mercifully none of the UNEP staff lost their lives—although there was hardly a person in the unit who was unaffected by the disaster. our team was more determined than ever to assist the Haitian people. In the worst tragedy to ever befall the UN.” It was an attempt to solve this conundrum which led Antonio and his colleagues to develop a study into ‘Lessons Learned’—looking at those aid and development projects which had succeeded in Haiti. 103 colleagues were killed. “There are many similarities between my country and Haiti but also many differences.” One more lesson learned in Haiti—and more valuable experience to be shared with UNEP projects around the globe. The report was complete. 94 unep annual report 2011 . the UNEP country team moved their HQ out of Port-au-Prince to Port Salut. “You live through a situation like this. and why—with a view to implementing the findings in UNEP’s mission. millions and millions of dollars have been spent.UNEP PROFILES ANTONIO PERERA UNEP Haiti Country Programme Manager 2011 was the year when things began to return to normal in Haiti—if normal is a word which can ever be used about the poorest country in the western hemisphere.” says Antonio Perera.” The environment is a major factor in rebuilding Haiti. The exact reason for Haiti’s continued presence at the bottom of the development tables is unclear.000 people perished. Since the quake. “With an intensive push on sustainable development projects we’re seeing dramatic results. But after the disaster. which we hope can be replicated elsewhere in the country. but the Haitian government estimates 316. “But even as aid increased. “Over the years.” says Antonio. It’s an area renowned for its natural beauty—but also for the massive developmental challenges it faces. in many cases results got worse. “We’ve discovered that UNEP can have a big impact working in the field.” explains Antonio. The exact death toll is disputed. you establish a relationship with a country and a people. and just days away from launch in January 2010. UNEP’s Country Programme Manager. a Cuban. Then the earthquake struck. focused one geographical area.

” she explains. bustling city. and it’s a description which Magda Nassef finds appropriate. Magda feels optimistic about the future. as Magda explains. “the climate is cooler than Khartoum. And mercifully. But that’s all been disrupted. “The political dimension here is out of our hands. where they are based at the UNOCHA compound.” she jokes. “There are so many ethnicities. Dr Abuelgasim Adam. are the sole UNEP representatives in Nyala. there is a lot of potential. Sudan Nyala means “the place of chatting” in the Daju language.” she concedes. And too often. so much atmosphere. A very interesting place to live and work. allow policymakers to help resolve some of those issues. Darfur has become less prominent in the international media as tensions eased slightly following the Doha Agreement in 2011. we can do so much work in terms of rebuilding from the ground up. Despite Darfur’s bleak reputation. “Before the conflict. Magda hopes. I feel that if we can crack the environmental governance issue here. Conflict for natural resources is commonplace. “It’s a lively. we’re seeing skirmishes between rival groups. Darfur. in partnership with Tufts University of the US. “but where it comes to building relationships between communities over natural resources. vibrant. they are primarily occupied with research and advocacy projects around the pastoral communities of South Darfur. The pastoralists timed their annual migration to the agricultural areas just after harvest—allowing their stock to consume the plant waste and providing manure to the fields. the environment is often at the heart of the issue. There. And. there tended to be a symbiotic relationship between the pastoralists and the agricultural communities.” Learning more about the pastoralists’ needs and lifestyles will. But that does not mean that underlying problems have gone away.” Magda and her colleague.UNEP PROFILES MAGDA NASSEF Project Manager Environment & Livelihoods Initiative Nyala.” unep annual report 2011 95 UNEP IN THE UN 8 .

ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9 Share the Road: Investment in Walking and Cycling Road Infrastructure Share the Road works to help re-balance the current state of road investments across all modes of transport. points to the economic and human development opportunities of a green economy transition for the world’s least developed countries. as well as the costs and benefits of non-motorised transport infrastructure. low-carbon and resource efficient economy. with a call to invest in forests to aid the realization of a more socially inclusive. that it is a net generator of decent jobs. but also to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services and a direct threat to Asia’s great ape. The report aims to facilitate a common understanding of the green economy approach and the measures required for the transition. UNCTAD and the UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries. Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UNOHRLLS). and is therefore a major contributor to climate change.2011 UNEP PUBLICATIONS www. Orangutans and the Economics of Sustainable Forest Management in Sumatra Deforestation is responsible for approximately 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9 Why a Green Economy Matters for Least Developed Countries This joint report. The report also seeks to motivate policy makers to create the enabling conditions for increased investments in a transition to a green economy. this synthesis addresses the value of forests and their role in transitioning to a green economy. the orangutan. ISBN No: 978-82-7701-095-3 Forests in a Green Economy: A Synthesis Produced during the International Year of Forests. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3143-9 Working towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy A key report of the UNEnvironment Management Group on how the United Nations system can coherently support countries in transitioning to a green economy. and that it is also a vital strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty.org/publications Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication This report demonstrates that the greening of economies is not generally a drag on growth but rather a new engine of growth. Current road investment trends and institutional/ policy developments and options for mobilising investments are discussed. issued by UNEP.unep. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3125-5 96 unep annual report 2011 .

org/publications REDDy. and encouraging developed country households not to 'squirrel away' old electronic goods in drawers and closets could help boost recycling of metals world-wide.the first of a two-part report . Grow . which have in turn announced ambitious targets for emission reductions in the forestry sector. in order to provide the bridge between the data users and providers. warns this report by UNEPs International Resource Panel.Opportunities and Roles for Financial Institutions in ForestCarbon Markets This publication . support for developing country waste management schemes. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3207-8 Decoupling: Natural Resource Use And Environmental Impacts From Economic Growth By 2050. land. more than four billion dollars in additional funding have been pledged by developed countries to support REDD+ activities in developing countries. To date. ISBN No: 978-87-550-3854-7 Global Guidance Principles for Life Cycle Assessment Databases: A Basis for Greener Processes and Products LCA databases provide fundamental energy. financial and social innovation could lead to a more sustainable path. It promotes the ecosystem as a valuable source of income for the local community. air and soil for a wide range of processes. humanity could devour an estimated 140 billion tons of minerals. The results and methods can be applied to other sites in Africa in order to determine the importance of including the coastal forest into national accounts. with the added cobenefits of biodiversity. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3161-3 unep annual report 2011 97 www.unep. materials. A massive investment in technological. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3174-3 ISBN No: 978-92-807-3171-2 REDDy-Set-Grow Part II: Private Sector Suggestions for International Climate Change Negotiators In this report. making basic information easily accessible for environmental choices. as well as poverty reduction. fossil fuels and biomass per year unless economic growth rate is decoupled from the rate of natural resource consumption. Kenya The report features a detailed economic analysis of the mangrove forest in Gazi Bay. .is designed to identify and tackle barriers to investment in forest-related projects. Kenya. products and materials. water consumption data and emissions data into water. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3187-3 Recycling Rates of Metals: A status report Smarter product designs. water and soil conservation.Pathways for Implementing REDD+ REDD+ offers significant potential for rapid and low-cost emission reductions. the financial sector voices suggestions to international climate change negotiators on how an effective regime for forest-based climate change mitigation should be designed to mobilise private finance engagement and investment. such as the UN-backed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) scheme. ores. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3167-5 Economic Analysis of Mangrove Forests: A case study in Gazi Bay. Set.

