Amplification: Amplification is the process in which the strength (voltage current or power) of a weak signal increases when it is passed

through a circuit called "AMPLIFIER”. Faithful amplification: Amplification in which shape of the electrical signal remains the same, only the magnitude (voltage, current or power) of the signal increases is called faithful amplification. Transistor amplifier: If the amplification is achieved by using a Bipolar junction transistor and associated biasing circuit, then the amplifier is called “transistor amplifier”. For faithful amplification, the transistor should always be operated in the linear region (active region) of its output characteristics. Therefore, the biasing circuit should be designed in such a way that during all the instants of the input signal, i) Emitter-Base junction remains under forward bias and ii) Collector-Base junction remains under reverse bias. Amplifiers are classified under various criteria’s as follows. 1. Based on transistor configuration: a. Common-emitter (CE) amplifier b. Common-base (CB) amplifier c. Common-collector (CC) amplifier 2. Based on the strength of input signal, a. Small-signal amplifier (voltage amplifier) b. Large signal amplifier (power amplifier) 3. Based on biasing conditions, a. Class A amplifiers b. Class B amplifiers c. Class C amplifiers d. Class AB amplifiers 4. Based on frequency response, a. DC amplifier ( from zero frequency) b. Audio frequency amplifiers (20 Hz – 20kHz) c. Intermediate frequency amplifiers (IF) d. Radio frequency amplifiers (20kHz to MHz) i) Very high frequency amplifiers (VHF) ii) Ultra high frequency amplifiers (UHF) e. Microwave frequency amplifiers (μwF) 5. Based on the bandwidth, a. Narrow band amplifiers (Tuned amplifiers) b. Wide band amplifiers. 6. Based on the number of stages, a. Single stage amplifiers b. Two stage amplifiers c. Multistage amplifiers. 7. Based on the type of coupling

Amplifiers

a. RC coupled amplifiers b. Inductive coupled amplifiers c. Transformer coupled amplifiers and d. Direct coupled amplifiers. 8. Based on the output a. Voltage amplifiers b. Power amplifiers In general, the different types of amplifiers can be designed using any of the three transistor configurations i.e., CE, CB and CC. Each of these configurations can be used for certain specific application based on their characteristic features. Characteristics of amplifiers: To choose a right kind of amplifier for a purpose it is necessary to know the general characteristics of amplifiers. They are: Current gain, Voltage gain, Power gain, Input impedance, Output impedance, Bandwidth. 1. Voltage gain: Voltage gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the change in output voltage to the corresponding change in the input voltage. Since amplifiers handle ac signals, the instantaneous output voltage V 0 and instantaneous input voltage V i can replace ΔV 0 and ΔV I respectively. V Hence, AV = O Vi 2. Current gain: Current gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the change in output current to the corresponding change in the input current. i.e., current and input current respectively.

io i A i = i .where i o and i i are the ac values of output

3. Power gain: Power gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the change in output power to the corresponding change in the input power. where p o and p i are the output power and input power respectively. Since power p = v × i, The power gain i.e., Ap =

= AV x Ai (Power amplification of the input signal takes place at the expense of the d.c. energy.)

Ap =

v o io v i ii

po pi

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5.7% of the maximum gain. Therefore. Zo = vo io 6. f 1 and f 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies where the voltage or the current gain falls to 70.. In figure shown. Such a unit. Gain in decibels: Often it is convenient to consider the gain of an amplifier on a logarithmic scale than on a linear scale. The power gain of an amplifier in bel is Page 3 of 23 .Transistor Amplifiers 4. Zi = vi ii . the cutoff frequencies are also called as Half power frequencies. Graph showing the frequency response A v or A i mid band region Am 0. 707A m f (Hz) Graph showing the frequency response Ap mid band Am 0. ∴Bandwidth BW=(f 2 –f 1 ). Input impedance (Z i ): Input impedance of an amplifier is the impedance offered by the amplifier circuit as seen through the input terminals and is given by the ratio of the input voltage (v i ) to the input current (i i ). Band width (BW):The range of frequencies over which the gain (voltage gain or current gain) of an amplifier is equal to and greater than 0. of the logarithmic scale is called the ‘bel’.707 times the maximum gain is called the bandwidth.e. The cutoff frequencies are also defined as the frequencies where the power gain falls to 50% of the maximum gain. Output impedance (Z 0 ): Output impedance of an amplifier is the impedance offered by the amplifier circuit as seen through the output terminals and is given by the ratio of the output voltage (v o ) to the output current(i o ). i.5A m f1 f2 f (Hz) f1 f2 Bandwidth is also defined as the range of frequencies over which the power gain of amplifier is equal to and greater than 50% of the maximum power gain.

