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Current and Charge
Electricity is very important to our everyday lives. We use electrical energy for heating, lighting, cooking, working machinery, communications and entertainment. Although we cannot see electricity we often use a model such as water flowing around a central heating system to help us understand what is happening. Charge and Current Particles like electrons and protons have a property that we call charge. If electrons are added or removed from atoms they become charged and the charged atom or particle is called an ion. In metals the charge carriers are free electrons and in an electrolytic solution the charge carriers are ions. In what unit is charge measured? What is the charge of one electron? How many electrons make up a charge of 1 coulomb?
An insulator such as glass or plastic does not allow electrons to move freely between the atoms, but we can transfer charge to an insulator by rubbing with a cloth, for example. This transfer of charge is, therefore the result of doing work. A battery does work by transferring charge between ions in chemical reactions. This is the source of energy earned by an electric current. What is an electric current?
How is charge transferred in a typical circuit?
How is the direction of current in a circuit determined!
How does this compare with electron flow?
Current is measured
The unit for current is actually defined in terms of the forces acting between two parallel wires. But how much charge passes when a current of 1 A flows?
What is the relationship between charge and current?
Capacity How much charge can a battery supply? We measure this capacity in ampere-hours (Ah). A capacity of 6 Ah means that the battery can supply a current of 6A for 1 hour, or lA for 6 hours etc.
Complete questions 1 - 4 on page 47
Potential Difference and Power
(p. 48 )
The battery in a circuit does work on each electron so that each electron gains electrical potential energy. If the circuit is complete this causes the electrons to move around the circuit and as they pass through the various components in the circuit they transfer energy to them. The work done by an electron moving between two points in a circuit is equal to its loss of electrical potential energy and so there is a difference in electrical potential between the points. Defme the term potential difference
Defme the volt
The term emf (electro-motive force) is used when referring to the potential difference of the battery or source of current How is the term emf defined?
Energy transfer Energy transfer occurs because the charge carriers (electrons usually) interact with components in the circuit - either by colliding with the atoms in the device, or through their magnetic effect which creates a force that interacts with other magnetic fields (eg, in an electric motor or loudspeaker). Seepage 49. Electrical Power Deduce an equation for power output from the defining equations for current and p.d.
Complete questions 1 - 4 on page 49
'The potential difference can also be thought of as an electrical pressure that pushes the charge around the circuit A greater p.d. will therefore cause electrons to move faster so that more charge passes any given point in the circuit each second. This means that in general a greater p.d. will produce a greater current The actual amount of current depends on the conductor (its length, cross sectional area etc.). This property of a conductor to limit the current is called its resistance. Explain how resistance arises in a conductor (what causes resistance).
Define the resistance R of a conductor. State the unit for resistance and give the electrical symbol for a resistor.
Draw a circuit to show how the resistance of a conductor may be measured.
Some materials are called ohmic conductors because they obey Ohm's law. State Ohm's law.
Give an example of a material that obeys Ohm's law.
Resistance of Materials and Resistivity Some materials are good conductors and others are poor conductors. A good conductor has low resistance and a poor conductor has high resistance. What factors affect the resistance of a conductor? Since resistance is caused by collisions between electrons and lattice ions we can identify three factors affecting resistance: • length of conductor • cross sectional area of conductor, and
Explain how resistance depends on length and cross sectional area. What advantage does a superconductor have and how are superconductors used? Complete questions 1 . Define resistivity and state the unit in which it is measured.Student Notes • the material from which the conductor is made. and combine these into an equation for the resistance of the conductor. Superconductivity A superconductor is a material that has zero resistivity at and below a certain critical temperature. This is normally a very low temperature.4 on page 52 39 .
v diode I I thermistor v 40 v . This rule does not hold for all substances.Student Notes Components and their Characteristics (p. 'What advantage does the potential divider have? Complete the following current-voltage graphs: Metal conductor I I filament lamp ------------------r-----------------~v --------+--------.53) Ginn's law tells us that the current through a metal conductor is proportional to the p. In order to investigate how current varies through a component as the pd applied across the component changes we can use one of two arrangements: Draw the circuit diagrams for investigating component characteristics.d. however. across the conductor.
