ALCOHOL

1404/1983

TEHRAN - IRAN.

NOTE This booklet was originally published by Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust in Karachi (Pakistan). Since the booklet has been found useful and i nteresting, action has been taken to republish the same in order to put as many copies within the reach of people throughout the world. World Organization for Islamic Services, P.O. Box: 11365-1545, TEHRAN. (Iran)

BISMI 'L-LAHI 'R-RAHMANI 'R-RAHIM (i) Revile not them (the idols) whom they invoke other than Allah, lest they maliciously revile Allah 6:109 without knowledge. (ii) There is no compulsion in religion. 2:256 (iii) Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and beware, but if ye turn back then know ye all that nothing is in cumbent upon Our Messenger but to 5:92 proclaim. (iv) Call to the way of the Lord by reasoning and likeable exhortation: and argue with them in a 16:125 decent manner. (v) And hold ye fast by the cord of Allah all together and be not divided (among yourselves). 3:103 (vi) Verily: I am Allah there is no god but I, therefore submit to Me and offer prayers to mention Me. 20:14 (vii) Recite from the Book revealed to thee and offer prayer. Prayer restrains from filth and evil. And remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt and Allah knows what you do 29:45 (viii) O my Son: Offer prayers and enjoin the good and forbid the evil and be patient whatever befalleth thee: for this is firmness in the conduct of affairs. 31:17

BISMI 'L-LAHI 'R-RAHMANI 'R-RAHIM

ALCOHOL
CONTENTS
Page No. Content ... ... ... i-iv 1 Alcohol and Alcoholism ... ... The Rationals of the Revenues of State from Liquor ... ... ... ... 4 Revenues ... ... ... 8 Moderate Alcohol and Efficiency ... 11 Alcohol Produces Paralysis of Judgement ... 13 Drinks are not to be Classed ... ... 15 . , Bear Deposits Fat Around the Heart 17 Bear Makes People Ferocious and Beastly ... 19 Do not Indulge in Drink and Gambling ... 20 The Effects of Alcohol ... ... 22

(ii) Some Instructive Tests ... ... Three kinds of Test Mental Efficiency ... ... Alcohol is Ready Solvent of Fat Whiskey Sans Spirit ... A Psychological Truism ... Drinkers Cause Accidents ... Alcohol is Simply the Hub of a Vicious Wheel ... ... feeble mindedness ... ... Crime and Indecency ... ... Some Statistics ... 30 Shops ... ... Consumption of Drinks in America Yearly Expenses in America ... ... Expenditure of Alcohol The Truth about the Beer... ... Sale of Beer in England ... ... Drinker's Stomach ... Alcohol and Crime ... Drunken Fathers and Mothers... The Liquor Trade ... ... The Part Played By Alcohol ... ... ... ... ... ,. ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

25
29 30 33 35 36 38 41 42 44 46 49 50 51 53 54 55 64 66 69 73 79

Booze is the Matter of Crime ... ... , Vices to which Alcohol Gives Birth Alcohol is a Poison ... ... Alcohol is Dangerous ... ... ... Children of Drinking Fathers .. ... ... What is Alcohol ... Faculties ... ... ... Is Alcohol A Medicine ... ... ... ... Gopsel Advocate Says Republic of South Africa Mr. R.B.Durrant ... ... ... _. says ... Japanese Proverb ... ... Dr. Charles Richet of Paris Says ... ... ... ... Mr. W.J. Says Sir Alfred Pearce Could K.C.V.O., M.S.. F.R.C.S. Says ... ... ... Professor A. Toynbes Says... ... . .. DRINKING - Dr. Charles Richet of Paris Says ... Bishop Carpenter Says ... ... Gladstone Says ... ... ... David M. Kay Says ... ... Evening Standard ... ... ... Sir William Wileox M.D. Says .. ...

85 89 98 101 103 104 110 112 112 113 113 113 113 114 114 115 115 115 116 116 116

......) .. .... Charles Richet of Paris Says ....S. . Drinking is more Heinous Sin than Adultery ... . Divine Ban on the use of Liquor .. .. .A.) .. Punishment for Drinking in Islam ... From the Holy Quran .... Wine Root of all Evils ... .... From Hazrat Imam Jafar-i-Sadiq (A.(iv) Dr. .. .. Anything Cories Under the Heading .. 116 117 117 118 123 1 24 126 132 132 133 135 136 136 139 1 41 143 143 144 ... The Holy Month of Ramzan . ....) „. Allah Says ..... From Hazrat Ali (A.. .S. .. A. Deriving Wrong Meaning from the Verses of the Holy Quran .) ...... . . Islam's Approach to the Problem of Drink..... Early Detection is Protection Known these Early Warning Signals of Alcoholism .. The First Case After the Dimise of Holy Prophet (S. A case of Penalty with Regard to Drinkerds Drinking (Alcohol) .... From the Holy Prophet (S....

hydrogen and oxygen in different proportions of combination. namely. social and economic problems. Of these the most well-known are the two alcohols. Methyl alcohol is very much in demand in many industries. with varying properties. Blindness is not an infrequent consequence of its consumption in very minute quantities. Ethyl alcohol is not so swift in its effects. nations and whole civilisations have succumbed to its invidious influence and gone down to ignominious oblivion.BISMI 'L-LAHI 'R-RAHMANI 'R-RAHIM ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM The term alcohol is applied to a wide range of organic chemical compounds of carbon. families. . the methyl or wood spirit and ethyl or the wine spirits. It is a deadly poison even in small doses. Individuals. though its slow-poisoning effects are as frightful. For unknown ages it has continued to give rise to moral.

nay the active patronage of the states that cry themselves hoarse . Vast tracts of fruitgrowing lands that would support the starving millions are reserved for destroying the healthy stocks of humanity. What was intended by Benign Providence for the growth and maintenance of life and health has been diverted to channels of self-destruction and disease by the so-called rational man. yet so deductive are the powers it exercises on a certain build of the mind.2 ALCOHOL The saner elements of the whole world and of all ages have consistently condemned its use. socially and economically destructive activities are being carried on under the very eyes. Such morally. Ever new labels and Scientific techniques for its manufacture are invented by the votaries of Bachus to rope in the unwary victims. that few countries have succeeded in banishing its use as an intoxicant. The old days methods of fermenting liquor in the dung heaps as part of the process has given place to the multi-millionaire projects for the manufacture of wine spirits.

J. I find when I go to court. He says. A stern warniug against the liquor magnates growing political power was issued by the late Theodore Roosevelt. in the following words. Flynn.3 and champions of the common man's welfare. which are important factors in over-adding and corrupting the voters. "It is now a question whether the liquor interests are to dominate your parties. They bring in revenue. Mr. Intoxicants are of many-fold benefit to the kuarish among the politicians. dominate your public life and dominate your government. President of the United States of America. They encourage crime and goondaism. He threatens whatever judge is sitting there with political death if he does'nt . "Every time I arrest a man wbo is running a 'blue pig' (an illicit liquor shop)." As to how far the liquor interests exert their sinister influence may be gathered from the following statement of a high police officer of Chicago. that the representative of the brewery has been there before me.N.

I would drive the blind pigs' out of Rogers Park in four weeks. they violate every instinct of decency and break or evade every law made for their control with the single exception of the law requiring them to pay tax. Rabert J. Businessmen in the liquor trade do not grudge the taxes they . Lieutenant John M. an attorney of the same city stated that the breweries are behind the Chicago 'blue pig' men and fight tooth and nail to have them dis charged when we have them arrested. Carthy adds to the above statements the following :-"If it was not for the politicians and the influence of the breweries." Mr.C. THE RATIONALS OF THE REVENUES OF STATE FROM LIQUOR.4 ALCOHOL Listen to resson. Northold." Backed by the great political influence which the big business magnates of the liquor trade have come to possess in the political life of the Western Countries.

protection and promotion. 1743. More than two hundred years back. during the hey day period of British hegemony Lord Chesterfield assailed the principle of licensing liquor trade. "To pretend. that the design of this bill is to prevent or diminish the use of spirits. Speaking on the legislative measure on the anvil. the state gets committed to a three fold function in the demoralising process of corrupting its people to wit. permission. this broad-minded statesman laid emphasis on the evils that would spring from the licensing system that was then being introduced. By licensing the manufacturing and sale of this universally obnoxious commodity. he thundered. is to trample upon common-sense and . my lords. simply because such taxes are shifted on to the pockets of the consumers. A State which proposes to augment its revenues from liquor is in no better position than a grabbing brewery. In a memorable speech delivered before the British House of Lords on February 21.5 are called upon to pay. on a gigantic scale.

will be disabled and those who preserve their limbs will be deprived of their senses.6 ALCOHOL to violate the rules of decency as well as of reason. For there is no doubt but those on whom the inventors of this tax shall confer authority will be directed to assist their masters in their design to encourage the consumption of that liquor from which such large revenues are expected. the suppression of industry. I find it the most fatal engine. that ever was pointed at a people-an engine by which those that are not killed. to raise taxes by the destruction of the people." . and the destruction of mankind. and to multiply without end those licences w:?ch are to pay a yearly tribute to the crown. my lords. For when did any man ever hear that a commodity was prohibited by licensing its sale. the tendency of this bill. or that to offer and refuse is the same action? Surely it never before was conceded by any man entrusted with the administration of public affairs. When I consider. I find it calculated only for the propagation of disease.

motto with the Saner among the British leadership. the British Empire has crumbled down to dust more ignominiously than any historically known precedent of yore. Edward Burke and Lord Acton failed to convince the Britishers that this world could not be held as a wine-shop of exploiters. Contrast this boast with the blatant fact that even in the British Isles there is a persistent fog overclouding the sun most of the year. Of the three potent factors responsible for such catastrophic downfall wine. women and wealth. Great statesmen like Lord Chesterfield. "What is morally wrong cannot be politically right. The short-sighted politicians ignored the warning and in the short span of decades.This brilliant indictment of national policies by the saner elements of the British political life." was the. Only two decades back it was a boast that the sun never set in the Britisb Empire. The . reverberates across the centuries as a warn ing to the nations of the world.the first one has certainly been productive of the greatest evil.

8 ALCOHOL nation as a whole. A tax comes out of the pockets of the individuals and goes into the common pocket of the nation. voted Bachus and Machiavelli. Anything which impairs that productivity will impair the national income. REVENUES derived from the liquor traffic by a state are altogether illusory. Naheen karti hai pih ganmon ke gunahon ko mauf (The Heavenly Order may connive at individual lapses. with the inviolable consequence of such option-disgraceful downfall. "For every million dollars recovered in taxes. the . It is an admitted axiom of Economics. Urdu verse: Fitrat afrad se igmaz bhi kar leti hai. that ali income is dependent upon the productivity of labour and capital. but there is no atonement for national transgressions). however.

and many millions more in impaired efficiency of its workers and in productivity sacrificed to the parasitic business. earn more munificently. clearly point to the folly of governments which seek to augment their revenues by licensing liquor traffic. spend more judiciously and thereby pay more taxes indirectly. Even in budgetary figures. for the money saved by the consumer from liquor is by him re-routed to the purchasing of usual goods. mental. the governments which opt 'dry'. He would work more efficiently. is the real asset of value to the individual no less than to the nation. and the establishment of a healthier and more efficient level of living. moral and spiritual standard which springs from a reformed outlook on life on the part of the individuals composing the nation. The healthier physical. besides contributing solidly to the .9 nation pays many millions to the liquor business directly through its constituent citizens." These observations of an astute economist of America. under certain conditions are never at a loss.

To the industrialised set-up. Accuracy of judgement. the question of liquor traffic is even more important in its economic bearing than one of academic morals. a state is a pure gainer on all countsincreased efficiency and consequent increased output and decreased waste of human energy. in the field of human activities and mutual relationships. which has been defined as moderation in the use of every thing good and abstinence from the use of everything bad. reticence in matters of confidence are all such matters that affect the efficiency of the workers on the one hand and on the other relate to the problems of temperance and drink. . therefore. With temperance. avoidance of accidents. observance of discipline. tactful handling of colleagues and subordinates. punctuality.10 ALCOHOL national fund by his improved efficiency.

There is complete unanimity among the experimenters as to the impairment of efficiency of the individual on all planes of activity. social." Alcohol has been the subject of scientific investigation. administrative. The exact amount of damage which a person suffers as a result of consumption of even moderate quantities of alcohol. however. "Work and alcohol do not belong together. especially when work demands wide awakeness. says. political etc. varies from individual to individual according to each . as a problem effecting almost every facet of human life-industrial economic. exactness and endurance. attention. Over and above its moral and spiritual bearing on the individual as a component unit of the complex human relationships.11 MODERATE ALCOHOL AND EFFICIENCY One of the outstanding figures of the World of science.

His efficiency does not sink to the level of a relaxing. while in actual life he endeavours to intensify the effect psychologically.12 ALCOHOL one's bodily and mental blindness. which is allowed in the atmosphere of the laboratory. is that the person under observation is. the same quantity is yet another dose piled upon the leg-over effects of the previous doses. This naturally affects the results. is the measured quantity. so to say. however. In the laboratory the person is challenged to fight the effects. A very considerable factor in laboratory experiments. The results of laboratory experiments. in a resisting mood. on the other hand. fall very much below those that accrue in actual life. endeavouring to act as sober as possible. Another important factor which prevents the correct appraisement of the depreciation in efficiency. Even with such conditions favouring the alcohol . In actual life. as a dose by itself. with all the success he can command. as such. bragging drinker.

D. the state of affairs disclosed thereby is a staggering revelation of the loss of efficiency suffered by a worker even as the result of 'moderate' drink. "In reality we have no proof that a minimum and a permissible dose of alcohol exists at all. says. Other eminent authorities agree with this verdict of the British Surgeon. the distinguished British Surgeon. among them Sir Londer Brunton M. M. quietly but surely to destroy the tissues of the body. It is admitted by the research scholars and experimenters in the field THAT THERE can be no such thing as a moderate use of a poison. As Sir Victor Horsely." The world renowned physician Dr. Quensel of Leipzig says." Dr.13 in the laboratory. "A daily moderate dose of alcohol taken in the form of alcoholic drink has a tendency. "Even small quan- . puts it. "Alcohol produces progressive paralysis of judgement and this begins with the first dose. McAdam Eccles gives his considered opinion as follows.D.

