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A comprehensive approach to contemporary keyboard voicings for the


7777 W. Bl.UIEMoUND

RO_ P.O~ BOX 13819





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About the Author Objective and Dedication Acknowledgements 2 4 4 5 6 8 13 15 17 19 25 31 37 40 43 .45 51 52 54 62


Foreword Chapter 1. An Overview of Traditional Jazz Theory Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Generic Voicings (and the "Rule of Thumb") Generic Voicings Workout Miracle Voicings Workout with Generic and Miracle Voicings .. ., Voicing Suspended and Altered Dominant Chords as Polychord Fractions Application of Polychord Fractions in the ii7-V7-1 Progression Voicings for the Blues and Other Common Progressions Voicings for Diminished and Half Diminished Chords and Half Step Preparation




Chapter 8. Chapter 9.


Chapter 10. Tritone Substitutions

Chapter 11. The Melodic Soprano Voice (Melodic Comping) Chapter 12. Sample Progression for Further Study Chapter 13. Glossary Chapter 14. Suggested Listening Chapter 15. A Semester's Syllabus for a Jazz Keyboard Lab Endorsements





The generic minor voicing serves the following minor family harmonies: minor triads, minor sixth, minor seventh, minor ninth, minor eleventh, and minor thirteenth chords. To construct the generic minor voicing, place the right hand fifth finger on the minor third and, following the format for generic major voicings, use descending intervals of the perfect fourth to construct the five-note chord. For an EMi9, we would start with the minor third and proceed as follows.

Ex. 2,8

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The chord produced is really an EMilI, a rough approximation of an EMi9, because the 9th is absent. Again, however, there are no offending chord tones, the "Rule of Thumb" is intact, and the resulting sound is tastier than the usual tertial (see Glossary) rendition of EMi9. -

Ex. 2,9

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Let's now look at the progression, GMa7, EMi7, CMa7, or analyzed in terms of diatonic scale steps, IMa7, vi7, IVMa7. Ifwe use generic voicings as follows, we can use the same 5-note construction for all three harmonies. The sound of each will be different as the bassist supplies the different tonics.

Ex. 2,10

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If we were playing the organ, we could sustain the same voicing and let the bassist "walk" across the different tonics. On piano, we would probably be obliged to play the same voicing with a rhythm stylistically appropriate to the nature of the tune, yet our goal of minimal motion be-tween adjacent harmonies is achieved while at the same time avoiding ..third city".

Generic Dominant Family Chords
Generic Dominant voicings function for sevenths, ninths, and thirteenth chords.
___ -

Building this category of chords requires a little more thought. The right hand begins as with generic major construction: Perfect fourths descending from the tonic or fifth of the given tonality. However, the left hand doesn't continue in fourths; but rather, plays the third and seventh of the dominant chord. The third and seventh are the most crucial tonal indicators of all the diatonic steps. For example, to playa F9 (or seventh or thirteenth), place the right hand fifth finger on the tonic and proceed as follows:


Ex. 2,11




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Similarly, the dominants, like the majors, can be constructed from the fifth descending.


Ex. 2, 12

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... Note that the tritone between 3rd and 7th signals solely the dominant tonality. The interval between the third and the seventh of major and minor family chords is a perfect fifth .


Ex. 2,13

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The tritone is reversed with the two different generic dominant constructions; when constructed from the tonic descending, the third is on the bottom. Conversely, when constructed from the fifth descending, the seventh is the lowest voice. When we approach cyclicaldominants, for example F7-B~7 or 17-IV7, we can construct the F7 from the tonic descending and the B~7from the fifth descending to obtain minimal motion between the two voicings.

Ex. 2,14

When voiced in this fashion, only the tritone indicators move while the right hand voices remain stationary. Again, tertiality has been avoided, the right thumb insures optimal sonority by observing the "Rule of Thumb, .. and minimal motion has been achieved between the adjacent harmonies.

Chapter 2 In A Nutshell:
1. Good sounding voicings that minimize voice leading between two harmonies. 2. "Detertialization" or restructuring of text book tertial harmonies.

Points to Remember
A. All Generic Voicings are 5-note constructions. B. Generic Majors have two constructions. They may be constructed from either the tonic or the fifth descending in perfect fourths. C. Generic Minors have one construction: all fourths descending from the minor third. D. Generic Dominants have two constructions. They may be constructed from either the tonic down or the fifth down. The top three voices are quartal with the 3rd and Dominant seventh in the left hand. E. Observe the "Rule of Thumb" (R.H. Thumb on the middle of the five tones played between middle C and Cl). If context requires the R.H. thumb to dip below Middle C, be certain that the tonic replaces the lowest voice of the generic construction. This will be explained later in more detail.

J oJ ~ ~ (~ Ex. " A.. 3.I'. 1 Ex. ~~ . (BbMa9).. F' 8. I've moved as little as possible to the Generic voicing of the F7 from the tonic down. Write and play the other sample voicings to acclimate yourself to the concepts of Generic Voicings and minimal motion between harmonies. Resolution to the I chord. • ~ ~ e...' 0" I Ex.I (-7 Ex. 3. : ! IfiIl_ A -i " mA From the generic construction of C minor (from the minor third descending). CIfI' _:A G£Ntl. A' ~ 4 (.. • Ex. Remember: move as little as possible and observe the "Rule of Thumb". Let's use Generic Voicings to construct a ii-V7-1 progression in Bb. 3..5 0' J . 3. 4 " D"" oJ Ent.' c' Am.Chapter 3: GENERIC VOICINGSWORKOUT Ex. I " R". We thereby have to move only one voice a half step..2 . 3. . I I • J 0" .3 . 3..e tiD/fIN'S #~ t ~ lIII_ oJ (7 4• 1/ ..1 L 1 The most frequently employed progression in j azz and commercial music is the ii-V7-I progression.~ F'If .. is obviously easiest when BbMa9 is voiced from the 5th descending. Answers on following page.6..4 ell "~ A c: £' AmA . iI... I_ - .

2 • . ~_4 " J D . tJ • .5 J. "JL ..14 ANSWERS Ex. "...$ ..". ( ~. 3.. _I_ J I Ir"I. ff E 'f "'. I :1 I 4 l1li" ~ .. _I_~_O ~ 1.tJ .. 3. Ex.+ L'" P+ .ILl " .!!!: 'I!~ A' DllfA4 wi--""'W..• L III' J~ J.

or '/2 step above the bottom voice.. In the case of Ex.. . (M. The tonic of the Lydian function is either a tritone from the top voice. S.. "A". P4th. For Ex. use the following method: 1.. The lowest voice in the construction serves as the tonic of the minor function.. . the from Lydian.. I) To construct M.t. 4. In this case. and they hell us in our goal of avoiding tertial voicings.-<. To find the tonic of the weak major function. I. i J In Lydian harmonies..I) Tonic F r'l " !. )hi" /. or 11th chord function. Like Generic Voicings. c/ • . P4th .. L~ ) ( ."'II!!? Miracle Voicing I (M. J ~ p1..1 KR You'll find the designation "Miracle Voicing" only in this book. 2. Chapter 4: MIRACLE VOICINGS Ex... is V2 step above the top voice. In this case.. start from any given tone (I've arbitrarily chosen an "E") and descend using the following intervals: Major third.2 -~ To locate the tonic to be used for the various harmonic functions... 4.1: "F".-. use the second voice from the top of the construction as the tonic (root). #4... 4.! 7- C A S. Miracle Voicings are five-note chord constructions. "B~". - . 4... 3. or #11 is the most poignant tone as it is the only scale step which differentiates Majoi . To fmd the tonic of the suspended dominant.1. F+ _. V.. " As mentioned. I LoY I~ J L.V.. M~t~ r:.V. P4th. The "miracle" aspect of these voicings is that thei each accommodate five different harmonic functions (depending on which tone is used as the tonic). Harmonic functions of Ex. The tonic of the strong major function. we can use this construction to accommodate five different harmonic functions: Strong Major (3rd and 7th present) Weak Major (7th not present) Minor Suspended Dominant (11th chord) Lydian . . 4.I...r D /I tIJ Bb ttL{ Ex.rL _sri ). 4. use the second voice from the bottom. ··C"...1.t...

The 2nd voice from the bottom is the tonic of the minor function. the tonic of the Lydian function is a tritone from the bottom voice. II. . Since the Generic Major voicing from the 5th descending is also identical to M. The root of the Lydian function is a tri-tone from the bottom voice. 1 Minor. 5. II. The middle voice is the tonic of the 11th chord or suspended dominant function.4th above the top voice. Tonic G E A F c To locate the tonic of the 5 various harmonic functions. The top voice is the root of the weak major function. It is a 5-note construction. "F'. Generic Major and Minor. the tonic will be a P. and 1 Lydian. built entirely from perfect fourths. 2. V. proceed as follows: 1.16 Miracle Voicing II (M. H. "C'.V.V. (Identical to Generic Major from the tonic descending). Conversely. "A". In this example. 4. This construction is also identical to the Generic Minor with the minor third scale step as the top voice. In this case "G". fl. This is the strong major function since both the 3rd and 7th are present. II) Miracle Voicing II is identical to our old friends. I Suspended Dominant. Note that for M. In this case. "E". Let's arbitrarily start from a "G" and descend in fourths as follows. I the tonic of the Lydian function is a tritone from the top voice. Like M. In this case. 3.V. 2- S Let's now find the tonics (roots) of the five different harmonic functions. L. M. L. In this example.V.I.V. for M. Strong Major (3rd and 7th present) Weak Major (7th not present) Minor Suspended Dominant (11th chord) Lydian Harmonic functions of M. II.II serves five different harmonic functions: 2 Major.V.

I and M. Minors.1 Dm. Ir£svoice some sample progressions bearing in mind the "Rule of Thumb" and minimal moticm. There are two miracle voicings designated as M_V.V. II.6 I " :]I J . 5.2 ( Am. I and M.between adjacent harmonies. ll. JIll _A J { - I # . Chapter 5: "WORKOUT" WITH GENERIC AND MIRACLE VOICINGS Using only Generic Majors. .V. 5. 5.. Ex. . . Dominants. D. M. 5'~L JIll D"' t ~ J ftc J ~ { Ex.Chapter 4 in a Nutshell: A. Remember that approximations of chord qualities (e. Ex. V. ~ Ex.g. V. ftc ~' J . both are five-voice constructions. C.1 JIll FmA' t .5 '" J ~ ( S'N' AIfI.3 Ex. 5. . I . CMiII for a desired CMi 7) are permissible as long as there are no chord tones present which are not members of the parent scale/mode of the given harmony. andM. Miracle Voicing I has a major third between the top two voices.. Otherwise it is a quartal construction. 5. Each Miracle Voicing serves five different harmonic functions depending on which tone is employed as the tonic. B. .~ . II is constructed entirely of perfect fourths." ( FMI Ex.