including suggestions for action plans. The report highlights the recent history of natural resource use in the Asia-Pacific region. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3073-9 Bridging the Emissions Gap: A UNEP Synthesis Report A follow-on to the UNEP 2010 report Emissions Gap: A Preliminary Assessment. Blue Cities: An Ecosystems Approach to Water Resources Management for African Cities Africa is the least urbanised region in the world.org/publications Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and The Pacific (REEO) The first Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and The Pacific (REEO) report focuses on natural resources both as drivers and as consequences of economic activity and social development. Recommendations and Guidelines Provides policymakers with a rationale for education for sustainable consumption. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3100-2 Here and now! Education for Sustainable Consumption. and the development of regionalized tools. covering the period from 1970 to 2005. It Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers A UNEP Synthesis Report This report addresses the mitigation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and its key role in air pollution reduction. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3157-6 www. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3232-0 98 unep annual report 2011 . climate protection and sustainable development. The report also points to the need for further research. this report examines in depth these interlinkages. ISBN: 978-92-807-3154-5 The Bioenergy And Water Nexus Bioenergy and water are inextricably linked.Recommendations for Effective Policies on Sustainable Lifestyles Recommendations to develop efficient sustainable lifestyles policies and initiatives based on the Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles (GSSL). Of 1bn people. tropospheric ozone and methane .unep. but this is changing fast. with resources for educational authorities. It explains to decisionmakers and stakeholders the range of potential options available to close the emissions gap in 2020. Water quantity and quality are factors that determine the extent to which bioenergy can contribute to the overall energy mix. teacher trainers. which has been a time of unprecedented economic development in many countries in the region.because reducing them will provide significant benefits through improved air quality and a slowing of near-term climate change. filling data gaps. through effective communication and awarenessraising campaigns. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3229-0 Green Hills. It is aimed at policy-makers and all relevant stakeholders on how best to help support the shift to sustainable lifestyles. Africa is likely to experience some of the most severe impacts of climate change.black carbon. particularly when it comes to water and food security. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3116-3 provides policymakers with scientific information to support informed strategies and policies. teachers and educators. and offers an outlook on ways to address them. The focus is on three SLCFs . For the first time. highlights the risks and opportunities. about 40 per cent live in urban areas—60 per cent in slum conditions.Bridging the Emissions Gap A UNEP Synthesis Report Visions for Change .

climate protection. Cape Verde. The report concludes that boosting Technologies for Adaptation Perspectives and Practical Experiences This edition of the Technology Transfer Perspectives Series collects ten articles from adaptation experts and practitioners around the globe. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3228-3 Livelihood Security: Climate Change. to a record $211 billion.org/publications Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 Global investment in renewable energy jumped 32 per cent in 2010.unep. It examines a large number of potential measures to reduce harmful emissions. and suggests solutions to the challenges identified during the assessment process. and which could be implemented with currently available technology. Assessments of Adaptation Technology Needs. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3142-2 cooperation between countries sharing the waters of the Amu Darya. could be key to future peace and security in the region. The articles discuss the concept of 'technologies for adaptation'. and protection of the ozone layer. such as methane. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3198-9 ISBN No: 978-92-807-3183-5 Environment And Security In The Amu Darya Basin This report analyses the environment and security risks in the Amu Darya river basin. . and Practical Experiences from Working with Technologies for Adaptation ISBN No: 978-87-550-3939-1 unep annual report 2011 99 www. Mali. the investment activity in developing countries increased strongly. The Global Trends Report 2011 offers an elaborate analysis of trends and issues in the financing of renewable energy. Gambia and Burkina Faso. Mauritania. They are also among the most vulnerable to climate change. divided into three broad themes: Concept and Context of Technologies for Adaptation. HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer This report describes the linkages between hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions. It is the first time the developing world has overtaken the richer countries in terms of financial new investment. Central Asia’s longest river. identifying a small set of specific measures that would likely produce the greatest benefits. UNEP’s study focuses on Senegal. Niger. In addition to this eye-catching record.AMU DARYA BASIN 1 Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers The assessment looks into all aspects of anthropogenic emissions of black carbon and tropospheric ozone precursors. Conflict And Migration In The Sahel The Sahelian countries are among the poorest in the world with the most degraded environments. Chad. Guinea Bissau.

