Encyclopedia of Mind Enhancing Foods, Drugs and Nutritional Substances

Author: Group, David W. Hardback; Book 224 pages Published: November 2000 McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN: 0786408537

Book Description
It seems as though every day brings a new pill or potion claiming to restore mental alertness or improve memory. While many of these claims are based on factual information, many others are not. This encyclopedia of foods and drugs that are believed to improve mental performance contains information on nearly 400 nutrients, herbs, and drugs, ranging from ancient plant compounds to the latest pharmaceuticals. Entries are arranged by type of substance, such as foods, vitamins, minerals, spices, and medical drugs. Each entry contains information such as alternate names and forms, sources, results, side effects, precautions, and recommended dosage. Although readers are encouraged to consult with their doctors before diagnosing and treating themselves, this book provides crucial, factual, and unbiased information on the "miracle drugs" that many people believe can solve health problems from fatigue to Alzheimer's. Readers can discover for themselves the properties of each substance. A complete index allows for easy reference and help with alternate names, food and drug interactions, and symptoms.

Preface
The brain is a physical organ just like the heart or lungs or liver and, as such, its functioning can be affected by our environment, particularly the substances we put in our bodies. I first became aware of smart drugs from an article in Omni magazine some twenty years ago while I was attending college. It was also at that time that I was becoming aware of health foods, and the article so impressed me that, while other students were taking speed and No-Doz to cram for exams, I was gobbling hand-fuls of vitamins. While my approach was undoubtedly too haphazard and belated to have had much effect, it certainly set me on the right path. But it wasn't until a few years ago that a number of books began coming out extolling the virtues of synthetic drugs that could actually reverse aging, prevent Alzheimer's, or improve the functioning of the brain. I began taking notes, thinking the information, when summarized, would amount to no more than a few dozen pages. Even though I only worked on it occasionally and in my spare time, it didn't take long for the research to swell to its current size. My enthusiasm for the project was tempered by the fact that many of these books downplayed or ignored the side effects of these drugs, some of which were quite serious. Compounding my frustration was the fact that none was very comprehensive and none could be used for easy reference by the reader. I vowed to remedy that situation. The result is this book, which deals with over 400 various substances ranging from basic foods to the newest wonder drugs, from the most commonplace substances to the most obscure — by far the most complete work on the subject. The chapters are arranged progressively, beginning with the safest and most natural substances and ending with synthetic drugs and additives that are experimental and potentially hazardous. The entries for the substances are alphabetized by popular name within the appropriate chapter, and include such information as alternative names and forms (scientific, brand names, and so forth), sources (such as foods), effects (benefits), precautions (side effects, interactions, overdosage, medical conditions that may render the substance ineffective or toxic), and dosage. In the interest of brevity, I have eliminated much of the history, folklore, background, and detailed analysis of individual studies, dealing only with that information that can help the reader evaluate each substance. This book does not contain a discussion of how the brain works and the various theories of aging. Neither does it deal with all the vitamins and nutritional supplements required by the human body— only those that have more-or-less direct effects on the brain. It should also be noted that all of the substances mentioned in this book are secondary to the two most important brain-boosters: physical exercise and mental exercise. It is essential to keep challenging yourself throughout life so that the mind and body remain in peak condition. It seems rather ironic that, with new strides in medical and nutritional science enabling us to live longer and more productive lives, most people would rather not live to a ripe old age. This fear of old age is based on a basic misconception — that the elderly are invariably frail in mind and body. Too often, however, the ravages of age are no more than the accumulated results of a lifetime of poor health habits. Though some decline in abilities is inevitable, the picture is not as dire as it was once thought. Though smart-drug proponents and the media will often tout a particular substance as a new "wonder drug," the truth is that there is probably no such thing. The human mind — not to mention the human body and the process of aging — is too complex for any single pill to be considered a cure-all, as there are inevitable side effects of any medicine, natural or man-made. The Fountain of Youth is not so much a single herb, or vitamin, or pill, but a way of life, a holistic view that takes into account all aspects of nutrition and health.