t r:. 'THE.~ f' ~ C ~ R"" (I 04 "mA1 -<ilL M.6 ~".3 _A Sb't. 'TONIC.m." (JII.1 _A F~ A ~ MI II &'. r..) ND"f(.. .f. 5th~ 4 M. 5ih" Oil 1'i£U. 1. ". 6&.J . -(DNIL. 6bJ.5 . ( M. Ol>trI.II.ll 61:.II.ll a£ flAl.I/. _ G. ftW/{! . (Mftt..V..n..ULE. • . ~ M.'oJ...u.. P£ M..OOI)'1.. OeKl...9 ~~mA' + M. L~P D8. 5th~ Dolt.l1 6~. v. M. 5. 5.1 5. IIt. I' cJ ~m~q oJ ".V.V..MM. (iEJJ.. 4 :c.Q.4 Dbq Q~fJ S~'IJ' II II e: pq A~"" f -J ~ ( -! AI.18 ANSWERS Analyze the step-wise or intervallic motion of the root movements of each preceding progression and then transpose the progressions to other keys._ filE.. . e».. om.V. OIL 11 -roAIIL. M.J./' A~ t'~ 5... l ~G!N. MIo1.U!/E...j..'f Sb...V.1 oIi. lifIl... . 13 -tD (. 'fJJ.OoM.. :r. ~... Dom. 61<JJ.~ CIl R"" II 'OM I II ~f' . U ot: THuma . 1illm: ~ :r: 6iJIJ... :I: 6.ll m. 1- M.V. M.v.. liEN.J!.V....s.. 5. ~ M.2 II . MA:!. DJl M..II.1J~A.v. D. ~~ DOm. 1DNI'-~ S 1J. '" h* G. oJ .. 8L1'Wu.IflA.M1.611 II £. -rile.V. CWf 5."..1C &€.. ~. . M.W.N.e. GttN.. Gt&V. ~ M.

the ninth or sixth (13th) may be added in performance thereby enhancing. S.g. 9ths. 19. Tritone indicators for dominant family chords are Ma 3rd and dominant seventh (the interval between these two tones is a tritone) with the exception of 11th chords (suspended dominant chords) where the third is absent. It is not an altered harmony. Dominant family chords: 7ths. Alterations to be covered: bS. and any inversion. 4.#5 or b13. b9. All chord tones are in the Mixolydian diatonic system. etc. and 13ths as interchangeable. Desired harmony I. first inversion. for ex. or 111. Let's begin by redefining the terms used: 1. or second inversion is equally functional as the "numerator" or top half of the polychord fraction.e. "x" is any given tonality.Chapter 6: VOICING SUSPENDED AND ALTERED DOMINANT CHORDS AS POLYCHORD FRACTIONS 1 Don't be intimidated by the title of this chapter. or bottom half of the polychord fraction. 2. In other words. 2. 9ths. F. The "numerator" triad ontop is always a major triad. root position. ED. Let's start with the one exception. from the chord quality. xU or x7sus Fraction ~VII I Example Implementation Db C CII This harmony is the one exception for two reasons: 1. and possible combinations of altered tones. 3. hence the tritone indicators for the denominator are not applicable. The Ma3rd and dominant 7th are the only mandatory chord tones for the denominator. when we see a chord symbol designation of a 7th. and 13ths.. (11th chords are unique because in application the third is replaced by the 4th or 11th scale tone). Alterations are diatonic scale tones which are chromatically raised or lowered (altered). Only in rare instances may we not take the liberty to consider 7th. To voice these altered dominants we're going to think of two harmonies stacked one on top of the other like a fraction: numerator denominator n 17 G F1 General information and explanation of symbols used 1. The Roman numerals in the fraction refer to the major scale steps of the ''x'' tonality. i. to create new sounds or "tensions". The concept here is as easy to assimilate as Generic and Miracle Voicings were in the previous chapters. B. The third is not used in application. (b9JbS). 3. 2. . e. the 11th chord (or suspended dominant). not detracting.

D !A.MDAif P'IIIINAAIf'S: .<.J (III) -b bI ~~ Z1I p .AlfUlD PE. the obvious choices for the two representative tones of denominator are the tonic and fifth.2 '4lY4. Vl. X' (~. x? (4*') 1 C 1(If) ~.1 • [1. 7 TT If 1 1"'\1 . 6. 7 --.HD#.lI__ %. conceptualizing the 11th chord as bvp instantly gives us the best voicing. ' (hI) )( "" K. it is sometimes necessary to reverse the tonic and fifth in the left hand.1 (b~ (.mlJJr"'4AJ C/. 6.) O. Note that in the 1st and 2nd inversion spellings of Ex.20 However.2 lists the polychord fractions to be used for other altered dominant chords.. that all inversions of the major triad based on thebvn scale step (B~)are equally functional. 1 +1" ..SIRtO I4AI.. l I ~ u -~ -J ~61f. Example 6.f. -b- * ··C" has arbitrarily chosen as the x tonality since most of us first learned the C scale and therefore feel at home in "C".(f~ -fr-¢ ~ 8.. . In the case of C1I.I.1.J a .) C'J{bf) C!~1('~ a- x (t~Xf {19) ~_ ' 7 -fr V. because the third is deleted and the seventh is already present in the numerator triad. Wide intcrvallic "gaps" between the two hands should be avoided in the interest of sonority....c.. Ex..l.l" A.Amp(.(t. In order to keep all voices as compact as possible. the tonic is now above the fifth in the left hand..sWJ I~...AClrI4IJG F4A. I t. -r Note in Ex.:. 6.~A~fI4AJ !.DN ~b·. Ex.:y 77 1""e. \. X..

. .1('II): e v. 1 • • -_ Roof ~. "- ::. 1!~ l~~..... RDdf PoStflati. ....'n" ~"V' ··:W·IJ 2ND . PDSrtiOilJ '" .31ON ._ :. . 6. . :If'f v I /1 " 5 c..~ ? "- e..·u. ~ ? .. ..II I .. a....- Let's voice the preceding: Ex..:.'1 ... " t I ·ft.:g'ON[f'.~ ~ W_ . A . It . 7" + Isr IN"UStON~ 7fU 1 • In.. I KDof Pos r n allJ v "- \ d...3_.1AIvfR.. r .

V1' 7 -nt. the denominator triad does not include the 7th designation since the 7th scale tone is already present in the numerator triad...I'J UI'It. VJII L" .~ ~ mfir'l se. we may substitute the tonic for the doubled note in the Left Hand.7 - ? 'l1 :J' ? 7f THE. "Th£. .5 JI I .. . 1f~ _v m'l{ SE.. IJi. Ex. In all examples the denominator (L.: . 141AD..LSjO~ 'lvD ~ ----.. 6. bm .UAD Y Pf"f. the third and the dominant seventh.40. -J ~ 'II" -a.4) ----..H. . "'0 /WOlD OOIlBUNct. " . When the third and seventh are already present in the numerator triad. b~ r- e.3b and c. J TN 1tIUMi1t1rfD" ..._ UOIC£D.E.A 0'( PR. VOle£[): :!AJ1Jl. . Ex. .Nl4mUMoR.(..~ Id' e of'~ . IWMUJl1M.) triad are useable.-p -f-R '..S£.-HllIII DOM &...J "} th. 1'UL ~fa IlU.-. 2.3a-e.. In examples 6..4 c.H..q = % It U ) bE :: " -J J# _.I.. all possible inversions of the numerator (R. •~ bo .E:. Note in the examples 6.lI~ "~fI. .22 1.. 6.£SEPf IN 'f'1U. ""n"W .) triad is represented by the two strongest tonal indicators.. fAf a£R . blJ -f! ---a- 3. I ...Rlt.

5 . :r. 3. £1. All. E. Ab13(#II). . s: D Num. F#9sus. .. A IA ~ ? 3 fttftC110tJ :r.+7(#9)..jq) ::mcl the Abl1tb(}) l!i:. 2. For example. Minimal motion between adjacent harmonies. I've used E Major triad for the DIll numerator triad rather than the theoretically correct FD Major to avoid double flats..6 NUtrlfR.L ? . FII. 6. G7(b9!b5). the root position ED triad moves to the C b Major triad in the first inversion by simply moving the top two tones a 112 step in opposite directions.O~tf'il ~!i:... B~13(#11).. C7t?9.- A:t:I f V" a b$ ~. E13(~). F 11.Gi ---I II For the D~7(#9) above. . in the first harmony. Notice the minimal movement between the numerator triads. D7(#9). The "Eb" is common to both harmonies. Random altered dominants and suspended dominant chords. hJH~ Mnt-inn hPtuT_n thE> n7 .+ b][_ + '7 4- 3 7 1+) '". 23 Ex. The right hand plays the numerator triad.. m:.I . Ex. ~..1.7 ...'1 F7 :I[ 6i TDi 1If.. F7t?5). D07(#9). A1~ " Z .5). oth n h ~ !It S1EP uP n and AD use enharmonicallv . P. 6. The "Rule of Thumb". ~ " J f . the left hand plays the denominator..Let's now attempt to voice random altered dominant chords and 11th chords as polychord fractions bearing three factors in mind: I..

.. Expendable chord tones are hereby deleted. __Il___IZ . s M_ • II "t.. D13(#11).....:'. G7(~9). BD 13(#1I). " Ia. Memorize the 6 polychord fractions and review them until the association between the fraction and the desired harmony are automatic.8b. ". For example..• :Yo :r. Random suspended and altered dominants. Paying heed to the "Rule of Thumb" and the concept of "minimal motion". .Jll[ E. should the third or seventh be present in the numerator triad.. I _Q__"I' Jil . In recapitulation. ~ " (I I" • " ? "1 '• P't '1 A .+J. Root and fifth serve for the L. . '1 e rl I 011 IE. U_ '1 _a . remember: 1. Two Answers: I..:[. However. Suspended dominant chords are not altered dominants.1~ __ .... 5 .. voice the followingprogressions.. thumb lower than Middle C. Because root position... jIt -"-_hi I' " __iii A" _W1'" I I I.~ p \t~ ''IP -r . . .... or when aR.~ ~ . 2. _y 7 a. the tonic may replace the doubled tone in the left hand (denominator). Tritone indicators (3rd and 7th) may function for all altered dominants as the representative tones for the left hand (denominator).): ~_f.A . :L _~ 2 II '" ---"'I.... ? J ht. ~"'__ .. B13(~9). 8p tnnp.. E7(~9/~5) ~um. 2.. 4 [)1i1 II? £. 7 b. b ~* .Q...•• • • - . b I 611 A :1L .1 ~ .~7(b5).8a.H. A7(~9fi. .Q.E9sus D7(~9f1. D 1 u.II'K r. . denominator. :.... your voicings are equally correct.. we instantly have a guaranteed state of the art sounding 5-note construction for the desired harmony.the (~11) alteration should ultimately trigger a mental response of g. 1LA.I _O_ I"____"'_ . -~--. .-. 6. .5) 6..5). 1..__. but offers a palatable solution.FlI.1 11 11 ).H..5 H-~ w ~.. first inversion.. ._ . however... <tf1( tI_ ___I!: Of I (I 7 ~ 0£IJfIm..'. 1. F7(#9). By using this method of voicing. . JI =f.H. D~9(#11).. C+ 7(#9). ~7(~9fi....1_.<1 tinnhl". the polychord fraction concept Of~~lI not only works.. only one answer will be offered If you've moved as little as possible and adhered to the "Rule of Thumb".-. D~7(# 9). '«III' IN. _-• :r: F ~ I Nil"'...D I 1t1 P .5). A7(#~). and second inversion triads could feasibly place the right hand thumb within the confines of middle C to C1. fRAC:fII. B~9sus.H~ ! b.ff.:: ::m: E.b -. n e: ." IL+ '5 3 _L . C7+(#9). 24 Why Polychord Fractions? __ .. P ~ 5 . 1 ".: __ When the "Rule of Thumb" has been broken by placing the R...