Asia is currently at greatest risk with over 100 million people affected annually. ISBN: 978-82-7701-099-1 www. economic and security interdependencies. in the context of other development priorities. produced under the auspices of the Environment Management Group of the United Nations. River Basins. is uniquely positioned to catalyse. something that the United Nations. and impacts of climate change. Lake Basins. This report provides an overview of the main methods of economic valuation. This will require a crosssectoral approach. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3170-5 Marine and coastal ecosystem services Economic valuation of marine and coastal ecosystem services is increasingly of critical importance for informed decision-making and effective management of marine and coastal resources. More frequent droughts and floods have economic and social consequences.Global Drylands: A UN system-wide response Prepared by the Environment Management Group UNITED NATIONS Women At The Frontline Of Climate Change Gender Risks And Hopes Women are often in the frontline in respect to the impacts of a changing climate. their strengths and weaknesses. with its global reach and wide range of activities and expertise. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3239-9 Ecosystems For Water And Food Security Against the current challenges to enhance food security worldwide. Many of the world’s vital water systems are shared by two or more nations and these transboundary resources are interlinked by a complex web of environmental. and practical applications.org/publications IEA Training Manual Volume Two: Vulnerability and Impact Assessment for Adaptation to Climate Change The publication presents a methodology to assess vulnerability to.unep. ISBN: 978-92-807-3163-7 Global Drylands: A United Nations system-wide response This publication. Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP): Volume 1 . political. Large Marine Ecosystems and the Open Ocean. argues that drylands in developing countries should be ‘re-capitalized’. the publication aims at illustrating the importance of healthy ecosystems for the provisioning of key services that contribute to food security.6 Methodology for the Assessment of Transboundary Aquifers. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3160-6 100 unep annual report 2011 .

How cutting edge science can mitigate climate change while improving air quality. These and other developments are summarized in key environmental indicators that present the latest data and trends for the global environment. They should be used through all stages of the production process. land and water.Taking Steps toward Marine and Coastal EcosystemBased Management . The loss of a single point in their migration can jeopardize the entire population. ISBN No: 978-82-770-1093-9 Living Planet: Connected Planet – Preventing the End of the World’s Wildlife Migrations through Ecological Networks By air. millions of animals travel the world in a network of migratory paths.An Introductory Guide With this new guide on Marine and Coastal EcosystemBased Management (EBM). A special report on how biodiversity conservation can be integrated in forest management. carried out by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). and designed as a supporting tool for estimating the economic value of regulating services. The report recommends direct actions in order to address the Niger Delta contamination. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3130-9 UNEP year book 2011: Emerging Issues In Our Global Environment Focuses include marine waste and the use of phosphorus in food production. The aim is to ensure consistency in the contributions to the report and guide the editorial and review processes. while their concentrations make them vulnerable to overharvesting and poaching. ISBN: 978-82-7701-098-4 Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland A major new independent scientific assessment. The growth of renewable energy.from strategic planning to on-site implementation. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3101-9 unep annual report 2011 101 www. ISBN No: 978-92-807-3173-6 ISBN No: 978-92-807-3131-6 Africa Environment Outlook 3 Authors guide These guidelines are a reference point for all involved in the AEO-3 production process.unep. .org/publications Guidance Manual For The Valuation of Regulating Services This manual is directed towards practitioners in the field of environmental economics. UNEP seeks to assist countries and communities to take steps towards making marine and coastal ecosystem-based management operational . shows that pollution from over 50 years of oil operations in the region has penetrated further and deeper than many may have supposed.

There are 16 seats for African states. Full information on the composition.unep. reviewing the UNEP Programme of Work and budget and its subsequent implementation. 10 seats for Latin American and Caribbean states. The mandate of the CPR includes reviewing.© iStockphoto 9 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND FINANCE UNEP’s mandate and focus are determined by its Governing Council. six seats for Eastern European states. for four-year terms. functions and responsibilities of the UNEP Governing Council and the Committee of Permanent Representatives is available at www. which is made up of government delegates who are assigned to monitor UNEP’s work. and preparing draft decisions for consideration by the Governing Council. taking into account the principle of equitable regional representation. comprising 58 Member States.org/resources/gov 102 unep annual report 2011 . and 13 seats for Western European and other states. 13 seats for Asian states. Member States to the Governing Council are elected by the UN General Assembly. monitoring and assessing the implementation of Governing Council decisions. The Committee of Permanent Representatives (CPR). is a subsidiary of the Governing Council.