+Vcc RC R1 CB CC vs R2 vCE RE CE RL vo= vce= Page 4 of 23 . ⎛v ⎞ 10 log10 ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜v ⎟ ⎝ i ⎠ = 20 log A v the voltage gain in dB = where v i is the input voltage and v o . Since bel is too large a unit for most practical purposes.c. a smaller unit called decibel (dB) which is (1/10)th of bel is used. The resistors R 1 and R 2 provide the necessary d. expressing the power ratio (P o /p i ) in terms of a voltage ratio or a current ratio. Graph showing the frequency response in dB gain 2 (p o / p i ) A v or A i or A p in dB (Amax Amax (dB) (dB)-3dB) f1 f2 f (Hz) The cutoff frequencies are also defined as the frequencies where the gain of the amplifier falls by 3 dB from the maximum gain Common Emitter Amplifier: Figure shows the circuit of a single stage common emitter (CE) amplifier using an NPN transistor. the output voltage assuming the same input and output resistances. p i and p o are input and output powers respectively. The output is taken across the load resistance R L. The input signal v s is applied between the base and the emitter (since the bypass capacitor C E keeps the Emitter ac potential at zero). Current gain in dB = 20 log A i . ∴Gain in dB = 10 log 10 Decibel voltage gain and Decibel current gain: The power in a resistive branch is proportional to square of the voltage or current. therefore. Similarly.written as Gain in bel = log 10 (p 0 / p i ) where. bias to the transistor.

This will increases collector current i C by a large amount. CE amplifiers are called as small signal amplifiers since the small amplitude of the input signal is required to drive such amplifiers unlike the power amplifiers.c. It grounds the emitter for ac signals and thereby avoids the negative feedback for a. Similarly. Applications: CE amplifier configurations are basically used as voltage amplifiers viz. Page 5 of 23 . Output across the transistor is given by v o =V CC − i C R C . which require signal of large amplitude. Power gain is very high Input and output impedances are moderate as compared to CB and CC amplifiers. Thus the output voltage in CE amplifier is 180 o out of phase with the input signal as shown in the figure. There will be 180 0 phase shift between the input and output voltages. This is because. Preamplifiers driving the power amplifiers.. This increases the output voltage. C E is called the bypass capacitor. the alternating voltage across R E results in reduced i b and hence i c . the voltage across resistance R C (i. This reduces the gain of the amplifier. (The typical values of input and output impedances are 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ respectively. during negative half cycles of the input signal. it cannot drive the low impedance load due to its high output impedance. base emitter junction is more forward biased and hence the base current increases.Transistor Amplifiers The Resistor R C is generally of a large value compared to the input resistance of the transistor which acts as a collector load. Circuit operation: During the positive half cycles of input signal. is not as good as of CB or CC amplifiers. collector current decreases by a large amount producing a decreased voltage across R C . Despite its large power gain. Therefore. Without C E . However the Resistor R E stabilises the operating point since the emitter dc potential is unaffected. Therefore. Which reduces the output voltage. the input impedance is low and the output impedance is high) The effective input capacitance is large and hence the frequency response though good.e. Coupling capacitors C B and C C block the dc and allow the a. CE amplifier cannot be used as a power amplifier. i C R C ) increases. Characteristics of CE amplifier: Current gain and voltage gain are high.c.