The heavily drunk driver is easily detected. his driving judgement as also his muscular co-ordi- . in fact mostly in-capacitated for any mischief. becomes essential for his efficiency. "The small dose is particularly dangerous in jobs where alertness of mind and body in the interests of the safety of the worker and his charge. however. as in driving for example. especially of the cystic functions. asserts that the moderate drinker is even more liable to suffer from organic diseases than the man who occasionally becomes drank. in the impairment of thought and judgement. while as a matter of fact. Irwin H. in a dulling of the finer emotions and in the inhibition and disturbance of the coordination of movements " Dr.14 ALCOHOL titles of alcoholic drink may result in pronounced changes. State Hospital for Inebriates (drunkards) at Norfolk Massachusetts. The moderate dose. in a decrease in the clearness of sensory perceptions. Neil. superintendent of the Norfolk. deludes him into the belief that he is in possession of his faculties.

and lessened eye-hand motor co-ordination. director of the Nutrition laboratory of the Carnagie Institute of Washington sums up the situation when he says that after very moderate doses of alcohol. trees and walls. Such a person is naturally a menace to public safety as also to his own life on the highway.. a small miscalculation in judgement may result fatally by colliding with any of the millions of vehicles on the nationals' highways or by over whelming some un-wary pedestrian... Dr. Benedict. clearly dilution . virtually all individuals are effected with general depression of nerves and muscles. "The driver of an automobile in the traffic of a modern American city has no business to undertake his task after drinking even these so-called permissible amounts of alcohol . lessened sharpness of vision. A slight swerve in the wrong direction.. or even by dashing against electric poles. an inadvertent disregard of a road signal.15 nation is badly impaird..

75 per cent. Inflexible science say: Moderate user. that they are in any way less poisonous. For at least four hours after a dose of alcohol formerly considered 'permissible' for you as a motor vehicle operator. But the verdict of exhaustive vested interests of the manufacturers of all liquor products are shrewdly trying to delude the gullible populace to believe that beer and other so-called light drinks are not to be classed under alcoholic drinks beveragcs. ." This is not an individual doctor's personal opinion.16 ALCOHOL even to 2. keep off... they show the way to stronger and more persistent habits for drink. As a matter of fact. cannot solve the alcohol problem. They have been found to contain no food value... may well be considered a menace to Society. which have totally discredited the claims of the brewers. These drinks also have been subjected to searching laboratory investigations.. nor can it alter our estimate of the effect of alcohol upon human efficiency .

which probably accounts for its destructive action on those organs. Owing to its diuretic affect. ultimately cats short the life of the individual. thickens and enlarges the ventricles and if continued. Charles Gilbert Devis of Chicago arraigus beer in no un-equivocel terms. manifested by the fatigue and shortness of breath of all beer drinkers Beer deposits fat around the heart. but it is true. who has examined and weighed the hearts of many beer drinkers. heart and blood-vessels.17 Dr. enlarges that organ." . "Beer produces disease of the stomach. This is a terrible scientific arraignment of beer. kidneys. weakens its muscular walls. Says he. All of this has been proven time and again by the post mortems of Bloinger. It causes a deposit of morbid fat in the body especially around the heart. the alcohol in the beer is diverted to the kidneys. and increases the work of the heart and the blood vessels.

the eminent German physiologist regards beer as no less an enemy of Society than any other alcoholic drink. in describing the intellectual desolation and brutalization resulting from the beer habit. A slight . varied only by paraysms' of anger senseless and brutal. has the following i mflattering remarks thereon: The most dangerous class of ruffians in our large cities are beer drinkers. Intellectually a Stupor amounting almost to paralysis arrests the reason.18 ALCOHOL Dr. Struempell. In appearance the beer drinkers may be the picture of health. The Scientific American. sensual selfish. sluggish. but in reality he is most incapable of resisting disease. changing all higher faculties into a mere animalism. His verdict is expressed in the following dear terms: Nothing is more erroneous from the physicians' standpoint than to think of diminishing the destructive effects of alcoholism by substituting beer for other alcoholic drinks.

he soon gets stupid." . but when he drinks beer. Fiessinger. can be multiplied and infinitum." is the testimony of the French doctor.19 injury. inciting the user to deliberate and unprovoked crime. Beer drinking in this country produces the very lowest kind inebriety. he runs after me with a knife." These observations of the samer elements of all lands and of all ages. "Beer makes people ferocious and beastly. They are. "When my husband drinks whisky. a severe cold or a shock in the body or mind will provoke acute disease ending fatally. quite enough to discredit the claims of vested interests in behalf of beer and other forms of the so-called "light sort of drinks. to which may be added the remarks of the Pacific Medical Journal which declares that beer is most animalising. closely allied to criminal insanity. The following words of a suffering house-wife are also note-worthy in this context. however.

DO NOT INDULGE IN DRINK AND GAMBLING The ill effects of alcohol are many while its advantages are few indeed.in fact for any living organism. the. The very living organisms of yeast which convert fruits and grains into alcohol die when only thirteen and a half percent of the raw materials has passed into. Firstly. secondly. .20 ALCOHOL There is no sort of alcoholic beverage and no minimum dose which can be called safe for human consumption . the alcoholics gradually lose the power of working with their own strength and gradually slip into a condition where they cannot go on with the artificial and borrowed stimulation from drinks. and they are thus made the victims of various moral and physical weaknesses which only degrade them. will power of the alcoholic almost completely disappears in time.

In his book "Applied Pharmacy" Dr. both. But detailed experiments show that the speed of all activities and the . J. apparently there is no effect on the system of the drunkard. physical and moral damage undoubtedly takes place and had they not taken even that limited quantity of alcohol. Clark has listed the findings of many experiments about the effects of alcohol consumption. they would have been better people in every respect. But it has been observed that even in such cases. A. Some experts would convey an idea of the conclusions reached by scientists:In 1920 Smith and Mcdugali demonstrated experimentally that in the first stage of intoxication when the proportion in blood is less than 2 milligram per on cubic centimeter.21 There are also some people of a balanced temperatment who keep their drinking within li mits.

Experiments on animals have proved that . Man gets into a stupor in the third stage. which borders on torpidity and stupefaction. for alcohol reduces the capacity to preserve bodily heat. It should never be used to counteract cold. All activities get tainted. The inhibiting force of the emotions weakens and the centres exercising control over the emotion get so vitiated that every impulse of the drunkard gets immediately manifested. Well-developed movements become way-ward.22 ALCOHOL general health are deleteriously affected. Gait becomes unsteady and talk gets less circumspect. The effects of alcohol are easily recognised at the second stage after careful study. The use of alcohol to maintain temperature is also absured. Self-control is seriously impaired. Another increase in the alcohol content of the system damages the respiratory system.

It throws a light veil her the brain. be regarded as an easily assimilable material. It may. rather it slows down the nervous process and renders their activities unstable. Even with normal health the use of alcohol does not activate the nervous system. Alcohol is excluded from this category. to wit.23 those who received alcohol were more readily killed by cold as compared with those that Alcohol is received nothing of the sort. for it is assimilated by the blood within five minutes and starts its action accordingly. There are two types of fuel-foods that maintain constant temperature of the body. for it is not among the tissue building materials that replace shattered tissues of the body. beneficial for persons who get shelter in a warm place after having been exposed to severe cold. however. Alcohol has little food value. those that are stored in the body for use on appropriate occasions. A peculiar effect of alcohol is that it lowers the scrutinizing potency and one's actions .

This defective judgement persists for hours. . and stoops to more gibberish nonsense. Alcohol deteriorates the ability to bear any kind of hard physical fatigue. A person drinks this stuff only to loss his senses and his power of reasoning. But to get one's self addited to it.24 ALCOHOL in their crude form become satisfying to him. is positively unbecoming of the inherent dignity of man. Not unoften we find ourselves revealing important information to our very enemies under the influence of alcohol. and become its' slave. It is a different matter if alcohol is taken on a doctor's advice as medicine. This is a case where man buys mad men with his hard earned money. After this. Its use perverts action and brings on fatigue quicker". it is little else but regrettable that people still being themselves to become to enamoured of alcohol. it is also a waste of good money. Besides.

will be of interest to the inquisitive reader. and yet the following typical experiment of Dr. demonstrations and laboratory experiments have been undertaken to gauge the mischief which the use of alcohol perpetrate: on the working capacity of the intellectual no less than of the manual worker. J. because of the poisonous effects of the products. of calculated doses of alcohol. Alcohol. the family all is pushed into ruin. Ridge of England has a value of its own in demonstrating in a . Thousands of studies. SOME INSTRUCTIVE TESTS.25 In short getting addicted to alcohol is like throwing one's self in the gutters only to die in that muck. The house. which have been devised to measure the effect on human efficiency. J. and there is no calamity which is too great for alcohol to bring upon the heads of its worshippers. which is so dilute and of which the higher potencies are obtained by the process of distillation. To pile up all this evidence would be tedious indeed.

26 ALCOHOL simple way the deterioration in efficiency which invariably results from alcoholic drinks . "Some years ago. in small or large doses. before taking alcohol. The degrees on the dial were arbitary. The individual moved the Centre untill he considered that it was midway between the two. about half an inch apart. and between these a third point. The movement of point was registered on a dial. and in no ease was there any i mprovement.both light and strong. which could be moved so as to approximate to one or the other. I constructed instruments to test the effect of small doses of alcohol on the sense of touch and muscular sense. was represented by 115 degrees on the dial. by small doses of . but fourteen experiments on five persons showed that whereas the average divergence from the actual centre. after taking alcohol these were 1898 degrees. Hence the sensitiveness of the touch is clearly deteriorated. The instru ment for testing consisted of two fixed upright points.

The nature of the experiment is also to some extent a test of the judgement or power of perception. then were 2 who had used no alcohol for months in preparation for the contest. The contestents in the match. Among the remaining 59 persons.27 alcohol. Of the 83 contestents. were required to give full particulars before hand to the committee incharge of the affair in this behalf." Another demonstration of the effect of alcohol upon physical efficiency took place on the occasion of a sixty-two mile walking match at Kiel which was held to decide the championship in lonkdistance walking amot German athletes. there were 24 abstainers and yet they won 40 percent of the prizes. They . however. irrespective of their habits in regard to alcohol. It was open to all. although the persons experimented on were quite un-conscious of the attention. and it does not show which link or links in the chain of sensation would chiefly be affected.

and others. Among the first 25 men to reach the goal. During the second series. lasting five days. all excellent marksmen. which was at a distance of 200 feet. . Yet another interesting test was undertaken by Lieutenant Bengt. "The experiments. Boy. During the first and third series the men were entirely abstinent. and all used to alcohol were divided into three series each lasting several days. of Carts . These tests covered a series of experiments and were held on the regular army maneuver grounds at Stockholm.28 ALCOHOL too won prizes. the men took a small definite ansonot of alcohol daily.Krona Grenadiers in the Swedish Army. 60 percent were abstainers only 2 of the 24 abstainers failed to reach the goal while 30 of the 59 drinkers were udable to complete the walk. carried out by six men. by way of measuring exactly the effect of small doses of alcohol on target shooting.

on the average. every man showed less precssor. In the precision test of shots. yet the effect of so little alcohol as that in about two glasses of beer twice a day cut down the average to only 3 hits is 30.29 There were three kinds of tests. and made fewer points when influenced by alcohol. . Again on the abstinent days. On the first series of abstinent days. the firing improved and the men averaged 26 hits out of 30 shots. In the first and second tests. the weather. the men took about two thirds of a wine glass of brandy (containing a little more than an ounce of alcohol) from 20 to 30 minutes before the firing and an equal amount of alcohol on the evening before. But the alcohol days told a different story. 23 out of 30 times. they hit the target. In the quick firing test each man fired a round of 30 shorts in 30 seconds. The wind. and the light conditions were better than on the abstinent days.

. ~ ... less than two glasses of beer (four fifth of an ounce of alcohol). yet the result was the same. The brain -as the instrument of the mind. two trials of 200 shots each. is very deleteriously affected by even . One of the corporals said after laying down the gun.. taken half an hour before the test. on the alcohol days they made only 277.30 ALCOHOL "Third were the endurance tests." "The men thought they were doing better on the alcohol days... I am sure a man can shoot better when he has had a little brandy" but the results proved how grievously he misjudged. nearly a third less. Here the amount of alcohol used was the least of all. Although without alcohol the men made 359.... very small . reflected with proportional intensity on the other.5 points." MENTAL EFFICIENCY Mind and body are so intimately linked that the effect on one is as a matter of course..5 points..

. Chapple of London "Alcohol is a poison. having a specific affinity for the nerve centres of the brain. "loses first his sense of decency. his ability to think clearly and accurately and to associate ideas. The man who becomes intoxicated by the alcoholic poison. as such. Even a very little alcohol not showing itself in drunkeness. As his intoxication progresses it affects those nerve and brain powers which control the senses." In these words has been summed up the alcoholic affinity for the nervous centre as a poisoning and denaturing factor. "Civilized man equals the brute animal plus the brain development. In the words of Dr. He begins to see double.31 doses of alcohol. Alcohol blots out the higher brain development and leaves the brute animal. has a damaging effect on the human brain." In other words the higher qualities of the mind are attacked first and suffer the most. and paralysing those centres in the inverse order of their development the last developed suffering most.

"The day has passed when any intelligent and informed person could boast of the ability to 'carry liquor well'. He is constantly drunk to some degree and is therefore constantly insane to some degree. The man who becomes dead drunk within the space of a few hours undergoes very much the same changes as the man who gradually becomes insane. pure and simple. But it is a truth." This is indeed a very unflattering commentary on the alcohol poison by an eminent American authority on the basis of direct experience of the situation prevailing around. The brain which is not sensitive to alcohol is an atavistic product. It has been well-said that intoxication epitomizes the whole history of insanity. . and he who keeps his association and motor senses slightly drugged all of the time by moderate' drinking is not entirely a sane man. his powers of smell.32 ALCOHOL to be unable to control his movements. hearing and sight are distinctly lessened. Such ability is not a sign of a strong body but of a weak brain.