e MAtt GtN. z L~ IN ~ -II " . Ex. By playing Ex. Let's alter the dominant V7 to include the alteration (~9)..If'Lf. OA..1 if' .V • .ioIt!tfIL e.%'.v. The voice leading of the soprano voice has more sense of motion and resolution than in Ex.1 shows generic and miracle voicings employed for a ii7-V7-1 in Bb.2 Ac:nuu. RcruAt. 7. UMJaoIJ1: D"II " PllAI(!. we are now capable of voicing familiar progressions with some degree of sophistication. I[ Ex. m».. 7." J.It.. Ex. 7.2. the voicings will be 5-note constructions.. 7. 7. As before. liaJ.". Ift.n: HI.Chapter 7: APPLICATION OF POLYCHORD FRACTIONS IN THE ii7-V7-I PROGRESSION 25 With the addition of Polychord Fractions as altered/suspended Dominants to our harmonic vocabulary. (This topic of the melodic soprano voice leading will be addressed later in Chapter 11.. which adhere to the "Rule of Thumb" and the principle of minimal motion. .5th' -. and resolution from the altered V7 to the I sounds more convincing than in Ex.r II!" oJ If ~ L T ':t F" 7 .) 2.2 4 . 1"0 .l)Dm... The fraction is or in this case F 13(b9).1 due to the descending chromaticism of the line. we notice a couple of new favorable tonal bonuses: 1.. The descending parallel triads in second inversion in the right hand create a smooth aural effect. 7. ~: Ptt. Yi. USED: M. let's now play II-V-I's using various alterations for the dominant V7. fYlM.1 be- . .mlll uSE. 5th.!A' 8"mA q mM..6 >ftj 3 -t S' .I.::t. With voicings we've learned in this book.

it will be advisable to supply roots for the dominant V7 and major I in the bottom voice as the right hand thumb dips below middle C.. i . " A 15 (H) ..? JIIIi ~tJ blJ I.. 7..) 1 1111 . II' . !~ ~:~ S'".'J(W) ..' U.Eb13(b9) .FI3W~) .. I o inA 1(7 .. Ex.!he root of the I Major triad becomes the root of the minor ii7 chord.) C MA q .r_ " • ' .. + l'Ia.. . OJ /:~.' t IJ { e: MA ~ ...... " . B~Mi 11 .. Abmi l l etc. ..&. PIAY£D IfAND AS TII£ UIAJ£1r y~ f (. "10'1 btl l1li" E.(.. .'rl"/I1~ I' IA) ..~. 7.£ ~ S£'INIIINfA 1iJ.IL + I. ~.lULl i.26 To practice this progression in all keY~. D I. • -'!- ~:~ ~.1i::t -J l II" JI_ J60_ loa ..." "111.1) SmA4 " t. 1 ~ " . ~ II' • 8At /'(/11.If .' + a "M..... ~ ~ /1 II.B~Ma7. P7 CI' I. For ex.. c:. *+ IL G •• I'''' p~ . CMi 11 .. " . Note that as this sequential progression descends...3 II 111'1 -~ CIH/' F "(11."I II .. I' :.1'1I f/lll Practice the other six keys in similar fashion..4 elm.H.:~ ~.~'~.0".....Af . ..AbMa9. I ... "..".).... .4 =rP (I ~I'... .. ~ ( · · . l.. ... .DAJ'U IAI iFF ur 1'PAlIC$ $II~"'D 8i.." p".. . " 1-~11(~. .-11£ UPf All Ex." &" (. J ..

.!. \ 4. MM. . (1J.. ~? .. Bb.. Fll. O{l£t A a~'l"tCA" l(E.... "b l. (f C. This insures that the theoretical principles behind the voicings are memorized and that the hands are not reliant on mechanical motor memory. PL.. • 'I . Db.. -.3 and 7. G. - *:~ ~ if.B..t S"QIJ... 7.~:~ Jr#: ....3 7 # .J • • I ~. 7.. Gt" I!l II!: A IlAu~Q"" J(£J 5f. D IS C. j Ex...'mt" c. A. oR.5 A JIoo _ .. HAIltn·.:.... A".. . ".... ~ •.I in the following sequence: C..c ..4 in other randomly selected key sequence~ For ex.c.5 offers the same progression (ii-V7-I) with the same dominant alteration ~9}..JI.4cruAL. .5 in all 12 keys following both a cyclical and random key sequence. but with a different soprano voice leading..# ~ . Eb. .l. Pq WA I " '1 ./' ("If) F·1 . D. F.6 (7 . ..»- . • • • .. . A&. 7.. Ex.~ + • ovu.V13(b9) . Ex. + ..(. M.I/.f) Gt ~ tJ I..ffl(" ~.. 11'1'11 ". D .£. E.~ GEN.1:1 J . i Practice these ii-V7-I's shown in Ex. L-'~ l ) #_ .£AJ") S.: J( ("fA~) Practice 7.V.'*~~ .!_.. 7. practice iiI I .) GWq Pit..) tn. .flflJCE) r... .1 *~ zr. .

.10) for the theoretical assimilation. _. 7.: M. IS J7' • ~VI Ex.#5)."" ...IAL.. I) I .. LJ ~ _ . H. 7. Our polychord fraction for this alteration ... I ~ " ~~ * . ~...8 AC.28 Let's try a ii-V7-I with another dominant alteration (#9. . . L .It!! 1+ d" !"I' . and a random key sequence (Ex.PLf... e tn. ~" Ie~ l. .. Practice this progression until it is "ingrained". l l . 7.. /I GaJ-r.. 6 mll9 51#.. V. . II IU~ J t" '" .lI.9) for motor memory. Utilize both a cyclical key sequence (Ex. " . JI. ~ M. I.11. P~~.~:I: ~~ 4- -~~a.. :~ !I~ of .. .4Rh1.

Al. Eb.: M. . 13 demonstrate.. r oS: . I .~ -J ':JI ~ _.'~(*I'). and its tonal properties (tensions) do not require a resolution..t__. the dominant (#9) and dominant (JII) are (to borrow a baseball analogy) free agents. Similarly.. F.. /I l.12 Ex. 7.U't. ACT.ID 3 " A /tiL 1/ .s: II. . D. ? . they do not require resolution to a tonic.. The dominant alterations (#9) and and 7. ..I :III. Db.. ~ Practice Examples 7. C. however. By the nature of their sonority. mA3_ oR.:: cd. 7. different from the other alterations in as much as their tonal properties do not require resolution.V .13 _oS: as examples 7.. Go. . hl.. dh .. . % IN "e ..J1 fJ .3 -~! RAil II Ir A . 'I .11a and b like the previous examples in this chapter.II. HAM!: PItJNi!lnL: AnI! " 1(*") M..12 11 if' . mi M. JIL IfJ ~ Iii" --'f ~ . Ab.\I. _1+ D 'I ~ I!J ..I in the following keys: G.).. 3 _4. are self-sufficient harmonies that may function in a tonic capacity themselves..10..} M. 7.1 5th" The dominant alterations of (#9) and 1) are..I/.%'~f)_ % 7_ IfJ ~ ttea " ~ ~ 1:1 H'-·r. B..IIb Jill. E.f WI Ex. ..1 !!. ID -- .. 5 +J.. M. ~y equally is Ex. "J1_ D~(~) bmAtJ fiE AI• Mit!.11a If '.<I. _D .V7{119/~5) . Cyclical: ii7 .. both over a cyclical and random key sequence.4M1: :rr.ilIl 12_ .::r GEIJ. ~ (lit.. A. H.&" .. 11 r • .. S#. .. .v. M. The negation of this V-I dominant-tonic relationship is evident in the jazz standard Maiden Voyage by Herbie Hancock.._ tJ . (# 11) could be used in a ii7-V7-I progression Ex. 7. I &£"k mAr. the first chord in Coltrane's Blue Trane is the tonic E07 with the alteration (~9). or use that of Ex.3 . but rather. ~ .. the suspended dominant or 11th chord is also harmonically independent. ? ':MI'~ Q_ . :sO Random: Invent your own sequence. 1[" Gt"'A' D 13 (III) .'~. • The dominant alteration ( ~9105) which is accommodated by the polychord fraction as functional in a ii7-V7-1 progression .l-l- fle'f.1L ~7 GmA' Gf. In other words. For example.7.V.v.n • Iff• II PI2 JtJCIPLE.I"+'" n"'.

.14b ~ :tDbH'1c. ".. The B section begins with a harmony of E" sus followed by D~ill. 4 bars ofD9sus are followed by four bars ofF9sus.em: PR. Another point of interest concerning the suspended dominant chord: the voicing will be identical to that of ii7 voicing in a ii-V7-I progression. good luck. the minor ii.~. I .I/ • J:. IM.d' 3 I!J ~ 1.-:l Q .IAl~IPLL: "" " M. 3. MRJ. c.. we don't have a cyclical V . YJ D9!1:t5 Polychord fraction Polychord fraction ~i ~YJ #9/#5 The other alterations.V. the same chord spelling serves two functions. .1:t>&I1" I cAL.. 2.I).. + Ik-r. Again. the best alterations for the dominant in the ii7-V7-I progression are: a.".. DtJ .mAJ . .l. bfJJ. You will cross paths with ii-V7-I's every day of your musical lives unless you choose to pursue a career of atonal or serial performance. the aural sense of tension/resolution between the dominant and the tonic is not as apparent as in the cases of the aforementioned. However.7.W. A . "9 Polychord fractions b. '][ If the principle of minimal motion between adjacent harmonies is observed as in the above examples. and the "free agent" status of the suspended dominant (Ll th) chord has been validated.." . . and the suspended dominant V.l1 M.m " 0" M. I ~ /I L-r ~_ A: ~ . If this be the case.7.. The bass player would supply the different tonics... -r 4M. Remember because of the "tensions" which aurally suggest a resolution.r.. .V.~III. II .lI( " A .A1. limAi OIl . M.5 ~ 1/ " A r . Practice repeatedly the ii7-V7-I progressions shown in this chapter. GEJ. '1.14a _A_ 01 " .5th ~ 01{ J[ ffll M..qq 6. s-. Acquaint yourself with the various polychord fractions for the altered and suspended dominants. #9 (bVI) and #11 {g) as well as the suspended dominant (WP) may be used.rr. Devise a method to drill yourself on these fractions until they are automatic. O~ A DU 6m. but rather.1(/1· .30 In the A section. In Summation: 1. Ex.. Ex. The root movement is obviously not cyclical (V .I root relationship. I IN ..V..I/.~ .

to mention a few. ... Kenny Drew.a.g...1 and all subsequent exercises in all twelve keys.1: .. r- l f. . tr. Ex.. e.l1. Dbl3 liZ ~. ~ i: 8 ~..~ rJ L b. Please note that some rhythmic ingenuity must be employed by the jazz pianist with the suggested voicings. ...'£ Practice Ex. Listen to the respected masters of the art of comping.. in order to familiarize yourself with styllistically correct comping. We can play the basic blues in "A~" (three chord progression) with only generic dominants .. ~~ . Let's now use combinations of Generic Voicings. " ].. bf 17 Ib ... ~* 1 t J ... Miracle Voicings. Wynton Kelly. Red Garland. 8..- • J ~* l 7"1 ~:S: ~ JJ_ . . Comping repeatedly on beat one is one of those unwritten cardinal sins and is guaranteed to annoy your colleagues on the band stand.~ . 7 - - .. rather than simply playing each voicing religiously in each bar on beat one.~"p. ~ . Chapter 8: VOICINGS FOR THE BLUES AND OTHER COMMON PROGRESSIONS . • IJ ...... Herbie Hancock.1 II l. . and Polychord Fractions to voice various blues progressions. ~i V /D ~i /I ~* . 8. f.. I It .