$180 million from the Environment Fund.6 and a further $0. This translates into an estimated requirement of $224 million for 2011. UK. Member States are encouraged to make their contributions as early as possible for timely and more efficient delivery of UNEP’s Programme of Work. the Netherlands. $228.UNEP FUNDING IN 2011 Estimated requirements for the approved Programme of Work and budget for the biennium 2010-2011 total $448. Environment Fund income totalled $81. In 2011. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND FINANCE 2011 CONTRIBUTIONS AND PLEDGES ($'000) 9 unep annual report 2011 103 . or above. the unfavourable fluctuation in exchange rates. 104 countries made their contributions to the Environment Fund. about 70 per cent of them paid close to. the Voluntary Indicative Scale of Contributions (VISC). and reduced payments by two major donors affected the total amount of funds mobilized through the Environment Fund. The ongoing financial crisis being experienced by UNEP’s major donors. 51 per cent of the income was received by 30 June 2011 with the remainder received in the second six months with 14 per cent not received until December 2011.7 million against a programme of work budget of $180.3 million or 9. As of 31 December 2011.0 million resulting in a deficit of $17.5 million being 2010 pledges paid in 2011. including $2.6 per cent.1 million comprising 2011 pledges received of $80.0 million.2 million in Trust and Earmarked Funds and $40 million in other funds (including programme support costs and the UN regular budget).0 from the UN Development Account (UNDA). USA and France. The five highest contributors were Germany. The total income for the 2010-2011 biennium was $162.

TOP 20 DONORS ($'000) 104 unep annual report 2011 . An accelerated rate of expenditure for Trust and Earmarked Funds in 2011 has ensured full delivery of the 2010-2011 Programme of Work. In this regard. ENVIRONMENT FUND . Income for 2011 totalled $127.7 million — $17. The Programme Cooperation Agreement for NOK 200 million for the 2010-2011 biennium is the second programmatic agreement between Norway and UNEP. particularly the filling of vacant positions.9 million more than income with the difference being financed by fund balance.Current 2012 Environment Fund income forecasts indicate that the budget of $95. Similar arrangements have been established with the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).5 million might not be realized. which will have a negative impact on the implementation of its PoW. which was $4. UNEP will.6 million. UNEP will continue to work on the basis of a reduction in the funding levels. resulting in a commitment of SEK 95 million in support of four sub-programmes during the period 2010-2013. Income and expenditure performance in 2011 for Trust and Earmarked Funds exceeded the estimates reflected in the 2010-2011 budget.7 million (or 15 per cent) above the annualized expenditures of $114 million included in the 2010-2011 budget approved by the Governing Council. take a precautionary approach to expenditures. in 2012. Expenditure totalled $131. It must be noted that 2011 Environment Fund expenditures totalled $85.TREND IN CONTRIBUTION IN 2009-2011. Negotiations are ongoing with other major donors for the set-up of similar partnerships. until such time as more income is secured. which earmarks funds at the sub-programme level. The highest overall Trust and Earmarked Funds contribution was provided by the Government of Norway.5 million.

the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO) and the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) to support countries to improve natural resource management for conflict prevention and peacebuilding. in collaboration with UN-HABITAT. Additional funds were raised. to further broaden its funding base.Additional earmarked contributions were leveraged through increased collaboration with UN agencies. including the European Union which has committed €30 million. Their contributions in 2011 totalled over $2 million.000. UNEP has been exploring opportunities to access aid funds provided at the bilateral level by Member States. Over 190 institutions. including banks and insurance companies supported the UNEP Finance Initiative to analyse the impacts of environmental and social considerations on financial performance. UNEP is also engaging with private sector and other non-State entities including foundations. for $710. UNEP is working to leverage further extra-budgetary funds through new partnerships to catalyse wider change and achieve the results targeted for 2010-2011. As an example. two projects that have been funded through the bilateral aid channel by the Government of Denmark are the Kenya National State of Environment Report 2009 and Kenya Renewable Energy. In addition to resources made available by donors for multilateral aid. the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA). EARMARKED CONTRIBUTIONS AND TRUST FUNDS TOP 20 DONORS IN 2011 ($'000) 9 unep annual report 2011 105 . ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND FINANCE While encouraging Member States to move towards contributions to the Environment Fund in preference to extra-budgetary funds in line with UNEP Governing Council’s Decision 25/1 (IV). for example.6 million was received through the United Nations Development Programme in the framework of joint cooperation programmes implemented by UNEP and UNDP. $19.

