Living W orld Diversity of Life

Unit II. Unit III. Unitrv. UnitV.

13 16 18

csn and

Cell Division


of Plants and Animals

15 (periods 15)

Unit I : Living World


Biology and its branches; relationships with other sciences; scientific methods in Biology; historical breakthroughs; scope of Biology and career options; role of Biology in dispelling myths and misbeliefs; characters of living organisms, (elementary idea of metabolism, transfer of energy at molecular level, open and closed system, homoeostasis, growth and reproduction, adaptation, survival, death). Origin and evolution of Life - Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller Experiment; theories of evolution; evidences of evolution; sources ofvariations (mutation, recombination, genetic drift, migration, natural selection); concept of species; speciation and isolation (geographical and reproductive); origin of species. (periods 4.5)


Unit IT : Diversity of Life


Variety of living organisms; Systematics; need, history and types of classifications (artificial, natural, phylogenetic); biosystematics; binomial nomenclature; Two kingdom system, Five kingdom system, their merits and demerits, status of bacteria and virus; botanical gardens and herbaria; zoological parks and museums. Salient features of various plant groups; classification of angiosperms up to series level (Bentham and Hooker's system), Salient features of non-chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level). and Cell Division (periods 30)


nr : Cell *

Cell as a basic unit of lifediscovery of cell, cell theory, cell as a self-contained unit; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; unicellular and multicellular organisms; tools and tech95

cytoskeleton. cilia and flagella. . Brassicaceae and Asteraceae.housekeeping genes. seed and their types. endoplasmic reticulum. vitamins.root. Continuity of 1ife . Golgi complex. nuclear basis of differentiation and development. quantitative inheritance. mitosis and meiosis. secondary growth. amitosis. lipids. ribosomes. mineral ions. Description of Poaceae..incomplete dominance. transgenic plants. muscular and nervous. connective. amino acids. nucleic adds (DNA and RNA). (periods 45) Unit V : Morpbology of Plants and Animals * Morhpology . structure and function Of tissues-epithelial. Gene expression . plastids. nucleotides. gene mapping. Cell cycle: significance of cell division. Internal structure of plants .nucleus. Unit IV : Genetics (periods 45) .heredity.Salient features of earthworm.methods of study. fruit. other patterns of inheritance . . DNA fingerprinting. chromosomal basis of inheritance. induction and repression . '" Basics of Recombinant DNA technology. vacuole.. Morphology of Animals . recombination. Mendel's laws of inheritance. Fabaceae. Solanaceae. microtubules. Inflorescence. regulation of gene expression. sex linked inheritance.cell wall. cell membrane . hormones and steroids. genome. cloning. Liliaceae. endocytosis). anatomy of root.principles and applications. cellular movement (exocytosis. variation. DNA as a genetic material. their structure and modification. flower. '" * 96 .Iysosomes..Tissues (meristematic and permanent).bacterial cell and eukaryotic cell.genetic disorders. electron microscope and cell fractionation). tissue systems.niques (compound microscope. parallelism between genes and chromosomes. inorganic and organic materials - water. stem and leaf of monocot and dicot. chemical nature and mechanism of action). genom ies . centriole. stem and leaf. Human genetics . proteins. carbohy- drates. cockroach and rat.. mitochondria. Enzymes (properties. multiple allelism. oncogenes. Molecules of cell. animals and microbes. Chromosomes . karyotype analysis. gene bank. linkage and crossing over. Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell .unit membrane concept (fluid mosaic model). membrane transport. cell organelles and their functions . mutation and chromosomal aberrations.transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. salt. sex determination.its structure and replication. structure of RNA and its role in protein synthesis. tissue systems. sex chromosomes.

Lizard. Pinus. Spirogyra. Snail. 3. 6. (periods 60) Study of parts of compound microscope. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. Starfish. Study of different modifications in-root. Pigeon/anyother bird and Rabbit/anyother-mammaJ. please refer to details given for Class XlI. 2.sunflower. Study of squamous epithelium. Ascaris. mustard. nerve cells and mammalian blood filmthrough temporary/permanent slides. muscle fibres. sderenchyma. mushroom/bracket fungi. pea. Preparation and study.identfflcatinn w_ithreason --:_ Amoeba. S. Liver . lignin. 97 .of transverse sections of dieot and monoco_troot and stem. Oscillatoria. stem and Ieaf. Study of eel] wall components (cellulose. suberin and mucilage). frog and rat through models. collenchyma.Rohu. Leech. 7. Study of meiosis in onion flower buds. fern. Study of mitochondria by staining with a Janus Green . Study of mitosis in onion root tip and animal cell (grasshopper)..Practieals : For evaluation in practicals. one monocotyledon. Study of characters of specimens and . Rhizopus. Frog. moss. cockroach. 4. Silk moth Honeybee. xylem and phloem from prepared slides. prawn.fluke. Study of cyclosis in leaf cell of Hydrilla. petunia. Core Experiments 1. Studyofparenchyma. Dogfish. 5. onion/wheat/ Asparaguspaddy. 6. one dicotyledon and lichens. Study of the specimens and their identification with reason ~Bacteria. liverwort. yeast. Studyand description of the flowers . Studyofexternal morphology of earthworm. Analysisof seed samples for Mendelian ratios. and testis of grasshopper. or Tradescantia and in Paramoecium. Hydra. Earthworm.