Explain what is meant by a negative temperature coefficient and why a thermistor behaves like this.Student Notes Resistance and temperature A metal wire is said to have a positive temperature coefficient but a thermistor is said to have a negative temperature coefficient Explain what happens to the resistance of a metal wire in a filament bulb and why it changes in this way. Complete questions 1 .4 on page 55 41 .
Explain how this law leads to the conclusion that current is the same everywhere in a series circuit Explain how this law is used to find the currents at ajunction of a parallel circuit Potential difference rules In a series circuit the charge must share its energy with all components that it passes through.d. therefore that the total p.s across the separate components. across a series circuit will be equal to the sum of the p. In a series circuit there is only one pathway for the charge to follow. The current and potential difference at various points in a circuit can be found by applying certain rules: Current rules (also known as Kirchoff's first law) State Kirchoff's first law: This law is essentially a statement of conservation of charge. across each branch in a parallel circuit is the same. This means that the energy transferred by each unit (coulomb) of charge to each branch is the same.d. A parallel circuit has different branches providing alternate routes for the charge to follow. In a parallel circuit the charge flowing in one branch will only transfer energy to components in that branch. so the p.Student Notes DIRECf CURRENT CIRCUITS Circuit Rules (p. d. This means.58) There are two types of electric circuit: series and parallel. 42 .
Student Notes Work out the pd across each component in this circuit: I I I.t!2- I o l. Complete questions 1 . the second law is a statement of conservation of energy.tO. Where the fist law was a statement of conservation of charge.Q. State Kirchoff's second law. lOSL I I L I ~ /.'S-A \. J...4 on page 60 43 . . You will not need to apply this rule to complex circuits in your AS exam.lV "'V 1·0 A I o.A . I I L I A more formal statement of this rule is known as Kirchoff's second law.
• Connecting resistors in series means that the same current passes through all resistors.d. • Derive equations for resistors in series and resistors in parallel. and the total current is the sum of the currents through each resistor.s across each resistor. and the p. there is a transfer of energy due to the charge carriers colliding with the positive resistor ions. 'The charge carriers lose kinetic energy and the ions gain thermal energy as a result of their increased vibration. 44 . When resistors are connected in parallel the p.d. a) in series b) in parallel Resistance heating When current passes through a resistor. is the same across each resistor.Student Notes More about Resistance (p.d.61 ) The basic circuit rules we have studies can now be used to calculate the total resistance of series and parallel combinations of resistors. across the whole series is the sum of the p.
so that less is available to the external circuit Explain what is meant by: • the e. of a cell • the terminal p. If there is no rise in temperature of a component. of a cell • the 'lost volts' 45 . To understand why this happens we need to realise that a battery has an internal resistance.4 on page 63 Emf and Internal Resistance (p. supplied to the lights drops when a large current is drawn from the battery.d. This means that work must be done by the battery to drive the current through the battery's own resistance and this wastes energy as heat within the battery. This is because the p.64) When the starter motor of a car is switched on.m.f.' Complete questions 1 .Student Notes Derive an equation for the rate of transfer of thermal energy to a component whose resistance is R. what can you conclude? .d. the lights dim.
and show from this how the e. How is the internal resistance found from this? Complete questions 1 . How does the internal resistance affect the maximum current that can be drawn from a cell or battery? Measuring Internal resistance A high resistance voltmeter (eg. Use this equation to explain why the terminal p. and the results can be plotted on a graph.Student Notes State Ohm's law for the whole circuit (including the internal resistance).4 on page 66 46 .f and terminal p. Draw a suitable circuit diagram for measuring internal resistance and sketch the graph that will be obtained.d. falls when a large current is drawn from a battery. a digital voltmeter) is used to measure the terminal pd for different values of current.m. of a cell are related.d.