000 900 13.000 12.639 2.000 4.741.782 1.000 500.200.900 1.000 23.000 900 450 14.ENVIRONMENT FUND — CONTRIBUTIONS IN 2011 COUNTRY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Andorra Angola Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bangladesh* Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin* Bhutan* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti* Dominica Ecuador Egypt El Salvador* Equatorial Guinea* Eritrea* Estonia Fiji Finland France Gambia Georgia Germany Guatemala Guyana Honduras India* Indonesia Iraq* Ireland Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya 2011 PLEDGES/ PAYMENT 42.496.000 150.000 1.568.809.000 38.000 3. Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Sweden Switzerland Thailand Timor-Leste* Togo Trinidad & Tobago Tunisia Turkey Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom of Great Britian and Northern Ireland United States of America Vietnam* TOTAL 80.000 1.000 36.000 2.000 140 40.340 5.192 1.000.000 3.200 1.140 653 5.500 COUNTRY Korea (Republic of ) Kuwait* Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg* Malawi* Malaysia Maldives Mali* Mauritius Mexico Moldova Monaco* Mongolia* Morocco* Namibia Netherlands New Zealand* Niger* Norway Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Philippines Poland Romania* Russian Federation* Rwanda Samoa Serbia Sierra Leone Singapore* Slovak Rep.000 9.700 300.000 1.000 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 * Pledge 2011 PLEDGES/ PAYMENT 221.000 40.000 37.213 900 1.700 12.000 350.100 883 4.720 5.981 10.818.000 900 3.008 2.450 17.000 1.722 200.000 704.870 6.000 18.800 230.000 2.800.000 10.440.079 1.167.500 22.000 1.494 900 900 1.623.000.000 4.436 3.000 6.000 86.000 2.000 55.225 900 40.211.974 4.556.200 10.000 16.000 900.000 63.000 2.540 640 2.054 33.000 7.448 850 4.744.700 432.000 2.280 106 unep annual report 2011 .000 8.000 60.750 10.000 900 900 10.000 900 5.038 4.000 20.800 25.591 25.368.000 70.000 900 28.000 8.000 100.500 4.500 5.975 30.500 1.503 550.

THIAW. ALCAMO. CANDOTTI. MOUNKAILA Director Regional Office for Africa (ROA) 18. FRAENKEL. PARK. ADEL FARID Officer-in-Charge Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA) 14. KANTE. ACHIM UNEP Executive Director and Under-SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations 2. NIAMIR-FULLER. Executive Office and Principal Advisor to the Executive Director 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 6. AMINA UNEP Deputy Executive Director and Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations 1 3. NUTTALL. DUSIK. STEINER. ABDEL-KADER. BAKARY Director Division of Environmental Law and Conventions (DELC) 8. GOUMANDAKOYE. PETER Director Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) 7. LEMMET. MARGARITA Director Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean (ROLAC) 15. SYLVIE Director Division of Technology. JAN Acting Director Regional Office for Europe (ROE) 16. IBRAHIM Director Division of Environmental Policy Implementation (DEPI) REGIONAL DIRECTORS & REPRESENTATIVES 13. MOHAMED. YOUNG-WOO Director Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) 13 14 15 16 17 18 unep annual report 2011 107 . BOUVIER. GILRUTH. NICK Acting Director Division of Communications & Public Information (DCPI) 12. Industry and Economics (DTIE) 9. JOSEPH Chief Scientist 4. CHRISTOPHE Chief Office of Operations 5. ASTRÁLAGA.UNEP SENIOR STAFF 2011 1. MARYAM Director GEF Coordination Office 10. NISHIMOTO. TOMOKO Director Division of Regional Cooperation (DRC) 11. MICHELE Chief. AMY Director Regional Office for North America (RONA) 17.