notice that the soprano voice remains unchanged (glued) throughout the entire progression.~III ... with more variety than the basic three chord version shown in Ex.32 Ex..3 . 8. 8.. 8. ...a... More importantly. II G. A I I. Ex..VI .. '.- '" II!! . Ex. 1 .. . v:::r v • '. HAiM: PftIAlelPLL~ " I.I ~ 1Jl!1.l-l7 __ _'\ I.2 is a blues progression in EJ:.£1 1+ Q ""+ I ..I..I .Q. fa - . ~~ P.£ Note that beginning in bar 7 we have the cyclical changes..os f .~II) in the last two bars. 111 " "J' .... l' I' ." ( :IJq ) '1 la 1/ 'I .Yo with bars 8-10 using altered or suspended dominants. ~t'A 'I . L t .4~ . ._ r_~ '" .P. _\ . III" .3 alters the blues progression even more with alternate II-V's and the "Coltrane turnaround" (I .. • 7 ~ ~~* '=: i C -i' . \_ U&' L I I ill ~ 1. q ~:n: 1. _ . 8.II .~VI . 8. 1'£ L . Ex.+ IS..V .2 .1. tI I.

there's no ground for anxiety even if there were one million possible blues progressions. By tying all identical adjacent soprano notes. as long as we're aware of minimal motion... h' . We would just simply and logically use our harmonic vocabulary (Generic Voicings.. and Polychord Fractions) to accomodate the desired harmonies.Notice that the voicings of the chords in progression 8.5 I = ¥ J. Let's now tackle the project of comping for a tune which doesn't use a blues progression. 8. and the new concept of melodic soprano voice leading.. Observe another prerequisite for successful comping: the logical melodic contour of the soprano voice. JJ)J ~ CmAq '1 j. Ex.. A Dan Haerle handout lists 16 Blues progressions with the footnote "Portions of these progressions could be combined with each other to combine hundreds of slight variations of the above. Sb1 J]) l J J I J. J J I . Tad Dameron's Ladybyrd. /J /s ... we derive the following: 33 Ex. -----:...3 move with minimal motion between adjacent harmonies and that the "Rule of Thumb" is in effect. Miracle Voicings." However. 8.iltJi:'" II . Cliff 1 If LAO'r'8YfD " By Tad Dameron pt &J jii 1 J... "Rule of Thumb" .4 I r r I~rr I There are numerous other blues progressions...

. "(.I L 7...V I!I .I'IM1SJ. ~. Bear in mind that songs in lead sheet form. I M.6.qb'. 8. It is therefore the pianist's option.. M.~ 'i· 'I' . fa ~ . VO. 7 ~.V.I fi. The pianist may add extensions or altered tones only to the extent that they do not clash with the melody.1# . ~A." A G J .lI.JL .I bl' . + II .~ II!'L " nrl'll II It.. ~ ".. if not responsibility.L I AL!1UAL fltINe."or + ~ . consideration must be given to the melody. F ml L A '"' 1 D' • DII" 1 a' .. "'.7 . GptN J 11 e"'A' " P"U.eINilS F='lMI'1 I" .v.tPLt: '*"': " M. generally employ the simplest harmonic possibility for the chord symbol.8~ .V. I eM A .ADVSYIlD 51 ~7 1/ C!itA' ~ s~1 " By Tad Dameron L-i~ II "" e. Ex. a single line melody with accompanying chord symbols. ba . . . Of course...34 Ex.6 offers a successful way of voicing the chord symbols to Ladybyrd.. 8. 0"') M.:I. N. CmAfI (~IM" . . "'A .b7 I" . to embellish or sophisticate the given harmony.e..lI. i.

II) from the tonic descending supplies a C6/9 in approximation of the desired CMa 7.V. is C Major. ED7. Bar 3: The M. F triad to E triad offers a nice tonal effect. For the EhMa7. we see that the melody lands on the non-diatonic "E". I've taken the liberty to alter the lead sheet harmony. Bar 15: M. The fraction here is or E~7' Tritone indicators (3rd and 7th) suffice for the denominator. 8.V.e. Bbmil1.while the right hands moves as little as possible from the preceeding construction in bar 7 to the nearest F Major triad. V. Bar 2: y. I've opted for the nearest G9sus(F/G) since the ingredients (D. This avoids a potential "tonic clash" with the bassist.V. A. I've moved to the nearby Generic Major. The Polychord I~ for the altered dominant Db 13 (#11) offers more tonal tension than a major voicing. we can employ the polychord fraction to accomodate both melody and hannony. g Bar 5: Simply for variance with bar 1.5.V. i. in bar 8. of Thumb". The polychord fraction Yi is a high tension dominant alteration which makes the resolution in the next bar aurally gratifying. C. 5th descending. Rather than have the soprano voice leap from the "D" in the previous bar to an "F" above (Generic Minor construction for Dmi) or to an "A" below (M. which can either be analyzed as D5or#11. R Bar 9: Here's the Generic Major construction for the ADfrom the 5th descending. Bar 1: M. Bar 14: Once again.V. The parallel descending motion of the Right hand triad from the previous bar. I've substituted the root for the Major seventh as the lowest voice. the melody lights on the # 11 while the basic harmony is dominant. F. Bar 4: Referring to bar 4 of Ex.V.5 to check the melodic symmetry between bars 4 and 8. Generic major constructions either from the tonic or the fifth descending would have functioned equally as well for the first bar .I (weak major) would have been closer to the previous harmony.V. V. I in the strong major function with the Ma7th as the sopnno voice.. B. Bar 10: y. G7. Bar 13: The G9sus (FIG) is the first radical deviation from the original harmony. strong function) necessitates the least movement. it would also be possible to keep the M. The main motive behind selecting the alteration (D9)was twofold: A. Since the chord symbol for this bar (BD7)is a dominant construction. Tritone indicators D (3rd) and AD(7th) represent the denominator 17.I (weak major function) accommodates the ADMa7 while adhering to the "Rule .II is justified by the stronger sonority.I minor function). Bar 8: Refer to Ex. As this chord is constructed in a lower (but allowable) register of the keyboard. Generic Major (M.I voicing for the duration of the bar since it functions for both ADand Db Major. Bar 12: D7 is voiced as a Generic Dominant from the tonic descending (D9). II Major triad in the key of aj. However. Again. M. Bar 16: M. I Fmi 11 was obtained by simply moving all 5 voices of the preceding harmony up 112 step. 8.. Bar 11: The closest minor voicing from the previous is M. G) ofa Dmi l l and a G9sus are identical. Bar 6: y. Bar 7: Moving all 5 voices of the Generic Major C6/9 in bar 5-6 up 1f2 step gives us a close approximation of B1mti7. but the ever-so-slight jump to M.V.I (AmilI).I as the resolution to the I (C Major.

• • • • " fItI..MI. . 8. • . . ~ u!- • ·~~i {II" 1"'1 t ~ ( ''I.. Ex..{ /I M "J' ""'" .1II. l. ... • .... .lI ~... (iJ "'!Ii ~ • ~ '!Ii ~ • . 8. b~· Practice Ex. ~ _Il_ .1 . .I • IA < ~. ~ .7 JI -I_ "J... ".I ..AD'Igf'1I1J " l'1li.' J " S " ~ ~ ~ - " t'" ~ • M ....6. _ .'" L A "ti I/ 'l' 7 ~ 1 IC.. ~ ~ r'm. \ .. By Tad Dameron Ex.'Sf 12. "-~ ..L ...7 supplies the only missing ingredient to make our comping rendition of Lady byrd sound like that of a master: rhythm.. .. but with your own rhythms. However."A~ .lJ . ~ v• ~ _j_. ~-I" r"\D -.36 Obviously. . or like "you wrote it"... "''ItI~• . in performance the preceeding bar by bar analysis and execution must happen spontaneously.... " ... Using the same voicings quoted in Ex..~-'" . .1 ~. " 1II.. • • ~ • • • . A "". .I _"" .. l'1li..1""" ~~ b.1.If. I l1li . I •• ... '. .. 8. we now have covered all the voicings used in Ex. rI J ~ ...". •• • • 1 v.~ I . I. ... . 11'1'. • I .r"\~ I... •. ... • .. comp..1 . -....I q '" n If. ~..7 until it feels natural. I .6 and understand the logic involved in moving from one harmony to the next. .: _Co I .- "" _L~ • - .._ ~ I -.. . with no time for deliberation. .. I • .... AI . 8. .. V . ~. ..- -. I -."1 ': . . -- •• ' • • fa "" . 8..

a return to third city (tertial construction) is necessary to voice diminished and half-diminished seventh chords. or 1'1 . F7(#9).9. 3Am£.Chapter 9: VOICINGS FOR DIMINISHED AND HALF-DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS h. C diminished. fa 7 I' It Ab C.3 . ecNfl"R"~1"IOU WI1'~ "F" 4$ '11W11l.e. however.. Add the tone a tritone lower than bottom voice of the inverted triad to supply a fourth voice. if analyzed with the tone "F" as the tonic. Ex. 9. It is rather the construction of this chord( i. plus the presence of both the A and A" which gives it a distinctive sonority. form a major triad in second inversion. WI'1"Mo 4 b' ~1l I'e. 9. Ex. Coincidentally. we have the altered dominant. the second inversion major triad over the tritone. having nothing to do with the parent scale. 9.2 If we consider the top voice of Ex. There are. the second voice is indeed a non-chordal tone. an alternative voicing is constructed as follows: With the tonic note on top. ways to restructure these harmonies so that when voiced. 37 The principles of quartal chord construction are obviously impossible to implement with harmonies whose basic intervallic building block is the minor third. ~ bJII: % Ab T Pit 1'DAJI~ b.2 as the tonic. For fully diminished sevenths. Ex.'" -f. the sound is palatable and avoids the strict succession of stacked thirds. or bJP.1a Therefore. This construction also serves "B" or "C~" as a 13(b9). This is a 4-voice construction.? .

t.'1107 A 07 = c 07 = E~ = EiIo7 . ~' v~~fn. I've constructed our diminished voicing (Ex. M._ J_ . " OIl ""I~..V.I... [01.4 t . 9. :II: of!. however... I. 4.'JOt As in the case of strict tertial diminished seventh chords (Ex. it sounds good in a diminished context.. a simpler solution would be: Ex. .1 1 lIT A~l(t • '.~ a 0 I -J .' . not the issue.. I ~ ._ 'III. Simply stated.. If tempo should make execution of this bar hazardous or impossible..... ._4. Ex.. the following diminished constructions patterned after Ex. .38 How you choose to perceive this chord mathematically or intellectually is.. D". ~I II . . Jobim's "Wave".I 4 . . f1( It'" 'J " ~ . mi. 9. J G Olm.4) from the "'G" descending in the second complete bar.. 9. M.'" DlnlllJ/SIf£D 10 ~ ..5 AJ1...._"h.u.2 are interchangeable. I \.I/.. JAr-.V..AJOi~ . By Antonio Carlos Jobim Jt VaJC. and sequenced this voicing at the interval of a minor third to move parallel with the melody. .. In other words. our diminished construction can be inverted at the interval of a minor third. ...." \..EJJ. G07 FIo7 = = B~7 = (. JI: - In example 9.la). 'I.~~ i- • ~ ~' . _. G.4. (Or/" ) 'Ct-e~1 ~ ... - . 9. ".c. ON5'"f1!._ r • J.. . 9.I - - I L.". Pjt{fIJC\PU!_: I M..~ Altu /I I .. Let's use this construction in context of a standard tune.