In use they are often connected as part of an arrangement of resistors called a potential divider. or finding the difference if they are in opposite directions.70) Many measurements in Science are made electrically using sensors. • Use the current rules.d. remembering that resistors in series with the cells will pass the same current as the cells. • Identical cells in parallel will give the same emf as a single cell but can supply greater current and will have a smaller total internal resistance.Student Notes More Circuit Calculations (p. These sensors are referred to as transducers .they change the signal or data being measured into an electrical signal. then use the total emf and total circuit resistance to find the current through the cells. and they do this as a result of a change in their electrical resistance. across each of the resistors 47 . • Start by drawing the circuit diagram (if not given) • Work out the total emf for the circuit by adding the emfs of cells connected in series.4 on page 69 The Potential Divider (p. Use this to write an equation for the p. Consider the following circuit ~-------4 I~------------~ V I Write an equation for the current through the two resistors. This will be the pd across each resistor in the parallel combination. • Combine the resistors in the circuit to fmd the total circuit resistance. • Where resistors are in parallel work out the total resistance of the combination and use the total cell current to find the pd across the parallel combination. if they are in the same direction. Look through the worked example on page 6~ then complete questions 1 .67) To solve circuit problems we need to apply the basic rules we have studied.
> & then VI > VI.d. Potential divider circuits: In practice there are two types of potential divider circuits: • using a variable resistor. will be the same across each resistor even if both resistors are doubled (hint: what happens to the current?) If one of the resistors is increased but the other remains the same.d.d. voltage) across the two resistors is divided in the same ratio as the resistors: Thus if R. 48 .Student Notes Explain why the p. (or. Moving the point of contact will divide the total resistance of the wire/track into two separate resistors Write an equation for the output p. across each resistor? We can see that the p. what will happen to the p. This is sometimes called a rheostst.d. and when used as a potential divider it is usually referred to as a potentiometer. In effect this is a resistance wire or resistance track which is divided by a moveable contact into two parts.
across the sensor either increases or decreases. Explain what happens to the p. to switch a light on when it gets dark. The resistance of the sensor changes with some external signal and therefore the p. e.4 on page 71 49 .d. Complete questions 1 .d. This change in the p. across the thermistor when it is cold and when it is hot. can be used to energise an electromagnetic switch.Student Notes • using a sensor. Typical sensors might be thermistors or LDRs.d.g. or turn a heater on when the temperature drops below some pre-determined value.
Draw a diagram to show how the current varies with time for d. from positive to negative). the source of electrical energy has been a cell or battery. value? a.the average value of current over one complete cycle is zero. source related to the period? (The simplest type of oscillation is sinusoidal. however produces a flow of charge which constantly changes direction.from the negative terminal of the cell to the positive terminal (although conventional cUITentis said to flow in the opposite direction. Alternating current. But clearly charge does flow and energy is transferred. (Indicate on the diagram peak values of current.c.) Since the charge oscillates back and forth there is no netflow of charge . Work is done within the cell on the charge which produces an electric field within the conductors that make up the circuit A force is then exerted on the free electrons within the conductors which causes them to move and the flow of charged particles is the current This flow of charge is always in the same direction . what does an a. will exert forces on the free electrons within the wires which vary continuously and so alternately push and pull the electrons. and a. What is meant by peak. 10 and period T) I j I d.c.c. A generator. ammeter or voltmeter read? 50 .74) Alternating Current and Power In the circuits we have considered so far.c. or dynamo.c. What is meant by frequency? How is the frequency of the a.Student Notes ALTERNATING CURRENTS (p.c. So. for example. They oscillate back and forth rather than moving in one direction.
How is the root mean square value of an alternating current defined? Complete questions 1 .Student Notes The rate of transfer of heat to a resistor is given by P-I~ Draw a graph to show the corresponding variation of the power with time: j T time The shape of the power curve is symmetrical so the mean power over one cycle is half the peak.4 on page 76 51 . Show how this leads to a relationship between the peak current and the effective mean current (known as the root mean square. power. or rms current).