compensation point. site of photosynthesis (functional aspect of chlorophyll structure). * * * Unit n : Physiology * Nutrition and its types. plasmolysis. Unit II. Development and Growth Ecology and Environment Biology in Human Welfare Total 16 70 Unit I : Pbysiology of Plants (Periods 30) * Cell as a physiological unit. deficiency symptoms of elements. Krebs cycle. water potential. mechanism of stomatal opening and closing (Potassium ion theory). translocation of solutes. essential major elements and trace elements. UnitY.prevention and cure. CJ and C4 Pathway. heterotrophic . Mechanism of respiration . malnutrition and undernutrition. nutrients . photophosphorylation (cyclic and non-cyclic). permeability.absorption and movement (diffusion. factors affecting photosynthesis. theories of water translocation . role of enzymes and disorders related to nutrition. respiration in humans .functions of minerals. Unit III. mode of nutrition (autotrophic.respirator] organs. photochemical and biosynthetic phases. osmosis. hormones in digestion.root pressure. 98 .glycolysis. common respiratory disorders . of Animals (periods 40) Intracellular and extracellular digestive system and process in egestion). absorption.cockroach).significance.saprophytic. respiratory quotient. humans (digestion. imbibition). chemosynthesis. Physiology of plants Physiology of animals xn (THEORy) 70 Marks MARKS 15 Time : 3 Hours 17 11 11 Reproduction. transpiration . photorespiration. * Gaseous exchange in animals (earthworm. water relations . Mineral nutrition . anaerobic respiration. factors affecting rate of transpiration. nitrogen and nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation.significance. Photosynthesis . fermentation. pentose pathway. mechanism. transpiration pull. parasitic and insectivorous plants). assimilation. Unit IV. digestion: digestive system of invertebrate (cockroach).CLASS One Paper THEORY Unit and vitamins. electron transport system. ingestion. breathing and its regulation: transport of gases through blood.

development of male and female gametophytes. kidney transplantation. pollination (types and factors). theories of ageing. role of growth regulators in seed dormancy. * * * 99 . abscission. development of zygote upto 3 germinal layers and their derivatives. composition and formation of urine. role of ADH. atheroma and arteriosclerosis. sensory receptors. cartilage and their disorders (arthritis. human nervous system .structure and functions of brain and spinal cord. Cellular growth . rhythmicity of heart-beat. immunity and immune system.eye. pulmonary and systemic circulation. mechanism of muscle contraction. extra-embryonic membranes. role of hormones as messengers and regulators.geotropism. Reproductive cycle in human female. transmission of nerve impulse. dialysis. structure and function of sense organs . aspects of placenta. hormonal imbalance and diseases. closed system in humans. BCG. ethylene.ammonetelism. mechanism and types of regeneration. nose and tongue. Locomotion and movements.axial and appendicular including cranium and rib cage bones. human male and female reproductive systems. red and white muscles in movements.physical and chemical events. significance of vegetative propagation. vemalisation.photoperiodism. reflex action. seed germination . phototropism.a general account (asexual and sexual). Nervous coordination in cockroach and humans. nastic and nutation). ABA. excretory system of cockroach and humans.hypophysial system in cockroach. embryo development. kidney failure. ureotelism. blood and its composition. Joints and their types. role of liver in excretion. hormones and their functions. '" '" '" * Unit ill: Reproduction. feedback controls.Auxins. sexual reproduction . Human endocrine system. general. stress factors (salt and water) and-growth. heart beat and pulse. gametogenesis. human skeleton . role of kidney in osmoregulation. plant movement . ageing . incompatibility. parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy. osteoporosis). hormonal control of growth.vegetative propagation (natural and artificial). senescence. Nitrogenous waste elimination . double fertilisation.mechanism and factors affecting germination.cellular and extracellular changes.hypertension. pacemaker. blood related disorders . structure and pumping action of human heart. Fertilization . growth regulators (phytohormones) . lymphatic system. process of flowering . hypothalamo . micropropagation. cytokinins. Characteristics of Plant growth. Growth and Development (periods 20) * Modes of reproduction in flowering plants . gibberellins.'" Circulation of body fluids . uricotelism. Types of reproduction . bone. turgor growth movements (tropic. ear.growth rate and growth curve.

