Census vs Sampling Census and sampling are methods of collecting data about the populace.

Before we move forward to enumerate differences between Census and sampling, it is better to understand what these two techniques of generating information mean. For better governance, every government requires specific data and information about the populace to make programs and policies that match the needs and requirements of the population. Census refers to periodic collection of information from the entire population. It is a time consuming affair as it involves counting all heads and generating information about them. On the other hand, there are times when a government cannot wait for next Census and needs to gather current information about the population. This is when a different technique of collecting information that is less elaborate and cheaper than Census is employed. This is called Sampling. This method of collecting information requires generating a sample that is representative of entire population. There are stark differences between Census and sampling though both serve the purpose of providing data and information about a population. Howsoever accurately a sample from a population may be generated there will always be margin for error, whereas in case of Census, entire population is taken into account and as such it is most accurate. Data obtained from both Census and sampling is extremely important for a government for various purposes such as planning developmental programs and policies for weaker sections of the society. It is obvious then that when whole population is taken into account, data collection is called Census Method, whereas when a small group that is representative of the entire population is used, it is called a Sample Method. Summary Census refers to periodic collection of information about the populace from the entire population. Sampling is a method of collecting information from a sample that is representative of entire population. There are both advantages and disadvantages of both the methods. Whereas data from census is reliable and accurate, there is a margin of error in data obtained from sampling. Census is very time consuming and expensive, whereas sampling is quick and inexpensive. However, if the next Census is far away, sampling is the most convenient method of obtaining data about the population.

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Gathers information from every individual in a certain group Since data from the entire population is used, there is no sampling variance Provides detailed information about smaller groups Can be quite costly, particularly for large populations, due to census tally workers as well as hiring temporary census home visitors Includes an uncomfortable visit from a government worker if the census is not filled out on time

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Gathers information from only a section of the population May have a significant degree of sample variance, since the data is derived from only a small section of a population May not provide enough information about smaller groups or smaller geographical sections of a place Costs much less than a census, since data is gathered from only a small section of a group

As the sample size increases. so the sampling error is k’ – k. Formula for Standard Deviation: [sigma] = [(sum x . We will calculate the sample data from any one of the sample data which is called sample statistics. If the sample mean is [barx] and the population mean is µ then the sampling errors of these also called random. Distinguish between Standard error and Sampling error. standard error reflects the variability one would expect to see in the values of a specific statistic over repeated trials. But our population is having number of dissimilar units. Normally the population parameter is an unknown variable and the sample mean is a calculated mean in sampling. Formula for standard error: Standard error = [ (sigma)/(sqrt(n))] Sampling Errors: These errors will occur because of the nature of sampling. We can select the sub sample from each stratum and we can calculate the sample statistics.      Was this answer helpful? Edit Yes No on 8th March. Each stratum is having the similar data’s. The sample statistics value may be closed to the true value of the population. a sampling distribution is what it would be like if an individual repeatedly took samples of size "n" from a population distribution and computed a particular statistic each time one takes a sample. Sometimes the value of the sample statistics and true value of the population is differing in the given sampling. [sigma] = the statistical variable is known as standard deviation. then the average (or mean) of the sample will be an approximation of the population mean. the standard error decreases. So we will get 0 sampling error. Here the sample data is selected from all the possible samples for the required population. If we use the stratification method we can divide our population into strata. Here the sample statistics is a random variable so it will take any value. Stratification method If the population is having the homogeneous unit then we can use the simple random sampling method to represent the population. The term may also be used to refer to an estimate of that standard deviation. derived from a particular sample used to compute the estimate.barx)/(n-1)] Where. Let us take the sample statistics value is k’ and the true value of the sampling is k. 4. Whereas. 8pm Anonymous        369718 0 The standard error is a method of measurement or estimation of the standard deviation of the sampling distribution associated with the estimation method. We can reduce the sampling errors using two methods. Description If you measure a sample from a wider population. Write a note on “standard error. But how accurate is this? . How to Reduce the Sampling Error: I) Increasing the sample size II) Stratification method Increasing the sample size: If we increase the sample size in the sampling mean the population value N and the sample value n will be equal.