9.7 If '1\ CC"'D It 11ft r.~ ImPLIED ':i: .J' 1 ~.£A/DINit. Another altemati ve is to voice the G~7as an Eb 13 with the tonic omitted.The sonority of half diminished seventh chords can also be improved by avoiding a strict succession of the thirds."I ' (111) r l '.:..I " . 9.. Ex.% I . J ~ I!. This spreads out the sonority and avoids stacked thirds. The mathematical relationship is as follows: The tonic of the half diminished chord becomes the third of the dominant 13th.. bs 1" VOrC!D AIJ p" Q£AJUIC DDtt1INAAIf r~Dh'J AI P&SC. An alternative voicing: Mi3 7 ~5 Tonic 3 Ex. .oo-r ..j. It.3 :IMItJ£LJ iDo~ .4- bS A' This construction extracts the third from the triad and puts it in the soprano.6 t J G. For example: A¢>7 could be voiced as a F13 from the 5th descending.7 oi '.. generic construction.

the most frequently encountered progression in Western jazz and commercial music is the ii-V-I. In other words: Fma7 I I BD13 I I II Ami7 I AD? I II I IIII Gmi is an option...~' J IJ J J J J Words by Oscar Hammerstein II Music by Jerome Kern J . four rules must be 1. First. This is known as a tritone substitution since the interval between the root of the V and DII harmonies is a tritone.2 I &#1 .. If the root movement is cyclical.'1 • b:' (0"')· 1(~) (D "'.. 10..1 D~ 7 ".t (e) ~~Umlmi'l When the root movement between two adjacent harmonies is Dot cyclical (roots ascending in perfect fourths). e 1J r A~mR1 JI II MA 1 I. 2. in the progression: 4 4111111111111 I FMa7 I Ami7 AD7 I Gmi I we may take the liberty to split the first bar and "prepare" the Ami? with a dominant harmony based on the root '12 step above.'~JJ J J I J ~r a. Ex. Let's take the first 8 bars of "All The Things You Are" for a laboratory experiment with tri-tone substitutions and V2 step preparation. 4. the melody and changes in fake book form: Ex.1 e: ii? ii' (0". . 1 .' ~. The melody (if applicable) will influence the harmony and possible alterations of the substituted chord. tritone subs and '/2 step preparation are synonymous terms. L. Dominants work best as the substituted harmony. In instances where tritone substitutions held in consideration: and half step preparation are appropriate.n Chapter 10: TRITONE SUBSTITUTIONS AND Y2STEP PREPARATION b As mentioned earlier. no liRE" ~ C· "" e. 10. is sometimes replaced or substituted by a harmony constructed on the II scale step.4 :' "ALL THE TIIIA). The substituted harmony will always resolve to a harmony '12 step lower. For example. .I ii. 3.) - r" (". a similar technique of prefacing a desired harmony from a 1f2 step above is known as "Half step preparation". As a means of harmonic variance the V. or dominant harmony.

Other possibilities: g = t.J7 = g = :. Bar 2: Cyclical root movement between bars 2 and 3. D7(D9IDs) = 2. EI3(#1l) = Bar 3: Cyclical root movement. we'll denote our choice with an asterisk (*) Bar 1: Root movement between bars I and 2 is cyclical. Db7(b9J1. _ Copyright FtIlM'W'fla Ifltfi'l"II!IIli(ltlal Cop~rigl'lf Sec. Therefore half step preparation is in order. D7 (tertially constructed) "G" is a tritone.A. and the substituted harmony for the last two beats. A7(#9) = sm = c 3. Mu'" C<>~y. Chord quality options are: *1• EI3A.S. ADIJ&g) = *3. not cyclical. Other possibilities: 1.. ADI3(#ll) N = .n) = VI = E7 C# \11:' 17 2.- It! U.d Words by Oscar Hammerstein II Music by Jerome Kern pb o'7(~) JI " COpynyOt <i) 1939. B13(#II) = 2.I. *A7(b9!b5) creates maximum tension and makes resolution to the ADMa7 tonally gratifying. Therefore. A9sus = b'(I = I f A 2. #5.uJecI Corn_" (0/0 ThO W. CA 90401) M. 1.s) = bi = No 3. "B" on beat 3 allows many chord quality possibilities: I. Root of tritone sub is "D"." is the enharmonic "G~" which is the 13th in relation to the tonic of the substitute. (. The chosen possibility for the chord quality. Context and your ear are the sole judge and jury of which harmony is appropriate. I. B. The melody "AI. B13(b9) = g 11 = g~ =~ The answer to which of the possibilities is preferable is subjective. AI"is obviously the tonic of the substituted harmony while the "F" melody note implies a 13th.9. Root oftri-tone sub is A..B.#9) *2. 41 'ALL 1i'ur THI'" ~ II liRE" "''IV rr Nq" 7 .. Possibilities are: bPI bi tf = = 3. D7(#9) = brp = b 1j 4. 1986 T. Soma Monico.L. Bar 6: Tritone sub on "Db".or_ .Let's now split each bar with the given harmony for the first two beats. the *B13 is a tritone substitute. Root oftri-tone sub is "E". g (ph . A" Rigl'ltti RI!II!fIr\'ad Since our options for the substituted harmony are multiple. A7(Ds) (tertia1ly constructed) 4. &iP=S=$: ~IJ 5" I t ? G"M J IJ ] ] ] I J ~ I. ADI3 2. nb7 with all optional alterations (i1s. A bar by bar explanation of the theoretical procedures used will be offered after the example. E13 (unaltered) 3. A7(b9) (tertially constructed) *1... Dli7(#9) = AI bT =~ Ii. Tlt. _ _ ~VIIT _ . D9sus = Bar 4: Cyclical root movement. Options are: Bar 5: Root movement from "D D" to the following I.

Ex. HAln1: ~ PR.l Analyzing Ex. 11.V.v.. preferably diatonically or chromatically.. 1"1\.I in "F" with a return to the V7sus. Although implying a different root. Minimal motion between adjacent harmonies. 1. M.: Ita. (I 'MA ~ 7 !:7 . now we have three criterion to successful voicing: 1.. I. It could be voiced in the following fashion: Ex. "Melodic comping" emphasizes the logic and musicality of your chord choices by devoting attention to the voice leading of the soprano or top voice of the adjacent harmonies in the progression. and 3. In bar 3.IPLe. The harmony is. 11.- SIiS J ~ . we must consent to chord quality approximations like the Gmi 11 for the desired Gmi 7. enhanced by the addition of the 11tho The voicing for the C7(o9) is the polychord fraction using tritone indicators for the denominator. your comping will have a sense of fluidity and continuity.Chapter 11: THE (Melodic Comping) MELODIC SOPRANO VOICE_ 43 As previously mentioned.2 wt " So. if the top voice of each chord construction progresses to the next top voice in some logical sequence. in effect.J n + ~ e. Melodic soprano voice leading . ~"" . AI!f. the voicing for the C7sus in bar 4 is Miracle Voicing I and -identical to the Gmi 11 in bar 1.1 A A.INC. q Sus. Sample progression #1 Gmi7 I C7(b9) I FMa7 I C7sus This progression is the frequently encountered ii -V .. 'I V" Pb Q . 11. The "Rule of Thumb" 2. The voice leading of the soprano voice follows a simple logic. the FMa7 is voiced as a generic major FMa9 descending from the 5th scale tone.

£._ ~ . M.C:L...4 has both more sense of motion and resolution than does the voice leading Ex... ~B b PR. Simply stated.7 ltd.b mR ~ In bar 4. Ii ... W_ ~tT.3 (Voicing of sample progression #2) " r1 1 _II' £. In this instance. 7 fYll .5 where the soprano voice remains stationary between bars 4 and 5. _v. I've taken the liberty to alter the given B~7 harmony to a dominant (b9) in order to create a stronger melodic line in the soprano voice..V. "--rI II" . . 11.5 .4 favors the melodic soprano voice leading concept. :0:.]I :. .V..M._ 4_l ~ 1+ tQ ~-" Fml kA . _-------- 44 To demonstrate...mA' __l'I_ 4b9f!/~ _III F.- -_ . The soprano voice leading in example 11..:. whereas Ex.~ _j..til A PI} (:) .lutIPLE. _j .J .. Ex. E~Ma7 . .4 b" o Ex.. I I ~+ IIJJ.5 places the "minimal motion" concept in higher priority.. let's take sample progression #2 and voice it. 1L I._ . 11. _ . 11. HAP. the "minimal motion" concept has been sacrificed to allow a smooth melodic line.. the voice leading in example 11... 0 i. 11. . A~9(#11) Sample progression #2: I Fmi7 I B~7 I E~Ma7 Ex.. :1. ~ 'IIIIL oJ " ~ LI:"1 .. b0 if" J. 11. £D' ~ fit. .

there is simply no one single defmitive approach to correct voicings. 12. I Ex. Polychord Fractions While harmonizing each lead sheet example. Tri-tone substitutions h.. the author will present and discuss a possible voicing solution. Bear in mind. Ex.. I J J J ~ZJ . Voice these excerpts using the given harmonies and the techniques you've learned in the previous chapters: a.1 and the bottom two are the "realization" in basic rhythmic values: . Both would be correct although stylistically different.ftc c." G I rrr £r I ttnA q (. Generic Voicings h. . F r r . 12. Ways to voice chords are as diverse as the pianists who voice them. imagine the renditions of the same chord progression by two pianists. Altered dominants via Polychords Following each excerpt. Miracle Voicings c. Three staves are used..' Jib 11 With respect for the melody and the basic harmonic motion... Oscar Peterson and Chick Corea.{. the top is Ex. ~ a.Chapter 12: SAMPLE PROGRESSIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 45 Excerpts of two standard tunes in lead sheet form (melody and chord symbols) are printed below for harmonization (voicing). To illustrate. consider employing the various methods of altera tion previously discussed: a. 12.. Half step preparation c..1 Words by John Burke MUSic by Arthur Johnston . .1 ("Pennies From Heaven") could be voiced in the following manner.

_ . ( . the melody is acknowledged and the F 13 sets up a nice chromatically descending line in the bass from IV (Fl3) to ii (Dmill) in bar 3.~us a_ 5iil ~ t" • + 1 II'"' v+ ( ! . ~t accomodates the melody._ . . The F13 on the second half of the bar is an obvious deviation from the Emi in the original. one ofthe focal harmonies.f.. (f fARAIJ..". J:. However.. WlfH QIUI rAAo1". C6/9 voiced as a Generic Major T..7 ft.. I as a D minor function is the obvious choice. . 'llL r. (or M.I /1 _a_ AD1.2 "'. 11.. ..(bf) C. Bar 3: Minimal motion to M.. z. . - Bar 2: Emili voiced as a M. The D~o7 or B7 (b9)1D~ chromatically sets up the Drni l l in bar 3._ . harmonic motion.46 Ex. and chromatically descending bass line. .D SoP.. .l is the obvious choice to follow the F13 which preceeded in bar 1.V..E.L M. 12. ~ M:t/.II.V.).-• .7 Bar by Bar Analysis: Bar 1: With C6 belonging to the Major family and the first melody note being "C" the obvious choice came to mind.V. A _u. i. l'".][ ell D' I I _j_ _j_ ~1 '-"' I tI 1 u ~ ItJ r'" w ~ rIM' " C1M'II A" . R" "'fA L 1 til :1/..v.