Encyclopedia of Mind Enhancing foods, drugs, and nutritional substances
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Foods Herbs Vitamins, Minerals, and related Nutrients Amino Acids Lipids Nucleic Acids Miscellanious Nutrients Hormones Essential Oils Etheogens Medical Drugs Nootropics Other

CHAPTER 1 Foods
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are the principal source of the body's energy and are divided into two types —simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include the various sugars found in fruit (fructose), milk (lactose), and table sugar (sucrose). Complex carbohydrates are found in vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Complex carbohydrates are preferable, as it takes longer for the body to break them down, releasing the sugar into the bloodstream slowly. Simple carbohydrates, especially table sugar, can flood the body and trigger an oversecretion of insulin by the isles of Langerhans, resulting in an initial surge of energy from the sugar followed by lethargy caused by the sudden rush of insulin. Foods should be unrefined, fresh, and natural; refined foods, canned goods, and snack foods should be avoided. Food Sources: Fruits, whole grains, vegetables. Effects: Carbohydrates help relax the brain and are necessary for good mental functioning. They act as an antidepressant for people with less sugarinduced serotonin in the brain than normal (such as those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder [SAD]), possibly by amplifying serotonergic neurotransmission. If consumption is timed right, they can increase the brain's energy levels, as they are readily broken down into glucose, a simple sugar found in nature that is necessary for the brain's functioning. Precautions: Fructose does not have this calming effect. Simple sugars (table sugar, brown sugar, and honey, for instance) have no nutritional value except for calories, and can promote cavities, cause rapid changes in blood sugar and insulin, and lead to obesity, hypoglycemia, and diabetes, among other disorders. Some people are "carbohydrate cravers," and need them to prevent drowsiness, restlessness, or boredom; instead of becoming sleepy, these people become more focused and alert, and better sustain concentration. Carbohydrates are safe and, to quote Dr. Stuart Berger, "They are the only food category not linked to any killer diseases." Dosage: 300 to 400 g/day from complex carbohydrates, or about 1200 to 1600 kilocalories/day (out of an average total of 1800 to 2200 kilocalories/day). Ideally, 65 percent of a person's caloric intake should be carbohydrates —55 percent from complex carbohydrates and starches and 10 percent from natural sugars such as those found in fruit. A minimum of 50 g/day are needed to prevent ketosis, an acidic condition of the blood. For best effect, carbohydrates should be taken with as little protein and fat as possible, as these slow down or hinder serotonin on its way to the brain.

HONEY
Effects: Contains antioxidants. The darker the honey, the more the antioxidants; for instance, honey made from Illinois buckwheat flowers has 20 times the antioxidants as honey made from California sage. Tupelo honey has the most fructose of any of the honeys and doesn't cause the insulin rush that others do. Precautions: For the most health benefits, the honey should be unfiltered, unheated, and unprocessed. Despite the claims of some health advocates, the vitamin and mineral content of honey is minimal, and any derived benefits negligible. Honey also has the highest sugar content of all the natural sweeteners, and even has more sugar content than refined sugar; in fact, it can rot teeth faster than table sugar, possibly because of its stickiness and the fact that its vitamin and mineral content, however small, may provide a favorable environment for bacteria. Compounding the problem is the fact that manufacturers may feed bees sugar water or add sugar syrup to the honey to increase the sweetness (a tipoff is inexpensive brands that pour easily). Further, the honey is heated to high temperatures, destroying much of the protein and nutritional content. Honey could also contain carcinogens that bees have inadvertently picked up from flowers sprayed with pesticides, or traces of penicillin and sulfite, which could pose a threat to susceptible individuals. Honey should never be fed to infants under one year of age, as it contains spores of Clostridium botulinum, the organism that causes botulism; while adults and older children have stomach acid that can kill the bacterium, infants do not, leaving them susceptible to sickness or even death.