(cathode ray oscilloscope) .o.77) To observe and measure a. 52 . we often use an oscilloscope. fluorescent screen The basic controls on a ero are: • • • Focus Brightness Y-gain • Timebase Explain the function of the Y-gain and the Timebase.Student Notes Using an Oscilloscope (p. Explain the basic structure of the cro and what the different parts do. or c.r.c.
c. . the spot should be in the centre of the screen.can be applied to the Y-input and the resulting trace (graph) can be used to take measurements. voltage was applied with timebase off b) a d.Student Notes When no p.c. voltage was applied with the timebase off d) an a.c. and the time base is off. Sketch diagrams to show what you would expect to observe if: a) a d.c. voltage was applied with the timebase on c) an a. voltage was applied with the time base on 53 . is applied to the cro.c.c.d. the spot becomes a horizontal line across the middle of the screen.either d. With the time base on. or a. A potential difference .
pd or the period (and hence the nTIS value for the pd and the frequency can be found). (and rms values) • frequency of alternating voltages • short time intervals (and hence the speed at which a wave such as ultrasound travels) and also to observe the shape of wave-like alternating signals.Student Notes The display on the screen of a cro is essentially a graph of the voltage against time. is therefore used to measure • peak values of p.o. Complete questions 1 . The c.r. Direct measurements from the screen can be multiplied by the settings on the Y-gain or timebase to calculate the peak.d.4 on page 79 54 .
MATERIALS AND WAVES FORCES IN EQUILmRIUM Vectors and Scalars (Chapter 7. however. Quantities which have magnitude and direction are called vectors. Give some examples of quantities that are scalars: Give some examples of quantities that are vectors: Explain the difference between distance and displacement. Quantities which have magnitude (size) only are called scalars. a wavelength of 612 nm. 1 .0 kg. also require a direction.Student Notes AS PHYSICS UNIT 2 MECHANICS. a mass of 3.g. Some quantities. e. a time of 5 ms.1t page 90) All quantities can be described by a number and a unit. Explain how an object can be moving with a constant speed but have a changing velocity.
2 . or from a calculation.g. we combine them simply by adding their values together. combining two forces of 3 Nand 4 N can produce an answer anywhere between I N and 7 N depending on the relative directions of the two forces.Student Notes Combining Vectors A vector is represented by a line on a diagram: • The length of the line represents the magnitude of the vector • The direction of the line is indicated by an arrow and represents the direction of the vector. Finding the resultant of two vectors/Using vector diagrams The resultant of two vectors can either be found from a scale diagram.g. A calculation is usually more accurate but you should always sketch the vector diagram first. I em = IN. e. If the vectors are at right angles to each other then you can use Pythagoras. Try questions 1 and 2 of the summary questions on page 93. I Explain how the 'head-to-tail' rule can be used to find a resultant in a vector diagram. So. The result (usually called the resultant) is found from a vector diagram. When scalar quantities are added. When using a scale diagram you need a ruler and a protractor. if they are at some other angle then the cosine rule can be used (this will not be examined in this AS specification). 3 kg + 4 kg = 7 kg When we add vector quantities we have to take their directions into account. e. You need to state clearly what scale factor you are using.
The component is the effect of the vector in that particular direction. 3 . it is often useful to consider its effect in some other direction. mg) has components down the slope and perpendicular to the slope. -----~)--------I W (mg) I Here. What is the component of W parallel to the slope? What is the component of W perpendicular to the slope? Now try questions 3 and 4 on page 93. V ~ What is the horizontal component of V? What is the vertical component of V? Sometimes the directions we wish to consider are not vertical and horizontal but parallel and perpendicular to a slope (inclined plane). its velocity at any moment can be said to have both horizontal and vertical components. the weight W (or. Components are always the vector multiplied by either the sine or cosine of some angle. therefore to resolve a vector quantity into components that are at 900 to each other. It is useful. So.Student Notes Resolving a Vector Because a vector quantity has a specific direction. a ball thrown from one person to another will be moving both vertically and horizontally at the same time. For example.