the resistors R E . This decreases the output voltage and hence the overall voltage gain is low. shows the circuit of a common base amplifier. At the same time. v o = v cb .e. Further. -VEE RE +VCC Page 6 of 23 CB RC CC . i.Frequency response of CE amplifier: Av mid band region Am 0. Therefore. the capacitive reactance of the coupling capacitor C B will be high. In the mid frequency range. At low frequencies. Therefore.. These two factors almost cancel each other resulting in a constant gain in the mid frequency range. This decreases the output voltage and hence the overall voltage gain decreases. At high frequencies. R C along with the supply voltages +V CC and −V EE bias the transistor to work in its active region. Hence the loading effect of the resistance R C with R L increases.c component and allow only ac signal to pass through. The input signal v s is applied across emitter base junction through the capacitor C C and the amplified output is taken across the collector base junction. the loading effect of the R C with R L increases and tends to decrease the voltage gain. the capacitive reactance decreases and the input to the amplifier increases. With increase in frequency. the decrease in capacitive reactance of the base emitter junction and the stray capacitance at the output section will lead to the decrease in voltage gain at high frequencies. Common Base Amplifier : Fig. the capacitive reactance of the coupling capacitor C C will be very low and it behaves as a short circuit. a small fraction of the input voltage appears across the input terminals. Here. 707A m f (Hz) f1 f2 Frequency response of a single stage CE amplifier. As the frequency increases. the voltage gain increases. voltage gain of the amplifier is constant. the reactance of C C decreases which tends to increase the gain. Capacitors C C and C B block the d.

the voltage gain is high. the decrease in i C causes the voltage drop i C R C to decrease. v o increases. Thus. i. during the negative half cycles of the input signal. Characteristics of CB amplifier: The voltage gain is fairly high (200. It is suitable for amplifying high frequencies (VHF). Therefore. The output impedance is very high (50kΩ to several MΩ). v o = v cb = V CC − i C R C . By selecting a resistance of large value at the output (i. more input voltage appears across the coupling capacitor C B and a negligible fraction of the input signal appears across the EB junction Therefore. The power gain is also fairly large and is nearly equal to voltage gain. forward bias on the emitter-base junction decreases.Transistor Amplifiers Circuit operation: During the positive half cycles of the input signal. the input and output voltages are in phase.e. v cb or v o decreases. in the low frequency region. there is no current gain in CB amplifier. This results in decrease of the emitter current i e thereby decreasing the collector current i c . Similarly. Therefore. the magnitude of the output voltage will be much greater than the magnitude of input voltage. especially in the VHF range. the reactance of the input capacitor will be negligibly small allowing whole Page 7 of 23 . R C ).. (This is because. forward bias on the emitter-base junction increases resulting in increase of the emitter current i e and the collector current i C . Therefore. the input resistance between the base and the emitter is very low compared to capacitive reactance of the capacitor. Applying KVL to the output section. Therefore.300) The current gain α is less than 1. the voltage drop across R C increases. This increases v CB . the voltage gain is very low at low frequencies. Since I C < I E . Therefore.e. Further at high frequencies. The input impedance is very low (20Ω to 200Ω).

This increases base current and hence the emitter current. Similarly. R E along with the supply voltage V CC forms the biasing and stabilisation network. forward bias on the base emitter base junction increases. the voltage drop i E R E increases. v E =i E R E & v o =i e R E . There is no phase shift between the input and the output signals. In this circuit. Therefore. Common Collector Amplifier: +Vcc R1 CB CE vs R2 RE vo= ve= Figure shows the transistor in CC configuration with voltage divider bias. any variation at the input causes the same variation at the output. since R C = 0Ω. Thus the input and the output signals are in phase. v E = i E R E = v s -v BE or v o = v s -v be Page 8 of 23 .(1). Despite its fairly large power gain (equal to voltage gain). Applications: It is used as voltage amplifier in RF circuits It is used as a constant current source It is used to match low Output impedance circuit with that of a high impedance load. i. v S = v BE + i E R E i.e. CB amplifier is never used as a Power amplifier because of very high Output impedance. Since v 0 = i e R E . any decrease in the input voltage causes the output voltage to decrease. Circuit operation: Since the output is taken at the emitter.. Applying KVL to the input loop we get v S = v BE + i E R E -----(1) During the positive half cycles of the input voltage.e. v 0 also increases. from eq. R 2 . the potential at collector is The input voltage is applied to base with respect to collector and the output is taken at emitter with respect to collector. But.of the input signal to appear at the EB junction leading to increased output). Here the resistors R 1 .