EXPERIMENTS with particular reference to the damage which the brain cellos suffer as a result of alcohol poisoning have been conducted by physicians of note in Europe and elsewhere. The brain cells. as such.33 Alcohol is a ready solvent of fat. once damaged. They have demonstrated beyond the shadow of doubt that the consumption of even very small quantities of alcohol has a distinctly deleterious effects on mental efficiency. the peculiar domains of alcoholic poison. arsenic for the stomach wall. are never replaceable. and the brain cells being composed largely of fatty tissue are. and alcohol for the brain cells. as it often happens in cases of continued drinking. for instance lead for the muscles of the wrist. In fact. reason and perception for a certain length of time. as is well-established every poison has a peculiar affinity for certain specific organs of the body. "One glass of beer will decrease the powers of memory. mercury for the salivary glands. and steady . Strychnine for the spinal cord.

Investigations made by Dr.34 ALCOHOL so-called moderate drinking produces an abiding impairment of the mental capability. Krapelin has demonstrated that alcohol has virtually the same effect upon mind and strain. Another research worker Dr. Exner of Vienna. in Germany disclosed a distinct loss of efficiency on Mondays. that "A small quantity of alcohol would distinctly lengthen the reaction time. as might be suggested by the signal a very small quantity of alcohol was found to increase greatly the liability to error. . Alfred Stehr. This loss amounted to 28. and when the test was complicated by requiring the subject to press a right or left telegraph key. among a group of workers in Dresden. after the drinking on Sundays. found as a result of his experiements to determine the effect of alcohol on the ability of the subject to respond quickly to a flash of light. Dr.5 percent.

An Official organisation. discovered a way to take the alcohol out of the. Francis Camps who recently carried out ii) iii) iv) . the National Research Development Council. alcoholic drinks without changing. their taste in the slightest.35 A news item as appreared in the Dawn of 23rd May 1969 is given below :"WHISKEY SANS SPIRIT" i) LONDON. May 22: The days when one can drown one's sorrows in alcohol might be numbered in Britain. has agreed to finance further research in view of its interest in particular for motorists But not everyone feels the discovery is worthwhile. Dr. Medical Professor. A group of Bristol University research workers claims to have.

It would be to those a very profitable source of revenue. It has a decidedly beneful influence on the faculties of . hearing and touch are affected. He said that if people drank alcoholic drinks it was not for the drink itself but for the alcohol it contained and its effects. or by which the faculties of sight." It is a psychological truism that any habit which affects the workers ability to judge quickly and accurately. a smashed hand. greatly increases the liability to accidents a mangled leg.36 ALCOHOL a study on alcoholism. a cut finger or worse. v) He also pointed out that the state takes 95 per cent of the price of a bottle of whisky in tax to persuade people to stop drinking. said on Monday that such research was a waste of public money. Now it has been scientifically established that alcohol has effects even in the most moderate doses.

The judgments by eye measurements are vitiated by alcohol. It is measured too frequently by fractions of an inch. Such impairment of the sense organs makes the worker less alert to respond instantly to a danger signal. XI. Vol. while increasing the brute tendency to disregard the safety of others. much less to work. hearing and touch. So is hea ring rendered less acute. serves the following stem warning: No man under the influence of alcohol even slightly should be permitted to remain in the works. Senate Document No.37 sight. "The margin of safety in modern industry is small. Reduce the alertness and the exaetness with which the body responds to the necessities of labour.S.) A pamphlet issued by the Fidelity and casualty company. 645. Nor should a man whose nerves have been rendered unsteady by the habitizal use of alcohol or . (U. and by so much you have increased the liability that the hand will be misplaced that fraction that means mutilation".

It has already been shown that there is practically no line of demarcation between the individual who has succumbed to insanity as a result of mental or physical disease and the one . but the lives of others. The regular use of intoxicants in any quantity is bound in time to make a workman undesirable as regards both his liability to cause accidents.38 ALCOHOL by a recent debauch be permitted to operate machinery or to carry on any dangerous work. The Hetna Life Insurance company on the basis of their experience in the fields of accidents and fatalities in the industrial sector have issued the following valuable piece of advice of the industrialists. He endengers not only his own life. and his efficiency. It is advisable not to employ or to continue in employment men who are known to be steady and hard drinkers.

. in fact. what it actually is.39 who loses his sanity under the intoxicating influence of alcohol. is more fortunate and less pitiable than the person who has deliberately courted insanity by way of an escape from reality through the self destruction channels of alcoholic stupefaction. The latter. on the other hand. Surely his suffering is self-inflicted and as such a very heinous crime against hiatself and against Society. on whom he would foist a drinker's progeny. has purposely repudiated the superb grandeur of life gifted to him by the Infinite Bounty of the Supreme Sovereign . Both get out of touch with reality. The former however. temporarily for a few hours or for longer periods as a sufferer from the dread disease "delirium tremens" which is translated 'Drinker's Mama". is excusable as having been the victim of circumstances chiefly beyond his control. The inmate of the mental asylum.by an abominable act of ingratitude for the most magnificent favour-Life as the most splendid product of all Creation.

William G. Superintendent of the Philadelphia Hospital. . As to what exactly is the percentage of such victims in the asylum. McAllister. F. authorities differ. Dr. Terflinger's estimate puts the percentage at 20. Dr. while Dr. W.40 ALCOHOL All professional men agree that a sizeable proportion of the inmates of mental asylums comprises men who have been driven to that fate through the pressure of alcohol on their mental faculties. on the basis of his direct experience as medical superintendent of the Northern Hospital for the Insane. Joseph Wiggles worth of England testifying before the Interdepartmental committee on Physical Deterioration puts this figure of alcoholic insanity at 29 per cent. asserts that 30 per cent of the inmates in the insane wards of the Philadelphia Municipal Hospital are insane becuase of drink. All of these investigators agree that the damage done to the mental faculties is much greater than is indicated by these figures which express only a partial facet of the alcoholic picture.

" It must be remembered. has sounded a note of warning to the American people in these words. "Indulgence in alcohol tends to inefficiency. medical officer of health for Liecester. but in view of the fact that such a small proportion of our mental defectives are now sheltered. England. low wages encourage bad housing and bad enviroment generally. appointed to investigate feeble mindedness in new Jersey (U.A. C. Kallick Millard. In the words of Dr. "In nearly every state the expenses of caring for the insane is mounting rapidly due to a growing social conscience.) reports that "moderate drinking.S." A commission. that alcohol is simply the hub of a vicious wheel. inefficiency tends to low wages and irregular employment. the question of checking the increase of insanity is pressing.41 One eminent authority on Temperance. bad environment encourages further indulgency in alcohol. . We are in great danger of not being able to stand the burden if it increases as rapidly as it has in the last ten years.

educators. with only 1 insane. named Martin Kallikak. probably under the influence of drink. N. forms a running commentry on the effects of alcohol on mental faculties through several generations. traders. lawyers. Director of the Training School of Vineland. none feeble-minded. feeble-minded and sub-normal children in that State. is the cause of a great majority of the epileptic.42 ALCOHOL so-called. J. judges. raped the honour of a feeble minded girl. only 15 children who died in infancy. . This soldier. The historical study in this subject of investin-ttion of the causes of feeble-mindedness and mental deficiency. who himself had four honourable generations behind him. land holders. conducted very painstakingly by Dr. Under the title -The Kallikak Family" he has traced the story of th-it family through six generations to a soldier. Henry Herbert Goddard. From his legitimate wife he fathered six genera tions of doctors.

43 From his other illegitimate sexual anion. We have such obnoxious pharases for most of them as "Alcohol is preva lent in the family. 3 epileptics. the six generations comprising 480 individuals. had three feeble-minded grand-parents". "Feeble-minded and alcoholic". with a large number of dying in infancy. one died of delirium tremens. leaving long line of descendents". Confirmed alcoholic". others all alcoholics. Seven children. A single indiscretion on the part of a hitherto respectable citizen leads Society with untold loathsome material. "Alcoholic and Syphlitic woman". 3 criminals 8 keepers of disreputable houses. with only 46 known to be normal 36 illegitimates. two alcoholics and immoral. the burden of the misdemeanors of each generation piling up with ." An alcoholic. the study discloses 143 feeble minded. Alcohol runs throughout the illegitimate line like a red streak. Here is food for serious thought. 33 prostitutes.

It is the story of Max Jukes of New York -a drunkard-whose descendants cover ed almost all fields of crime and indecency. The solutions suggested by Pravda are the stoppage of wholesale of Liquor in Public and the drinkers should not be allowed to move out in streets. 1200 of them were proved during the study period to be occupying penal and charitable institutions. Further according to Pravda several Anti-Liquor Institutions are themselves Conniving the evil of drunkenness and many of the officials of the Institutions are themselves addicted to the vice of drinking.44 ever cumulative effect. till Doomsday. ALCOHOL According to the Russian Paper 'Pravda' as quoted in the 'Millat' dated 2-4-1969 Alcohol is responsible for more than half of unnatural deaths. . for 63 % of deaths through drowning and for 98% of deaths through murder. Another study in this field will bear brief mention. for 40 % of the Divorces. for 85% of deaths due to fights.

. 400 were physically wrecked at an early age because of their own misdoings.000. 7 were murderers. amounting to 25 percent of the child birth. 50 were notorious women. the question often asked is "why does not alcohol destroy the race which gives it such freedom of operation?" The same question. without giving any service in return. 130 were convicted for miscellaneous crimes. 60 were habitual thieves. however. 440 were viciously diseased. The reply given to the question by an American sage is as follows: Not the living but the dead are the evidence against alcohol as against syphilis. With such a black record of alcohol. 310 were in poor houses with a high infantile mortality. can be posed in regard to other vices like indiscriminate sex relationships which are productive of the dread miasmas of syphilis and gonorrhoea.45 They cost Society $1200.

46 ALCOHOL These racial poisons are not merely poisonous but. There is. Sleeby remarks "are lethal". as the eminent Dr. but these offsprings of poisoned parents aie invariably dwarfed and possession of a vitality less resistant to other assaults " SOME STATISTICS Extract from the Book. but these elements are subject to degeneration by alcohol as is evidenced by the perversion of thought and conduct induced by its use in the individual. "Proposals and Notes on Constitution of Pilgrim Welfare Fund . dosed with constantly incresing quantities of poison have frequently offpsring immune to a' hundred times the dose that would be fatal to the untreated guinea pig. but it is constantly being redeemed by better influences. no doubt an extra-ordinary resisting power on the part of the reproductive elements to alcohol as to other nocuous influences. The race is being constantly degraded. Guinea pigs.

it was gathered today: Of this. Karachi August 8. Karachiites Drink 2780 Bottles of wine a Day. Pakistan.47 and Duties and Functions of Pilgrim welfare officers on Ships Pages 106.000 on Liquor Every Day. 70.000 go in foreign exchange on the import of foreign liquor. 107. 'ALCOHOL' I give below an idea about the expenditure on wine in Karachi City as appeared in Leader' of the 8th August 1961. Karachi-2. almost everyday. 108. 73 lacs foreign exchange -are spent annually on import of foreign liquor for Karachi City only. printed by the Anjuman-i-Khaddamun Nabi. nearly Rs.e. & 109. 1961 Karachiites spend about Rs. Rs. (i.) . 20.

10/. however. In addition. foreign style liquor. 3 to 5 per bottle. about 800 bottles of Pakistan make. 45 to 50. 20 to Rs. Of this. Each bottle costs Rs. The prices of beer range from Rs. On an average 480 bottles of imported wine are now consumed daily. The beer is also in great demand and on an average 2400 bottles are drunk here every day. greater than imported liquor. in all. while others are supplied in sealed bottles. each bottle costing Rs. The largest daily consumption is of country made liquor. 30 are drunk every day. This does not include the duty-free imported Liquor consumed by foreign missions in the city.48 ALCOHOL The consumption of country-made liquor is. The consumption of both the imported and country made liquor is on the increase in the sprawling city. each available atRs.are consumed. about 20 per cent beer is . about 1500 bottles. This liquor is sold loose.

275/. About 10 hotels also serve the drinks. pay about Rs. The wine merchants in the city. In addition. while the remaining 16. at the rate of Rs. custom duty and sales tax are paid to the Government on imported liquor. 30 SHOPS There are about 30 shops in the city dealing in liquor. The consumption of liquor and the number of liquor drinking persons in the city is the highest in the country. 50 lacs annually as provincial excise duty on liquor. An aseessment fee is also charged from that on liquor-APP. 14 sell country made liquor.per dozen bottles. Of these. The city has got about 30 bars where the liquor is served.49 imported and the rest is country made. it is estimated. . deal in imported wine and beer.

while that of the whole of West Pakistan 411).2 qt.6 qt.000. 140. Distilled spirit 3.000 gallons of milk and 4.020.8 qt.2 qt.2 qt. Frozen fruit juices 4.944.8 qt. . Wine 3.6 qt. Beer 47. 5.000 gallons of Alcohol. Vegetable and tomato juice In 1958 the population of the United States drank 29.2 qt. Tea 5.000 gallons of coffee.919.8 qt. Coffee 59. (Figures from the West Virginia issue).053.000.50 ALCOHOL (At the end of 1963 the number of shops in Karachi alone stood at 130. We give some interesting figures about per capita consumption of Drinks in America in 1958 as appeared in the magazine 'Listener' JulyAugust 1960 issue. Milk 114. Soft drinks 27.

51 Here we also give the figures as appeared in the magazine.440 Service Stations 1.000 14. Clothing Gambling Education Recreation Automobiles Alcoholic Beverages $ $ $ $ $ $ 20.700.000 15.000 20.500.761 We give below the figures from "Listener" September-October 1960.465 Shoe Stores 23.788 Furniture Stores 23.000 19.800.000.900.000 .000.000 10.881 Grocery Stores 2.000.000.84. about "How Americans spent their money in the year".000. 'Listener' July-August 1960 issue.27.79.240 Women's Ready to wear Store 29.000.009.847 Depot Stores 2.747 Liquor Stores 31. concerning Retail Stores in America. viz Alcohol Shops :Retail Alcohol Dealers 4.700.