hie-war. MRI and ultrasound . emigration. water. sources and abatement of air. environment and development. mortality. DLC. parasitism. immigration. Natural resoUrces· types. EEG. ecological adaptation. water. grasslands and deserts. biopiracy. soil and noise Global environmental changes.symbiosis. (periods 40) Organisms and their environment. range of tolerance. Brief account of some common crop and animal diseases. energy flow. common problems of adolescence (Drugs. social and moral implications. conservation of biodiversity (biosphere reserves and other protected areas).. soil. community. temperature and light. bio-diversity benefits and assessment. normal EeG.forests.both governmental and non-governmental. III Recent advances in vaccines. Risks of indiscriminate use of drugs and antibiotics. Food production. immune disorders. mental and addictive disorders. species. Population growth and factors . global warming. TLC.(natality. ESR lipid profile. pollution . cancer (types. predation and competition. Greenhouse gases. Elementary knowledge of Haemoglobin estimation and estimation of sugar and urea in blood. impact of population growth. Environmental pollution.terrestrial and aquatic including marine resources. STD.Unit IV : Ecology and Environment . factors . National and International efforts . use and misuse of natural resources. '" • III Ecological Succession .Tobacco). causes. major bIomes . CT Scan. Biotic resources . Levels of organisation .kinds. modem techniques in disease diagnosis.. Ecosystem . Unit V : Biology in Human Welfare (Perieds 50) Population. ELISA and VIDAL tests.structure and functions.. organ transplantation. biopatent. productivity. diagnosis. biotechnology in therapeutics . biofertilizers. biotechnology and sustainable agriculture. threats. ecosystem and biosphere.air. commensalism. ecological efficiencies.types and mechanism . . treatment).hormones. endangered speciea.. Ecological interactions . reproductive health. decomposition and nutrient cycling. age and sex ratio). mutualism. environmental ethics and legislation. Basic concepts of EeG. improved varieties.population. plant tissue culture and its applications. biota.extinctions. 100 . AIDS. interferon andimmuno modulations. population as a resource. sea level rise and ozone layer depletion. biopesticides. breeding. genetically modified food. Alcohol and.

7. of plasmolysis in peels in hypotonic chloride or potassium chloride. temperature and alcohol on salivary amylase.Class XU PracticaJs Time : 3 Hours (i) 30 Marks 20 Marks 5 Marks 5 Marks 72 Periods Core Experiments Record of one Investigatory project and viva based on the project Class record and viva based on experiments (ii) (iii) Practical Examination wiU be conducted at the end of academic session as per the guidelines given at the end of this section. potato/milk. fat and proteins in rice/wheat/gram/ (using spinach. 6.gram/bean). calendulla or any Study of plant pigments by paper chromatography.with wilmount Bubbler (using an aquatic plant). light quality and dissolved carbon dioxide on photosynthesis . Study of effect of salivary amylase on starch. 3. farmaldehyde) on starch. Stud). other . protein. acetone. Effect of temperature and any two chemicals (methanol. mustard. 2. To test the presence of urea-in urine. 5. 101 . albumin and bile salts in urine. and hypertonic solutions using sodium (carbohydrate from upper and lower surface of a dicot leaf. SECTION B of the following experiments : 1. leaching of pigments in beet root or other tissues. To test the presence of sugar. Study of rate of respiration in germination seeds having different'substrates • wheat. fat-groundnut. Study of effect of pH. / 2. 4. To study the presence of carbohydrates. SECTION A 1.Ieaf) Study of light intensity. Comparative study of rate of transpiration Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.