MlCROALGAE AND SEAWEED
AKA: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, chlorella, cyanobacteria, nori, SBGA, seaweed, spirulina, Super Blue Green Algae. Microalgae are singlecelled plants that grow in fresh water or bacteria. The most common types used for food are chlorella and spirulina, though seaweed could probably be placed in this category also. Effects: Super Blue Green Algae (SBGA) is said to increase energy and give feelings of euphoria. All forms of microalgae and seaweed are excellent sources of amino acids, chlorophyll, protein (higher than meats or soybeans), unsaturated fats, vitamins A, B-12, C, and E, and antioxidants. Precautions: Microalgae and seaweed are good sources of amino acids and some vitamins but, beyond that, claims of their nutritional or therapeutic value are overstated. According to Dr. Andrew Weil, M.D., there is no evidence SBGA strengthens the immune system, and Sheldon Saul Hendler, M.D., Ph.D., states there is no scientific evidence for the salubrious effects attributed to these organisms, except for one report that spirulina is a good source of gammalinolenic acid (GLA). Super Blue Green Algae can cause abdominal distress, diarrhea, dizziness, gastrointestinal problems, headaches, heart palpitations, nausea, skin rashes, vomiting, and women may even experience uterine bleeding. Adverse side effects may result from an allergy or intolerance, either to contaminants in harvesting or possible natural toxins in the SBGA itself. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, used in the making of SBGA, is capable of producing two toxins, one of which affects the liver and the other the nervous system; it could also contain any number of naturally occurring toxins that are as yet undiscovered. Spirulina is high in phenylalanine, and so should not be taken by anyone with phenylketonuria (PKU) or skin cancer. There is no way of controlling the purity or potency of spirulina — consider the fact that Elliot Shubert, Ph.D., professor of biology at the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks, has found that every sample tested had significant levels of the toxic metals mercury and lead. Not only that, Harvard researchers have discovered that some components of this microalga may encourage the growth of cancerous tumors. And the fact that no one knows what the pharmacological agent is that provides the stimulant effect worries Dr. Andrew Weil, as it may cause dependency.

NEW ZEALAND GREEN-LIPPED MUSSEL
AKA: Perna canaliculus, sea mussel. The oil of this shellfish is rich in amino acids, enzymes, and essential trace elements, and is said to be similar to Omega-3, but more potent in its health benefits. Effects: Reputed to prevent heart disease and relieve joint and muscle pains.

ROYALJELLY
Royal jelly is made from bee pollen, saliva secretions of worker bees, and honey, and has a thick, milky texture. Effects: Protects against bacteria, viruses, and funguses. It contains many vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, and testosterone, and is one of the richest natural sources of B-5, as well as the sole natural source of pure acetylcholine. Precautions: It is more stable when mixed with honey, and it loses some of its nutritional value when exposed to air, room temperature, or sunlight. It should never be used in hot drinks, nor should anything hot be consumed immediately after taking it. Some avoid the freezedried form, as the chemical structure is said to be altered in the process. Pure royal jelly, the most potent form, is extremely unstable and should always be kept refrigerated. John H. Renner, M.D., president of the Consumer Health Information Research Institute, asserts that any health benefits of bee pollen are a myth, and that it can even be harmful, as it may contain harmful bacteria, or trigger an allergic reaction from the variety of pollens it may contain. The few studies that have been conducted bear out this statement. Dosage: Approximately Yi of a teaspoon daily; in capsule form, some recommend 150 mg/day, others 600 mg/ day. Manufacturers say several weeks may pass before the beneficial effects of improved mental functioning and concentration are evident. It is available in sealed capsules, frozen, freezedried, or mixed with honey.