000. We Pakistanis takes about 400.000 According to the figures of England.000 .900.52 ALCOHOL Tobacco $ 6.600.000. given above. Japan and America. arinking.000. tea. we can come to the following conclusion for the information and guidance of Pakistanis for discarding unnecessary habits and to check the unnecessary wastage on gambling. Japanese smoked 134. and 126.000.000.000 cigarettes in 1961.000 cups if we take 4 cups per day per head.000 Religion and Welfare $ 3.500.000 cups of tea per day which works out to an average of 21 cups per head as they have a population of 5 crores against which we guess that Pakistanis must be taking many more cups of tea.000. smoking and other harmful addiction :(a) No doubt according to the figures given above. Englishmen who are so rich as compared with us.000. drink 247.

70.000 a day.312.53 in 1960 against which the number of smokers of cigarettes in Pakistan is increasing by 14% per year while its population is increasing by 28 % per year.000 per year on Alcohol whereas in Pakistan when Karachites who are about 25 lacs in population. the yearly expenditure on Alcohol comes to a gigantic figure of Rs. (over Rs. and according to the Estimates of the Planning Commission (as per para 17 above) Pakistanis would be consuming 30 thousand million cigarettes by 1975.700. as per para 17 above. (Extract from the Book Proposals and Notes on Constitution . 570. spend Rs. America which has double the population that of Pakistan spends about than $ 10. 57 crores) which is a very big national loss.500. which comes to % 1/2 Anna per head per day for our whole population of Pakistan.000.

I challenge the people of this country to take a second look at this beverage in order to guard their precious health. 108.54 ALCOHOL Of Pilgrim Welfare Fund and Duties and Functions of Pilgrims Welfare Officers on Ships Page 106. It is not in fashion today to be honest with ourselves and squarely face the sure future . pages 10. but we do not like to look at unpleasant proofs of our own folly. that life actually is merrier for it. & 109) THE TRUTH ABOUT THE BEER Extract from Life and Health February 1969. The People of the United States almost unanimously agree that beer is a part of life. 107. their children's heritage. 11 & 27. If we would look around us we would see many of the results of excessive beer drinking. and so we do not say much about what this extensive habit is doing to us and our children. and the morals of young and old. that there is no harm in it.

drinking what we consider to be a harmless glass of beer with our lunch." That was Lord Brougham's opinion in advocating the new measure." . the leading statesmen reasoned that they should afford greater facility in the sale of beer.55 if we go on as we are doing and including cases of beer for every party. The Duke of Wellington said he was "sure the measure would be attended with the most beneficial consequences to the lower orders. Hoping to stay the wave of intemperence that was covering the country in those days. with the idea of slowing whisky sales. Is this a harm less practice? What is it actually doing to us today? What of the future? England had an experience in the 1800's that can show as where we are headed. taking beer along on our picnics. England's leaders were so sure of themselves that they proclaimed : "It was giving the people what. might be called a moral species of beverage. under present circumstances.

the Reverend Sydney Smith. A gospel minister who had favoured the bill." After these optimistic and sincere efforts. what was the outcome when the beer bill went into effect? Disappointing is a mild word for the results of the measure. and many mothers had also become tipplers." When the bill was passed. The sovereign people are in a beastly state. Those who are not singing are sprawling. the Duke of Wellington proclaimed it "a greater achievement than any of his military victories. and would improve the morals. Everybody is drank." .56 ALCOHOL The Chancellor of the Exchequer (treasurer) de-clared that the measure would produce "a more wholesome beverage. who were previously sober and industrious. said : "The new Beer Bill has begun its operations. now drunkards." One writer declared that "from his own knowledge he could declare that these beer shops had made many.

" The Liverpool Mail said : "A more pernicious concession to popular opinion. industry. hamlets." The beer bill was supposed to lessen the number of public houses for the sales of distilled A select committee of the House of liquor. has been proved by witnesses from every class of society to have exceeded the evils of any single act of internal administration passed within the memory of man. and roadsides of England never was made by the blind senators of a bad government in the worst times. The Globe said : "The injury done by the Beer Act to the peace and order of the rural neighbourhood. changed its attitude and wrote against it. and economy. had . which before had favoured the bill. and so prejudicial to public morals in the rural districts. in villages. Commons after investigation reported: "The Act without destroying a single public house.57 The English press. not to mention domestic unhappiness.

" .F. than almost measure that could have been devised." In 1869. the hulks (ships used as prisons). not only to have failed of its benevolent purpose. and the gallows. Drury. or forty years after the beer bill had been passed. It has furnished victims'for the jails. re ported : "This measure though introduced in 1830 for the avowed purpose of repressing intemperance by counteracting the temptations to excessive drinking of ardent spirits. a committee for the Lower House of Convocation of the Province of Canterbury. said : "The Beer Bill has done more to brutalize the English laborer and take him from his family and fireside to the worst associations. afforded in public houses has been abundantly proved." A magistrate.58 ALCOHOL added fifty thousand still more baleful houses to the list of temptations so baleful to the people. and has frightfully extended the evils of pauperism and moral debasement. but to have served throughout the country to multiply and intensify the very evils it was intended to remove. G.

. would promote the consumption of a wholesome national beverage in place of ardent spirits. would break down the monopoly of the old license houses. but the sale of spirituous liquors was not diminished.The results of this experiment did not confirm the expectations of its promoters.. each of which breeds more immorality and sin in a . The sale of beer was increased.000 dens were opened.59 The London Times in 1871 speaks thus of the free beer-shop bill which was authorized by the government in 1830. chaplain.. "The idea entertained at that time was that free trade in beer would gradually wean men from the temptations of the regular tavern. in short.. said "Instantly 40." In 1850 the 'Reverend John Clay. a better character to the whole trade. Preston House of Correction and a student and authority on social science. and impart. beer bill in his testimony before the committee of the House of Lords. speaking of the pass age of the..

but after passage of the beer-bill in 1830. "In 1853 the Committee of the House of Commons concurred with the lords' report. the brewer will master England. his fear of the great national sin turned almost to consternation. and the consequent springing up of an enormous crop of beer-shops. and declared that the beer-shop system has proved a failure." These are Lord Brougham's remarks to the House of Lords : "To what good is it that the . For some years it was only the old-fashioned drunkenness of the public houses which he had to describe.60 ALCOHOL week than can be counteracted by the ministers of religion in a year." Lord Rosebery was free to say that "if England does not master the brewer." In a biography of Chaplain Clay published by his son is the following statement: "Drunkenness is the main topic of his first and almost every subsequent report.

The president of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company. germinating the most frightful . Colonel Greene." America's press in former years spoke out more clearly than today. then one of the oldest and largest companies in America. and under the fostering care of Parliament.61 Legislature should pass laws to punish crime or that their lordships should occupy themselves in trying to improve the morals of the people by giving them education? What could be the use of sowing a little seed here. if these beer-shops are to be continued to sow the seeds of immorality broadcast over the land. just as England's did. and plucking up a weed there. in all parts of the country. made this especially interesting remark "It has been my duty to send records of and to make inquiry into the last illness and death of many thousand persons of all classes. .produce that ever has been allowed to grow up in a civilized country.

something under middle age.. and they were of course selected lives.. upon the average. full muscles. and instantly some acute disease with . and until it had dwindled to a fraction of its original proportion the mortality in it was astounding in extent and still more remarkable in the manifest identity of cause and mode. I had occasion to note the deaths among a large group of persons whose habits in their own eyes and in those of their friends and physicians were temperate : but they were habitual users of beer. the history was almost invariable ..then a touch or cold or a sniff of malaria. "When the observations began they were.robust. In one of our largest cities. florid face . apparent health. Presently death began to strike it. For two or three years there was nothing very remarkable to be noted among this group. There was no mistaking it... increasing weight. containing a great population of beer drinkers... a fair outside.62 ALCOHOL "I protest against the notion so prevalent and so industriously urged that beer is harmless.

S. said : "The fashion of the present day. Nine presidents of the leading life insurance companies replied in letters published in The Voice dated October. a publication endorsed and used in the form of a circular by the officers of the Home Life Insurance Company of New York. In the U. An idea . endorsing and practically repeating the experience of Colonel Greene. and ten days or less ended it. sent this published article to several life insurance companies presidents asking whether their impression about beer correct about beer corresponded with that of colonel Greene. like a name." Count the Cost Good will. sets strongly towards the substitution of beer for other stimulating liquors. 1884. a New York paper. and lost by one.63 almost invariably typhoid symptoms was in violent action." The Voice. is got by actions. The Pacific Medical Journal.

was medical inspector of the Department of West Virginia. it is the most animalizing. W. Ohio. and.64 ACOHOL appears to be gaining ground that it is not only nutritious but conducive to health. denounced habitual beer drinking as noxious to health. who served during the firist world war as surgeon of the Twelfth Ohio Infantry. He said: ' Of all intoxicating drinks. Ridenour. and long before the moral sense of society was awakened to the enormous evils of intemperance. and was a . an undisputed authority in his day.'" Dr. It dulls the intellectual and moral. further. it qualifies for deliberate and unprovoked crime. that thera does not attack to it that danger of creating intemperate habits which attends the use of other drinks. In this respect it is much worse than distilled liquors. served as health officer for the city of Toledo. T. Beyond all other drinks. Sir Astley Cooper. and feeds the sensual and beastly nature. "Many years ago.

the great workshop of the body. Doctors are confident of saving nineteen out of twenty such cases. with florid complexion. There can be no health anywhere when the liver is out of order. which I regarded very hopefully. as fine a looking man physically as I had ever seen . He had an attack of pneumonia in the lower lobe of the right lung.tall well built. He said: "In making a post-mortem examination. Dr. It was a simple. and muscles well developed. The liver is the great laboratory. Trembly.65 lecturer on physiology in the Toledo medical school. a physician instantly recognizes a beer drinker's stomach by its greatly increased dimensions. Beer drinking overloads it and clogs it up producing congestion. I told my partner. about it. on Cherry Street. Any derangement of it means the immediate derangement of all the rest of the vital machinery. and to . about thirty five years old. well-defined attack." "My first patient was a saloonkeeper .

pneumonia. when a confirmed beer drinker takes pneumonia he dies. ' He's a beer drinker'. their power of resistance. As a rule. Directly and indirectly more than one half of the cases of juvenile delinquency in this country can be traced to the use of intoxicating liquors. There is no other influence for evil. and he persisted in producing a fatal termination of the case in spite of all my assertions to the contrary. etc. as demonstrated.66 ALCOHOL my surprise he said gaiety. They make bad patients." "Beer drinkers are peculiarly liable to die of pneumonia. answered Trembly. in the treatment of juvenile delinquents. is so lowered by their habits that they are liable to drop off from any acute disease such as fever." ." ALCOHOL & CRIME "Liminate liquor and at a single stroke you relieve the Juvenile Court of more than 50 per cent of its business. He'll die. I asked what made him think so. that compares with that of the liquor traffic. Their vital power.

insisting on "having the experience. when the juvenile offender is induced by the befogging influence of liquor. adventure and misplaced sense or power and daring of which alcohol creates an illusion in young immature minds. suffices to turn his head when he can get access to the excitement. to view life as a pleasure hunt for the revolting mind. little knowing that one . It is also to be borne in mind that the juvenile delinquent does not command much spending power to indulge in his nefarious activities. by fair means or foul. Taft. This opinion expresses typically the attitude of indiscipline and lawlessness under the influence of alcohol as evinced by the youth in the so-called civilized countries of the West. But what little he gets. of the Los Angelas Juvenile Court after his long practical experience of the problem of Juvenile deliquency. Deliquency and carousing increase." He hovers about from one form of pleasure to another in his fruitless pursuit of satisfaction.67 In these words is expressed the opinion of Judge Fred H. as a matter of course.

61 waitresses. The Police Commissioner. has the following words. Cowden and associates. studied by them. Not indulgence in but control over appetites is the fundamental axiom of psychic satisfaction. 99 home girls. while remarking on the problem of juvenile DELINQUENCY. 110 were school girls. under the aegis of the Salvation Army. were found to be school girls of an average age of sixteen. Fortytwo percent of the unmarried mothers. 35 office workers. the Social Workers found that out of 653 unwed mothers.68 ALCOHOL cannot satisfy one's desires by satisfying them. 214 servants. improper discipline and home atmosphere. 11 nurses. 22 clerks. Lack of parental interest in the moral training of their offsprings. 12 telephone operators. There is growing up the . In a survey carried out by LientColonel A. Grover Whalen of New York. another survey of the salvation Army. and the rest in minor other jobs mostly in their teens. 45 factory girls. J. provide the fertile soil for juvenile experience in liquor experience and consequent delinquencies.

69 so-called speakies problem and this is a serious one. The hostess problem verges seriously on a vice that we wiped out many years ago. Now-a-days all you need is two bottles and a room and you have a Speakies. Drunken-fathers and mothers can Hot but beget drookards. In the old days. The home atmosphere exerts a powerful influence on the moral stamina of the budding personality. transmit parental traits faithfully. "It is an astounding fact that . The evil is imposed on the young by hereditary influences. . you could wipe out a vicious saloon. ies comes dining and dancing and out of that grows the hostess game. Add to this the visual perceptions of the environment and nursing and the picture of the direct temptation is completed in salient details. operating through the medium of the inexorable forces of the psycho-physical set up of the mightly gents.000 Speakies in this city. which though tiny in size. We have From the speak32.

which will not permit brewery slop to be sold to cows because it produces swill milk does nothing to combat the superstition that the milk of the mother is not harmfully affected by beers. it was found that 6." says Dr.70 ALCOHOL government. A Rufe. Such milk is deficient in the tissue-building constituent that is so essential to building strong vitality.5. 39 percent began from sixteen to twenty-one years of age. Wiles. admitted that they drank alcoholic liquor-a finding which according to the said investigator is very much lower than the actual state of affairs. The percentage of those who got into this habit beyond these age groups was 31. 23 percent began to drink from twelve to sixteen years of age. ales and porters.5 percent started drinking from one to twelve years of age. L. . Ira S. it was revealed that no less than 4458 children out of 18 503 on rolls of twenty three Public Schools of Philadelphia. one of the editors of the Medical Review of of Reviews. In a study conducted by Mrs. In a survey of 259 alcoholized patients of Bellevne Hospital in New York city.

