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Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides: three molecules of fatty acids attached to a single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, often called lye, brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification. In saponification, the fats are first hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, which then combine with the alkali to form crude soap. Glycerol, often called glycerine, is liberated and is either left in or washed out and recovered as a useful by-product according to the process employed. Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soaps and mineral oil. These calcium- and lithium-based greases are widely used. Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil.
Mechanism of cleansing soaps
Structure of a micelle, a cell-like structure formed by the aggregation of soap subunits (such as sodium stearate). The exterior of the micelle is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the interior is lipophilic (attracted to oils). When used for cleaning, soap serves as a surfactant in conjunction with water. The cleaning action of this mixture is attributed to the action of micelles, tiny spheres coated on the outside with polar hydrophilic (water loving) groups, encasing a lipophilic (fat loving) pocket that can surround the grease particles, causing them to disperse in water. The lipophilic portion is made up of the long hydrocarbon chain from the fatty acid. In other words, whereas normally oil and water do not mix, the addition of soap allows oils to disperse in water and be rinsed away. Synthetic detergents operate by similar mechanisms to soap.
Effect of the alkali
The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap produced. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or often liquid. Historically, potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps also tend to be hard—these are used exclusively in greases.
Effects of fats
Soaps are derivatives of fatty acids. Traditionally they have been made from triglycerides (oils and fats). Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e., rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Its saponified product is called sodium tallowate. Typical vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil and laurel oil. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content and hence results in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil is sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap and is reputed for extra mildness. The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Fatty acid content of various fats used for soap-making Lauric acid fats Tallow Coconut oil Palm kernel oil Laurel oil Olive oil Canola Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid Linolenic acid
C12, C14 C16 C18 C18 C18 C18 saturated saturated saturated saturated monounsaturated diunsaturated triunsaturated 0 48 4 18 28 9 23 3 35 7 2 2 1 0
54 0 0
0 0 1
0 11 3
0 2 2
15 78 58
17 10 9
0 0 23
History of cleansing soaps
Soap-making is mentioned both as "women's work" and the produce of "good workmen" alongside other necessities such as the produce of carpenters. and in the 8th century. 15th–20th centuries . blacksmiths. edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by the humans rather than the gods. But there is no evidence of a Mount Sapo within the Roman world and no evidence for the apocryphal story. A popular belief encountered in some places claims that soap takes its name from a supposed Mount Sapo. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt. he mentions rather disapprovingly that the men of the Gauls and Germans were more likely to use it than their female counterparts. where animal sacrifices were supposed to take place—tallow from these sacrifices would then have mixed with ashes from fires associated with these sacrifices and with water to produce soap. In the reign of Nabonidus (556–539 BCE) a recipe for soap consisted of uhulu [ashes]. soapmaking was well known in Italy and Spain. called soap". observes among "Celts. but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair. which are men called Gauls. first appears in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis. mentions soap as being one of the products the stewards of royal estates are to tally. The Carolingian capitulary De Villis. The Latin word sapo simply means "soap". According to Galen. those alkaline substances that are made into balls. 300 AD describes soap and soapmaking. cypress [oil] and sesame [seed oil] "for washing the stones for the servant girls". 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. dating to around 800. the best soaps were German. and bakers. and soaps from Gaul were second best. This is a reference to true soap in antiquity. Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Zosimos of Panopolis ca. A formula for soap consisting of water. which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes. "tallow". Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving (need references). Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals. Medieval history Soap-makers in Naples were members of a guild in the late sixth century. and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. writing in the first century AD.The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. Latin for soap. representing the royal will of Charlemagne. Roman history The word sapo. it was likely borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum. which appears in Pliny the Elder's account. Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes. alkali.
Ad for Pear' Soap. Liquid soap . 1889 1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap.
Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837. Thomas J. using vegetable oils (such as olive oil) as opposed to animal fats. Until the Industrial Revolution. This process is simple and quick and is the one employed in small factories all over the world. involving continuous addition of fat and removal of product. as advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. Many of these soaps are still produced. In the hot-process method. by the second half of the 15th century the semi-industrialized professional manufacture of soap was concentrated in a few centers of Provence— Toulon. opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. In Marseilles. the semi-boiled or hot-process.In France. Industrially manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century. by 1525. Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived by the oldest "white soap" of Italy. Smaller scale production involve the traditional batch processes. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality. the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large scale advertising campaigns. English manufacture tended to concentrate in London. In modern times. Babbitt introduced marketing innovations that included sale of bar soap and distribution of product samples. William Gossage produced low-price good-quality soap from the 1850s. transparent soap in 1789 in London. Barratt. The coldprocess and hot-process (semi-boiled) are the simplest and typically used by small artisans and hobbyists producing handmade decorative soaps and similar. before the soap is poured into moulds. formerly called Lever Brothers and now called Unilever. wherein the reactants are boiled at least once and the glycerol recovered. the glycerine is left in but at the high temperature employed. William Hesketh Lever and his brother. Soap making processes The industrial production of soap involves continuous processes. production was concentrated in at least two factories. The glycerine remains in the soap and the reaction continues for many days after the soap is poured into moulds. the reaction is practically completed in the kettle. and soap production at Marseille tended to eclipse the other Provençal centers. Hyères and Marseille — which supplied the rest of France. initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. James. also. and the fully boiled process. American manufacturer Benjamin T. both industrially and by small scale artisans. Handmade soap from the cold process also differs from industrially made soap in that an excess of fat is used. beyond that which is used to consume the alkali (in a cold-pour process this excess fat called . soapmaking was conducted on a small scale and the product was rough. Finer soaps were later produced in Europe from the 16th century. There are three variations: the cold-process. wherein the reaction takes place at near-boiling point. wherein the reaction takes place substantially at room temperature. His son-in-law.
in the case of hot-process soap. Excess unreacted lye in the soap will result in a very high pH and can burn or irritate skin. The batch may be kept warm for some time after mixing to ensure that the alkali (hydroxide) is completely used up. This lye-fat mixture is mixed until the two phases (oils and water) are fully emulsified. The lye is dissolved in water. or other additives are most commonly added at light trace. herbs. Not enough lye. After much stirring. whereby. they are combined. However. However. Soap from the hot process. which is the thickening of the mixture. Superfatted soap. but is not at its peak quality for use for several weeks. so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap. medium trace. it also makes the soap softer and less resistant to becoming "mushy" if left wet. and the soap is greasy. or melted if they are solid at room temperature. Cold process Even in the cold-soapmaking process. Depending on how additives will affect trace. (Modernday amateur soapmakers often use a stick blender to speed this process). is more skin-friendly than one without extra fat. also. after the initial oils have saponified. Essential oils and fragrance oils can be added with the initial soaping oils. Further addition of glycerine and processing of this soap produces glycerin soap. than to add too much lye and have left-over lye) and the related pros and cons. if too much fat is added. the mixture turns to the consistency of a thin pudding. but are not necessary for the "fully boiled hot-process" soaping. or. This value is used to calculate the appropriate amount of lye. which contains excess fat. A cold-process soapmaker first looks up the saponification value of the fats being used on a saponification chart. Cold-process soapmaking requires exact measurements of lye and fat amounts and computing their ratio. The temperature is usually raised sufficiently to ensure complete melting of the fat being used. and the glycerine left in acts as moisturizing agent. the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken) in the belief that nearly all the lye will be spent and it will escape saponification and remain intact. Saponification charts should also be used in hot-processes. "Trace" corresponds roughly to viscosity. they may be added at light trace. Emulsification is most easily identified visually when the soap exhibits some level of "trace". it can leave a "greasy" feel to their skin."superfatting"). but solid additives such as botanicals. This soap is safe to use after approximately 12–48 hours. Then oils are heated. Once the oils are liquified and the lye is fully dissolved in water. just as the mixture starts to thicken. Sometimes an emollient additive such as jojoba oil or shea butter is added "at trace" (in the cold process method. the soap maker uses less alkali than required. using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product does not contain any excess hydroxide or too much free unreacted fat. has left-over glycerine (as it is better to add too much oil and have left-over fat. some heat is usually required for the process. or heavy trace. Most soap makers formulate their recipes with a 4–10% deficit of lye so that all of the lye is converted and that excess fat is left for skin conditioning benefits. Superfatting can also be accomplished through a process known as "lye discount". oatmeal. . There are varying levels of trace. instead of adding extra fats.