though according to James A. a mild central nervous system stimulant. ASHWAGANDHA AKA: Winter cherry. Balm of Gilead is a North American poplar that is different from the biblical plant (Commiphora meccanensis) of the same name.C. and catarrhal enteritis. Taken internally. or a spoonful of whole dried herb in a cup of tea 2 to 3 times a day. but those conducted have yielded encouraging results: it enhanced mood and improved hemoglobin and blood plasma protein levels in a 1993 study. it can reportedly help combat HIV. edema. in fact. insects. laryngitis.D. or 9 g/day of a powder composed of 15 to 20 percent astragalus. . burren myrtle. though they have not been thoroughly studied. learning. detoxify various drugs and metals. and ephedra are some examples)... tomatoes. transport. fever. Effects: A natural antioxidant." Ashwagandha is a member of the nightshade family. recommends 400 mg/day. and antidiarrhea medication. CARDAMOM AKA: Bastard cardamom. Effects: Contains cineole. BALM OF GILEAD AKA: Balsam poplar. Precautions: Overdose symptoms include headaches. along with potatoes. Duke. problems with blood circulation to the brain. and eggplants. cardamon. As with poppy seeds. Works synergistically with vitamin C. sweet broom. huang chi." It is used by herbalists as a tonic for the stomach and heart. BRAHMI AKA: Hydrocetyle asiatica. Works synergistically with citrus fruits. high cholesterol. Populus gileadensis. and Siberian ginseng to relieve stress. and treating liver problems.D. ASTRAGALUS AKA: Astragalus hoantchy. as it may contain some compounds that are harmful when taken in significant quantities. Various extracts have displayed antiinflammatory. Precautions: Though the fresh berries can stop diarrhea in some people. Other herbs maybe added in a blend that increases the absorption. recommends 400 mg 1 to 3 times a day. which is helpful in treating gallstones. and memory. The alkaloids are different from those of the opium poppy and. Precautions: It should not be used by anyone suffering from a chronic disease. Works synergistically with gotu kola. and improve mental functioning. it "may act as brain food. Precautions: It should not be taken by those running a fever. golden poppy. get rid of phlegm and bronchial congestion. diabetic retinopathy. prescription sedatives. Ph. and the method of preparation (the word standardized should be on any herbal product). have antiviral properties. Meniere's disease. BILBERRY AKA: Black whortleberry. kidney problems. sedative. are not known to be narcotic or addictive. flu.D. It may have a stimulating effect on the cardiac system. where qualitative standards are higher than in other countries. chronic lung weakness. Herbal products from India may be contaminated with mold. There have been few studies. Effects: Said to relieve anxiety. Populus candicans. and blood pressure-lowering effects in animals. hangover-like effects the next day. Dosage: James Duke recommends adding 1 to 2 teaspoons of crushed seed per cup of boiling water. and symptoms of menopause. A doctor should always be informed of what herbs are being taken. vomiting. Dosage: In China. whortleberry. bugbane. Though its alkaloids are nowhere near as powerful. rattleroot. fever. richweed. and female disorders. aconite. sore throat. huang qi. and vertigo. including ones sold in health food stores. and — in combination with vitamin E — cortical cataracts. and animal feces. Pimpinella anisum. glaucoma. including night blindness. Effects: Said to increase blood flow to the brain. Malabar cardamom. applied externally it is used for rheumatoid arthritis and sore muscles. R. bugwort. boost the immune system. stimulate the appetite. Elettaria cardamomum. Works synergistically with such sedative herbs as valerian. the California poppy is related to the opium poppy. gas. and pain. Take once in the morning and once in the evening. it is said to treat coughs. Precautions: None known. It purportedly has antiviral properties. Populus balsamifera. Dosage: The usual dose is 30 drops of tincture. It is said to be a potent anticancer agent and may be useful in fighting off the flu and other respiratory infections. nausea. Populus tacamahaca. No scientific studies of its effects have been done on humans. It contains estrogen-like substances which may be helpful in treating symptoms associated with menstruation and menopause. Ph. and vaginitis. Cardamom also contains the compound borneol. cimicifuga. malaria. Precautions: Common side effects include skin rashes and allergic reactions. Astragalus membranaceous. even deadly. cancer. Eating the fresh berries can reportedly regulate bowel action. then straining. it is used for coughs and chest conditions. and dizziness. Evidence suggests it might be useful in the treatment of colds. R. Preparing herbs from extracts insures the standardization