Before we take a look at another sample progression. heeds both the melody and the motion of the Bar 5: Surprise! Here's a tritone substitution ofF#li7 [F#Mi7(~5) J to continue a chromatically Bar 6: If we moved all voices down a half step from the Fmill in bar 5 we have M.41{ f Ii F Ex. the tenor voice moves parallel with the RH.". 12. The cyclical progression iii7 (Emili) . The A13 acknowledges the melody and cyclically sets up the ii7 (Dmil I) that's to come in bar 7. Let's look now at Ex. and the soprano offers a nice melodic line from the previous harmony and to the following harmony. V.VI7 (A13) . If the pianist's voicings do not favor the melody constantly. 12. Bar 7: Minimal motion takes us to the nearest Dmi.2nd inversion (RH.. triads while the bass covers the tonics.. M. is basically quartal. a lead sheet version of the first eight bars of Rodger's and Hart's "The Lady Is A Tramp. Professional singers have a particular aversion to this practice. keep in mind that in a real life comping situation.V.V. The half diminished tritone as a substitute for the tonic Major was a harmonic device favored by Bill Evans and others of his era. I as an Emi function. I've moved the top voice from "B" to "D" simply to reinforce the melody. the soprano voice "E" has been deleted and the tonic has been added on the bottom. bar 3) to the Emi triad and 4 . it may be the soloist's preference that you not comp with the melody note in the s0prano of your chord constructions. the singer (or other soloist) has considerably more melodic freedom and flexibility. I for Fmill chromatic bass line. However. This construction supports the stated melody.ii (Dmill). Also. Bar 4: The movement of the F Major triad in 2nd inversion (RH. The top three voices (F triad in 2nd inversion) are now going to conveniently contribute to the two subsequent harmonies as polychords: Y1 on an Ab root offers a tritone sub for the Dmi resolving to a G9sus voiced as a ~. Minimal motion to the nearest M. 1 Words by Lorenz Hart Music by Richard Rodgers a r IJ 1:>.3 r DI'r F e". In the left hand.?I in bar 8. The voicing of the A13 is similar to the Generic Dominant 5'.. intonation becomes a more critical issue if the pianist voices all chords with the melody note in the soprano.3. 7 0".' I J..1. descending bass line beginning with the "G" in bar 4." .' J j " I -. ~1 II . bar 4) gives a nice parallel aural effect.

~: . Ex.. 4S Bar 6: Here I've used the same numerator triad as in bar 2.-VDIc£.. "B" was added on top as a melody reinforcement.IIDleL M. J1: Il_ _c.ji II!" _. :3_ . This time.5 is an equally valid "realization".. • ~...j •• ~ i~~ i~ ~ ~ . Ii A 1IAIf1 P " !:'!'t' '1 _ Words by Lorenz Hart Music by Richard Rodgers . J'~ r IJ.5 IL ''ra£.. Cjj- If ~ A " (btl) oJ - 1)"" " ". • -'- ""'- _l_ III[ J " ..V. ILl \" I-"'j.A_ IL em. Nl. (8' • _M £j . 12.V. Bar 8: Moving the numerator triad again down a half step to E.v.1. Bar 7: Descending numerator triads from CJ!. J- M. however. from the tonic descending.11. '/~ ._ • I 1 _lMJ ~ I D 1IU7 .Bar 5: Minimal motion takes us to the nearest C Major construction.r A' ~ '""'" 1:2. ob Major in 2nd inversion.I ~ IJ (~q) A:1 . Generic Major. v . for the Dmill.. over the VI scale step with a resultant harmony of A 13 (b9). }j for a compact G13(b9). we set up the dominant polychord. LADY I I • . . but with no emphasis on having the melody note as the top voice of each chord Ex. e c: . . . 12.V. in bar 5 to F in bar 6 enables a smooth transition to M. ~ .

. and 2..e.. I are. However.g.. George Russell.e. For example. the preceding harmony).".. i I Ex. where you're coming from (i. they leave much to be desired in terms of sophistication. . the material will be presented with the intent of easy systematic intellectual assimilation in hopes that undue drudgery can be avoided and that - .2 II OIl ~13 J J J ""'T ~ (. these texts fall short by not explaining which voicing should be used in a particular progression.. Although correct. David Baker. and Jerry Coker. .J I J J J J l - The voicings offered in Ex.FI3 might be completely different from the PI3 voicing used in the progression FI3 . A. It is my honest aim to provide the aspiring pianist. The variable here is context.. The subject of jazz theory has already been thoroughly examined.J J . yes. analyzed. arranger. and the voice leading is smooth. Other texts offer various possible voicings for a given harmony. as with all worthwhile endeavors. The book covers how to move between adjacent harmonies with minimal motion using good sounding state of the art voicings.2 offers three credible voicings for an FI3.. rather. This is. a "how to" book. consideration must be given to I. where you're going to (i.0+7(#9). the way ODewould voice a FI3 in the progression C9 ... In other words. or jazz scholar with a logical approach to the objective of smooth contextual voice leading with good sounding voicings. the following harmony). A. . However. A.11&.FOREWORD This is not a jazz theory book .. Ex.. however. and expounded upon by various redoubtable authorities. Regrettably. e. theoretically correct. The key words here are "good sounding" .t ~ l1li' ~:f: . Herbie Hancock or McCoy Tyner would probably not voice this progression in this manner. study and practice will be necessary to achieve this objective.

5: Bar 1: C Major voiced generically from the Sth descending is as good an opener as any.so Bar by Bar Analysis of Ex. however. Bar 8: Bars 7 and 8 are a transposed version of bars 5 and 6. prepares the upcoming Dmi harmony and doesn't clash with the melody. and. the altered harmonies and counter melody function totally as an accompanying duet to the original melody. voiced as a Generic Dominant (TJ). Bar 6: The melodic soprano sets up the polychord fraction ¥1 on "A" or AI3 (P9). that the chord is not voiced as a strict succession of thirds. Bar 4: Tied over from bar 3 is G7(P9!bS} which was quite accessible to our Dmi9. The soprano sets up another 13(b9). Voice leading from the preceeding harmony was optimally smooth. Both the G7(P9/PS) and the following unaltered G9 do not aggravate the melody note "B". there are many possible solutions to the voicing of any lead sheet melody. Obviously. May I suggest on first reading that you pay homage to the composers original harmonic intentions before you investigate possibilities for alteration. Bars 5-8 exemplify the concept of melodic comping. °i Bar 5: The bottom voice of the Generic Minor construction for Emi has simply been lobbed off leaving us a 4-voice quartal construction. 12. Note that the soprano voice has enough motion to even be considered a counter melody. However. Bar 7: The active soprano voice returns to a 4-voice quartal construction for Dmi 11. Why? a. Note. still sufficient for Emi 11. b. . this time constructed on '''G''. Bar 2: The EP9. The tertial voicing of the DMi9 offers a pleasant aural contrast to the previous voicings which were predominantly quartal. Bar 3: Another surprise! A tertial spelling of a Dmi9.

To "complement" in a musical performance by providing harmonic support (chords) preferably in a tasteful. 5 f .The individual n2tes which chromatically deviate from an established diatonic system. an abbreviation of the verb complement (Merriam-Webster: to supply a lack). These two tones are the strongest tonal indicators of dominant family harmonies.V. Tonic .From the fifth descending.Constructed of fourths. and dominant. in the case of a CMa7(~11)." Comping . .The third and dominant 7th scale tones of a given dominant tonality. A harmonic construction where the major or minor third is the basic intervallic building block. Root . The interval between these two tones is a tritone.Adhering to the scale or mode applicable to a given harmony. minor. "Third City" .H.. "Tommy comped nicely behind the trombone solo. For ex. A harmonic construction where the perfect fourth is the basic intervallic building block.From the tonic descending.Reference to tertially constructed harmonies." Tertial ." Tertiality .a combination of two or more tones sounded simultaneously to accommodate a specified harmony. constructed of thirds "tertian. 5 Alteration .B. Tritone Indicators .Easy to construct 5-note chord constructions which accommodate the three basic families: Major. appropriate manner. For example. Quartal. the parenthetical (~11)implies a chromatic alteration or deviation from the C Major scale.Abbreviation for "right hand. .Abbreviation for "Miracle Voicing. For ex. Altered .Originally. (see Chapter 2) Miracle Voicings .Constructed of thirds. Comp .(]e '.Tonic.to compo Diatonic ." L. Beginning tone of any diatonic system.5-note chord constructions each with five different harmonic functions.Abbreviation for "left hand.. T f. adv. (see Chapter 4) M. . Generic Voicings .A harmony containing chromatically raised or lowered tones which deviate from an established diatonic system.Harmonies (chords) constructed essentially of major or minor thirds." R. The Harvard Dictionary of Music defines this means of construction as tertially.. Mixolydian is the relevant diatonic system for dominant family chords. Beginning tone of any diatonic system.Root. . Voicings . In contrast to quartal harmony which is predominantly constructed of perfect fourths.

Listed below are thirty-five keyboardists whose comping style and chord voicings have influenced this book. Tony Dumas (b). Polydor 1-6160 w. Those below have been listed for their reputations as "compers. or for their contribution to the heritage of jazz pianism. Prestige 7129 w. Respected "Compers" (alphabetical listing) 1. Ernie Watts (sax). however. "Kind Of Blue" . Choice Records 1024 w. Peter Erskine (dr) 6. Cannonball Adderley (sax). Tommy Flanagan. John Coltrane (sax). George Cables. "Friends"." It would be blatant naivete to assume otherwise. John Coltrane (sax). In the interest of brevity. Bob Moses (dr) 11. w.52 Chapter 14: SUGGESTED LISTENING One of the more memorable quotes I've heard was passed on to me by friend and piano teacher nonpareil. Jackie Mclean (sax). Miles Davis (tpt)." not for excellence in other areas such as solo playing. Don Walker of Dekalb. Columbia CS 8163 w. the dependence is equally undeniable. Kenny Burrell (g). we must correlate that Bach influenced Beethoven. Freddie Hubbard (tpt). Blue Mitchell (tpt). "Outward Bound". Jimmy Cobb (dr) 10. A & M Records. only one recording per artist has been listed. Coleman Hawkins (sax) Roy McCurdy (dr). Randy Brecker (tpt). Steve Gadd (dr) 7. "Jackie's Bag". Art Tatum. "Prism". Debussy. Prestige 7311 w. Eric Dolphy (sax). Paul Bley. Jimmy Cobb (dr) . "Cable's Vision". Paul Chambers (b). Chick Corea. George Tucker (b). Jaki Byard. "Sonny Meets Hawk". "Forgotten Fantasies" . Bill Evans. Bobby Hutcherson (vibes). (SP-709) w. "Relaxin' With The Miles Davis Quintet". Contemporary 14001. As Galileo's accomplishments paved the way for those of Einstein. Eddie Gomez (b). The "current" accomplishments and innovations in music. Joe Farrell (ww). Prestige P-24059 w. Century w. as well as those in any academic discipline. Freddie Hubbard (tpt). Richie Beirach. Sonny Rollins (sax). Illinois: "We all rest on the shoulders of those who precede us. Henry Grimes or Bob Cranshaw (b) 3. although the influence is perhaps more subtle and indirect. Art Taylor (dr) 8. RCA 741074/075 w. Eddie Gomez (b) 4. are only possible as a result of a series of previous milestones achieved by the innovators of previous generations. Blue Note 84051 w. John Coltrane (sax). These artists have served and will serve as stylistic role models for subsequent generations of jazz keyboardists. Hal Galper. Red Garland. Roy Haynes (dr) 5. David Liebman (sax) 2. Kenny Drew. Joanne Brackeen. Paul Chambers (b). The leader's name will be underlined if the keyboardist was not the leader on that particular recording date. Wayne Dockery (b). Miles Davis (tpt). Chopin. Michael Brecker (sax). Paul Chambers (b)." a single recording is listed which exemplifies that individual's comping style. Tina Brooks (sax). Keith Jarrett. Following the name of each "comper. Paul Chambers (b). Perhaps scientific achievements are more tangibly linked to the past than artistic achievements. "Speak With A Single Voice". Jimmy Cobb (dr) 9. "Kenny Burrell with John Coltrane".