During this cure period.Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères. it is normal for the soap to go through a "gel phase. Hot processes Hot-processed soaps are created by encouraging the saponification reaction by adding heat to the reaction. kept warm with towels or blankets. in hot-process soaping the oils are completely saponified by the end of the handling period. . France Traditional Marseille soap The batch is then poured into moulds. and left to continue saponification for 12 to 48 hours. as the presence of sugar increases the speed of the reaction and thus the production of heat." wherein the opaque soap will turn somewhat transparent for several hours. the soap is firm enough to be removed from the mould and cut into bars. Unlike cold-processed soap. This speeds the reaction. since saponification is in essence complete. After the insulation period. before once again turning opaque. They typically do not require insulation.) During this time. whereas with cold pour soap the bulk of the saponification happens after the oils and lye solution emulsification is poured into moulds. At this time. trace amounts of residual lye is consumed by saponification and excess water evaporates. cold-process soaps are typically cured and hardened on a drying rack for 2–6 weeks before use. it is safe to use the soap. (Milk soaps or other soaps with sugars added are the exception. However.
Tasting soap for readiness is not recommended. whiter soap. In the fully boiled process. to leave a purer. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers. Purification and finishing A generic bar of soap. . the "neat soap" is precipitated from the solution by adding common salt. or cast into individual moulds. the experienced eye can tell when gel stage and full saponification has occurred. and with practically all the glycerine removed. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and then precipitating the soap with salt. Moulds Many commercially available soap moulds are made of silicone or various types of plastic.In the hot-process. the soap still contains too much water. glycerol. after purification and finishing. which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. At this stage. as these processes can use even naturally found alkalis such as wood ashes and potash deposits. which. In the fully boiled process on factory scale. the soap is further purified to remove any excess sodium hydroxide. which has to be removed. as sodium and potassium hydroxides. This excess liquid carries away with it much of the impurities and color compounds in the fat. after saponification has occurred. soft soap is then pumped into a mould. etc. a little below boiling point. the hydroxide and the fat are heated and mixed together 80–100 °C. The hot. They originated when the purity of the alkali hydroxides were unreliable. Beginners can find this information through research and classes. The spent hydroxide solution is processed for recovery of glycerine. the mix is actually boiled (100C+). and other impurities. This was traditionally done on a chill rolls. and. before modern scientific equipment. are highly caustic. until saponification is complete. and the excess liquid drained off. An advantage of the fully boiled hot process in soap making is that the exact amount of hydroxide required need not be known with great accuracy. Soaps can be made in long bars that are cut into individual portions. although many soap making hobbyists may use cardboard boxes lined with a plastic film. distinctive taste of the hydroxide disappears after it is saponified) or by eye. the soapmaker determined by taste (the sharp. when not saponified. colour compounds.
and silver are less commonly used. Because some of the metal is left behind on the skin and in the pores. Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). From the refiner. the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. It is then extruded into a long log or blank. Many newer materials that are effective but do not have the sharp edges and poor particle size distribution of pumice are used for exfoliating soaps. stripping electrons from the organism's surface. the mass is passed through a vacuum chamber to remove any trapped air. These pellets/noodles are now ready for soap finishing. (Azul e branco soap) – A bar of blue-white soap Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion. Titanium powder is commonly used in extreme "white" soaps for these purposes. Nanoscopic metals are commonly added to certain soaps specifically for both colouration and antibacterial properties. These metals exhibit an electron-robbing behaviour when in contact with bacteria. passed through a metal detector. The scouring agents serve to remove dead skin cells from the surface being cleaned. and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. the benefit can also extend beyond the actual time of washing. cut to convenient lengths. thereby disrupting their functioning and killing them.The dry soap (approximately 6–12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets or noodles. . nickel. usually bars. aluminium. the process of converting raw soap pellets into a saleable product. helping reduce bacterial contamination and reducing potential odours from bacteria on the skin surface. by means of an auger. forces the soap through a fine wire screen. This process is called exfoliation. which. The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.
00% 8..30% 0.50% 5.00% 45.00% 3. Menthol Oil Ingredients D E E E E E G G G NEOLONE™ 950 Properties Appearance: Opaque .00 % 6. Oral care.00% 2.00 7.00% 1..10% 4.00% 7.80% 0.00% 3.00% 0.) >> Shaving >> Shaving creams Dow Chemical lubrication moisturizing Toiletries: Soap Based Shaving Cream Supplier End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A A A B B B D Quantity (%) 7.10% Kortacid 1299 Kortacid 1499 Kortacid 1695 KOH Pellets DI Water Versene NA ACULYN™ 38 DI Water Tego Betain L7 (30% active) Comperlan KD Dow Corning 1784 Emulsion Polyethylene Glycol 200 Glycerin Blue River Conc.Toiletries: Soap Based Shaving Cream Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.20% 0.