After men have grown and their habits are formed.71 As to how the liquor business-men view the younger generation as their real dupes. The open field for the creation ofappetite is among the boys. they rarely ever . Ohio at a meeting where representatives of the liquor dealers were present. our counters will be empty as well as our coffers. Columbia. or we must change our business to some other more remunerative one. should serve as an eye-opener: that he was present in Worthweivs Hall. and I make the suggestion. gentlemen. Wallace. discussing their plans. that . the following statement of R. and if there is no new appetite created. will die. Our children wil1 go hungry. duly de posed befor the Notary Public in and for Ross County. At that meeting one of the representatives of the liquor interests Spoke on matters of interest to the Saloon business with substantially these words : The success of our businessis dependent largely upon the creation of appetite for drink. H. Men who drink liquor like others.change in this regard.

The bottle is three inches in height and one and three . and which was taken from one of the school boys. On its front . by families in the home etc. will return in dollars to our tills after the appetite has been formed. The bottle originally contained one ounce of whisky. the liquor trade acts upon it. The boy had consumed about one half of it. and the other half remained in the bottte when it was iaken away from the boy by his school teachcr.72 ALCOHOL nickels expended in treats to the boys now. These bottles were circulated among the boys in the School and the one in question was taken from the son of a prominent church worker. the Board of Temperance has a picture of a nursing bottle containing whisky which was distributed by a saloon keeper at Troy Ohio. In addition to the well known tendency of the liquor trade to pro mote drinking by women.fourth inches acros. And this is not a mere suggestion.

Different sorts of attractive toys.O. dolls. "more missionary work of the same sort" being carried on among small boys in other places as well. enclosing the initials ~M. which reaches the bottom of the bottle.73 face there is a three-corner star. the reporter. blowen in the glass. It is manifest from the bottle that it has been turned out by a factory in large quantities for the purpose for which it has been used. have been used by the liquor dealers as containers for sweetened liquor and distributed freely among school boys and girls in the service of creating an appetite among the juvenile groups. so that all the whisky can be sucked out. The liquor trade can flourish only by insistent creation of appetite among the younger generation. bottles.' A rubber tube has a turned bone nipple at the upper end and a glass extension tube at the lower end. In adding this illustration to the affidavit of the above mentioned deponent. Huge sums are spent by this trade in the .an eminent social worker in the field of Temperance .ruefully speaks of still.

would abstain from this . the creation of appetite. the addiction to drink began between fifteen and twentyfive years of age. left to themselves." says one eminent Sociologist. there can be but outright condemnation of the the efforts to induce an appetite in those who. Youth is the particular period of life. for its purpose. Whatever may be said as to the position of the habitual drunkard vis-a-vis his new for alcohol.74 ALCOHOL Wcst to bolster up patronage by advertisements and appeal to the Social instinct of youth. when the drink habit can be easily planted and as such the profit-paying appetite is sought by liquor interests to be cultivated among the young. It has been established by sociological surveys that it is during adolescence that the taste for alcohol can be engendered by proper inducement. "It is a noteworthy fact that in nearly 90 percent of confirmed in-eleriates. Advertising. through advertisements and persuasion. where none exists previously. has.

. The reading matter. It is a distinct loss to Socity if an habitual abstainer is induced to become a cousumer of alcoholic liquor. the illustrations are all so designed as to convey the appeal and suggestions in favour of the product . What can be the objective of such advertising except to promote drinking among those classes or individuals who are abstinent and to provoke the latent appetite where already existent.to induce drinking by those who in the absence of such prompting would abstain. "No newspaper can view with complacency & use of agencies." And what purpose has liquor advertising other than that which is tersely expressed in the above quotation from the pen of a great social worker. which converts abstainers into drinkers. and defeats the resolution of drinkers who may be attempting to counter the drink habit.75 obnoxious product.

76 ALCOHOL The Liquor trader is shrewd enough to gauge the value of such advertising and the effect that it produces. Typical of this shrewdness on his part is the suggestion by -one of them to his brethren in trade in the following words: Why not advertise wine as a summer drink? Many a family that does not today use a drop of wine could be taught by attractive copy." The following sample of an advertisement will illustrate seductive appeal made to the ordinary citizen in general and the youth of the country in particular. The "Brewers Journal" outlines a course of advertising designed to mould public sentiment in favour of beer and create home consumption by those who have never before drunk wine. "Nearly every adult in the community may be considered as a prospective buyer. . illuetrated with tempting coloured drawings to use our light red and white wines in punches and lemonades. Some will respond quickly others will require time in order to convince them of the desirability of beer. It says pertinently.

hard-playing. Promises are held out that inquiries and orders for supply of the liquor shall be strictly confidential matters. invaluable for over worked men. kidneys. "Numerous advertisements show minors and . keeping you young. and bladder. promoting a good appetite. So are the packings promised to be in deceptive designs to throw off guard any inquisitive parental authority. China-ware and articles of appeal to children and young girls are distributed along with the advertisements. and vigorous. enriching the blood toning and building the entire system. Pure Malt Whisky is a Wonerful health preserving stimulant. fast growing youngsters.77 "For all folks who want to stay young. No home should be without this wonderfu youth and health preserving stimulant." Such advertisements are often accompanied by illustration displaying children of tender ages as drinking. nervous run-down women and delicate undeveloped children. strengthening the liver.

Herald states A newspaper must have a Social consciences.78 ALCOHOL other young people. on shady porches. at different kinds of social occasions. and one shows a delivery man bringing in a case of beer and saying to the house-wife. "Madam. on fishing trips. this is most wholesome thing that comes into your home. Those who reap the weedless . There is no better investment than a single standard of honour. We feel that liquor advertisements will not help to attract to us either the readers or the advertisers whose patronage we especially desire. both boys and girls. The editor of the Chicago his platform thus. honesty." The Tribune wants to eliminate from its advertising columns all traces of evil or even suspicious association. truth and integrity from the title to the last agate line on the last page. drinking beer at picnics.

the public morals and the public safety may be . of all. 2. 1. Here are reproduced some of the judgements of the United States Supreme Court. Truth. especially juvenile crime. cleanliness and decency are the greatest dividend payers on earth. And with this declaration the liquor advertisements were expelled from the columns of the Chicago Herald. that the public health. within the knowledge.79 fields of honesty gather golden harvests. she will be a gainer a thousand fold in the health. which should serve as eye-openers for all those who view crime. If a loss of revenue should accrue to the United States from a diminished consumption of ardent spirit. We cannot shut out of view the fact. wealth and happiness of the people. The part played by alcohol in ruining livesjuvenile as well as adult-has been the subject of the day-to-day working of the land courts. with the horror it deserve as the chief cause of the destruction of social harmony and happiness.

That its tendency is to destory the peace. prisonkeepers. to secure which the first article in the Bill of Rights. safety and well-being of the people. That it. That its legitimate consequences are disease and destruction of mind and body will also be granted. follows as a matter of course. is too obvious to be denied. nor the fact established by statistics accessible to everyone that the idleness. who have investigated the subject.80 ALCOHOL endangered by the several uses of intoxicating drinks. That drunkenness is an evil both to the individual and to the State. will probably be admitted. disorder. that taxation to meet the expenses of pauperism and crime falls upon and is borne by the people. declares all free governments are instituted. . pauperism and crime existing in the country are in some degree at least. produces from fourfifth to nine-tenth of all the crimes committed is the united testimony of those judges. traceable to this evil. Sheriffs and others engaged in the administration of the criminal law. 3.

indigence. sin. impairs the moral and physical . an everlasting farewell to all true happiness. poverty and wants. sending forth innumerable ills and woes. and to all the nobler aspirations. rightfully belonging to every true and virtuous human being. but every-thing lost. It brings with it degradation of character. and drunkenness is a pernicious source of all kinds of crime and sorrow. shame and disgrace. It has probably caused more drunkenness and has made more drunkards than all other causes combined. Probably no greater source of crime and sorrow has ever existed than the Social drinking saloons. It is a Pandora's box. domestic broils and bickerings engendered.81 4. 5. families scattered. heart-rending partings. not even hope left. The train of evils which marks the progress of intemperance is too obvious to require comment. Social happiness destroyed. Social drinking is the evil of evils. social ties severed. crime and untold sorrow. homes made desolate.

nor one to which a more general assent is given by reading and intelligent minds. misery. gambling. It is still the prolific source of diseasese. and to debauchery and . 7.82 ALCOHOL energies. increases the number of paupers and criminals. wastes the health. suffering. debauch and slay human character and human life is not destroyed or i mpaired because it may be susceptible of some innocent uses. corrupt. 6. undermines the morals and sinks its victims to the lowest depths of vice and profligacy. pauperism. and implements. Its power to weaken. vice and crime. pauperism. keeping gambling houses. There is no statistically or economically better established proposition. than this : That the use of intoxicating liquors as drink is the cause of more want. crimes and public expense than any other cause-and perhaps it should be said-than all other causes combined. Every state applies the most stringent legal power to lotteries.

generally occur at the place where they are consumed.83 obscenity. and no one questions the right and justice of it. where intoxicating liquors in small quantities to be drunk at the time. and yet how small is the weight of woe produced by all these united. there are few sources of crime and misery to Society equal to the dramshop. and tendency to crime and pauperism follow in that place. 8. The statistics of every state show a greater amount of crime and misery attributable to the use of ardent spirits obtained at these retail liquor saloons. By the general concurrence of opinion of every civilized community. than to any othcr source. The evils that result from the use of intoxicating liquors. when compared with that which is created by the use of intoxicating drink alone. are sold indiscriminately to all parties applying. These are only a fee of the pronouncements of judgements of the highest courts of the United .

They bring out clearly the intimate connection that . of peace and order in a community. subsists between the waves of crime. sweeping that "civilized" community and the powerful potentials that alcohol possesses as producers of the conditions that favour disorderly conduct. before which the judges. Christian of the circuit court of Hamilton County (Indiana). They unanimously condemn the role of alcohol as enemy No. 1. pronounced a judgment to the effect that a retail liquor shop is within itself a public nuisance and that the statute authorising the licensing of such a shop is unconstitutional. Samuel Artiman in his profoundly well-planned book. "The Lagalised Outlaw" has reproduced such cases very. Judge R. and the public leaders sit helpless. Judge Ira W. As far back as 1907. adequately in their . These findings of the most eminent intellects are based on direct experience of the day-to-day working of the legal system.84 ALCOHOL states of America. the legislators.

The book referred to above. giving the full text and complete details of the case under review. No one can view with equanimity the havoc played by liquor traffic in the orderly management . The case was never taken in appeal to a higher court of law and the decision stands unrevoked unimpeached to this day. Millions of copies of this decision were distributed by public demand and it was printed as a public document by the United States Senate as a "State Document. This decision was to the effect that 11 the State of Indiana had no right to authorise the licensing of a saloon and that the statute providing for so doing was unconstitutional. It awakened universal interest and wide discussion.85 bearing on crime and other evils in Society. is among the most notable pronouncement in the annals of American law-courts. No. "The Legalized Outlaw " elaborates the principles involved in this decision. 384". His own judgment delivered in the same year 1907.

gambling dens. It feeds and inflames the passions of the week-mined and the degenerate.000 human derelicts. most of whome were .makes on those charged with the task of dealing with crimes records. The following pregnnat pronouncement of Judge. Booze is the matter of crime. far less the judges whose chief responsibility is the maintenance of peace and order in the Society. G. Says he.86 ALCOHOL of the affairs of a community. The really well. It nerves to his deed the homicide. brothels. the thief and the thug. which it engenders in the minds of its victims. It fires the brain of the prostitute and the panderer. William M. dives. the burglar. It gives life and sustenance to slums. intentioned among them have tried to bring to light the effect which alcohol has on ruining the lives of the people and their domestic happiness through the criminal attitudes. the stick-up man. Emill of Chicago points out clearly the impressions which the drink habit . "I have tried an army of 50. and pay-off joints.

with eyes dull and languid. with bodies week and wasted. that every house of prostitution has its bar or is in partnership with booze. I have seen with this army ten thousand pale faced. this vast army is for ever marching with unsteady step to the graves of the drunkard and the pauper or to the prison and workhouse. foul and ragged. ragged. with clothing. that the . that every panderer has his rendezvous in a grog. I have observed that every bandit crew that goes forth to murder starts from a saloon. hollow-cheeked. With faces red and bloated.87 booze-soakod. that every den of thieves makes its victim drunk before it robs them. hungry and starving children cursed by booze. that every gambling den either is in a Saloon or sustains a close relationship with one. of a still larger army of fathers and mothers and sisters. "I have looked into the tear-stained face. wives and husbands. as they have pleaded for the miserable wrecks that booze has made. shop.

but is the enemy of them all. booze destroys its tens of thousands". a playground. `°War may be hell.88 ALCOHOL pick-pocket 'trust' is housed in a Saloon. or after it had reaped for a night. I have observed that the last man to be employed and the first to be discharged is a victim of booze. in the public dance. but where it slays its thousands. Booze never built a park. "I have witnessed daily its ravages after it had spent its wild fury upon the helpless bodies of women and children. Three thousand twenty two saloons in Chicago maintain bed-rooms for the use of their . a school or a church. its harvest of virtue. mayors. that the professional bondsman and character witnesses for thieves and hold-up men are saloon-keepers or bar-tenders. legislators. which enters millions of homes and leaves them desolate. that the spay-off' joint for the crook and the crooked policeman is in a saloon. governors and even Presidents sit dumb or quail in the presence of this monster. Judges. now dead for ever.

89 patrons. Federal Judge Lawdis remarks in this connection. it is all but impossible in women". Buxt's company and they have been steadfastly breaking the law for at least ten years". women must be won over . "When the alcohol vice has become a habit it is difficult to cure is men. cafes and Cabarets. The Brewer's Journal editorially comments that "Newspaper advertising for beer should be designed to attract and appeal to women as well as men. remarks Sir Andrew Clark. Vices to which Alcohol gives birth. 718 have dance rooms and 63 ' palm ' gardens. physician to Queen Victoria. for if beer is to be used in the home. "Here are thirty-two saloons confessedly managed by Mr. ruinous to their own character and health in every sense of the evil. is astounding in effect on the offsprlngs in a far greater degree than when the offending parent is the father. Six hundred and thirty three Saloons operate restaurants. This habit in women. Private entrances are provided by 2594 Saloons.