"The Plot Thickens".Other personnel not 31. Jim McNeely. Red Mitchell (b). "Miles Davis In Person Friday Night At The Blackhawk" (Vol. Ahmad Jamal. Philly Joe Jones (dr) 22. Capitol ST 2663 w. Dewey Redman (sax). James Williams. Ray Brown (b). Concord CJ-I04 w. Jeffrey Watts (dr). Nat Adderley (tpt). Art Blakey (dr) 29. Bill Pierce (ww). Israel Crosby (b). Donald Bailey (dr) 5 . "Ella & Louis" Verve V6-4003 w. Ahmed Abdul-Malik (b). Cannonball Adderley (sax). Roulette SR-5005 w. (b). Tony Williams (dr) 21. Kenny Kirkland. Elvin Jones (dr). Elvin Jones (dr) 32. Charlie Haden (b). Impulse A-88 w. Keith Jarrett. Roy McCurdy (dr) . Miles Davis (tpt). Billy Hart (dr) 34. Louis Bellson or Buddy Rich (dr) 28. Louis Hayes (dr) 30. "The Survivor's Suite" ECM-l-1085 w. Blue Note 84195 w. Connie Kay (dr) 24. Ron Carter (b). "The Seance" Contemporary S7621 w. Herbie Hancock. George Coleman (sax). "The1onius Monk At The Five Spot" Milestone M 47043 w. Paul Chambers (b). John Scofield (g). Roy Haynes (dr) 27. Prestige 7250 w. "New Wine In Old Bottles" Inner City 6029 w. Wynton Marsalis (tpt). Eugene Taylor (b). Alamac QSR-2430 w. Milt Jackson (vibes). Curley Russell (b). Freddie Hubbard (tpt). "M. Louis Armstrong (tpt & voc). Joe Zawinul. Vernell Fournier (dr) 19. "Think Of One".. "Blowin' The Blues Away". Walter Booker 18. Jimmy Garrison (b). Billy Higgins (dr) 33. "Mercy.". Herb Ellis (g). Barry Harris. Gatemouth 1001 w. Mercy". Hampton Hawes. Thelonius Monk. Blue Mitchell (tpt). Ella Fitzgerald (voc). Danny 25. Betty Carter (voc). Vic Gatsky (b). Paul Motian (dr) 20. "Pat Metheny Group" ECMI-1114w. Branford Marsalis (sax). "Eastern Rebellion 2". "Maiden Voyage". Oscar Peterson. Blue Note 4017 w. Gottlieb (dr) Pat Metheny (g). listed. Johnny Griffin (sax). Billy Hart (dr). Jackie McLean (sax) Ron Carter (b). "Now It's My Turn". •'Ahmad Jamal's Alhambra" Argo 685 w. Cedar Walton. Bob Berg (sax). Percy Heath (b). Roland Hanna. Dennis Irwin (b). Charlie Parker (sax).lBlues At Carnegie Hall". "Coltrane Live At Birdland". Phil Bowler or Ray Drummond (b) 23.13. Hank Mobley (sax). "Subconscious-Lee". John Burr or Mike Richmond (b) 26. "Tune-Up!" Cobblestone 9013 wi Sonny Stitt (sax). John Coltrane (sax). Hank Jones. John Hicks. Sam Jones (b). Mark Egan (b). Columbia 38641 w.J. McCoy Tyner. Alan Dawson (dr) 16. John Lewis. "Charlie Parker's All-Stars 1950". 1) Columbia LE 10018 w. MCA/lmpulse 29015 w. Richard Davis (b). Mercy. Timeless SJP-J06 w. Sam Jones (b). Chip Lyles (dr) 17. Lee Konitz. Lyle Mays. Lennie Tristano. Bud Powell. Horace Silver. Junior Cook (sax). "Everything I Love". Atlantic SD 1468 w. "Dear John C.Q. Wynton Kelly. Tony Williams (dr) 14. Charlie Mariano (sax) 15. Fats Navarro (tpt).

Application concepts. B. Explanation of the theories and principles of each concept. of the Theoretical. C. Minor.g. (e. Listening. Ex.54 Chapter 15: A SEMESTER'S SYLLABUS For those interested in incorporating the preceding material into a semester's Jazz Keyboard Lab. Each week's material covers four crucial areas: 1. Again. 15. An Overview Of Traditional B. 4. Assignment: Read Chapter 2. The playing at the keyboard of the previously discussed 3. Play all examples in Chapter 2. Sight reading. Duets are beneficial as an introduction to ensemble playing (playing with others) and for developing an internal pulse or sense of time. Week 2 A. Never underestimate the constructive value of listening to the masters. Sight reading benefits eye to hand coordination. the most difficult. Application.1 Ex. Bartok's Microcosmos Vol. Require students to write two simple one-measure patterns in 4/4 using the notes of the C Major scale and starting on the tonic. Sight Reading and Listening D. Volume 6. Theoretical. (A must for any novice pianist or doubler). technical independence of the hands. The Theoretical. the teacher should select duet material difficult enough to challenge but not discourage the class. Play all examples in Chapter 1 to review scales and tertial harmony. 1-6 are excellent. There are numerous 4-hand duets written for all technical levels and available from your print music dealer. Chapter 14 offers a suggested listening list should the teacher need ideas. Explain Chapter 2. Jazz harmony. Read and explain the Foreword and Chapter 1. For example. Four-handed duets for two pianos are always fun for students to play. and Dominant). Application. -. Generic Voicings. Sight reading materials will depend on the general capability level of the class. Week 1 A. Theoretical. Sight Reading and Listening D. 15.2 &it 13 J 1J J] - . C. Explaining the theories behind Miracle Voicings) 2. Assignment. These are progressive pieces with Volume I being the easiest. the following 17-week syllabus has been designed. Generic Voicings (Major. To be recommended for independence of the hands and introduction to various modes. and heightens harmonic and contrapuntal awareness.

Simultaneously. Play major patterns present). 15. Application f ] ad ] - Ex.!. ~ -J 4 . Divide the class into two groups (A & B). - • • • -I- . group B should play patterns (both hands. Four or five should 55 2. both Major and Minor. sample patterns brought in by the students.5. Have group A comp generic cyclical dominants as in Ex..14 with a stylistically suitable rhythm.2 altered to accommodate minor harmonies. . .5 " 'Y. 1. Ex. 15. 2. B group could be playing 15. Ex. Theoretical.LM ) J • .. ~ kilo . For example.4. as dominant patterns by lowering the seventh (if the seventh is 3. /I - • loll' --~ • ~ - 1 ~:~ :~.Week 3 A. please!) over these cyclical dominants.2. while A group plays 15.4 II j . • • . 15. 15. 1. Have class play all the selected sample patterns. 4. For example. ~ Ex. _I!I _ • P" - .M' _.3 &£ B.3 is 15. Show students how to alter these patterns by lowering the third scale step in order to accommodate minor harmonies. Write on blackboard suffice.1-.1. In II I.

r :z. Same procedure. 15.3 11 3 Ex. at the same time could supply a simple bass line connecting the two Ex. ~i J 1 J J. For example.8 -. 6. . Request that the students start a "Patterns Notebook" by adding those on the board to their own. 15. Read Chapter 3. Generic Voicings Workout. Teacher continues to hold it together by "walking" bass lines. c. Swap.7 . 15. Transpose these patterns to other keys. 2. Assignment 1.i- F ~r r J I . Ex.J r or ij~ ~ 5. Bring in two more one-measure major patterns in starting on the third. except now group B camps while group A plays the patterns.56 The teacher harmonies. Sight Reading and Listening D. 3 .3 1 3.6 .

1.16. Transpose to other keys. Dissect Chapter 3 stressing "minimal motion. 3. Teacher: Walk bass lines. 2." Check voicings with those printed on p.2-3. Groups A and B: Swap. Swap. Transpose each exercise 3. The followingwould suffice: 3. D. Week 5 A. 4. Application. Application. Students: Play Ex. 6.2-3. 4.2-3. Teacher: Add a walkingbass line to perform Ex. Groups A and B.6. Theoretical.1 in all twelve keys. Group B. Students should concentrate on "minimal motion" and the "Rule of Thumb. Group A: patterns over the ii-V7-! progression. 57 2. 5. Group B: comp. Teacher: Bass lines. Put a few random new patterns on the board. 1. .1in time." 2. Practice both Major and minor by lowering thirds and sevenths as necessary. 2. Add new patterns to notebook. Sight Reading and Listening. B.6.6 to a closely related key.2-6. C. 1. Class: Play 3. Class: Play through randomly selected new patterns beginning on the third. 3. Sight Reading and Listening. C. Theoretical. Answer questions pertaining to any previous material. B. 1. Assignment. comp to 3. patterns. Group A.Week 4 A. 3. Practice examples 3.

Workout With Generic and Miracle Voicings. In these keys: Group A.1.1-5 slowly. Application. Comp to Examples 5. Using example 5. B. &i J j P:J J J .1-5. B. C. Swap. Review Chapter 3. Patterns. Sight Reading and Listening. Group B.2 and 4.4 to acquaint students with Miracle Voicings and their various functions. Theoretical. 1. Groups A and B. Write out voicings on a grand staff to Examples 5. Discuss. 15. Discuss and demonstrate the five Assignment harmonic functions of each Miracle Voicing (See Chapter 4). C." B. 3. Assignment. For example.10 Ex. if any questions. Play Examples 4. Check voicings assignment from previous week with the supplied voicings to 5. Look over Chapter 5. Comp. Theoretical. Patterns. Week 8 A.1-5. Stress the minimal voice leading between harmonies.6 to new keys. 2. C. Teacher. Assignment.6.6. Generic Voicings by transposing 3. bass lines. Sight Reading and Listening D. 2. Swap. 4.2-3. D.6. Ex. Week 7 A. Groups A and B. Group B.1-5. Teacher. Application 1. Group A. Theoretical.58 Week 6 A. show how Generic and Miracle Voicings can accommodate the chord progression and adhere to the "Rule of Thumb. Sight Reading and Listening D. 15. bass lines. 1. Assignment: Write out two one-measure patterns in 4/4 time (C Major) which begin on the fifth scale step. Practice Examples 5.11 JJJJ - 01. Application.