. 7. This will be Phase C.In a vessel. Top up deionized water to 100%. 2.0 – 9. In a separate vessel. Add the emulsion slowly and gradually into the Phase C. Add in Phase A slowly into Phase B with the help of an overhead stirrer at 500 rpm..000 RV#5 Spindle Speed: 10 rpm Stability 3 months/5°C. 6. 4. combine Kortacid 1299. Add the remaining ingredients of Phase E into Phase D.000 – 6. extra of deionized water) and potassium hydroxide pellets one after another and stir well with a glass rod until potassium hydroxide is completely dissolved. This will be Phase B. Heat the mixture at a constant temperature until the mixture just melts (60-65°C). Heat the container of solution to a temperature of about 65°C – 70°C. Add in Blue River Conc. This will be Phase G.5 Viscosity (cps): 5. Kortacid 1499 and Kortacid 1695. This will be Phase A. Oral care. Versene NA (add in 10% wt. dilute ACULYN™ 38 with deionized water. Allow the saponification process to complete and observe that the final mixture is clear without any presence of clumps. Remove heat from mixture. In a separate vessel.. 3. Procedure Toiletries: Liquid Soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.pH (as is): 9. 5. Phase F is brought down to 45°C and below. This will be Phase D. 25°C & 45°C 1. Menthol Oil and NEOLONE™ 950.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps . This will be Phase F. add deionized water.
5 pH = 5.2 0. Disperse Xanthan Gum. Laureth-10 DMDM Hydantoin Fragrance Tocopherol Citric Acid Ingredients Properties 1. Sodium Laureth Sulfate. 2. Cocamide MEA.0 3.Supplier Tagra biotechnologies moisturizing protection Upon application the capsules containing a-tocopherol open releasing active Vitamin E on the body End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A A A A A A A Quantity (%) 0.0 6.5 Sodium Methyl Paraben Xanthan Gum Sodium Laureth Sulfate Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate Cocamidopropyl Betaine Polyquaternium 39 Cocamide DEA Cocamidopropylamine Oxide Glycol Distearate.4 30.0 2.0 0.0 2. Let it hydrate until uniform and completely dispersed. Dissolve Sodium Methylparaben in water.4 0. in water with strong agitation.0 6. Add the other ingredients with moderate agitation.5 0. Procedure . 3.0 1.
Methyl Paraben.5 1. The ethylene glycol monostearate gives the system a pearly appearance.Toiletries: Synthetic Liquid Soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath..5 Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate Cocamide DEA Sodium Laureth Sulfate PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate PEG-75 Lanolin Sodium Chloride Deionized Water Propylene Glycol. PEG-75 Lanolin acts as a superfatting agent to keep skin from drying out.0 2.0 1..0 5. Procedure . Oral care. Supplier End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A A A Quantity (%) 7.0 61. Diazolidinyl Urea Ethylene Glycol Monostearate Ingredients Properties Combine ingredients with mixing and heat to 75-80°C.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps Croda foam quality This liquid soap displays good foaming and cleansing action due to the synergistic effect Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate has with the other surfactants in the formula. Propyl Paraben. Cool to desired fill temperature.5 2.0 18.5 1.
50% 0. Oral care.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps Eckart Supplier End consumer benefits Description Soap Bar .) >> Hand wash . Procedure Toiletries: Antibacterial."LemOlive" Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath. Liquid Hand Soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.. Add the Rest of phase A and mix until uniform (avoid foam formation) 3."LemOlive" Phase INCI Name A A Quantity (%) 98.50% 0.10% 0.20% 0. Pour into the mould and cool down.50% 0.25% aqueous solution) Yellow 5 (0... Oral care.. Melt Zetesap at a temperature of 70°C 2.20% Zetesap C 11 Flonac MO 21C Blue 1 (0.Toiletries: Soap Bar .25% aqueous solution) Botanical Olive Leaves Olive & Lemon Ingredients A A A A Properties 1.
5.Supplier Dow Chemical cushioning softness effect End consumer benefits Description Hand cleanser also has antibacterial properties via the incorporation of the active ingredient triclosan.10% 60. Heat to 50-60°. Imparts a soft. Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A A A Sodium Laureth-2 Sulfate (26% Active) Quantity (%) 28. 4. combine the remaining ingredients and heat to 45-50°C to dissolve the Cocamide MEA and triclosan.s.s.00% 5.50% 0. In a separate container. Procedure .20% 0. 2. Cocamidopropyl Betaine (35% Active) Decyl Glucoside (50% Active) Glucamate LT UCARE™ Polymer JR-400 Triclosan Deionized Water Citric Acid Preservative and Fragrance Ingredients Properties Crystal-clear. Cool to 40°C and add preservative and fragrance. 3.00% 3. q. Mix until uniform. lightly conditioning velvety afterfeel 1. Add the premix solution with continued agitation. Prepare a premix solution by dispersing UCARE™ Polymer JR400 in room temperature water with agitation.80% q.60% 0.