or standard error of the mean. s/sqrt(n): 2. . although in practice the exact sampling error is typically unknown. the less the spread and the more likely it is that any sample mean is close to the population mean.50 4. If the OBSERVATION are collected from a random sample.00 6. the standard error will be small. sampling error or estimation error is the ERROR caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. When there are fewer samples. (typically denoted by SE or SEM) can be estimated as the standard deviation of the sample (a set of measures of x). the smaller the SE ERROr.70) of the mean (4. in the above example. An approximation of confidence intervals can be made using the mean +/. When the sample is representative. The sampling error can be found by subtracting the value of a parameter from the value of a statistic. then the standard error. in Sample 4 there is a 95% chance that the population mean is within +/.1.97 2.36 1.45 3. n: 3 6 12 18 sqrt(n): 1.46 4. The likely size of the sampling error can generally be controlled by taking a large enough RANDOM SAMPLE from the population.81 0. bell-shaped distribution.73 2.4 (=2*0.52 0. A small standard error is thus a Good Thing.83 4.If you measure multiple samples.96 Sample size. their means will not all be the same. such as an average or percentage.70 Discussion The standard error gives a measure of how well a sample represents the population. or even one. The smaller the standard error. s: 4. Due to the CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM. Sampling error also refers more broadly to this phenomenon of random sampling variation. divided by the square root of the sample size (n): SE = stdev(xi) / sqrt(n) Example This shows four samples of increasing size. The division by the square root of the sample size is a reflection of the speed with which an increasing sample size gives an improved representation of the population. will generally be subject to sample-to-sample variation. and thus gives a measure of their spread. although the cost of doing this may be prohibitive. of multiple samples is the standard deviation of the sample means. and will be spread out in a distribution (although not as much as the population). the means will be spread in an approximately Normal. What the standard error gives in particular is an indication of the likely accuracy of the sample mean as compared with the population mean. Note how the standard error reduces with increasing sample size.76 0. Thus. These are often expressed in terms of its STANDARD The standard error is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution The SE describes the variability of a frequency distribution of sample statistics The larger the sample. Thus 68% of all sample means will be within one standard error of the population mean (and 95% within two standard errors).78 Std dev. as in the example above.62 2.In nursing research. The standard error. ================================================ In STATISTICS.78). Sample 1 Sample 2 9 6 5 8 2 6 3 1 1 8 6 7 8 4 1 3 7 3 8 2 3 6 4 9 7 7 1 1 8 1 9 7 9 3 1 6 8 3 4 Sample 3 Sample 4 Mean: 4.24 Standard error. STATISTICAL THEORY provides PROBABILISTICS estimates of the likely size of the sampling error for a particular STATISTICS or ESTIMATOR. a sampling error is the difference between a sample statistic used to estimate a population parameter and the actual but unknown value of the parameter . An estimate of a quantity of interest. These variations in the possible sample values of a STATISTICcan theoretically be expressed as sampling errors.standard errors.

a sample of primary units is randomly selected from each cluster (rather than using all units contained in all selected clusters). cluster sampling requires a larger sample than SRS to achieve the same level of accuracy . By eliminating the work involved in describing clusters that are not selected. The first stage consists of constructing the clusters that will be used to sample from. rather than a household-level map of the whole city. in each of those selected clusters. It also means that one does not need a sampling frame listing all elements in the target population. In the example above. we might choose to select 100 city blocks and then interview every household within the selected blocks. In following stages. multistage sampling can reduce the large costs associated with traditional cluster sampling .but cost savings from clustering might still make this a cheaper option. as compared with the within-cluster variation.) For instance. depending on how the clusters differ between themselves. or by time periods. if surveying households within a city. thus. Multistage sampling can substantially reduce sampling costs. In the example above. for instance) selected at the last step of this procedure are then surveyed. In the second stage. All ultimate units (individuals. Cluster sampling generally increases the variability of sample estimates above that of simple random sampling. Clustering can reduce travel and administrative costs. For this reason. clusters can be chosen from a cluster-level frame. the sample only requires a block-level city map for initial selections.The smaller the sample. and so on. where the complete population list would need to be constructed (before other sampling methods could be applied). (Nearly all samples are in some sense 'clustered' in time . Sampling is often clustered by geography. Cluster sampling is commonly implemented as multistage sampling. an interviewer can make a single trip to visit several households in one block. and then a household-level map of the 100 selected blocks. with an element-level frame created only for the selected clusters. rather than having to drive to a different block for each household.although this is rarely taken into account in the analysis. Instead. is essentially the process of taking random subsamples of preceding random samples. the greater the chance of extreme sample statistics Cluster sampling Sometimes it is more cost-effective to select respondents in groups ('clusters'). additional samples of units are selected. This technique. This is a complex form of cluster sampling in which two or more levels of units are embedded one in the other.

This random element is its greatest weakness and quota versus probability has been a matter of controversy for many years. then the critical region is ± 1. the sample space for the test statistic is partitioned into two regions. For example. For example interviewers might be tempted to interview those who look most helpful. an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. For example. Judgment sampling is a common nonprobability method. if the observed value of the test statistic is a member of the critical region. if you are testing at the 5% significance level for a two tail z test. the critical region is the set of values for which you will reject the null hypothesis if the observed value is in the critical region. For example. or rejection region RR. even though the population includes all cities. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. It is typically denoted n. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it. In quota sampling the selection of the sample is non-random.96 standard deviations above and below the null mean. That is. if it is not a member of the critical region then we conclude "Do not reject H0". a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city. So. The problem is that these samples may be biased because not everyone gets a chance of selection. When using this method. the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. just as in stratified sampling. It is this second step which makes the technique one of non-probability sampling. is a set of values of the test statistic for which the null hypothesis is rejected in a hypothesis test. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling.Quota sampling In quota sampling. a positive integer (natural number . Critical Region The critical region CR. the population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups. the other will not. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. we conclude "Reject H0". one region (the critical region) will lead us to reject the null hypothesis H0.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. In experimental design. there may be different sample sizes for each group. The strata should be mutually exclusive: every element in the population must be assigned to only one stratum. and the need to have sufficient statistical power. The strata should also be collectively exhaustive: no population element can be excluded. though sometimes necessary. where a study may be divided into different treatment groups. In complicated studies there may be several different sample sizes involved in the study: for example. using a target variance for an estimate to be derived from the sample eventually obtained using a target for the power of a statistical test to be applied once the sample is collected Stratified sampling From Wikipedia. . The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. include those items readily available or convenient to collect.For example. When populations vary. can result in wide confidence intervals or risks of errors in statistical hypothesis testing. hence the sample size is equal to the population size.Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations to include in a statistical sample. data are collected on the entire population. Then random or systematic sampling is applied within each stratum. Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. In practice. search In statistics. in as survey sampling involving stratified sampling there would be different sample sizes for each population. A choice of small sample sizes. In a census. it is advantageous to sample each subpopulation (stratum) independently. the sample size used in a study is determined based on the expense of data collection. Sample sizes may be chosen in several different ways:    expedience . stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population. This often improves the representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error. It can produce a weighted mean that has less variability than the arithmetic mean of a simple random sample of the population.