In this case. the voltage gain is always less than unity. to match high Output impedance circuit with that of a low impedance load) ii) It is used as a power amplifier. Further. the circuit is also called as EMITTER FOLLOWER. Common collector amplifier satisfies this requirement. the signal is first amplified using a CE amplifier and the amplified voltage is used as the input for the power amplifier.----) There is no phase shift between the input and the output waveforms. Consider a low impedance load (a device such as speaker). the output impedance of amplifier should be low. To deliver maximum power to the load. CB and CC amplifiers: A study of the different amplifier configurations provide valuable information. which can help in making the right choice for a specific purpose. 202. Therefore. it is still useful as power amplifier because of its large current gain. However this configuration cannot be used for impedance matching purpose like CC configuration.99.. Comparison of CE. Moderate output to input impedance ratio (50). Page 9 of 23 . Power gain is high 4. it delivers large power to the low impedance loads. Characteristics of CC amplifier: The input impedance is very high (>450 kΩ) The output impedance is very low (around 50Ω) The voltage gain is less than unity (typical values are 0. Applications: i) Since the CC amplifier circuit provides very high input impedance and very low output impedance. a power amplifier requires a large input signal and a signal source may be very weak. It may range from 20 to 500 2.98. it is used for impedance matching purposes (i. Since the output voltage (emitter voltage) follows the input voltage without any phase change. Voltage gain is high 3.0. Current gain is very high.e. 1. the CE circuit is used in most of the transistor applications due to the following reasons. Commonly used transistor configuration: Amongst the three transistor configurations. For example. Though the voltage gain of a CC amplifier is less than 1.Transistor Amplifiers This means that the output voltage is always slightly less than the input voltage. due to its low output impedance.--) Provides high current gain (typical values are 101.

Comparison of CB. D. D. sources are to be reduced to zero 2. Power gain gain CB Less than 1(α≈1) High High Lowest Highest 0 0 or 2π CE High (β>1) Very high Highest Moderate Moderate CC Highest (γ>1) β+1) (γ= Less than 1 >1 (low when compared to CB & CE amplifiers) Highest Lowest 0 0 or 2π Used as a Buffer amplifier. Applications 180 0 or (2n+1) π Used as a Used mainly as (voltage HF amplifier amplifier) AC and DC equivalent circuits A transistor amplifier circuit has certain dc conditions for its operation. Steps involved in writing D. CE and CC amplifiers: Parameters 1.Phase difference 7. Since the capacitors offer infinite reactance to the flow of d.C equivalent circuit: 1.C equivalent circuit: The dc equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier is the configuration of only those circuit elements.C equivalent circuit and A. The analysis of a transistor amplifier circuit becomes easier by analysing the dc and ac behavior of the circuit separately..C equivalent circuit. This is done by using the appropriate "Equivalent circuits". which are responsible for the dc conditions of the circuit. all the capacitors are to be treated as open circuits .C equivalent circuit: The ac equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier is the configuration of only those circuit elements. These dc conditions are provided by the biasing arrangement. Page 10 of 23 . i. Voltage 3. impedance matching unit 4. which are responsible for ac conditions of the circuit.Output impedance 6.c.c.Input impedance 5. Hence in an amplifier circuit in action both ac and dc conditions prevail simultaneously.e. The ac signal to be amplified is superposed on the dc values of voltage and current. Current gain 2. All a. A.

.c equivalent circuit To find the Operating point (V CEQ & I CQ ) using D.C analysis of a CE amplifier with voltage divider bias using D. + V2 _ + R2 VC+ E _ From KVL. D. To draw the d.c. then V CE(max) =V CC (point B) Page 11 of 23 . Inductors if any appear in the circuits.c load line: End points of the d.3V for Germanium transistors. V CE =V CC .C equivalent circuit: For a single stage CE amplifier with voltage divider bias.e.C equivalent circuit V BE is 0. i) When I C = 0.7V for silicon transistors and is 0.c equivalent circuit can be written as follows. V 2 =V BE +I E R E.c load line are given by substituting the limiting conditions in equation (2). applying the steps 1 to 3 . +Vcc +VCC R1 CB RC vo R1 RC vs R2 RE CE R2 RE Single stage CE amplifier d. V − V BE IE = 2 ≅ IC RE ∴ 1 + VB E . +VCC + R1 RC ICRC _ V2 = R1 + R 2 R2 × VCC .I C (R C + R E ) 2 Equations (1) and (2) give the coordinates of operating point. they are to be replaced by short circuit equivalents since the inductive reactance is zero for d. Applying KVL to the output section. the d. i.IE VE RE _ D. V 2 =V BE +V E.Transistor Amplifiers 3.C equivalent circuit: Voltage across R 2 is given by.