400.5 with citric acid.00 0.10 2. Adjust pH to 6. Description Phase INCI Name A A A A B Quantity (%) 49.4.s. pH: 6. Viscosity. to pH 6.30 7.00 4.00 0. Toiletries: Antibacterial Liquid Hand Soap Category Supplier End consumer benefits This liquid hand soap demonstrates the excellent suspending properties and clarity achieved using Acrylates Copolymer (30%).) >> Hand wash Lubrizol Advanced Materials Inc.30 1. (mPa·s) :3.4 .60 Stability: Passed 3 months @ 45°C .. Oral care.00 25.50 0. Toiletries (Shower & Bath.00 0. Yield Value (dyne/cm2): 60 .80 (q.6.00 2.. Gelatin Ingredients B B B C C D D Properties Appearance: Clear liquid with suspended beads.6.7.6) 8.80.000 .00 Deionized Water Acrylates Copolymer (30%) Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate Triethanolamine (99%) Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (40%) Cocamidopropyl betaine (35%) Disodium EDTA Glycerin Propylene Glycol Triclosan DMDM Hydantoin Mineral Oil. Turbidity (NTU): 50 .
s. Toiletries: Mild Commercial Strength Hand Soap Category Supplier Toiletries (Shower & Bath.0 q. Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate.0 5.08 0.. 6.0 1.5 with TEA. 2.5 1. Pre-mix propylene glycol and Triclosan.) >> Hand wash Mason Chemical company foam mildness booster End consumer benefits Description Lauramine Oxide is an effective foam booster in this pH neutral. mild hand soap.5 with TEA if necessary. Oral care. Add PART B ingredients to the batch in order. Combine PART A: Add Acrylates Copolymer (30%) to deionized water. Add remaining ingredients with gentle mixing. 3. Add Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (30%) with gentle mixing.35 3. Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A A A Quantity (%) 10. Fragrance Properties - . Adjust pH to 6. 4.0 0. Neutralize to pH 6. 30% Ammonium Lauryl Ether Sulfate. 5.0 0.. 60% PEG-4 Rapeseedamide Lauramine Oxide Diethyleneglycol butylether Ingredients Citric acid Ammonium Sulfate Sodium Citrate Dye.Procedure 1.
. Oral care.50 q. Oral care. 28% Sucrose Cocoate Parfum Cocamidopropyl Betaine Glycol Distearate.00 3.00 0...40 3.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps .. Steareth-4 Cocamidopropyl Betaine. Sodium Laureth Sulfate.00 2. moisturizing Moisturizing cleanser for pump dispenser applications Supplier End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A Quantity (%) 40. Toiletries: Syndet bar soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath. Glyceryl Laurate Preservative Ingredients Properties Procedure Mix the ingredients in the given order.30 6.s.Procedure Mix in order listed. Toileries: Pearlized liquid soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps Reaxis Inc.
which provides a rich lather and soft skin feel. Maintain slow mixing until all solids are dissolved and the batch becomes a uniform.. End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A A A A A Quantity (%) 80. nonviscous. opaque fluid. Procedure Toilet Soaps . heat to 70°C. Stearic Acid Stearyl Alcohol PEG-150 Triethanolamine Aqua Ingredients Properties With all ingredients in the vessel.0 10. Begin propellor agitation when the batch becomes fluid.0 3.0 5. Fill molds.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps EMD Chemicals Supplier End consumer benefits Description Bar Soap with Xirona® Kiwi Rose ..Bar Soap with Xirona® Kiwi Rose Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.0 2. allow to solidify.0 Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate.Supplier BASF mildness softness Mild cleansing bar. Oral care.