of the level of the active ingredients. counteract stress. James Duke recommends 5 teaspoons of the herb in a cup of boiling water 2 or 3 times a day. Effects: May be a mild relaxant. Care should be taken when using herbs. Dosage: Earl Mindell. heartburn. balance the bodily systems. rattleweed. sweating. but this can be prevented by taking it with meals..CHAPTER 2 Herbs Individual herbs may have several active ingredients that enhance each other's effects. According to James A. CALIFORNIA POPPY AKA: Eschscholtzia californica. because some can interact with medications and prescription drugs. stomach cramps. Ph.N. high blood pressure. Earl Mindell. Dosage: One to two cups of tea a day. varicose veins. steeping for 10 to 15 minutes. and suppress coughing. and other circulatory problems. though there is no scientific evidence for this. 15-40 drops in water 3 times a day. It is said to increase male libido. it is said to reduce stress and anxiety and to improve vitality. and other minor side effects. dyeberry. It can interfere with the absorption of iron. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid herbs as a general rule.. It has been used to treat arthritis and help heal broken bones. Effects: According to traditional Indian medicine. Effects: Said to reduce anxiety. Butcher's Broom is an evergreen shrub in the lily family that is closely related to asparagus. Effects: Contains several estrogen-like compounds. Stick with brandname herbal products made in the U.. It has traditionally been used to treat respiratory ailments. blueberry. rheumatism. acid indigestion. Precautions: May increase blood pressure in some individuals. they can cause it in others. It has traditionally been used by Native Americans to treat chronic fatigue. anxiety. It should not be combined with alcohol. shatavari (Indian asparagus). even teas. Ruscus aculeatus. HIV. menstrual cramps.. Raynaud's syndrome. Also used as an antiseptic. BUTCHER'S BROOM AKA: Box holly. as the ingredients in the plants themselves can vary according to soil conditions. Herbalists have used it for bronchitis. Vaccinium myrtillus. Cancer patients are generally given up to 30 g/day. and reduce intestinal gas. and showed positive results for patients with anxiety neurosis in a 1997 study. and tumors. vomiting. emphysema. and cardamom has been used to treat asthma. and gas. C. BUPLERUM AKA:Ch'aihu.Ph. Precautions: It can cause mild gastrointestinal problems. when the plant is harvested. whineberry. use can cause a urine test to read positive for opiates. Vaccinium corybosum. It has been used to treat nausea. photophobia. presumably for HIV. and effectiveness of the main herb. knee holly. Effects: According to James Balch. common anise. hurtleberry. Ph. if used indiscriminately selfdiagnosis and selftreatment are not encouraged. as well. Dosage: One ounce of herb in one pint of boiling water taken 1 cup at a time. Sometimes referred to as the "Indian ginseng.S. improve peripheral circulation.Ph. it is perfectly legal to grow and. or other depressants. Precautions: Handling the plant can cause toxic skin reactions. Cineole also kills bacteria that cause bad breath. climate.D. the usual dose of a decoction is 9 to 16 g/day. for medicinal purposes. It should not be used as a substitute for anticoagulant medication.. Dosage: As a tincture. It has been used to treat hemorrhoids. wineberry. and may inhibit cancer. squawroot. was shown to alleviate withdrawal symptoms in morphine addiction in a 1995 study. 3 times a day between meals. and Phyllis Balch. astringent. can freshen bad breath. Consumption of large amounts could cause nausea (though mild nausea may just be a response to its bitter taste).D. huckleberry. as some of them (comfrey. Effects: May relieve insomnia and anxiety. Despite this. Cimicifuga racemosa. Withania somnifera. It may relieve inflammation and prove beneficial to the bladder and kidneys. It has been used to treat epilepsy and leprosy. ANISE AKA: Aniseed.. and it is said to improve digestion and appetite. Effects: An adaptogen that may provide energy and stamina. As a tea. increasing circulation. Herbalists have used it to treat cramps. Ph. as well as carpal tunnel syndrome. which may account for its reputation in Arab cultures as a male aphrodisiac. BLACK COHOSH AKA: Black snakeroot. are very powerful. is the state flower of California. It may also be used to treat nervous tension and muscle tics. It is used in Europe to treat varicose veins. Exceeding the recommended dose is not advised. obesity. BLESSED THISTLE AKA: Cerbenia benedicta. itching. and a variety of eye problems. Use of the leaves over an extended period of time can cause poisoning. thrombophlebitis. Works synergistically with schizandra berry. Duke. many other herbs work better. Effects: May have antioxidant properties. pennyroyal..