the C-B or C-E terminals can be replaced by a constant current source as shown in fig. Similarly.C Load line Q point VCE(max) VCE B By joining these two points a line is drawn Which gives the d.c equivalent circuit: 1. Diode Equivalent circuit: From the input characteristics of a transistor.. sources are to be reduced to zero 2. it is clear that the output section (i. then A I C(m a x) = VC C (R C + R E ) (point A) D. the semiconductor diode representing the input section can be replaced by its equivalent resistance r e Page 12 of 23 . Inductors if any appear in the circuits.c equivalent models like r e model or hybrid equivalent model. (1) r e Model and (2) Hybrid equivalent model.C equivalent circuit: Steps involved in writing a. Since the capacitors offer minimum reactance to the flow of a. signals.c. Emitter-Base junction) behaves like a semiconductor diode. Therefore. All d. The r e model is derived from the diode equivalent circuit. they are to be replaced by open circuit equivalents since the inductive reactance is very high for a. for small a. form the output characteristics of a transistor.c. all the capacitors are replaced by their short circuit equivalents. Transistor in AC equivalent circuit Diode equivalent CB mode (re model) iE iC iE vEB iB vCB vEB iB α iE iC vCB iE vEB re iB iC α IE vCB r e Model: Since the Emitter-Base junction is always forward biased. 3.c. Therefore. The transistor is to be replaced by one of it’s a.c.IC IC(max) ii) When V CE = 0.e.c. Collector-Base junction) behaves like a constant current source..e. 0 A. the E-B junction can be replaced by a semiconductor diode. it is found that the input section (i. 4. load line as in fig. The most commonly used transistor ac equivalent models are.

the diode resistance in CE mode is given by.c current through base. AC equivalent circuit (r e model) of transistor in CE mode: Transistor in C-E Diode equivalent AC equivalent circuit (re model) iB v BE iC vCE iB vBE iE βiB iC vCE 25 mV βI B vBE iB iC βiB βre iE vCE Since I E ≅ β I B . all the currents are considered such that they flow into the transistor.c Emitter resistance and is given by the d.Transistor Amplifiers 25 mV IE where I E is re = called a. we get. the above circuit can be Transistor simplified as follows. Where I B is the d. Analysis of a single stage CE amplifier using r e model : β re = 25 mV IB +VCC Single stage CE amplifier R1 RC CC iO CB ic is vs iB R2 RE RL vo CE The ac equivalent circuit using the r e model is as follows. Therefore. As a matter of standardisation. The directions of the currents shown in the circuits here may not be the actual directions in which the currents flow. is iB βre ic βiB io Page 13 of 23 vs R v . re = .c emitter current. from equation 1. β r e is also called as r in(base) . Transistor io is vs R1 R2 iB ic βiB RC RL βre vo iE AC equivalent circuit (re model) for the single stage CE amplifier Replacing R 1 ⎟⎢ R 2 by R B and R C ⎟⎢ R L by R ac .

v o = i o × (R C ⎟⎢ R L ) Therefore. i s × (R 1⎟⎟ R 2⎟⎟ β re ) is Therefore.. Output impedance (Z O ) or r o (stage) : in(base) = β re We know that Also. input current. v o . Aυ = − (RC || RL ) re 3 Page 14 of 23 . 1. i.e.i C × (R C ⎟⎢ R L ).e. output voltage and output current respectively for a single stage CE amplifier as shown in the circuit.e. the output voltage is given by. Av = βi b × (R C⎟⎟ R L ) ib × βre . and i O be the input voltage. Input impedance (Z i ) or r in(stage) : v Zi = s is We know that Zi = Also. v o = .Let v s . 1 i. v o = . A v= vo vs Aυ = − i c × (R C || R L ) i b × β re ∴ But i C = β i b. i s. Voltage Gain (A v ): The general equation for the Voltage gain of the amplifier is where. Z i = (R 1 ⎟⎢ R 2 ⎟⎢β r e ) Input impedance at the base is Z 2. Since i o ≅ i c. ZO Zo = vo io RL = i o × (R C⎟⎟ iO ) 2 i. v s = i s × (R 1 ⎟⎢ R 2 ⎟⎢β r e ). we get. Also. v o and v s are the input and the output voltages respectively. Z O = (R C ⎟⎢ R L ) 3. The input signal voltage can also be expressed as v s = i B × β r e Substituting the values of output voltage and signal voltage.i o × (R C ⎟⎢ R L ).