in Ontario a survey taken throughout the province might use a larger sampling fraction in the less populated north. two females) should reflect this proportion. based on their proportionality to the total population as mentioned above. since the disparity in population between north and south is so great that a sampling fraction based on the provincial sample as a whole might result in the collection of only a handful of data from the north. For instance. For example. if the population consists of 60% in the male stratum and 40% in the female stratum. and that comparisons of sub-regions can be made with equal statistical power. the researcher would specifically seek to include participants of various minority groups such as race or religion. . stratified sampling will ensure that estimates can be made with equal accuracy in different parts of the region. 2. if population density varies greatly within a region.Each stratum is proportionate to the standard deviation of the distribution of the variable. It cannot be used when amount of data in subgroups is not equal but total data in a subgroup are of equal importance as it gives more importance to subgroups with more data. A stratified survey could thus claim to be more representative of the population than a survey of simple random sampling or systematic sampling. Proportionate allocation uses a sampling fraction in each of the strata that is proportional to that of the total population. Similarly. Randomized stratification can also be used to improve population representativeness in a study. A real-world example of using stratified sampling would be for a political survey. If the respondents needed to reflect the diversity of the population. [edit] Disadvantages It is not useful when there are no similar subgroups. then the relative size of the two samples (three males. Optimum allocation (or Disproportionate allocation) .Contents [hide]      1 Stratified sampling strategies 2 Disadvantages 3 Practical example 4 References 5 See also [edit] Stratified sampling strategies 1. Larger samples are taken in the strata with the greatest variability to generate the least possible sampling variance.

The most common strata used in stratified random sampling are age. religion. the researcher is not sure whether the subgroups that he wants to observe are represented equally or proportionately within the sample. Researchers also employ stratified random sampling when they want to observe existing relationships between two or more subgroups.STRATIFIED SAMPLING METHOD Stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata. you have a higher statistical precision compared to simple random sampling. 100 and 150 subjects from each stratum respectively. Because this technique has high statistical precision. Stratum Population Size A B C 100 200 300 ½ ½ Sampling Fraction ½ Final Sample Size 50 100 150 .   TYPES OF STRATIFIED SAMPLING PROPORTIONATE STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING The sample size of each stratum in this technique is proportionate to the population size of the stratum when viewed against the entire population. you have 3 strata with 100. the researcher must randomly sample 50. This is because the variability within the subgroups is lower compared to the variations when dealing with the entire population. Having overlapping subgroups will grant some individuals higher chances of being selected as subject. the researcher can representatively sample even the smallest and most inaccessible subgroups in the population. then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. For example. by Joan Joseph Castillo (2009) It is important to note that the strata must be non-overlapping. it also means that it requires a small sample size which can save a lot of time. Then. With stratified sampling. This allows the researcher to sample the rare extremes of the given population. This completely negates the concept of stratified sampling as a type of probability sampling. This technique is useful in such researches because it ensures the presence of the key subgroup within the sample. This means that the each stratum has the same sampling fraction. gender. nationality and educational attainment. Equally important is the fact that the researcher must use simple probability sampling within the different strata. With stratified sampling technique. 200 and 300 population sizes respectively. With a simple random sampling technique. And the researcher chose a sampling fraction of ½. USES OF STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING   Stratified random sampling is used when the researcher wants to highlight a specific subgroup within the population. money and effort of the researchers. socioeconomic status.

a stratum may either be overrepresented or underrepresented which will result in skewed results .The important thing to remember in this technique is to use the same sampling fraction for each stratum regardless of the differences in population size of the strata. If the researcher commits mistakes in allotting sampling fractions. It is much like assembling a smaller population that is specific to the relative proportions of the subgroups within the population. the different strata have different sampling fractions. DISPROPORTIONATE STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING The only difference between proportionate and disproportionate stratified random sampling is their sampling fractions. With disproportionate sampling. The precision of this design is highly dependent on the sampling fraction allocation of the researcher.

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