New York) and country offices (Beijing. Pretoria) Division of Environmental Policy Implementation (DEPI) Ibrahim Thiaw Coastal and Marine Fresh water and Terrestrial Ecosystems Climate Change Adaptation Ecosystem Services Conflict and Disaster Management Environmental Education Training Programme Planning UNEP / UNDP Poverty & Environment Facility Division of Communications and Public Information (DCPI) Nick Nuttall (a. EO Michele Candotti Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA) Peter Gilruth Office of Chief Scientist Scientific Assessment Early Warning Capacity Development UNEP-WCMC UNSCEAR Division of Environmental Law and Conventions (DELC) Bakary Kante MEA Implementation Support Environmental Law and Governance Strategic Policy and Facilitation Division of Technology. Sports and Environment KEY: AI: Ad Interim EO: Executive Office IETC: International Environmental Technology Centre OIC: Officer in Charge STAP: Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation WCMC: World Conservation 108 unep annual report 2011 AS OF SEPTEMBER 2011 MonitoringCentre . North America (Washington DC). Asia/Pacific (Bangkok). Cairo.) Media Speech-Writing & Editing Internet Publishing Audio-Visual Library Special Events Billion Tree Campaign Children. Mexico City. Moscow. Brasilia.Secretariat Governing Bodies. Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions Jim Willis Chief.i. Industry and Economics (DTIE) Sylvie Lemmet Sustainable Consumption and Production Energy International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) Chemicals Economics & Trade OzonAction Division of Regional Cooperation (DRC) Tomoko Nishimoto Coordinates: UN Delivering as One at regional / country level South-South Cooperation Collaboration with Major Groups and Stakeholders UNEP regional offices: Africa (Nairobi). West Asia (Manama) UNEP liaison offices (Addis Ababa. Latin America and Caribbean (Panama City). Jamil Ahmad Spokesperson Nick Nuttall GEF Coordination Office Maryam Niamir-Fuller STAP Secretariat Office for Operations and Corporate Services (OfO) Christophe Bouvier Resource mobilisation and partnerships Quality assurance and legal Administration and finance Gender UNEP ORGANOGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE Executive Director Achim Steiner Environmental Management Group Hossein Fadaei (O-I-C) Evaluation Unit Segbedzi Norgbey Chief Scientist Joseph Alcamo Deputy Executive Director Amina Mohamed Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Braulio Dias Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) John Scanlon Secretariat of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) Elizabeth Mrema Secretariat of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Marco Gonzalez Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of Montreal Protocol (MFS) Maria Nolan Secretariat of the Basel. Brussels. Youth. Europe (Geneva).

67. 40. 82 16. 55 32. 71. 45 16 21 64 28 45 60 15. 31. 83 48 21 15. 95 94 78. 38 61. 89 47. 56-63 67 35 18. 24-35 29 74. The (TEEB) Ecosystem Management El Salvador En. 88 17 17. 16. 107 17.INDEX Abu Dhabi Afghanistan African Carbon Asset Development Facility (ACAD) African Development Bank Algeria Alps Amu Darya river Arctic Argentina Australia Azerbaijan Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bhutan Black Carbon Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Brazil Bridging the Gap Brunei Burkina Faso Cambodia Caspian Sea CFCs Chad Chile China Convention on Int’l Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Climate change Climate Change & Development Adapting (CC DARE) Colombia Congo. 107 unep annual report 2011 109 . 36-45 38 18. 16. 81. 37. 86 12 32 44. 66. 69. 51. 38. 82 16. 78. 70. 46-55 83 28. 78 96 29. 61 35. 55 79 67. 49.lighten Initiative Environmental Governance Ethiopia European Union (EU) 50 17. 81 48 71 44 82 32. Democratic Republic of (DRC) Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Cuba Denmark Disasters and Conflicts Dominican Republic Drylands Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. 79. 42 58.48 15-16. 69 44 55 25 16.