Smith. And. the Phaladelphia Commisoion among them have conclusively established . " The ragular campaigns launched by liquor interests to promote the alcohol habit among the fair sex. have stated that ever-increasing numbers of young girls of respectable families are succumbing to the alcohol evil. On a count being arranged. Albert H. 160 girls were found to have gone into a single saloon in three hours. according to the same journal it is. "comparatively easy to convince the women". Philadelphia. According to their responsible declarations. the Chicago Vice Commission. 'These girls are not ordinary prostitutes. is paying high dividends. Secretary of the Association of City Police Matrons. A number of commissions on vice. Jane Deeter Rippon.90 ALCOHOL to it ". Scores of such girls are nightly drunk in the Cafes of the city". Mrs. Chief Probation Officer of the Domestic Relations Court and Mrs. but shop-girls and other yong girls from 16 to 22 years of age.

"Children. "The Committee finds that the cheif direct cause of the down-fall of women and girls is the close connection between alcoholic drink and commercialised vice.91 that there is a close connection between the traffic in liquors and commercialised vice." The Chicago Commission investigated the conditions prevail ing in 445 saloons. tiny boys and even . Of these "No less than 236 were nothing but houses of prostitution." The Chicago Commission "found the most conspicuous and important element next to the house of prostitution itself was the saloon and the most important financial interest .the liquor interest. There were in them counted 928 prostitutes". It goes on to say that "As a contributory influence to immorality." in the Commission's investigation of the Social Evil. there is no interest so dangerous. appointed to investigate the conditions of the vicious service. girls whose innocence yet followed hard upon their shame. According to the Wisconsin Legislative Committee.

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babies, messengers far under-age and half-frightened countrymen were found in practically every saloon while drunken women, short skirted and blear-eyed, with sin and disease written strong upon their faces, lolled beside them and drank imitation drinks. for which exhorbitant prices had been.charged. Indecent exposures of the person and almost unbelievable community freedom were prevalent in Saloons of apparent exterior respectability". The report under review is explicit that "wayward girls are brought to their ruin almost exclusively through alcoholic drinks. Does the tired working girl seek recreation in the dance sooner or later she must yield to the temptation to drink, and then - her furture is settled for all time. Does the girl beset with poverty seek the easiest way? She goes to the nearest saloon, where she is met with smiles and flattery and put to work to add to the bar's receipts."
"

The Chicago Commission found innumerous

93 instances that the saloons were situated in close proximity to schools. They were daily filled with innocent children. In one saloon the investigator found -eighteen prostitutes drinking at one time. Five of these women invited the visitor to participate in immoral deeds." The Royal Commission of England appointed to study the relation of alcohol to the prevalence of sex immorality has some very pertinent and outstanding facts to disclose. Among them: (i) alcoholic liquor by weakening self control, is the most important factor in aggravating Social vice conditons; that the drinker is peculiarly liable to yield to the temptations which other-wise might be resisted. One physician reports that out of thousands of cases, he had found 80 per cent had been under the influence of liquor when they acquired their diseases through sexual licence. (ii) Alcohol makes the treatment of such patients very much difficult.

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(iii) Alcohol complicates the picture of the diseases that are acquired through sex immorality. Alcohol and Medical Research. There was a time when the Western Medical opinion favoured the use of alcohol in certain diseases. It was considered stimulant and was supposed to possess some food value, close investigations have, however, conclusively proved that alcohol is a depressant and not a stimulant at all. Its apparent stimulating effect is due to its paralysing properties on the nerve centres. When alcohol is taken into the stomach, that organ with its inherent revulsion for the various products at,once expells it into the blood stream; which carries it into the Now, it is brain centres and stupefies them. these brain centres that control the movements of the muscles. With stupefaction overtaking the controlling mechanisms, the muscles activity is released of all restraint and goes wild, giving an impression of heightened power. The process may be compared to the disabling of the governor

says. "No health authority anywhere advocates the use of alcohol as a medicine.. "It is witout question a substance which does not nourish the body building tissue or repair waste. As for its food value.S. Alcohol does not add any power to the organism "it only smashes the governor". the late Sir Spencer Wells M.R.95 of a steam engine. neither the narcotized human organism nor the control-free steam engine can have acquired any increase in working capacity. which can come only by the supply of suitable fuel material. .. medical editor of the Chicago Tribune and former health officer of Chicago. Dr W.D. Wiley adds.A. which then conveys the impression of an accelerated speed.S.A. food or beverage." To this Dr Harvey H. F. As a matter of fact. Evans. endorsed the current findings of medical research on the point in the following words: "It is only lately that we have begun to regard alcohol in its true light as a drug and not as a food. as is aptly expressed by a research scholar of the U.

There are no other kinds. John Stuart Mill put it very tersely when he said. Let him understand. Don't muddle your brain by drinking bear. he mixes in some degeneration of his nerve cells. rather than a pig satisfied? Think before you drink for after a bear or highball you cannot think so well." The new York City Board of Health in a pamphlet warned the people against the evils of drink thus : Alcohol is a depressant and not a stimulant. some chance of delirium tremens and a few other ingredients. When a man takes a drink. that he also pours into the glass about one finger of wet brain. inferior creation of .96 ALOHOL Eeyery drink is a mixed drink. it drugs the brain and stops the capacity of the nervous system to obey the will. however simple it may be." The great German philosopher Goethe repeatedly asserted that so-called stimulation by liquor could produce only a forced. "Who would not be a human dissatisfied.

Robert A. as he will. professor of therapeutics of the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia. Dr. The Chicago Board of Health in a bulletin thus condemns the evil: The fellow with alcohol in his system is not a good witness as to its effects on himself.97 ideas. and is as full of prejudice as his breath is full of fumes. Such happiness is false. such contentment bought at the expense of individual mental liberty. in all probability be inconscious with delirium within twenty-four to fortyeight hours from the time his disease is first diagnosed. Happiness and contentment are said to spring from the benumbing influence of alcohol upon the higher brain functions. for his mind as well as his body is bribed by the drug. in his classic "Practical Therapeutics" has . bare. In another bulletin the following warning is given to the drunkard : The heavy drinker who contracts pneumonia should not lose an hour in settling his affairs.

that caused by lack of control and is not a real increase of energy. One is baffled. The depression of the inhibitory nervous apparatus. No sane thinking mind can be found to say a friendly word in favour of alcoholic liquors. in the face of complete unanimity among all sections of the human Society about the evils which alcohol gives birth to as to how this so called rational being both as an individual and in social groups submits himself to be swayed into self-destruction by this poison. Alcohol is a poison and its evils effects are so great that every courageous man should help to eliminate them. The effect of moderate doeses differs from the effect of large ones in degree and not in kind. therefore. the spinal cord or the nerves. The activity is.98 ALCOHOL laid down the following verdict of medical scholarship: "Alcohol never acts as a stimulant to the brain. Below'are given the opinions of some of the most eminent medical authorities of the west in regard .

Ohio. C. Asylum. Eyman. Twenty five of the 100 . I am not aware of any medical connection in which alcohol is necessary. be replaced by some less dengerous drug. Dr. The testimony of such famous doctors should convince even the incurable drunkard to pause in his head-long pursuit of self-immolation on the altar of Bacchus. Dr. Drunkenness and its consequent degeneracy. is often nothing more nor less than a bear-stroke. H.Dr. W. D. Chicago Tribune. with advantage. of the Massilon. A son-stroke. This does not include alcohol-caused insanity. Twenty-eight per cent of the men admitted to this hospital during the past year were alcoholized. Medical Editor. Evans. nor of any in which it could not. Sir Arthur Chance M. A. explain 35 per cent of epilepsy .99 to the characteristic damage that humanity is exposed to by this inveterate enemy of all good senses. Mathew Woods.

De W. It is claimed by some that alcohol is a food. Dr. Dickinson of England. it is a poisoned food. Dr. Professor of Psychiatry. and in a word is the genius of degeneration. Alcohol is a poison. It is the best possible persuader of disease and damaging even in small doses. John D. If so. Columbia University. Robinson. and should be no longer prescribed by intelligent physicians. Health Commissioner. Wilcox. G. Frederick Peterson. Alcohol replaces more actively vital materials by fat and fibrous tissue. . H.. it substitutes suppurations by new growths it helps time to produce the effect of age . it is productive of physical and mental degeneracy. it aggravates diseases and hastens death.100 ALCOHOL deaths which occur every day in Chicago are caused directly or indirectly by alcohol. Alcohol is not a medicine. M. D.

It serves no good purpose in the body. 56 per cent were moderate users. It is an old and shy offender and very much the "mocker".101 EXTRACT FROM "LIFE AND HEALTH" MARCH 1969 Page No. May." FRANCIS A SOPER. Upon investigation I found 38 per cent of our male tubercular patients were excessive users of alcohol. The body tries to get rid of it as rapidly as possible. From my study of the cases. in medical practice that it has been pronounced in the Holy Writ. I am led to believe that in a vast majority of these cases drink has been a large factor . 1968. 21 "ALCOHOL IS DANGEROUS" "Alcohol acts as a poison to the human system. It exhausts the latent energy of the organism." You are right in indicting alcohol for its insidious wrongs to humanity. Listen.

O. J. M. J. C. Tilmore. D. Superintendent of Cook County Hospital for Consumptives. Sanatorium Gabvels. Willhite. this congress strongly emphasizes the importance of combining the fight against tuberculosis with the struggle against alcoholism. lowering the vitality etc.. Whisky and other forms of alcohol have caused more deaths after snake-bite than the .102 ALCOHOL in producing the disease. M.. In tuberculosis there is a state of overstimulation of the circulatory system due to the toxins. Blankmeyer. New York. October 1905.T. D. Alcohol is the most potent factor in the production of crime. held in Paris. Superintendent of the Ontario Reformatory. by exposure. Resolution adopted by the International Congress on Tuberculosis. The use of alcoholics simply makes the condition worse .H. That in view of the close connection between alcoholism and tuberculosis. and I have never known of alcohol -Dr.

Arabia or Persia. Basil. there is the same testimony that the health and discipline of soldiers are much better when they are not allowed or cannot get alcoholic liquors.7 per cent tuberculous children.103 venom of the Snake. Whether we look to America. 149 occasional drinkers 8. The results of my investigations are as follows.7 per cent tuberculous children. Professor A.Sir Astley Cooper. Dr.7 per cent tuberculous children . .16. Dr.D. Enfield England. M. India. 169 habitual drinkers-10. K. Jame Ridge. the West Indies. Von. 67 moderate drinkers . 60 confirmed drunkards 21. L.4 per cent tuberculous children . Medical Officer of Health. Egypt. Hirshbcrg of John Hopkins University. Burge. Spirits and poisons are synonymous terms. The children of drinking fathers are very much more liable to tuberculosis.

England. D. M. British Medical Journal. For every real drunkard there are fifty others suffering from the effects of alcohol.104 ALCOHOL Alcohol is the pathological fraud of frauds. disease. Germany. M. under no conditions and in no amount beneficial to the healthy body. England. Dr. A. Stewart. D. A. and the cause of the cardiac failure in ninety nine cases out of a hundred is alcohol. G. Hill. Kansas Medical College. George Harley. -Dr. "Lobular pneumonia.-S. D. has gained its foot-hold. Professor Fick. On the use of alcohol. I dread the task of operating on a drinker Sir William Paget. One fights shy of having to operate . Cardiac failure"-so runs the usual certificate. Alcohol is. Physiologist. Norman Kerr. Alcohol causes the guards to sleep at their posts until man's enemy. M.

Sanatorium. The man of twenty who drinks has a probable life of fifteen years before him. McAdam Hceles. D. M. Trying to cure consumption with whisky is like trying to put out a fire with kerosene John E. Italy. Nordrach Ranch. W. the agents of natural defence against infective microbes Professor Metchnikoff.Professor Lowbroso. White. Alcohol perverts the moral nature. Medical Director. Alcohol is one of the chief curtailers of life. Pasteur Institute.105 upon patients who are alcoholic. affects the judgment and impairs the memory. Besides its deleterious influence on the nervous system and other important parts of our body. M. Paris.they do not heal well inspite of the asepticism of the present day. the abstai ner one of forty four years . it. S. . alcohol has a harmful action on the phagocytes (white blood corpuscles). because of the degeneration of their tissues ..

the surgeons and the professors of medical institutions in their individual capacity. the mere listing of their names would need several pages. Due to considerations of space many valuable comments from persons of great eminence have had to be omitted. Nor would such an exhaustive list serve any useful prupose. but also in their collective voice . Suffice it to say that not only the physicians. In a few statements given above out of so many are set forth the expert opinions of some of the most eminent medical authorities of the world in regard to a most important problem of the human Society as affecting its physical health and all-round well being.106 ALCOHOL moreover. Robert Jones. especially affects the motor system and creates an enormous loss to the community through destroying the productiveness of the skilled craftsman -. have given their unequivocal verdict against this dreadful enemy of Society.Dr.

Whereas. whereas. to bring out the collective views of the medical professor. in the opinion of the Neurologists of the United States in convention assembled. the effects of this poison are directly or indirectly responsible for a large proportion of the insane. it has been definitely established that alcohol when taken into the system acts as a definite poison to the brain and other tissues and. The Neurologists in session at Chicago thus delivered themselves on this problem. Yet a few such warnings from highly outstanding expert bodies do bear mention. feeble-minded and other forms of mental. and whereas. many hospitals for the insane and other public institutions are now compelled to admit and care for a multi- . moral and physical degeneracy.107 through the mouth-piece of their organized associations all over the world they condemn its evils in no less emphatic terms. It would be tedious task to recount the resolutions of such associations in the space available here. epileptic.

therefore be it. that we unqualifiedly condemn the use of alcoholic beverages. Resolved. Resolved that we recommend the general establishment by all the States and Territories of special colonies of hospitals for the care of the inebriates.the individuals and to the Common-wealths . and Resolved that organized medicine should initiate and carry on a systematic. The West Virginia State Medical Association thus expresses its views : Whereas the study of alcohol from a scientific stand-point has demons trated that its action is deceptive and that it does not have the medical properties that were once claimed for it. many states have already established separate colonies for the treatment and re-education of such inebriates with great benefit to . and.108 ALCOHOL tude of inebriates . now therefore be it . persistent propaganda for the education of the public regarding the deleterious effects of alcohol. whereas.