The frequency of a single stage CE amplifier is shown in the fig. The gain decreases both at low and at high frequencies. These are called cutoff frequencies. C C and C E ) introduce considerable reactance to the applied signal. 4 ∗∗ Ai = iC =β iB If the biasing resistance RB is much greater than βre. Power Gain (A p ): It is the product of voltage gain and the current gain.e. It falls when the frequency is below f 1 or above f 2 . Hence. i. is ≅ iB. e ∴ 5 Frequency response of a single stage CE amplifier: It is the plot of gain of the amplifier for various values of applied frequency. This reduces Page 15 of 23 . neglecting the current through RB. Ai = io is Since i o ≅ i c and i s ≅ i B ∗∗ the current gain is given by. Low frequency response: At low frequencies the reactance of the capacitor is considerable. 1. iS iB βre RB 5. Low Frequency. High Frequency and Mid Frequency response. Gain Amax Ap = β RC RL ( ) r Amax 2 3dB MF Band Width LF f1 f2 HF f (Hz) The response of the amplifier is studied under three conditions namely. A p = A v × A i . Current Gain (A i ): The current gain of an amplifier is given by.Transistor Amplifiers 4. It is observed that the gain is not constant at all the frequencies. all the capacitors (C B . The gain remains more or less constant over a certain range of frequencies.

it almost remains constant. Also. This type of connection is called multistage or Cascade and the amplifier is called multi stage amplifier or Cascade amplifier. This is achieved by coupling a number of amplifier stages such that the output of first stage drives the input of the second. A single stage that operates with a low level signal does not have enough output power. Cascade amplifiers or Multi stage amplifiers: An amplifier is the building block of most electronic systems. two or more stages are cascaded to provide a greater signal. the variation of current amplification factor β decreases at high frequencies. This reduces the output signal and hence the gain. High frequency response: At very high frequencies. This introduces negative feedback and hence the gain decreases. Hence. A single stage amplifier cannot supply enough signal output. Page 16 of 23 . Fig shows the representation of multistage amplifier. The gain of the amplifier does not depends on the reactance value in this region. The louder the sound we want to hear. and so on through coupling device. The voltage or current needed to operate a speaker is however much greater than the signal input in the amplifier. since the amplifiers are cascaded the overall gain of the amplifier will be given by. Audio signal required for a microphone or tape recorders is in the order of millivolt range. 2. the greater the audio power output needed. Input AV1 AV2 AV3 AV4 AV5 Output In the representation. Stray wire capacitance also behaves like short circuit. For example. A V = (A V1 ) + (A V2 ) + ( A V3 ) + ( A V4 ) + ( A V5 ) The purpose of coupling device is to transfer ac output of first stage to the input of the next stage to isolate the dc conditions of one stage from the next. the RF signal at the antenna of a radio receiver is generally in microvolt. output of second drives the input of the third. Hence. the reactance the capacitor is very low.the strength of the signal available at the base emitter junction (input). A V = (A V1 ) x (A V2 ) x ( A V3 ) x ( A V4 ) x ( A V5 ) If the gains are represented in dB the overall gain is the sum of the individual gains. the coupling capacitors and bypass capacitor behave like short circuit. Mid frequency response: In the mid frequency region. They act like short circuit. The inter junction capacitance also behaves like short circuit. Due to all these reasons gain decreases even at high frequency. 3.

Two stage RC coupled amplifier The resistance R 1 . Page 17 of 23 . it appears in the amplified form across the collector load R C . It is usually employed for voltage amplification.Transistor Amplifiers The name of the multistage amplifier is usually given after the type of coupling used as RC coupled amplifier Inductive coupled amplifier Transformer coupled amplifier Direct coupled amplifier RC coupled amplifier : This is the most popular type of coupling because it is cheap and provides excellent audio fidelity over wide range of frequency. The second stage further amplifies the signal and the overall gain considerably increases. Circuit operation: When ac signal is applied to the base of first transistor. A coupling capacitor C C is used to connect the output of first stage to the input of the second (base). This reduces the gain of the stage which is loaded by the next stage. The amplified signal across R C is given to the base of the next stage through a coupling capacitor C C . the effective load resistance of the first stage is reduced due to the shunting effect of the input resistance of second stage. R 2 & R E form a biasing and stabilisation network. The emitter bypass capacitor C E offers low reactance path to the signal. Without this capacitor. The coupling capacitor C C transmits ac signal and block the dc thereby prevents the dc interference between various stages. the gain of each stage would be very low due to negative feedback. As the coupling from one stage to the next is achieved by a coupling capacitor followed by a shunt resistor. The overall gain is less than the product of the individual gains. hence such amplifiers are called RC coupled amplifiers. +VCC R1 RC CB ic CC R1 RC CC iO ic is vs vo R2 i R CE νin2 R2 i R R CE vo2 Fig . This is because when a second stage is made to follow the first stage. Fig shows two stage RC coupled amplifier.

which tends to increase the gain. Hence. the gain of the amplifier drops at low frequencies. In addition to this. capacitive reactance of base emitter junction is low which increases the base current. At mid frequency: In the mid frequency range. Advantages of RC coupled amplifiers: it requires components like resistors and capacitors. As a result of this. However. Hence it will allow only a part of the signal to pass from one stage to the next stage. lower capacitive reactance increases the loading effect of first stage to which the gain reduces. at the same time. As a result of these two factors. Thus the constant gain is maintained. Thus. the emitter bypass capacitor C E cannot shunt the emitter resistor R E effectively.Frequency response of RC coupled amplifier: The frequency response of a typical RC coupled amplifiers is shown in the fig. at high frequencies. small. These two factors cancel each other. It is clear from the graph that the voltage gain drops off at low frequencies and high frequencies. the effect of coupling capacitor is such that it maintains a constant gain. because of its large reactance at low frequencies. gain drops at high frequencies. which reduces the voltage gain. the reactance of capacitor C C decreases. Due to these reasons. At low frequencies: The coupling capacitors C C offer a high reactance. This in turn reduces the current amplification factor β. light and inexpensive. This behavior of the amplifier is explained as follows. it is Page 18 of 23 . as the frequency increases. Moreover. Gain Amax Amax 2 3dB MF Band Width LF f1 f2 HF f (Hz) While it remains constant in the mid frequency range. At high frequencies: The coupling capacitor C C offers a low reactance and it acts as a short circuit. the loading effect of the next stage increases.

e. small amount of power will be transferred to the speaker. Direct coupled amplifier : The circuit diagram of direct coupling using two identical transistors is shown in the fig. The coupling devices such as capacitors. RC coupled amplifiers have tendency to become noisy with age. it may be noted that a coupled amplifier cannot be used as a final stage of the amplifier because of its poor impedance matching. This type of coupling is used where low frequency signals are to be amplified. However. they are widely used as voltage amplifiers. In this method. the ac output signal is fed directly to the next stage. especially in moist climate. Hence.Transistor Amplifiers It has a wide frequency response. The gain is constant over audio frequency range which is the region of most importance for speech and music. The amplifiers using this coupling are called direct coupled amplifiers or dc amplifiers. +VCC R1 RC R1 RC ic ic is vs iB vo1 vo2 Fig . Two stage Direct coupled amplifier Advantages Page 19 of 23 . Applications: RC coupled amplifiers have excellent audio frequency fidelity over a wide range of frequency i. inductors and transformers cannot be used at low frequencies because there size becomes very large. where as that of a speaker is only few ohms. The impedance matching is poor as the output impedance is several hundred ohms. Disadvantages of RC coupled amplifiers: The overall gain of the amplifier is comparatively small because of the loading effect. It provides less frequency distortion. This property makes it very useful in the initial stages of public address system. Its overall amplification is higher than that of other coupling combinations.

It cannot be used for amplifying high frequencies. Output can be taken between two collectors (called the Balanced output) or at each collector with respect to ground (called the Unbalanced output). Differential amplifier + VCC R C1 R C2 v O1 v O2 v i2 Q1 Q2 iE i E2 v i1 iE1 −VEE *Transistors Q1 and Q2 are selected such that they are almost similar in their characteristics such as β . It amplifies the difference of the two input signals. Disadvantages 1. Applications : Direct coupled amplifiers find applications in regulator circuits of electronic power supplies. Differential amplifier: Differential amplifier is a very high gain direct coupled amplifier with two input terminals. The circuit can amplify even very low frequency signals as well as direct current signals. electronic instruments And computers. It is the building block of operational amplifier which is a monolithic IC used to perform number of mathematical operations. v i2 are the input terminals andV o1.The circuit arrangement is simple because of minimum number of components. shows the circuit of a differential amplifier. The operating point is shifted due to temperature variations. Page 20 of 23 . V o2 are the output terminals. Fig. v i1 . Transistors Q 1 and Q 2 are the *matched transistors. differential amplifiers. it draws more current from the transistor Q 2 which conducts less such that the net current supplied remains constant under all conditions. They are called as If the transistor Q1 conducts heavily. pulse amplifiers. No bypass and coupling capacitors are required. 2.

This is because. The output V o1 is amplified and inverted version of v i1 whereas the output at v o2 is the amplified and in phase version of the input v i1 . Common mode operation: If the input signals are such that they are of same frequency. the outputs can be analysed by applying superposition theorem. Therefore. i.e. +VCC v v RC1 t Vo1 RC2 vo2 Q1 iE1 t t v i1 v Q2 iE2 iE RE −VEE If the output is taken at any one collector with respect to other collector (double ended or balanced output).Transistor Amplifiers Circuit operation: Consider the input signal applied to the input V i1 alone by grounding the other input as shown in fig. Since the current supplied by the constant current source remains same at all instances. they are called as common mode signals and the operation is called common mode operation. If the input signals are applied simultaneously to both inputs. 1. Similarly. the amplitude of the amplified signal will be double that of the single ended (or unbalanced ) output. during the positive half cycle of the input signal . the transistor Q 1 conducts more and hence the current I E1 increases. same Page 21 of 23 . Differential mode of operations. same phase and of same amplitude. the transistor Q 2 conducts less and the voltage drop across the resistor R C2 decreases and the voltage at v O2 with respect to ground increases. a single input at v i1 develops the output at both collectors with opposite polarities and of same magnitude. the increase in I E1 is followed by decrease in I E2 by the same amount. the outputs of same magnitude but of opposite polarities will be obtained by applying the signal at input v i2 alone grounding the input terminal v i1 . I E =I E1 +I E2 . Therefore. Different modes of operation are. Figure shows the circuit for common mode operation wherein both the inputs receive the signals of same frequency . Common mode and 2.

out of phase) are used as differential input signals. it is very high of the order of 10 6 but not infinity. If the two sections of the differential amplifier are matched type then the output due to common mode signals is zero.e. The common mode gain A C is hence zero in ideal case.phase and of same amplitude. Common Mode Rejection Ratio: It is defined as the absolute value of ratio of differential gain A d to the common mode gain A C.R. The +VCC v o1 vi 1 RC RC v o2 vi 2 Constant Current source −VEE differential gain A d is ideally equal to infinity. Page 22 of 23 . Figure shows the circuit of a differential mode operation. then the difference of the inputs at all instances will not be zero and such type of operation is called differential operation.M.R is expressed in decibel. i. or different frequency. Typically. v i2 -v i1 =0. +VCC RC RC vo1 v i1 vo2 v i2 Constant Current source −VEE Differential gain :If the input signals are of different amplitude or of different phase. The typical value of Common mode gain is very low but not zero due to the slight imbalance in the two sections of the differential amplifier. C. Generally the signals which are of different amplitude or different phase (commonly.

1 V1 − V2 or v0 = Ad(V − V2) then For an ideal differential amplifier. the differential gain is infinity and the common mode gain is zero.M. If A d is the gain of the differential amplifier. the common mode rejection ratio is infinity for an ideal differential amplifier. Therefore.M.R = Ad dB Ac The factor C.Transistor Amplifiers C. Ad = v0 Page 23 of 23 .R.R.R is the ability of the differential amplifier to reject the common mode signals and to amplify only the differential signals.

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