20. 34. 44. 86 12. 105 44 12. 69 31. 92 47 19. 31. 63. 82 45 48 16. 39-40. 96 19. 21. 25. 87. 19. 38 30. 31-32. 71 16. 70. 38. 41. 105 67 44 17. 31-32 15. 60 12. 67. 76-83. 62. 16. 44 44 82 67. 77 48. 62. 78. 90 12. 52 105 26 14 16. 33. 93 55 32 49 35. 40. 41. 66 15. 95 32. 95 17. 64. 34. 88. 52. 49. 18. 91 62. 47. 37. 62 70. 58. 81. 53. 83 49 32 23 35 61 32 28.110 unep annual report 2011 Finance Initiative Foresight Process France Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Gender integration Georgia Germany Ghana Global Environment Facility (GEF) Global Environment Outlook 5 (GEO-5) Green Economy Guatemala Haiti Harmful Substances and Hazardous Wastes HCFCs HFCs Honduras India Indonesia InforMEA International Resource Panel Iran Iraq Italy Japan Laos Lebanon Liberia Kazakhstan Kenya Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Mongolia Montreal Protocol MOPAN review Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Netherlands Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Papua New Guinea Panama Peru Philippines Reduced Emissions from Deforestation (REDD) Renewable energy 80. 106 61 31. 55 77. 67 27-28. 67 32. 37. 24. 64 35 94 37. 64-73 32 25 67 30. 37 .

97 70 23. 60. 35.Office on Drugs & Crime (ODC) . 61 23. 69. 54 60. 25. 86-87. 44 70. 64.) Russia Rwanda Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Solomon Islands South Africa South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Stockholm. 70 45 61 95 15. 89 64 70 29 38 32 88 70 24-25. 54. 88 81. 54-55. 53. 107 48 48 41 18. 88. 64. Rotterdam & Basel Conventions Strategic Approach to International Chemicals (SAICM) Sudan Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tunisia Turkmenistan Uganda United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Kingdom (UK) UNITED NATIONS . 73. 49. 67 25.HABITAT . 74-75 19. 29 25 unep annual report 2011 111 .Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) .Research4Life Research4Policy Resource Efficiency Rio+20 Summit (UN Conference on Sustainable Devt. 107 18.Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) .Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs) . 83 60 57 51. 76-83 12.Children’s Fund (UNICEF) . 48 28 50. 90. 67 17. 92 48 16. 50. 95 37 19. 77.16.Development Programme (UNDP) . 37. 105 54.INTERPOL . 105 29 18 24. 92.Poverty Environment Initiative (PEI) United States of America (USA) Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam World Bank World Conservation & Monitoring Centre World Health Organisation World Meteorological Association (WMO) World Resources Institute 51 51 19. 64-65. 29. 91 17. 90. 43. 37. 32.Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) . 70 32. 40 45. 60. 89 49 44 82 45.Environment Management Group (EMG) . 88 24 15.

Scientific & Cultural Organization UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UN Children’s Fund World Health Organization 112 unep annual report 2011 .GLOSSARY OF COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS CBD CITES CMS EMG FI FAO GEF ILO IMO MEA OARE OCHA PEI POP REDD TEEB UNDAF UNDP UNESCO UNFCCC UNICEF WHO Convention on Biological Diversity Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Convention on Migratory Species Environment Management Group UNEP Finance Initiative Food and Agriculture Organization Global Environment Facility International Labour Organization International Maritime Organization Multilateral Environment Agreement Online Access to Research in the Environment Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Poverty Environment Initiative Persistent Organic Pollutant Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity UN Development Assistance Frameworks UN Development Programme UN Educational.

.

ISBN: 978-92-807-3244-3 DCP/1492/NA .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful