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ICS 620 Fall 2003 Week #9
Importance of Wireless
Freedom of movement No loss of connectivity Increase in productivity
Cellular Network Organization
Use multiple low-power transmitters (100 W or less) Areas divided into cells
Each served by its own antenna Served by base station consisting of transmitter, receiver, and control unit Band of frequencies allocated Cells set up such that antennas of all neighbors are equidistant (hexagonal pattern)
5 B’ band A’ band 849 A band 10 MHz 333 channels 30khz B band 10 MHz 333 channels 30khz 1 MHz 33 chan A” band 1.5 MHz 50 chan 83 chan 20 MHz Guard Base Transmit 869 870 880 890 891.5 894 B’ band A’ band A band 10 MHz 333 channels 30khz B band 10 MHz 333 channels 30khz 1 MHz 33 chan A” band 1.5 MHz 2.5 MHz 50 chan 83 chan .5 MHz 2.Cellular Spectrum Phone Transmit 824 825 835 845 846.
Frequency Reuse Adjacent cells assigned different frequencies to avoid interference or crosstalk Objective is to reuse frequency in nearby cells 10 to 50 frequencies assigned to each cell Transmission power controlled to limit power at that frequency escaping to adjacent cells The issue is to determine how many cells must intervene between two cells using the same frequency .
each with their own set of channels Microcells – antennas move to buildings. hills.Approaches to Cope with Increasing Capacity Adding new channels Frequency borrowing – frequencies are taken from adjacent cells by congested cells Cell splitting – cells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller cells Cell sectoring – cells are divided into a number of wedge-shaped sectors. and lamp posts .
Cellular System Overview .
a controller. and a number of receivers Mobile telecommunications switching office (MTSO) – connects calls between mobile units Two types of channels available between mobile unit and BS Control channels – used to exchange information having to do with setting up and maintaining calls Traffic channels – carry voice or data connection between users .Cellular Systems Terms Base Station (BS) – includes an antenna.
Steps in an MTSO Controlled Call between Mobile Users Mobile unit initialization Mobile-originated call Paging Call accepted Ongoing call Handoff .
Additional Functions in an MTSO Controlled Call Call blocking Call termination Call drop Calls to/from fixed and remote mobile subscriber .
Mobile Radio Propagation Effects Signal strength Must be strong enough between base station and mobile unit to maintain signal quality at the receiver Must not be so strong as to create too much co-channel interference with channels in another cell using the same frequency band Signal propagation effects may disrupt the signal and cause errors Fading .
Handoff Performance Metrics Cell blocking probability – probability of a new call being blocked Call dropping probability – probability that a call is terminated due to a handoff Call completion probability – probability that an admitted call is not dropped before it terminates Probability of unsuccessful handoff – probability that a handoff is executed while the reception conditions are inadequate .
Handoff Performance Metrics Handoff blocking probability – probability that a handoff cannot be successfully completed Handoff probability – probability that a handoff occurs before call termination Rate of handoff – number of handoffs per unit time Interruption duration – duration of time during a handoff in which a mobile is not connected to either base station Handoff delay – distance the mobile moves from the point at which the handoff should occur to the point at which it does occur .
Handoff Strategies Used to Determine Instant of Handoff Relative signal strength Relative signal strength with threshold Relative signal strength with hysteresis Relative signal strength with hysteresis and threshold Prediction techniques .
Power Control Design issues making it desirable to include dynamic power control in a cellular system Received power must be sufficiently above the background noise for effective communication Desirable to minimize power in the transmitted signal from the mobile Reduce co-channel interference. it’s desirable to equalize the received power level from all mobile units at the BS . save battery power In SS systems using CDMA. alleviate health concerns.
but can react quicker to fluctuations in signal strength Adjusts signal strength in reverse channel based on metric of performance BS makes power adjustment decision and communicates to mobile on control channel Closed-loop power control .Types of Power Control Open-loop power control Depends solely on mobile unit No feedback from BS Not as accurate as closed-loop.
available channels would equal number of subscribers active at one time In practice.Traffic Engineering Ideally. not feasible to have capacity handle all possible load For N simultaneous user capacity and L subscribers L < N – non-blocking system L > N – blocking system .
two 25-MHz bands allocated to AMPS One for transmission from base to mobile unit One for transmission from mobile unit to base Each band split in two to encourage competition Frequency reuse exploited .First-Generation Analog Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) In North America.
Frequency Division Multiple Access Definition . 1997) . (Qualcomm.FDMA is a multiple access method in which users are assigned specific frequency bands. The user has sole right of using the frequency band for the entire call duration.
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access Chan D Frequency Chan C Chan B Chan A Time .
frees channels. MTSO establishes circuit and initiates billing information Either party hangs up.AMPS Operation Subscriber initiates call by keying in phone number and presses send key MTSO verifies number and authorizes user MTSO issues message to user’s cell phone indicating send and receive traffic channels MTSO sends ringing signal to called party Party answers. MTSO releases circuit. completes billing .
Differences Between First and Second Generation Systems Digital traffic channels – first-generation systems are almost purely analog. second-generation systems are digital Encryption – all second generation systems provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping Error detection and correction – second-generation digital traffic allows for detection and correction. giving clear voice reception Channel access – second-generation systems allow channels to be dynamically shared by a number of users .
channelization of users in the same band is achieved through separation in time. each user is allowed to transmit in predetermined time slots. Hence. (Qualcomm.Time Division Multiple Access Definition .TDMA is an assigned frequency band shared among a few users. However. 1997) .
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access Frequency Chan B Chan A Time .
Mobile Wireless TDMA Design Considerations Number of logical channels (number of time slots in TDMA frame): 8 Maximum cell radius (R): 35 km Frequency: region around 900 MHz Maximum vehicle speed (Vm):250 km/hr Maximum coding delay: approx. 20 ms Maximum delay spread (m): 10 s Bandwidth: Not to exceed 200 kHz (25 kHz per channel) .
GSM Network Architecture .
digital signal processors and subscriber identity module (SIM) GSM subscriber units are generic until SIM is inserted SIMs roam.Mobile Station Mobile station communicates across Um interface (air interface) with base station transceiver in same cell as mobile unit Mobile equipment (ME) – physical terminal. such as a telephone or PCS ME includes radio transceiver. not necessarily the subscriber devices .
and controls paging .Base Station Subsystem (BSS) BSS consists of base station controller and one or more base transceiver stations (BTS) Each BTS defines a single cell Includes radio antenna. radio transceiver and a link to a base station controller (BSC) BSC reserves radio frequencies. manages handoff of mobile unit from one cell to another within BSS.
Network Subsystem (NS) NS provides link between cellular network and public switched telecommunications networks Controls handoffs between cells in different BSSs Authenticates users and validates accounts Enables worldwide roaming of mobile users Central element of NS is the mobile switching center (MSC) .
holds encryption keys Equipment identity register database (EIR) – keeps track of the type of equipment that exists at the mobile station .Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Databases Home location register (HLR) database – stores information about each subscriber that belongs to it Visitor location register (VLR) database – maintains information about subscribers currently physically in the region Authentication center database (AuC) – used for authentication activities.
TDMA Format – Time Slot Fields Trail bits – allow synchronization of transmissions from mobile units Encrypted bits – encrypted data Stealing bit .indicates whether block contains data or is "stolen" Training sequence – used to adapt parameters of receiver to the current path propagation characteristics Strongest signal selected in case of multipath propagation Guard bits – used to avoid overlapping with other bursts .
GSM Speech Signal Processing .
GSM Signaling Protocol Architecture .
Functions Provided by Protocols Protocols above the link layer of the GSM signaling protocol architecture provide specific functions: Radio resource management Mobility management Connection management Mobile application part (MAP) BTS management .
and are channelized by unique assigned codes. Undesired signals contribute only to noise.CDMA is a method in which users occupy the same time and frequency allocations. The signals are separated at the receiver by using a correlator that accepts only signal energy from the desired channel.Code Division Multiple Access Definition . (Qualcomm. 1997) .
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access Code .
Capacity CDMA has the ability to deliver 10 to 20 times the capacity as FDMA for the same bandwidth. . CDMA also has a capacity advantage over TDMA by 5 to 7 times.
Advantages of CDMA Cellular Frequency diversity – frequency-dependent transmission impairments have less effect on signal Multipath resistance – chipping codes used for CDMA exhibit low cross correlation and low autocorrelation Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals Graceful degradation – system only gradually degrades as more users access the system .
this is more complex than hard handoff used in FDMA and TDMA schemes .Drawbacks of CDMA Cellular Self-jamming – arriving transmissions from multiple users not aligned on chip boundaries unless users are perfectly synchronized Near-far problem – signals closer to the receiver are received with less attenuation than signals farther away Soft handoff – requires that the mobile acquires the new cell before it relinquishes the old.
Mobile Wireless CDMA Design Considerations RAKE receiver – when multiple versions of a signal arrive more than one chip interval apart. RAKE receiver attempts to recover signals from multiple paths and combine them This method achieves better performance than simply recovering dominant signal and treating remaining signals as noise Soft Handoff – mobile station temporarily connected to more than one base station simultaneously .
Principle of RAKE Receiver .
Types of Channels Supported by Forward Link
Pilot (channel 0) - allows the mobile unit to acquire timing information, provides phase reference and provides means for signal strength comparison Synchronization (channel 32) - used by mobile station to obtain identification information about cellular system Paging (channels 1 to 7) - contain messages for one or more mobile stations Traffic (channels 8 to 31 and 33 to 63) – the forward channel supports 55 traffic channels
Forward Traffic Channel Processing Steps
Speech is encoded at a rate of 8550 bps Additional bits added for error detection Data transmitted in 2-ms blocks with forward error correction provided by a convolutional encoder Data interleaved in blocks to reduce effects of errors Data bits are scrambled, serving as a privacy mask
Forward Traffic Channel Processing Steps (cont.)
Power control information inserted into traffic channel DS-SS function spreads the 19.2 kbps to a rate of 1.2288 Mbps using one row of 64 x 64 Walsh matrix Digital bit stream modulated onto the carrier using QPSK modulation scheme
048 Mbps for office use Symmetrical / asymmetrical data transmission rates Support for both packet switched and circuit switched data services .ITU’s View of Third-Generation Capabilities Voice quality comparable to the public switched telephone network 144 kbps data rate available to users in high-speed motor vehicles over large areas 384 kbps available to pedestrians standing or moving slowly over small areas Support for 2.
ITU’s View of Third-Generation Capabilities An adaptive interface to the Internet to reflect efficiently the common asymmetry between inbound and outbound traffic More efficient use of the available spectrum in general Support for a wide variety of mobile equipment Flexibility to allow the introduction of new services and technologies .
Alternative Interfaces .
CDMA Design Considerations Bandwidth – limit channel usage to 5 MHz Chip rate – depends on desired data rate. 3 Mcps or more is reasonable Multirate – advantage is that the system can flexibly support multiple simultaneous applications from a given user and can efficiently use available capacity by only providing the capacity required for each service . and bandwidth limitations. need for error control.
Paging & SMS Evolution of Paging Tone Boy. late 1960’s Digital Pagers. 1970s Numeric Paging Systems Alpha/Numeric Paging Systems . early 1960’s Tone-Voice.
modem messaging . Features--Web messaging. Alpha-numeric Marketed by coverage area. Numeric.Paging Larger coverage area in each site Signal.
Paging Current Applications Fax Forwarding E-Mail Forwarding Voice Mail Notification Automated Problem Notification Two-way Paging .
xDSL. and government subscribers ISDN. cable modems Increasing interest shown in competing wireless technologies for subscriber access Wireless local loop (WLL) Narrowband – offers a replacement for existing telephony services Broadband – provides high-speed two-way voice and data service . high-speed access by residential.Wireless Local Loop Wired technologies responding to need for reliable. business.
WLL Configuration .
Advantages of WLL over Wired Approach Cost – wireless systems are less expensive due to cost of cable installation that’s avoided Installation time – WLL systems can be installed in a small fraction of the time required for a new wired system Selective installation – radio units installed for subscribers who want service at a given time With a wired system. cable is laid out in anticipation of serving every subscriber in a given area .
providing high data rates Small size transceivers and adaptive antenna arrays can be used .Propagation Considerations for WLL Most high-speed WLL schemes use millimeter wave frequencies (10 GHz to about 300 GHz) There are wide unused frequency bands available above 25 GHz At these high frequencies. wide channel bandwidths can be used.
Propagation Considerations for WLL Millimeter wave systems have some undesirable propagation characteristics Free space loss increases with the square of the frequency. attenuation effects due to rainfall and atmospheric or gaseous absorption are large Multipath losses can be quite high . losses are much higher in millimeter wave range Above 10 GHz.
radius of first Fresnel zone: R SD SD S = distance from transmitter D = distance from receiver .Fresnel Zone How much space around direct path between transmitter and receiver should be clear of obstacles? Objects within a series of concentric circles around the line of sight between transceivers have constructive/destructive effects on communication For point along the direct path.
Atmospheric Absorption Radio waves at frequencies above 10 GHz are subject to molecular absorption Peak of water vapor absorption at 22 GHz Peak of oxygen absorption near 60 GHz From 28 GHz to 42 GHz From 75 GHz to 95 GHz Favorable windows for communication: .
drop size. rain rate. and frequency Estimated attenuation due to rain: A aR b A = attenuation (dB/km) R = rain rate (mm/hr) a and b depend on drop sizes and frequency .Effect of Rain Attenuation due to rain Presence of raindrops can severely degrade the reliability and performance of communication links The effect of rain depends on drop shape.
Effects of Vegetation Trees near subscriber sites can lead to multipath fading Multipath effects from the tree canopy are diffraction and scattering Measurements in orchards found considerable attenuation values when the foliage is within 60% of the first Fresnel zone Multipath effects highly variable due to wind .
Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS) Multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS) Also referred to as wireless cable Used mainly by residential subscribers and small businesses Appeals to larger companies with greater bandwidth demands Local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) .
Advantages of MMDS MMDS signals have larger wavelengths and can travel farther without losing significant power Equipment at lower frequencies is less expensive MMDS signals don't get blocked as easily by objects and are less susceptible to rain absorption .
telephony.Advantages of LMDS Relatively high data rates Capable of providing video. and data Relatively low cost in comparison with cable alternatives .
16 Standards Development Use wireless links with microwave or millimeter wave radios Use licensed spectrum Are metropolitan in scale Provide public network service to fee-paying customers Use point-to-multipoint architecture with stationary rooftop or tower-mounted antennas .802.
802.16 Standards Development Provide efficient transport of heterogeneous traffic supporting quality of service (QoS) Use wireless links with microwave or millimeter wave radios Are capable of broadband transmissions (>2 Mbps) .
Protocol Architecture Physical and transmission layer functions: Encoding/decoding of signals Preamble generation/removal Bit transmission/reception On transmission. disassemble frame. and perform address recognition and error detection Govern access to the wireless transmission medium Medium access control layer functions: . assemble data into a frame with address and error detection fields On reception.
16 MAC/PHY frames Map upper layer’s addresses into 802.16 MAC format Adapt time dependencies of upper layer traffic into equivalent MAC service .16 addresses Translate upper layer QoS parameters into native 802.Protocol Architecture Convergence layer functions: Encapsulate PDU framing of upper layers into native 802.
IEEE 802.1 Services Digital audio/video multicast Digital telephony ATM Internet protocol Bridged LAN Back-haul Frame relay .16.
3 Services Voice transport Data transport Bridged LAN .16.IEEE 802.
IEEE 802.1 Frame Format .16.
IEEE 802.16.protocol control information Downlink header – used by the base station Uplink header – used by the subscriber to convey bandwidth management needs to base station Bandwidth request header – used by subscriber to request additional bandwidth Payload – either higher-level data or a MAC control message CRC – error-detecting code .1 Frame Format Header .
response and acknowledge .MAC Management Messages Uplink and downlink channel descriptor Uplink and downlink access definition Ranging request and response Registration request. response and acknowledge Privacy key management request and response Dynamic service addition request.
response. and acknowledge Dynamic service deletion request and response Multicast polling assignment request and response Downlink data grant type request ARQ acknowledgment .MAC Management Messages Dynamic service change request.