they can change the shape of the object.. The Principle of Moments (seepage 97) Forces can have different effects on an object. What is meant in this sentence by "equilibrium"? How can the resultant force be zero if (a) only 2 forces act? (b) 3 forces act Check out the worked examples on pages 94 and 95. They can change the motion of the object. Consider what happens when 2 equal and opposite forces act on a body: • Likethis- • Like thisr----. and they can also cause the object to rotate. then try the summary questions on page 96.---+~ F F ..Student Notes Balanced Forces (seepage 94) For an object to be in equilibrium the resultant force acting on it must be zero. __ ---L.....__ --I 4 .
however. or turning effect of a force is called its moment. take up space and if a force is applied anywhere other than its centre of mass then it will cause the object to rotate.Student Notes The rotating. How is the centre of mass different from the centre of gravity? 5 . in Physics we treat objects as though they were simply points. Notice that the force F and the distance s of its line of action from the pivot are perpendicular • Example What is the moment of this force? Is the moment of a force a vector or scalar quantity? Explain. Centre of mass Often. Define the moment of a force. Real objects.
for a body to be in equilibrium there should not only be zero resultant force acting on it (so that it cannot accelerate). often called normal reaction forces. but also zero resultant moment (so that it cannot rotate). W Sy I X Y 6 . Now complete the summary questions on page 98. 99) Support forces. To produce zero resultant force the total upward support force must always be equal to the total downward weight. How does the support force at X vary as the weight W is moved from Y to X? 1 t Sx Oi . Solving Moments Problems (p.may act as a single support force (such as a knife edge) or as two supports (such as the supporting ends of a bridge).Student Notes So. State the principle of moments. or normal contact forces (normal because they act at 90° to the supporting surface) . This second condition for equilibrium is expressed in the principle of moments.
A couple is a pair of forces which are: • equal in magnitude • opposite in direction • do not lie in the same line (or. Explain why the torque of a couple is always the same wherever the turning point is located. have different but parallel lines of action). Now try the questions on page 100 7 . The moment of a couple is called the torque. Define the torque of a couple.Student Notes Couple When two forces produce a rotation but no acceleration (because their resultant is zero) the two forces are called a couple.
Student Notes Stability (p.lOl) Objects are sometimes said to be in stable equilibrium. Explain how a heavy base can help to prevent an object from toppling. 8 . How does the principle of moments explain the difference between these two types of equilibrium? An object will topple if the line of action of its weight passes beyond the pivot. and sometimes in unstable equilibrium. Try the questions on page 103.
111. In order to draw a free body diagram we must identify all the forces that body and note their direction. Try the summary questions on page 107. normal contact force) w Draw a free body diagram for a box at rest on a rough slope. and • the support force (or. and help us that act on but do not act is represented Example: A person standing on the ground. Other forces that may be present on the body in which we are interested must be ignored. There are two forces acting on the person: • the weight of the person (acts vertically downwards). • the resultant moment must be zero . 9 . And further Statics Calculations on pages 108 . The conditions for equilibrium always apply: • the resultant force must be zero .Student Notes Solving Statics Problems (p. Each force in the usual way.apply the principle of moments by choosing a suitable point (this might be where an unknown force acts because this force will have zero moment about this point.a scale diagram can be used or forces can be resolved into components to find an unknown force.104) Free body diagrams It is often useful to draw a diagram in order to simplify the situation to analyse the forces acting.
Student Notes ON THE MOVE (Chapter 8) Speed and Velocity (page 112) Motion can be described in a number of ways . quickly or speeding up etc. 10 . Show how the average speed of a moving object can be determined. The shape ofthe graph can tell us whether the object is moving slowly. The words or terms we use to describe motion include • Displacement • Speed • Velocity • Acceleration So first. Explain the difference between speed and velocity. but it can be 1 hour) Give the SI unit for speed. some definitions: Speed is the distance travelled in a unit oftime (usually 1 second.we can use graphs and also equations. How is average speed different from instantaneous speed? Displacement-time graphs The motion of an object can be described using a graph which shows how its displacement from some fixed point changes as time passes.