The Medical Society of the state of North Corolina. Whereas it is one of the chief contributing factors to poverty. Resolved second it is the sense of this Society that any member of the profession who does promiscuous or unnecessary prescribing of alcohol either to patients or to nonpatients is violating one of the principles of our profession and is deserving of censure. misery and CRIME. both in and out of the sick room. The American Nurses Association in their convention adopted the following resolution: .109 Resolved by the West Virginia State Medical Association that we deplore the fact that our profession has been quoted so long as claiming for its virtues which it does not possess and that we earnestly pledge ourselves to discourage the use of it. Resolved that it will use its best efforts to discourage the use of aocohol in any form.

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The American Nurses Association believe, that akohol lessens vital RESISTANCE? FOSTERS poverty and all the diseases that come from poverty, hindering the progress of the community; The pronouncement of the Life Extension Institute of America consisting of ninety four of the most eminent Americans, including profes sors from the leading universities, the Surgeon General of the United States Army and distinguished physiologists of Medical Faculties. Faculties:- is worthy of the deepest consideration vis-a-vis the problem of alcoholism. It runs as follows "Experimental laboratory work has kept pace with Statistical investigation and the knowledge gained from the laboratory, not only in experiment on animals but on man himself, shows that a higher death rate among alcohol users is what we would naturally expect to find in the light of what we know regarding its effects on the

111 body. Oae half to one quart of bear is sufficient to distinctly impair memory, lower intellectual power and retard simple mental processes, such as the addition of simple figures. The narcotic or deadening influence is first exerted on the higher reasoning powers thet control conduct, so that the lower activities of the mind and nervous system are for a time released. The every-day well-poised, self-controlled man goes to sleep, as it were, and the primitive man temporarily wakes up. Eventually the nervous system is narcotized and the drinker becomes sleepy. Muscular efficiency is at first increased a little and then lowered, the total effect being a loss of working power. Alcohol is a handicap for the nation at war. It is a handicap for an individual in the struggle for existence. This is not the judgement of scientists alone, nor of weak and faddists, out of the big-brained, strong-fibered men upon whom has fallen the tremendous :burden of guiding great nations through the greatest crisis of history."

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ALCOHOL

IS ALCOHOL A MEDICINE?
Whereas, it is the unanimous opinion of the Council on Health and Public Instruction of the A.M.A. that alcohol has no drug value, either as a stimulant, as - a tonic, or as a therapeutic agent, and that it has no food value; and WHEREAS, its use as a beverage or as a therapeutic agent is detrimental rather than beneficial to the individual. Therefore, be it resolved that the House of Delegates of the A.M.A. declares it as opposed to the use of alcohol by individuals either as a medicine or as a beverage, and be it further resolved that its use in medicine is permissible only in the preparatlon and preservation of Pharmaceutical products. (Resolution passed by House of Delegates of American Medical Association 1917). GOPSEL ADVOCATE SAYS: Statistics show that ten thousand people are killed by liquor and one is killed by a mad dog;

and leaves only the brute. We all know this. Drunkenness takes away the man.B. covers . JAY SAYS: The curse of intoxication.113 yet we shoot the dog and license the liquor What sense is there in this? (REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA) MR. it dethrones reason from its seat. It is common knowledge that it is a poison. MR. light of moon day sun. and yet people persist in poisoning themselves. CHARLES RICHET OF PARIS SAYS: This (alcohol) poison is a recognised poison. ruins health. JAPANESE PROVERB: First the man takes a drink. stupefies conscience. let us prohibit it to all races in this country. R. The noxious effects of alcohol are as obvious as the. DURRANT SAYS: If drink is an evil thing. then the drink takes the man. W. DR. wastes property.

. blunts the senses.S. able to accomplish what could never be enforced by external sanction of an alien law.V. it is next to impossible to cure it.114 ALCOHOL the wretch with rags. retards nerve response..R. F. PROFESSOR A TOYNBES SAYS: This spirit (of Islam) may be expected to manifest itself in many practical ways and one of these manifestations might be liberation from alcohol which was inspited by religious conviction and which was. increases the ill-affect of great heat or cold. M. diminishes selfcontrol.O.C.. and gives such power to appetite that physically as well as normally. SIR ALFRED PEARCE COULD. K. SAYS: Alcohol lessens man's power of physical endurance. reduces wife and children to want and beggary.C. therefore. delays recovery from fatigue. blurs the judgement.S.

WAR. Academies. do nothing to prevent this degradation. DRINKING BISHOP CARPENTER SAYS: It (Islam) has set an example of sobriety to the world and has shielded its followers from the drink plague which destroys the strength of the nations. all those who claim to lead the masses. . CHARLES RICHET OF PARIS SAYS: Kings.IS NOT AS TERRIBLE AS THAT OF WINE DRINKING. Parliaments.115 DR. FAMINE AND PESTILENCE . though well aware that alcohol degrades the people. This is not merely stupid but shameful. Ministers. GLADSTONE SAYS: THE COMBINED HARM OF THE TH REE GREAT SCOURGES .

CHARLES RICHET OF PARIS SAYS: It is the drunkards and lunatic asylums. SAYS: Alcohol poisons the vital cells of the body. acts directly upon the nervous system and the brain. KAY SAYS: ALCOHOL The success of Islam in persuading its adherents to abstain from the use of wine is a notable achievement. DR. impairing one's higher faculties. EVENING STANDARD (Special Correspondent) Alcohol has none of the vitamins or minerrals necessary for good health. SIR WILLIAM WILEOX. judgement. who fill our hospitals By devising this un-natural product (alcohol) unknown to animals. conception and control long before the least symptoms of drunkenness appear. man has increased his sorrows.D. .116 DAVID M. M.

. Hides liquor. 8. 5. Neglects his family when he is drinking. March 1969. 3.Neglects to eat when he is drinking. Difficult to get along with when drinking. 4. 6. Page 4 EARLY DETECTION IS PROTECTION KNOWN THESE EARLY WARNING SIGNALS OF ALCOHOLISM 1. ISLAM'S APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF DRINK The first hint regarding the evil of drink was in a general command to the effect: Say. Drinks "to calm his nerves". Lies about his drinking. Can't remember parts of some drinking episodes. Drinks "because he is depressed". 9. 7. 2.117 EXTRACT FROM "LIFE AND HEALTH". Drinks until "dead drunk" at times.

which makes the positions vis-a-vis all kinds of intoxicants more clear. "They ask thee. for which hath not been sent down any authority and that ye say against Allah what ye know not " (Al-Qaran 7/33) This general command includes all kinds of indecencies and the scholars of exegesis. particularly take the word "them" sin to refer to drink. concerning wine and lots (gambling and games of chance). which . and that ye associate with Allah. 219 of the Chapter Al-Bagarah. and also (some) profits for men. but their sin is greater than their profit ".118 ALCOHOL "Verily did prohibit my Lord shameful deedsthose apparent of them and those concealed. and sin and rebellion without (any) right. Here we have a clear indication of the attitude of Islam. (Al-Qaran 2/215). say in both these is gaeat Sin. towards two of the vilest evils. It is to the effect. This general command is made more explicit in verse No.

In a certain assem bly it so happened that under the influence of drink." (Al-Qurau 4/43). This command practically decided the attitude of Islam. and the believers began to expect the final categorical word of prohibition. whereupon the Divine Command was issued more categorically in regard to the use of drink at prayer times. until ye know (well) what ye say.119 corrupt human society. to the following effect "O ye who believe! Approach not prayer when ye are intoxicated. becoming fully conscious of the underlying force of the verse. which came in due course. the use of liquor in social gathering did not cease. the prayers were conducted in an atmosphere lacking decorum and due reverence. with the revelation of this verse. many of the believers gave up drinking. in the following strain . It has been related that in the absence of a categorical prohibition.

who finds it hard to convince the victims to slow down to moderation in not only drinks but other obnoxious habits as well. And how did Islam achieve its unique civilisation? This question baffles the modern social worker.. (dedication of) stones (i. without demur. idols) and (divination by) arrows. so be ye away from it.120 ALCOHOL "O ye who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance. It was a process of educating and gradually disciplining the minds of the votaries of Islam to generally submit to Divine dispensations unconditionally. are only an abomination of Satan's handi-work. as by a magic wand.e. The announcement of the ban effectively sealed the fate of the evil. They were taught and trained to see that the evanescent pleasures of the moment were of no weight as compared with higher happiness that comes of absolute sub- . so that ye may be successful (Al-Quran 5/93). And with this finai verdict alcohol and other specified evils vanished from the Muslim Society.

which to them were the source of pure good in this and the other life. with an inviolable message of everlasting good. as directly flowing from obedience to Divine Laws. They needed no persuasion or threats to refrain from or to undertake any activity demanded of them. They were freed of all . then. Of course consequences followed that yielded them unexampled bliss in the present and of perfect hope for the future. including the inviti ng pleasures of self-forgetfulness in drink. They were disciplined in the fundamentals of healthful living. How could they. The simple command or prohibition issuing from Divine Authority was their motive for action. be enamoured of the fleeting satisfaction of drink. This attitude on their part engendered a spirit of self control under all circumstances.12 1 mission to the commands of the Almighty Allah. With this mental equipment they could stand any incitement of the devil. Reality was unfolded to them in all irridescent magnificence.

taking their cue from the hints that were conveyed by revelation of. The relevant passages in the old as well as the New Testaments. which they cleverly inanoeuvre to get excluded from the operation of the Divine commandments. Even before the categorical command came round. the more sedate among them had taken to abstinence.verses. They manage to get the terms used by the scriptures in this behalf to mean something other than the intoxicants in favour with them.122 ALCOHOL worries and fears. and yet the votaries of Bacchus have been able to bribe the authorities in religion as well as in politics to manipulate the relevant commands of the scriptures to their own views. are . The evil of drink is universally condemned by all sane religions of the world.from which the less fortunate seek an escape by flights from Reality into the Nirvan of self-forgetfulness. purporting to make them beware of the obnoxiousness of the evil.

and plunged the society into a vortex of untold misery and aftction. is left to his free choice. A. has been adequately provided against by Divine revelations. In the short space here available. that every thing that is disturbing to the forceful relations of men. in mad pursuit of carnal pleasures. we cannot take stock of the Biblical views fully in the matter of alcoholic drinks. as made by the Holy Prophet (S. Suffice it to say. reported in authentic books . Very severe penalties are prescribed for the use of liquors by the old scriptures.) and his own followers.12 3 very explicit on the point of the evil of the intoxicants. despite whole-sale distortions in the text. however. Here we may just refer to some of the amplifications of the Divine ban on the use of liquors. from the first day of the advent of man on this earth. Whether he would heed the exquisite guidanee and reap supreme bliss of eternal life or not. Western mind. however. has thrown over-board the directives in this behalf.

The Holy Prophet (S.) is reported to have said to the following effect: Dealing in intoxicants is unlawful. (vii) The one who sells liquor.) is reported to have said to the effect: Anything that intoxicates a person.).and those that relate to the physical. In another narration he (S.A. (vi) The one for whom liquor is carried. (v) The one who carries liquor. (iii) the one who drinks. comes under the heading 'Khamr' (alcohol) and its use is unlawful. mental. sale and handling. cursed ten persons in connection with intoxicants: (i) One who distills liquor. of liquors .124 ALCOHOL of (Ahadith) Traditicns and the commentaries thereon. (ii) the distilate itself.the manufacture.A. These pronouncements. Anas bin Malek has reported that the Holy Prophet (S. may be classified as those that refer to the business of intoxicants in general . .A. (iv) the one who offers the liquor to others. moral spiritual harm that results to the person using them. etc.

and to sing all night.A. and he comes to suffer from involuntary jerk ings. (x) Tho one who makes use of the sale proceeds of liquor. THE HOLY PROPHET (S. bloodiness and unlawful actions like fornication and every kind of villainy under the influence of drink. OR TO CREDIT HIS STATEMENT. IT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE TO ENTER INTO MATRIMONIAL RELATIONS WITH ONE. OR TO ACCEPT ANY TESTIMONY OF HIM. (ix) The broker in the business of liquor. WHO DRINKS LIQUOR. manliness and magnanimity he takes to vice. OR TO ENTRUST HIM WITH ANY CHARGE UNDER AN .) says of the one who drinks as one who worships idols.S.125 (viii) The one who buys liquor. AFTER THE DIVINE BAN ON LIQUOR THROUGH MY WORD. Imam Hazrat Ja'far-as-Sadiq (A.) IS REPORTED TO HAVE SAID TO THE FOLLOWING EFFECT ACCORDINC TO ANOTHER NARRATION.

126 ALCOHOL IMPRESSION OF HIS INTEGRITY. TO MAN SLAUGHTER AS ALSO TO FORSAKE PRAYERS. HAZRAT AMIRUL MOMININ ALI (A. TO THIS HE (A. FOR THEN ALLAH WILL NOT GUARANTEE HIS FAITH.a state which the Almighty Allah is perfectly justified to place him in on the Day of Judgement.S. NOR RECOMPENSE ANY ONE FOR IT.S.) has said the drinker will rise black-faced on the Doomsday. BECAUSE THE VICE OF ADULTERY DID NOT INCITE THE SINNER TO ANY OTHER SIN.S. WHILE A DRINKER IS LED OFF TO ADULTERY. drip ping saliva on his chest . TO THIEVING.) WAS ASKED IF HE (A.) REGARDED DRINKING AS A MORE HEINOUS SIN THAN ADULTERY. with his tongue protruded from his mouth. . Hazrat Imam Baqir (A.S.S.) DID.) REPLIED THAT HE (A.

he is liable to the penalty of death even according to Islamic Laws. coupled with the fundamental teachings on discipline and moral training. It was because of such stern views of Islam on drink. was solved so effectively and finely. on oath says that He will make a person drink of the Hellish liquor. that a problem which baffles modern man for a solution. Islam discountenances all intoxicants and the severest penalties are provided for those who transgress the limits in this behalf.A. The Almighty Allah. . indecencies and the symbols of Ignorance. to ban the musical instruments. if he drinks wine in this word. whether he be of the condemned or the forgiven.127 The Holy Prophet (S. Flogging is prescribed for the first offender and if the delinquent persists in his perverted taste.) is reported to have said to the following effect The Almighty Allah has sent me to be a Mercy to the worlds.

be emphasised in all matters of obligations and prohibitions that every commandment is enforced in the interests of the Society and the individuals composing it . . however.to close all those avenues that lead to disorder and disintegration and to establish an orderly society on earth. however. The recent events of their history have amply demonstrated the folly of such a course. working for the good of every one of its citizens. Their helplessness is evidenced by the waves of crimes which sweep the body politic like night mares. They are now trying to retrieve their losses by recourse to half-hearted measures of propaganda and legislation. The Wcstern countries. infatuated with the powerful gadgets supplied by their technology and science proceeded to ignore the fundamental laws laid down by Benign Providence for man's good in the matter of alcohol and other allied misdemeanours.128 ALCOHOL It must. which. are leading them nowhere.