Add phase A and mix thoroughly with phase B.00% 0. Titanium Dioxide Preservatives.67% Ingredients Xirona® Kiwi Rose Colorona® Glitter Bordeaux Translucent soap base Properties Combine ingredients of phase B in soap mixing apparatus. Extrude the soap mass. From the resulting mass into soap pellets..Phase INCI Name A A B Quantity (%) 1. Extrude the soap mass again and form into saop bars. Fragrance and Color Ingredients A A A ..33% 98.s.20 q. Xanthan Gum TEA-Lauryl Sulfate Mica.60 35.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps Engelhard-BASF jewel-like Soap with pearlescent appearance Supplier End consumer benefits Description Phase INCI Name A Quantity (%) 0. Refine the soap mass through an appropriate screen. Procedure Toiletries: Liquid Pearl Bath Soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath.00 0. Oral care.
Titanium Dioxide. Odor: Characteristic.10% 1. Phase INCI Name A A A A A A A POLYOX WSR N-60K (PEG-45M) Glucam E-10 (Methyl Gluceth-10) Modulan (Acetylated Lanolin) Quantity (%) 0.10 I. pH : 7. Other benefits of this additive package are ease of extrusion.1 ± 0. Continue stirring and add Mica . III. improved mold release and reduction of cracking. When well dispersed.) >> Shower & bath >> Toilet Soaps Amerchol Corporation Supplier End consumer benefits Description POLYOX™ WSR N-60K provides excellent slip during application to this conditioning soap bar. Viscosity: 340 ± 30 cps..0 ± 0.07% 1.50% 0.Properties Color: Eggwhite. Add TEA-Lauryl Sulfate with stirring.00% 1. IV.00% 96. add other ingredients and continue to stir until uniform. II.5. Oral care. Specific Gravity: 1. Disperse Xanthan Gum in water. The combination of Glucam E-10 and Modulan provides emollience and skin conditioning properties. Appearance: Pearlescent.00% 0. Procedure Toiletries: Conditioning Bar Soap Category Toiletries (Shower & Bath..33% Ingredients Titanium Dioxide Antioxidant Deionized Water Soap Base 80/20 .
) >> Hand wash Stepan foam quality This liquid hand soap provides good cleansing and foaming.0% sodium chloride: 50 cps. to 100 q. 3.. q. Dye. Preservative Sodium Chloride Ingredients B B B Properties Appearance: Liqht yellow liquid.s. Use soap plodder and extrude mass through slightly heated extrusion plate high gloss finish. Modulan may require gentle heating in order to obtain optimum dispersion throughout soap base.I. D. Phase INCI Name A Quantity (%) q. Procedure Toiletries: Clear Liquid Hand Soap Category Supplier End consumer benefits Description Toiletries (Shower & Bath. 1. Oral care.5Viscosity Profile: as is: 25 cps.s.A Preservative and Fragrance q. Water Citric Acid Fragrance.s.s. Press ribbon to obtain soap bar. Properties Combine and mix ingredients in suitable equipment until uniform at room temperature.0% sodium chloride:800 cps . pH (as is): 5.5-6.5% sodium chloride: 50 cps.s.. q. 0.
6.VISHAL EXPORTS PVT. if desired.5 with citric acid. Adjust pH to 5. Selamat Datang di K. Add fragrance.VISHAL EXPORTS PVT. dye and preservative.I.Procedure Add the components in Phase A to D.LTD Anggota Gratis K. water and blend until clear.5 . Adjust to desired viscosity.LTD Depan Info Perusahaan Hubungi Kami Penawaran Dagang  o Penawaran Beli  Bagi pengalaman anda o Menulis tinjauan o Kenalkan ke teman Anda o Share Bahasa o English Share Beli (Gambar) Kirim Penawaran TOILET SOAP NOODLE Harga: C N F NAVASHIVA .
3rd FL.48 Free Fatty Acid as Lauric. % = 12. % = 0. KAMLESH GANATRA [Direktur/CEO/Manajer Umum] Kirim Pesan +91 98200 68430 +91 22 2671 4594 +91 22 2671 4594 # 12. K.76 Color = Snow white Kenalkan ke teman Anda Korespondensi Perusahaan Tn. Mahavir Bldg.54 Glycerine content. Maharashtra India Nama: E-mail: Nomer HP: Nomer Telpon: Nomer Faks: Alamat: . % = 0. % = 0.Road Vile Parle (West) MUMBAI 400056.D.86 Salt Content as NaCl. % = 79.Cara Pembayaran: Jumlah: Kemas & Pengiriman: Negara Asal: Keterangan: L/C CONT LOAD 25 KG Indonesia Toilet Soap Noodle 80: 20 ( Milky White) Total Fatty Matter.83 Moisture content.
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