102 method.1. SECTION E (ALL) Identification (i) (ii) of the following specimens/slides Common plant diseases. of Ovary (Mammalian). of Artery and vein. (iv) T. field from blood 3.epigeal and hypogeal germination. 3. (vi) T.S. of Testis (Mammalian). (vii) Human skeleton and the types of joints excluding rib cage and skull. . Root nodules showing bacteria or bacteroids.S. giving reasons: (iii) T. 2. Study of distribution of stomata on upper and lower surface of a dicot and a monocot leaf.. (iii) Types of germination 2. 2. Study of plant population (density and frequency) by quadrant Study of pollutants in water.S. 4. Observation (i) (ii) and comments on the experimental set up on seed germination. Experimental Experimental set up showing phototropism. To count at least two types of white blood cells in a microscopic smear. T. SECTION D (ALL) 1. SECTION F (ALL) Any three of the foUowing experiments: 1.S. Spinal cord (Mammalian). (v) T. set up showing geotropism.S. Study of Haemolysis and crenation from Human blood cells. Study of pollen germination and growth of pollen tube in a pollinated pistil (in portulaca! grass) . Conditions necessary for germination (air and water) Stages of germination .

Study of pollutants in air.) (a) (b) (c) Experimentation/Testing process Observations Inference and Result Precautions . Rate of respi1 Setting of experiment Observation and recording/readings Inference and result Labelled diagram Precautions (b) (c) (d) (e) Observation under microscope (with slide) (Plasmolysis) (a) (b) (c) (d) Preparation of slide/peeling and mounting Treatment with solutions and observation Comments/reasons Diagram and labelling Analytical tests (Presence of Sugars. proteins in seeds etc. Study of physical properties of different soils. one from Section C. three spots from Section E and one from Section F. from Section A. Transpiration Experiment. one from (a) Potato Osmometer. Study of rate of percolation in sand. 4. 103 . Study of water holding capacity of garden soil and road-side soil. FOR BIOLOGY PRACTICAL EXAMINATION EVALUATION SCHEME In the Board's examination. 6. Study of chemical properties including pH of different soils. Plant physiology experiments: ration in plant . one from Section B. loam and clay soil. The details of all these are given in the following Sections : MARKING SCHEME Section A (Any One) A.3. 5. 7. a student has to perform core experiments of 20 marks out of actual maximum marks 000 as laid down under syllabus of Biology Practicals (Class XII). The evaluation in core experiments consists of (out of the exercises done) .

(c) (d) on permeability of sugar beet membrane Preparation of extract of material Experimentation Observation and Inference Precautions . Preparation of blood film Staining Marking labeled diagram showing white blood cells Comments 1 Preparation of slide for observation of stomata (a) (b) (c) (d) Preparation of epidermispeal Staining Making of labeled diagram showing guard cells and pore Comments 1 C.D.Separation of plant pigments 1 E. Chromatography (a) (b) (c) (d) Loading of chromatography paper and placing of paper strip in setup Display of separate pigments and comment Identification of pigments on paper strip Precautions SECTION B (ANY ONE) (a) (b) (c) Set up of experiment Observations and recording Inference/conclusion/Result Precautions SEC'IION C (ANY ONE) 1 I!1 1 Cd) (a) (b) (e) (d) B. Study of root nodules by Cross-Section (a) (b) Section of nodule and mounting on slide Staining 104 1 . Experiment (a) (b) .

Types of joints (a) (b) Simple diagram and labelling Comment and correct Identification SECTION F (ONLY ONE) .(e) (d) D. Experimental set up (a) Question based on the set up and correct answer for each question SECTION E (SPOTTING) (THREE SPOTS) . Identification of type species (examples) Noting of data and comment 1 Study of pollution (water/air) (a) (b) (c) Analysis of samples Clarity of recording (with observation) Inferences 105 .3 MARKS Y:zx4 = 2 Observation of microscopic structure (slide) (a) (b) Labelled diagram Comments and identification Common plant diseases (a) (b) Causal agent/Symptom Identification Human Skeleton/bones. Making of labelled diagram showing location of bacterial growth and labelling Comments 1 1 Study of pollen germination and growth of pollen tube in a pollinated pistal (a) (b) (c) (d) Preparation of slide Staining Making of labelled diagram Comments SECTION D (ONLY ONE) 1~ Y:z 1 1 A.3 MARKS Experiment on ecology (Population density/frequency) (a) (b) (e) Setting of field for experiment and clarity. .

5 MARKS and recording Record Books (a) (b) (c) (d) Completeness of practical work Regularity in submitting record Neatness and accuracy of record Viva voce on record SECTION H .C.5 MARKS 1 2 Investigatory Project (a) (b) (c) (d) Selection of problem Methodology used Presentation Viva-voce on record 2 106 . Study of water holding capacity/rate of percolation (a) (b) (c) (d) Setting of experiment Procedure/observation Inference Comments SECTION G . Study of soil properties (a) (b) (c) (d) Setting of experiment Observation and result Recording Inferences D.

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