Assignment 1. 3. 1. 2. Sight Reading and Listening D. it is imperative that these are thoroughly explained and understood. 2. #91#5 and ~9/~5in a 2. 59 Week 10 A. D. Read and comprehend Chapters 6 and 7. Application 1. Transpose 5. 1. Practice the Polychord Fractions in other keys. Put new patterns in notebook. However. Theoretical. cyclical key sequence (See 7. Assignment. Swap. Group A comps while Group B plays the new patterns with both hands. Voicings For The Blues And Other Common Progressions. Practice same over a random key sequence.6 to closely related keys. 7. 1. B.Week 9 A. Invent your own or use that of Ex. Sight Reading and Listening. Put a few random patterns (beginning on the fifth) on the board. Minor and Dominant harmonies by altering the third and seventh accordingly.10. Play through the exercise in Chapter 7.1-5. 2. Voicing Suspended and Altered Dominants as Polychord Fractions. Application. . 2. C. Play through all examples in Chapter 6. Play the new patterns as one would over Major. 3. C. Today's class time may be predominantly absorbed by theoretical discussion and explanation of Polychord Fractions and their applications. B. In new keys. Application of Polychord Fractions In The ii7-V7-I Progression. Answer any questions pertaining to previous material. 4. Practice ii7-V7-I with the following alterations for the dominant: ~.3). Theoretical. Read Chapter 8.

I'm still fascinated by the existence of other scales currently used in other civilizations. From an "F". say in China. Since the 11th and 13th are dominant family constructions. of course. let's construct a Dorian mode." is based upon an equally tempered scale which uses the interval of a half step as its smallest unit. let's pick an arbitrary tonic of "F" and construct a major scale. we stack thirds (every other scale step) above the tonic to create the desired harmony. different harmonies will be initiated depending upon the diatonic parameters of the scale or mode employed. For example.6 Chapter 1: AN OVERVIEW OF TRADmONAL JAZZ HARMONY Jazz harmony. as all harmonic systems that we've come to designate as "Western. Starting on an arbitrary tonic. Incumbent upon the result of our third stacking is. let's stack thirds and construct major family harmonies. Albeit beyond the scope and intent of this book to chronicle the evolution of the Pythagorean scale to our currently used equally tempered scale. The interval of the third is the basic building block of chord structures. In other words. Ifwe had been born three hundred years earlier. this western notion of dividing an octave into twelve equal divisions would strike our ears as dissonant and unnatural. The resultant harmonies from stacking thirds within this diatonic system are: . Now. the parent scale for minor family harmonies. the major ninth is the largest major family construction possible without chromatically altering the steps of the major scale. or if we had been raised today in an Eastern culture. the parent scale or mode.

2. Group B. Play all examples in Chapter 8. 1. Group A.60 Week 11 A. 2. and. Theoretical. Application. play patterns to same. Teacher. one. Application. 4.5. on the third. 8. Read Chapter 9. 3. Play through all examples in Chapter 10. Week 12 A. Week 13 A. 1. one. Application. Theoretical. 1. . C. Put random patterns on the board. comp to 8. bass lines. Play these Major and minor. Patterns.2. Teacher. Sight Reading and Listening. play patterns over the chord progression to 8. Put Blues progression on board with some altered dominants. 4. D. This may monopolize the time allotted to the class period. D. B. Voicings For Diminished and Half Diminished Chords. Assignment. Discuss and answer pertinent to Chapter IX. B. Thoroughly discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 8. Put random patterns on board.6. Group A. Class: camp to progression while individuals improvise with or without regardto patterns previously learned. Same procedure for Ex. on the fifth). comp to 8. Write three sample patterns on the board (one beginning on the tonic. All The Things You Are. 5. Group B. Swap. 3. Play through all examples in Chapter 9. C. Assignment. Ladybyrd. Swap. Theoretical. Group B. 2. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 10. D. Sight Reading and Listening.3. C. 5. B. Group A. Sight Reading and Listening. Tritone Substitutions and Half Step Preparation. Swap and repeat 3 and 4. bass lines. Read Chapter 10. comp to 10. 3.6.

Theoretical. 2. 2. Have students analyze and write out voicings using alterations to any tune of their choice." D. Allow time for individual practice of "tune of choice. 1. Generic Voicings 2. 1.-- --- . 1. Practice Week 17 . Application. Week 15 A. Application. Painstakingly proceed through the bar by bar analysis of each sample realization to Pennies From Heaven and The Lady Is A Tramp. Put a "G" Blues on the board with altered dominants. Review: 1. 1. Week 16 A. Melodic Cornping 8. 3. D. 1. Miracle Voicings 3. (b) time. B. Read Chapter 12. 1. 2. Practice tune of choice. Assignment. Class comps while individuals improvise using patterns or their own ideas. Assignment. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 12. Half Step Preparation 6. remark on (a) phrasing. Application. Theoretical. Study and 2. Review 2. camping to the tune of choice. B. 3. -------6- Week 14 A.g. Play sample progressions offered in Chapter 12. Theoretical. Sight Reading and Listening. Discuss and answer questions pertinent to Chapter 11. Tritone Substitutions 7. Sample Progessions for Further Study. D. C. Play through the sample progressions I and II in Chapter 11. C.. Assignment. Allow time for individual practice oflast week's assignment. e. Sight Reading and Listening. Sample Progressions B. etc. Discuss with the individuals who played solos how their improvisation could be improved. Polychord Fractions 4. Diminished Voicings 5. (c) use of space.

Major. but the strict succession of thirds is avoided. A favored means to contemporary sounding voicings is to "detertialize".. 1.. let's construct an F diminished scale and see the results of stacking thirds.J. 1. 1....... _ .. - i For diminished family chords. I must take issue with the claim that the 0 symbol indicates a 4-voice construction.:i r . I I I I I f Ex.. _ 1_ ~ r . But.e.. Dorian.. we have now covered four basic diatonic systems (i.. j ..:i. let's construct harmonies.. i Starting with an «P". 'I • .I.. "Standardized Chord Symbol Notation".10 4 ~ *When possible I've tried to adopt the chord constructions and respective designations as espoused by Carl Brandt and Clinton Roemer in their book.. the resultant harmonies are: Ex. how do we designate a simple diminished triad? The Brandt-Roemer solution of Minor .. the parent scale for all dominant family When we stack thirds within this mode.. the seventh step of the diminished scale may be played with no adverse tonal repercussions. in practice. Granted... ~ ~_.. with diminished chords. 11 1"'11 _ ......9 Our task is now to inspect alternative ways of voicing these harmonies. UrAD (F) b F S£V£urH CF") I I .6 ~ iF_a. ~_"''' . "T"1. or rearrange our stacked thirds so that the desired harmony is achieved...il_.. ] 1 ] ] ] Ifwe are to perceive augmented chords as alterations of major or dominant family constructions (depending on which diatonic system is used for the larger extensions).il~ "_oiIl'! _1_ .. & '" F SIX1H (F") Ex. _ -"- 'l. Mixolydian and Diminished) which govern jazz harmonies. a Mixolydian mode.L __ . However.. __ ~r~_~ T' __ ~ ~1 __ . One frequently heard and encountered exception (aren't there always exceptions) to tertially (see Glossary) constructed (stacked thirds) harmonies is the sixth chord.

it's advisable to follow the "Rule of Thumb": Keep the right hand thumb in the octave between middle C and Cl (one octave higher). . Major family chords include Major triads. and avoid tertiality (see Glossary) while still accommodating the desired harmony. certain musical situations may specifically require a higher or lower sonority.2 Similarly. . ~fN.H. L. S rt . See Ex.. With the left hand. Major Ninths. with 5-voice chord constructions. 2.A. place the second finger a perfect fourth lower than the right hand thumb and the left hand fifth fmger a perfect fourth below that. K.1. minor. . Ex. _li0ii' H.tNrU L. R.l . The result is a five-voice construction built entirely of perfect fourths."S Jr. the lower two voices by the left. 2. Major Sixths. when the right hand thumb is above Cl . and 6/9 chords. Ex. let's say we see an FMa9 on a chart with no suggested voicing offered. «Generic Major".£A. _K. easy to play. Generic voicings relegate all major family chords into the category. "ntLl.H . and dominant. the top three voices are played by the right hand. place. 2.8 Chapter 2: GENERIC VOICINGS (and the "Rule of Thumb") Generic Voicings are five-note chord constructions which function for three basic chord families: major. This rule helps players avoid muddy sonorities that can result when the right hand thumb moves below middle C.N. 2. so we put our right hand fifth fmger on the tonic and proceed as follows: " . 'nc"J . the optimal sonority will be obtained when the "Rule of Thumb" is intact. Naturally. the resulting sonority is generally too thin for comping..4 As an example. Application: After determining that a chord does indeed belong to the major family.12_.. but most frequently (particularly when comping).W.1I~IL . The FMa9 obviously belongs to the major family. Then place the right hand thumb a perfect fourth lower. Major Sevenths.1 The Rule of Thumb Generally.uma t ( In order to produce the strongest.. H 'rI. proceed as follows: First.. Ex. . :. most resonant sonorities. They are simple to assimilate. the right hand fifth finger on the root of the chord and the second (or third) fmger a perfect fourth lower.

the resulting chord is actually an F6/9.H.3 ~ . Theoretically. Ex.GbMa9).DN D..OE. and most important.7 Ye. there are no offensive chord tones.- C". however.O-a. we achieve an exact FMa9. tll/I. Obviously these constructions would similarly function for any two major harmonies whose respective tonics are a fourth apart (e. . our FMa9 can be voiced in two ways: 9 f..IVMa in the key of G: GMa7 . and the C Major voicing from the fifth descending we derive the identical voicing. voice leading has been minimized (in fact.CMa7. and the resultant voicings sound seemingly more sophisticated than the «third city" (see Glossary) rendition of the same progression. Since the voicings are identical. restructured). . EMa7 ..g. tertiality has been avoided (in this case. Let's observe the cyclical progression IMa .AMa7. r»Ma9 . the system works. 2. . Generic Major voicings can also be constructed from the fifth scale tone of a given harmony descending in perfect fourths in a similar fashion as those constructed from the tonic down. 1'HMIII8 With the generic construction descending from the fifth scale degree.. eliminated). iliA" G ".Af 5 . Ifwe generically construct the G Major voicing from the tonic descending.Due to the absence of the Major Seventh.-- I~I Q .NOl'f.. we do not have an exact FMa9.':1" t£. the «Rule of Thumb" has been observed for the sake of sonority. DI. but the point to be stressed is that either voicing is sufficient and context determines which we would use. The chord is in the best position on the keyboard for sonority. and the right thumb is between middle C and C 1. fIq • t. For example.

please!) over these cyclical dominants. 1. both Major and Minor. Write on blackboard suffice.1. 15. For example. _I!I _ • P" - . 2. 15. ~ Ex. 15. • • . sample patterns brought in by the students.LM ) J • .5.4 II j . - • • • -I- . Have group A comp generic cyclical dominants as in Ex.. Four or five should 55 2. Theoretical. as dominant patterns by lowering the seventh (if the seventh is 3.1-. while A group plays 15.!.Week 3 A. For example. Show students how to alter these patterns by lowering the third scale step in order to accommodate minor harmonies..2 altered to accommodate minor harmonies.3 is 15.14 with a stylistically suitable rhythm. Ex. Play major patterns present).3 &£ B. . Simultaneously. Have class play all the selected sample patterns. . B group could be playing 15.4. ~ kilo . In II I. /I - • loll' --~ • ~ - 1 ~:~ :~.M' _. ~ -J 4 . group B should play patterns (both hands. Ex.2. 15. Application f ] ad ] - Ex. 1. Divide the class into two groups (A & B). 4.5 " 'Y.

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