. 11 . Measuring speed in the laboratory We have a number of different ways to measure the speed of an object in the laboratory.... light gates and motion sensors. These include the use of ticker-timers.. time Show how you would use the graph to calculate the speed.Student Notes In the following graph describe the motion in each part: displacement A c o~--------------------~~~time If the object was accelerating what would the displacement displacement graph look like? 1.. All these methods depend upon determining the distance moved in a given period oftime.- . Try the summary questions on page 113.
Student Notes Measuring distance and time to find speed Laboratory measurements Using two Ugh! gates . Using one DUhl gate Using a ticker-timer 1·· start o 1 2 • . 3 4 Using a motion sensor motion sensor 12 .
Student Notes Acceleration (p. What are the 51 units for acceleration? If motion is in a straight line we can use positive acceleration for an increase in speed and negative acceleration for a decrease in speed. The shape of the graph tells us about the motion but we must remember that the same shape in a displacement-time graph is describing a different type of motion. Describe the motion in each part of this graph: velocity C or-----------------------~· time 13 . Since velocity is a vector this means that an increase in speed. but any change in velocity is an acceleration. 114) We often think of acceleration as simply speeding up. (Where the speed is decreasing we also use the words deceleration. Velocity-time graphs An object's motion can be described by drawing a velocity-time graph. or sometimes retardation) Give the definition and defining equation for acceleration. a decrease in speed and a change in direction are all examples of acceleration.
14 .Student Notes How would you show an object whose acceleration was gradually decreasing? velocity time How do you determine the acceleration from a velocity-time graph? Explain the difference between a uniform and a non-uniform acceleration. How would you describe the motion in this graph? j velocity Try the summary questions on page 115.
Give an expression for the distance covered (use the average speed). By substituting from one equation into the other. derive two further equations: 15 . There are 4 of these equations but they can only be used if the acceleration is uniform. might look like the following: veloci~ ~ ~ t ~tllne Give an expression for the acceleration (use the gradient). and acceleration a.116) If an object is moving with a constant or uniform acceleration its motion can be analysed using a set of equations known as the equations of motion. to reach a final velocity of v in t seconds. Consider the case where then accelerates with an during which a distance A graph to illustrate this an object is initially moving with some velocity u. s is covered.Student Notes Equations of Motion (p.
81 ms? An object in free fall is an example of unifonnly accelerated motion. the four equations of motion can only be used if the acceleration is constant . The area under a graph in Physics is always equal to the product of the two quantities which are plotted (hence.we will consider the effect of air resistance later.What is u? What is a? Measurements can be taken for the distance fallen after different time intervals.see the explanation for this onpage 117. its velocity may have components in both the horizontal and vertical directions .this is why they are sometimes called the equations of uniformly accelerated motion. Consider first of all the vertical motion: Falling objects which experience only the pull of gravity are said to be in free fall. This acceleration is the same for all objects irrespective of their weight (or. and the value of this acceleration at or near the surface of the earth is 9. This is still true even if the acceleration is not constant . Free Fall (p. Try the questions on page 121. Explain how the data collected can be analysed using a suitable graph and how the acceleration of free fall can be found from the graph. You must also decide for yourself whether to take 'up' as positive or 'down' as positive. How do we analyse motion like this? To simplify matters we shall assume for the moment that air resistance is negligible and can be ignored . When objects are in free fall they accelerate. distance speed x time). mass). 16 . the quantities used in the equations are vectors. s = ut + liz af For an object dropped from rest . This-means we can use any of the 4 equations of motion: Using. Remember.it may be moving forwards at the same time as it is rising or falling.Student Notes Notice that the distance moved ( lil (u + v) t ) is equal to the area under the graph. Try the questions on page 118.119) When an object is thrown into the air. = However.