" The Bible. which has been in all ages forbidden. "Allah never raised any prophet.S. they would have avoided much of the unnecessary national and individual losses they have undergone. though it has undergone whole-sale mutations and alterations. 20 of the Amthal Sulaiman (A. As Imam Baqir (A.) has declared. In verse 39. yet it is very clear in its verdict on the unlawfulness of alcohol as a drink. this condemnation is further am plified by using words which mean: For whom is stressful strife? For whom is rage as well as ill-luck? For whom is bodily injury? And for whom is redness of eyes? ( Who through warped reason. S. In verse No. and emotional instability is a source of bodily injury.129 Had these people listened to the voice of reason. but with the knowledge that he would forbid the use of alcohol in the perfection of his faith. given by their religious scriptures. even death to others and himself .) we find a condemnation of the drunkards and the people are warned against keeping company with them.

. It is clear and fine in appearance. Verses Nos. In the book of Yulees . 32. Do not. Chapter I. the worhs are to the effect. which it displays in the bubbling goblet. In verse 20 is laid down the penalty for the drunkard which is no less severe than the stoning to death of the offender. "He is dignified in the eyes of his Lord. In the gospel of Lucus. "Wine is rose-red in colour. are to the effect. for there' is nothing but mischief therein. 31. "Do not get the intoxication of wine. Rather betake yourself to the joys of the soul". however. verse 15. Verse 18. for it bites as a snake in the end and lashes like a viper".130 ALCOHOL by his evil disposition). In the same context. we find. cast a look at it. Chapter V. He touches not drink or any other intoxicant He is overflowing with the light of pare spirit". All such misdemeanours are the portions of the person who is habituated to drink.

In countries where the evils of drink are being recognised in respect of its bearing on the bodily and mental health of the individuals and the moral and special implications of the same. which insists on the fundamental principle of all-reform -the reform .131 From the few references given above it will be seen that the revealed religions always looked with abhorrence on the evil of drink. great efforts are being made to control the evil. and powers of far-sighted observation. Prohibition. The right approach is that adumbrated by Islam. or they received the requisite guidance from their sturdy common sense. wherever tried. This has been the outlook of all sane persons throughout the ages. They never allowed their followers to touch the unnatural substance to satisfy an unnatural craving. Legislation is powerless as a preventive. has resulted in intensifying the evil. whether they bel onged to any of the great religions.

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of the soul- as pithily expressed by a great thinker, the soul of all improvement is the improvement of the soul. PUNISHMENTS FOR DRINKING IN ISLAM FROM JUDGEMENTS OF HAZRAT ALI (A.S.) THE HOLY MONTH OF RAMADAN It has been reported by Kulaini on the authority of Jabir that once the poet Najjashi was brought to Hazrat Ali (A.S.) with the accusation that he was found drunk during the holy month of Ramadan. The accusation when proved, Hazrat Ali ( A.S.) ordered for whipping the poet by eighty lashes which was carried out. The next morning the poet was ordered for another twenty lashes. When Najjashi asked Hazrat Ali (A.S.) the cause of the extra twenty

133 lashes, as the order of the Holy Quran in such cases was only eighty, the holy Imam (Hazrat Ali A.S.) replied: "Twenty for discarding the chastity of the holy month of Ramadan. THE FIRST CASE AFTER THE DEMISE OF THE HOLY PROPHET (S.A.) It has been reported by Kulaini on the authority of Hazrat Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (A.S.) that a case was decided by Hazrat Ali (A.S.) in such a way that it was never decided before and that it was the first case after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.). "During the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr, a man was found drunk and brought before the caliph, Hazrat Abu Bakr. The Caliph asked him as to whether he had drunk wine. In reply the man admitted to have drunk. The Caliph asked him

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"Why did you drink when it has been prohibited in Islam?" The man replied: "I am residing in the neighbourhood of some people who are habitual drinkers. Although I am a Muslim, but I have never heard that wine has been prohibited in Islam". Hearing this Hazrat Abu Bakr looked at Hazrat Omar with a question mark in his eyes. Hazrat Omar said "This is just one of the cases that no one else than Ali could decide". When the case was refered to Hazrat Ali (A.S.), he sent the man round in the city with some persons to ask the people as to whether any one had recited to him the verse of the holy Quran whereby wine was totally prohibited. And when it was proved that none had done so, the man was released with a warning never to drink in future", (also carried by Nasikhu

Hazrat Ali (AS) ordered for eighty whips each to the wounded and also ordered them to pay the penalty to the inheritors of the deceascd after deducting the penalty for their wounds. 9. be deducted from the total amount of . p-178) Vol. quarrelled among themselves and stabbed one another with the result that two of them died on the spot and two others who survived were wounded in the brawl. Buharij : p-483: Manaqib : Vol.13 5 t-Tawarikh: Vol 2. p-731. He also added that in case any of the wounded persons or both of them died then inheritors had nothing to pay to the inheritors of the murdered. A CASE OF PENALTY WITH REGARD TO DRUNKARDS Four persons drank wine. According to another report he said that the penalty was due from all the four tribes of of the persons concerned. 2. The amount of penalty which had to be paid to the wounded would however.

The Caliph (Hazrat Omar) wanted to punish him by whipping. 2. Qudama bin Mazoom drank wine. but if he repeats the crime for the fourth time he will be beheaded. p-200 through Abu Turab : p-227) DRINKING (Alcohol) According to an order of Hazrat Ali (A. (Qaza and Teha . twice or thrice he will be punished by eighty whips each time. p-162) DERIVING WRONG MEANING FROM THE VERSES OF THE HOLY QUR'AN During the Caliphate of Flazrat Omar.S.136 ALCOHOL penalty to be paid to the. inheritors of the murdered because it was quite possible that they might have murdered each other. Manaqib Shahr Aashob: No. but the accused Qudama recited the following verse from the Holy Quran "There is no harm if the believers and those who do good deeds eat and drink according .) if some one drinks once.

) asked Hazrat Omar as to how a person who does not care for the commandments of Allah could come under this declaration by Allah in the Holy Quran.S. Proceeding further Hazrat Ali (A. Qudama must offer peni- . Therefore.S. provided they continue fearing Allah and doing good deeds". Having heard of the above verse beautifully pronounced by Qudama as an argument in his favour Hazrat Omar forgave him and acquitted him of the charge of drinking.137 to their own choice.) heard of it. When Hazrat Ali (A. he said to Hazrat Omar "Qudama does not come under the definition of those who have heen mentioned in the verse in question and therefore certainly not under declaration madc therein as the very first words of the verse refers to those who do not lead a prohibited way of life and abstain from what has been forbidden by Allah.

S. the punishment for drinking if calculated in this way amounts to the same number of strokes by a whip i. He.S.) wanted to punish Qudama for drinking as he had already offered peni tence for deriving wrong meaning from a verse of the Holy Quran. As the punishment for slandering is eighty strokes of a whip. When Qudama heard of this he came at once and offered penitence.138 ALCOHOL tence.e. Hazrat Omar hearing this well argued point from Hazrat Ali (A. he does not remain a Muslim and has to be beheaded.) in the matter." .) explained it as under: "After drinking one becomes intoxicated and under intoxication one is addicted to slandering. otherwise.S. therefore consulted Hazrat Ali (A. but he did not know the number of blows of whip to be struck on the body of a person accused of drinking. eighty strokes. Hazrat Ali (A.

(5: 90) (iii) The Satan only desireth to cause enmity and hatred in your midst through intoxicants and gambling and keeps you away from remembering Allah and from prayer. idols) and divination by arrows. will ye then abstain (from them)? (5: 91) . in both these is great sin and also (some) profits for man. dedication of stones (i. so be ye away from it so that ye may be successful.e. 9. p-483).139 Hazrat Omar punished (Behar : Vol. but their sin is greater than their profit. Qudama accordingly FROM THE HOLY QUR'AN: (i) They ask thee (O' Prophet Muhammad) concerning wine and lots (gambling and games of chance). Say. are only an abomination of Satan's kandi-work. (2: 219) (ii) O' ye who believe: intoxicants and game of chance.

and that ye associate with Allah for which hath not been sent down any authority. Verily Allah is pardoning: Forgiving (4: 43) (v) Say: Verily did prohibit my Lord only shameful deeds.e. and that ye say against Allah what ye know not. or one of you come from the privy or ye have toched the women and ye find not water then betake yourself to clean (pure) earth and wipe (with it) a part of your face and your hands i. nor when ye are polluted. those apparent of them and those concealed and sin and rebellion without (any) right. until ye wash yourself and if ye be sick. unless ye be passing through. until ye know (well) what ye say.140 ALCOHOL (iv) O' ye who believe! approach not prayer when ye are intoxicated. make Tayammum. or on a journey.(7: 33) .

(ii) the distillate itself.141 FROM HOLY PROPHET (S. it is not pemissible to enter into . (iv) After the Divine ban on liquor through my words. comes under the heading Khamar (Alcohol) and its use is unlawful. (viii) the one who buys liquor. (iii) Anas bin Malik has repoted that the Holy prophet (S. (ix) the broker in the business of liquor (x) the one who makes use of the sale proceeds of liquor.) cursed ten persons in connection with intoxicants:(i) One who distills liquor. (iii) the one who drinks (iv) the one who offers liquor to others (v) the one who carries liquor (vi) the one for whom liquor is carried (vii) the one who sells liquor.A.): (i) Anything that intoxicates a person. (ii) Dealing in intoxicants is unlawful.A.

or to accept any testimony of him. indecencies and the symbols of Ignorance. on oath says. if he drinks wine in this world. (ii) Those who are always busy with magic. whether he be of the condemned or the forgiven. to ban the musical instruments. (v) The Almighty Allah has sent me (Holy Prophet) to be a Mercy to the universe. or to entrust him with any charge under an i mpression of his integrity. or to credit his statement. that He will make a person drink of the Hellish liquor. . for then Allah will not guarantee his faith. (vi) Three kinds of persons will not be able to enter Heaven:(i) Those who always drink wine. The Almighty Allah.142 ALCOHOL matrimonial relations with one. nor recompense anyone for it. who drinks liquor.

fourthly Allah Himself will disown him and fifthly he will enter headlong into the hell fire.1 43 (iii ) Those who are accustomed to break relations with relatives.S. Allah will not accept his prayer. secondly Gabriel. firstly: hard hearted ness. (ix) Whoever drinks liquor. (viii) NEVER DRINK WINE FOR IT IS A ROOT OF ALL EVILS. (vii) When somebody had the first sip of alcoholic drink Allah thereby put him on a series of five trials.) will repudiate him. Michael and Israfil and the whole lot of angels will forthwith disown him. .): (i) The drunkenness of overweening conceit and pride passes off more slowly than that of wine. thirdly the entire group of Prophets (A.S. FROM HAZRAT ALI (A.

bloodiness and unlawful actions like fornications and every kind of villainy under the influence of drink. and he comes to suffer from involuntary jerkings.S.) : One who drinks is as one who worships idols. because the vice of adultery did not incite the sinner to any other sin. . with his tongue protruded from his mouth. dripping saliva on his chest . To this he replied that he did. and worse than wine is lying. he takes to vice. The drinker will rise black-faced on the Doomsday. to man slaughter as also to forsake prayers.S.) was asked if he regarded drinking as a more heinous sin than adultery. Allah has fixed some locks to evil and the key to those locks is wine.a state which Almighty Allah is perfectly justified to place him in on the Day of Judgement.144 (ii) Hazrat Ali (A. while a drinker is led of to adultery. and losing all light manliness and magnanimity. to thieving. FROM HAZRAT IMAM JA'FAR-E-SADIQ (A.

stupefies conscience. What sense is there in this? THE COURSE OF INTOXICATION MR: W. it dethrones reason from its seat. and gives such power to appetite that physically as well as morally. . covers the wretch with rags. and leaves only the brute. GLADSTONE SAYS:The combined harm of the three great scourages-war. acts directly upon the nervous and the brain. SAYS:Alcohol poisons the vital cells of the body. judgement.LIBERATION FROM ALCOHOL BY ISLAM GOPSEL ADVOCATE SAYS:Statistics show that ten thousand people are killed by liquor and only one is killed by a mad dog. impairing one's higher faculties. SIR WILLIAM WILEOX. JAY SAYS:Drunkenness takes away the man.D. M. reduces wife and children to want and beggary. conception and control long before the last symptoms of drunkeness appear. yet we shoot the dog-and license the liquor.. ruins health wastes property. it is next to impossible to cure it. famine and postilence is not as terrible as that of wine drinking.

The End .S. SAYS:Alcohol lessons man's power of physical endurance. TOYNBEE SAYS:This spirit (of Islam) may be expected to manifest itself in many practical ways and one of these manifestations might be liberation from alcohol which was inspited by religious conviction and which was therefore able to accomplish what. KAY SAYS:The success of Islam in persuading its adherents to abstain from the use of wine is a notable achievement.R. PROF.C.M. blurs the judgement. delays recovery from fatigue. NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENT BY ISLAM DEVID M. F.S. K.SIR ALFRED PEARCE COULD. diminishes self-control.C..could never be enforced by external sanction of an alien law. ISLAM HAS SET AN EXAMPLE BISHOP CARPENTER SAYS:It (Islam) has set an example of sobriety to the world and has shielded its followers from the drink plague which destroys the strength of the nations. blunts the senses. retards nerve response. increases the ill-effect of great heat or cold. A.O.

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