Physical Layer – Upstream Transmission Uses a DAMA-TDMA technique Error correction uses Reed-Solomon code Modulation scheme based on QPSK .
time division duplexing (TDD) Burst downstream mode . frequency shift division duplexing (FSDD). video) Simple TDM scheme is used for channel access Duplexing technique is frequency division duplex (FDD) Targets burst transmission stream (IP-based traffic) DAMA-TDMA scheme is used for channel access Duplexing techniques are FDD with adaptive modulation.Physical Layer – Downstream Transmission Continuous downstream mode For continuous transmission stream (audio.
Wireless LAN Technology .
Wireless LAN Applications LAN Extension Cross-building interconnect Nomadic Access Ad hoc networking .
LAN Extension Wireless LAN linked into a wired LAN on same premises Wired LAN Backbone Support servers and stationary workstations Stations in large open areas Manufacturing plants. stock exchange trading floors. and warehouses Wireless LAN .
Multiple-cell Wireless LAN .
Cross-Building Interconnect Connect LANs in nearby buildings Wired or wireless LANs Point-to-point wireless link is used Devices connected are typically bridges or routers .
Nomadic Access Wireless link between LAN hub and mobile data terminal equipped with antenna Laptop computer or notepad computer Transfer data from portable computer to office server Extended environment such as campus Uses: .
Ad Hoc Networking Temporary peer-to-peer network set up to meet immediate need Example: Group of employees with laptops convene for a meeting. employees link computers in a temporary network for duration of meeting .
Wireless LAN Requirements Throughput Number of nodes Connection to backbone LAN Service area Battery power consumption Transmission robustness and security Collocated network operation License-free operation Handoff/roaming Dynamic configuration .
Wireless LAN Categories Infrared (IR) LANs Spread spectrum LANs Narrowband microwave .
Strengths of Infrared Over Microwave Radio Spectrum for infrared virtually unlimited Possibility of high data rates Infrared spectrum unregulated Equipment inexpensive and simple Reflected by light-colored objects Ceiling reflection for entire room coverage More easily secured against eavesdropping Less interference between different rooms Doesn’t penetrate walls .
Drawbacks of Infrared Medium Indoor environments experience infrared background radiation Sunlight and indoor lighting Ambient radiation appears as noise in an infrared receiver Transmitters of higher power required Limited by concerns of eye safety and excessive power consumption Limits range .
IR Data Transmission Techniques
Directed Beam Infrared Ominidirectional Diffused
Directed Beam Infrared
Used to create point-to-point links Range depends on emitted power and degree of focusing Focused IR data link can have range of kilometers
Cross-building interconnect between bridges or routers
Single base station within line of sight of all other stations on LAN Station typically mounted on ceiling Base station acts as a multiport repeater
Ceiling transmitter broadcasts signal received by IR transceivers IR transceivers transmit with directional beam aimed at ceiling base unit
Diffused All IR transmitters focused and aimed at a point on diffusely reflecting ceiling IR radiation strikes ceiling Reradiated omnidirectionally Picked up by all receivers .
Spread Spectrum LAN Configuration Multiple-cell arrangement (Figure 13. either peer-to-peer or hub Peer-to-peer topology No hub Access controlled with MAC algorithm CSMA Appropriate for ad hoc LANs .2) Within a cell.
Spread Spectrum LAN Configuration Hub topology Mounted on the ceiling and connected to backbone May control access May act as multiport repeater Automatic handoff of mobile stations Stations in cell either: Transmit to / receive from hub only Broadcast using omnidirectional antenna .
Narrowband Microwave LANs Use of a microwave radio frequency band for signal transmission Relatively narrow bandwidth Licensed Unlicensed .
Licensed Narrowband RF Licensed within specific geographic areas to avoid potential interference Motorola .600 licenses in 18-GHz range Covers all metropolitan areas Can assure that independent LANs in nearby locations don’t interfere Encrypted transmissions prevent eavesdropping .
Unlicensed Narrowband RF RadioLAN introduced narrowband wireless LAN in 1995 Uses unlicensed ISM spectrum Used at low power (0.8-GHz band Range = 50 m to 100 m .5 watts or less) Operates at 10 Mbps in the 5.
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