122) shows the displacementtime graph.82m Now try the summary questions on page 123.125). and then the questions on page 125 (note the examiners tip on p. • An object droppedfrom a height and re-bounding -figure 4 (p.20m and re-bounding to a height ofO.Student Notes Motion Graphs (p. and figure 3 (p.123) shows the velocity-time graph for this Draw a displacement-time graph for an object dropped from a height of I. Check out the following graphs of motion: • An object thrown upwards into the air -figure I (p.122) Free fall motion. or motion through the air can be represented by either displacement-time graphs or velocity-time graphs.123) shows the velocity-time graph for this. Both displacement and velocity are vectors and so the difference between upward motion and downward motion can be represented by using both positive and negative quadrants of the graph. 17 .
ifwe ignore air resistance then no force acts horizontally on the moving object and so its velocity in the horizontal direction will be constant. Horizontal projection You will notice two things about the motion . and begin by identifying/ calculating the initial horizontal and vertical components of velocity. 1. • Treat horizontal motion as constant velocity (no acceleration) • Treat vertical velocity as uniformly accelerated with a = 9. so you can use the equations of motion. and the vertical motion is identical to that of an object dropped from rest.Student Notes Projectile Motion (p. how far will it land from the thrower? Thus. projectile motion can be analysed by applying the following basic principles: • Treat vertical and.126. or an object projected upwards at an angle.0 seconds. explain what you can deduce about the ball's (a) horizontal motion 18 .126) A projectile is any object moving through the air which is only acted upon by the force of gravity (and in real life.the path the object follows is a parabola. air resistance as well!) For horizontal motion. Most problems you will need to solve will either involve an object being projected horizontally from a height (such as a clifftop). and the ball is in the air for 2.8 ms" and always acting downwards. From the multi-flash photo on p. How can the horizontal displacement be found? If a ball is thrown upwards into the air with a velocity of 20 ms' at an angle of 30° to the ground.horizontal motion independently.
Ignoring air resistance: (a) How long is the ball in the air? (b) How far does the ball travel horizontally? (c) What is the maximum height the ball reaches? Try the summary questions on page 129. A golfer hits a ball so that it moves offwith a velocity of 26 ms" at 30° to the horizontal. after a 2. Also your exam paper will only require you to solve problems involving horizontal projection or vertical projection. However it will help you to develop your grasp of projectile motion if you can solve more comp_lex projectile problems. and the exam style questions on pages 130 -131.Student Notes (b) vertical motion By considering the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) displacements time t show that the path followed must be a parabola. Projected upwards at an angle This is just an extension of the above except that there is an initial vertical component of velocity. 19 .
However. Force and Motion We can investigate the effect of force and motion using dynamics trolleys or an air track (where friction can be greatly reduced).especially when objects are moving at speeds close to the speed of light.Student Notes MOTION AND FORCE Force and Acceleration (Chapter 9) (p. Newton's laws provide an accurate basis for calculating and predicting motion. We can conclude that any object that is moving with a constant velocity has either no force acting on it or no resultant force acting on it. in which case relativistic considerations must be taken into account. Thus it is often referred to as Newtonian Mechanics. 132) Mechanics is traditionally explained in terms of Newton's laws of motion. Newton's First law State Newton's first law Explain why when we stop pushing an object it slows down and stops rather than continuing to move at a constant velocity. The results show that F is proportional to mass x acceleration 20 . for most objects in our everyday world. Physicists recognise that these laws have limitations . Explain how it is possible for an object to be moving with constant velocity when a constant pushing force is being applied to it.
Use Newton's second law to show that all objects in free fall have the same acceleration of9. Why are we able to put k 17 = It is important to remember when using the second law that the force used is the unbalanced force. where k is some constant of proportionality.8 ms" Note that: • • • • • WeightW = mg g is also called the gravitational field strength as it represents the amount of gravitational force that acts on each kilo gramme of mass the value of g will vary from place to place so weight is not constant a balance actually measures the weight of an object not its mass but it can be calibrated in mass units if g is constant inertia is the resistance of an object to being accelerated. Try the summary questions on page 134. Stricdy speaking we should write F = lana. 21 . Mass is a measure of inertia because it is harder to accelerate a bigger mass.Student Notes State Newton's second law. This often means that we must consider what forces may be acting on an object (it is usually helpful here to draw a free body diagram) and then determine what the resultant force is on the body.
another force acts on the rocket .Student Notes Using the Second Law (p.(400 x 9.it's weight. Two forces in opposite directions: Typical examples here include an object such as a car or trailer moving horizontally along the ground.81) == 1076N acceleration = 10761400 = 2. What is its acceleration? If we draw afree body diagram for the rocket we can see that as well as the thrust. due to the pull of gravity. This acts downwards. Resultant force == 5000 . or a rocket moving vertically upwards through the air. 22 . The resultant force is.69 ms· 2 Try questions 1 and 2 on page 137. What forces might be acting upon a car driving along a horizontal road? What forces might be acting upon a rocket taking off? ExalllPle A rocket of mass 400 kg has a vertical thrust of 5000 N at take off. This means that we will have to consider all forces that act on the object which is being accelerated. 135) It is important to remember that the force F used in the second law must be the resultant force. and it will usually be helpful to draw a free body force diagram so that we can identify these forces. therefore the difference between the upward thrust and the weight of the rocket.
what can you say about the motion of the lift? If. T > mg. Check out the resultant force in the case of the pulley with unequal weights on either side. If. 138) One of the forces we have met is the force experienced by any object that is moving through a fluid (liquid or gas). What three factors does the amount of drag which an object experiences depend on? 23 . T < mg. Read carefully through the principles of the lift problem as described on p.Student Notes Lift Problems A lift also has two forces acting on it . then work out the resultant.tension in the lift cable (T) and the weight (mg) of the lift and occupants. then try questions 3 and 4 on page 137. It is called drag. what can you say about the motion of the lift? Remember: Identify the separate forces acting. and the mass sliding down a slope on page 137. what can you say about the motion of the lift? If. Terminal Velocity (p. T = mg.l36.
Explain why any car must have a top speed on a level road. • velocity ---. Explain the main features of your graph.Student Notes An object falling through a fluid of any kind will experience drag and as a result may reach a terminal velocity.. Complete the summary questions on page 139 24 .-ime t . Sketch a graph for a free fall parachutist from the moment he steps out of the aircraft until he lands safely on the ground..
How is the braking distance calculated? Friction plays a very important part in both driving and stopping a vehicle. The distanced travelled by a vehicle before stopping is called its stopping distance.the thinking distance and the braking distance.Student Notes On The Road (po 140) Many accidents are caused because vehicles are too close to each other. 25 . This distance is made up of two parts .4 on page 142. Explain what is meant by thinking distance and what is happening to the speed of the vehicle at this time. If a car on the motorway has to brake suddenly the cars following may not be able to stop in time and this can result in a "pile up". Why does 'wheel spin' occur if a driver tries to accelerate too quickly? What causes skidding? Complete questions 1.
so that the impact force on the driver or passengers is reduced. Many of the safety features in modem vehicles aim to increase the impact time. Read about safety features on page 145 (especially air bags. It is important to be able to explain how thesefeatures improve safety by referring to Newton '$ laws of motion. Another important factor to consider in assessing the effect of an impact is the contact time or impact time. The shorter the contact time the greater the impact force will zenerallv be. 26 . This means that the force acting on the object is 3 times its weight. and the force is said to be equal to 3g (although strictly speaking this is its acceleration). What does this mean? According to Newton's second law the force acting on a mass is proportional to the acceleration or deceleration ( F = rna). So if an object accelerates at -30 ms? its acceleration is 3 times greater than the acceleration due to gravity (10 ms"). crumple zones and seat belts).143) The force experienced by a person or object. The acceleration/ deceleration of a vehicle takes place as a result of the contact between the vehicle and some other object.Student Notes Vehicle Safety (p. Complete questions 1 . so its acceleration is -3g. especially as a result of an impact is often referred to as a g-force. Explain why this is true.4 on page 145.
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