Effects: Da t'sao is said to promote calmness and is used in China to treat insomnia and dizziness. tonguegrass. Effects: Contains hyperzine. DAMIANA AKA: Turnera aphrodisiaca. Effects: A mild sedative used in the treatment of insomnia. Lycopodium calvatum. and prevent and heal ulcers. Effects: A mushroom that is used in China as a tonic to increase energy and stamina. chili pepper. It increases circulation and thins the blood. infection. An overdose of the tincture may cause diarrhea. Effects: It may have a calming or sleep-inducing effect. hot pepper. a strong anesthetic. Effects: Contains nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). Effects: Contains the stimulant compound ephedrine. cockspur pepper. asthma. Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. which inhibits the breakdown of acetylcholine. vegetable sulfur. CHINESE CLUB MOSS AKA: Club moss. It may be helpful in treating constipation. Matricaria recutita (German chamomile). Spanish pepper. priest's crown. Turnera diffusa. It also aids digestion and is used in the treatment of flatulence. lycopod. as the plant itself is poisonous. Ph. gout. Precautions: Only the spores should be used. snake bites. normalize blood pressure. and should not be used by those with kidney problems. CORDYCEPS AKA: Caterpillar fungus. Dosage: Up to 3 cups of tea a day (one ounce of herb per pint of water).. wild celery. fever. blood disorders. and nausea. Nepeta cataria. this is not recommended. Cola soft drinks do not contain the herb. winterweed. high blood pressure. which may explain its reputation as an aphrodisiac. all of which are stimulants. Herbalists have also used it for dropsy. nerve damage. though all of it should be spit out immediately after rinsing the mouth. . lion's tooth. Dosage: At least one celery stalk a day. America pepper. dizziness. a chemical which has shown antioxidant and antiseptic qualities. Effects: It is high in vitamin C. one active ingredient is similar to an ingredient in valerian. puffball. Used by herbalists as a diuretic for kidney disorders and as a treatment for nervous disorders and epilepsy. swine snout. eczema. Precautions: Scientific evidence for any claims is lacking. Capsicum cream reportedly relieves the intense pain following an attack of herpes zoster (shingles) when applied to the affected areas. CHAPARRAL AKA: Larrea divaricata. it is used to make both a tea and a liqueur. There have also been reports of asthma. Prolonged skin application (for treating arthritis. wild endive. Precautions: Those with duodenal ulcers. Capsicum frutescens. recommends a tablespoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water. dispel weariness. Dosage: It is best used sparingly as a vegetable or salad green. Dosage: James A. bladder infections. Effects: A good source of lecithin and choline. and lack of appetite. DANDELION AKA: Blowball. Effects: An antioxidant. rheumatism. and several antioxidant vitamins. satin flower. and pain. CAYENNE AKA: Africa pepper. and caffeine. either as a tea or an extract. Herbalists have used it as an antibiotic. Overconsumption can lead to gastroenteritis. it reportedly also relieves stress and anxiety and stimulates the appetite. flu inflammation. Precautions: Used as a folk remedy for a variety of conditions. Ph. There appear to be no reports of toxicity. venereal diseases. Taraxacum officinale. eczema. nosebleeds. catswort. starweed. one tablespoon two or three times a day an hour before meals. foxtail. CHAMOMILE AKA: Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile). cleanses the intestinal tract. and parasites. Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Duke. Cayenne is also said to help the body utilize other herbs more effectively. Effects: Contains apigenin. flatulence. headaches. plus the antioxidant carotenoids lutein and violaxanthin. catrup. abscesses. Indian chickweed. CLOVE AKA: Caryophyllus aromaticus. Kamillosan and Perkamillon are German pharmaceutical brands used to treat indigestion and ulcers. arthritis. but much milder. red pepper. it can reduce cavities by up to 75 percent. It can be used to treat amenorrhea. It also has antinflammatory properties. Traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various cancers. Further. asthma. but they do share the stimulating compound caffeine. As a juice. Effects: Contains the compounds theobromine. cankerwort. insomnia. Overdosing can cause nausea and vomiting. angina. viruses. which dilates the blood vessels. It is also a strong diuretic. The plant could cause inflammation of the skin if touched. Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed). kolanin. constipation. stimulate appetite and digestion. Effects: An antioxidant. Syzygium aromaticum. and high cholesterol. It has a similar effect to marijuana. as it contains eugenol. aster. Larrea tridentata. alleviate the pain and joint inflammation of arthritis. Precautions: It can interfere with the absorption of iron. especially if taken in large doses or for prolonged periods of time. both of which are beneficial to memory. The oil has antifungal and antibacterial properties. bird pepper. Capsicum anuum. CAT'S CLAW AKA: Una de gato. Internal use may cause damage to the liver. A member of the mint family. cardiac arrhythmia. and anxiety. and it may also have antiseptic properties. Popular in Mexico. garden celery. DA T'SAO AKA: Jujube date. Perkamillon. and chronic rheumatism. chronic fatigue. break up mucus in the throat and lungs. kidney damage. though scientific evidence is lacking.In addition. Dosage: V4 teaspoon 3 times a day. Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). or chrysanthemums. flu. wolf claw. obesity. stiff joints. l/2 teaspoon of seeds in ¥2 cup of boiling water and strain. hemorrhoids. it has antibacterial and antifungal properties and may inhibit the growth of the polio virus and certain tumors. and wounds. Precautions: May cause a numbing effect on the tongue. bruises.D. Precautions: It appears to be a safe herb with no apparent side effects. recommends five teaspoons of the herb in a cup of boiling water. Dosage: One to two cups of tea a day. and it can be very irritating to the mucous membranes if inhaled. cancer. gout. Eugenia aromatica. diarrhea. skin problems. pleuritis. bleeding problems. Zanzibar pepper. and it has been used to treat asthma. pu gong ying. camomile. herbalists have used it to treat colic. pericarditis. depression. Uncaria species. white endive. Stellaria pubera (star chickweed). gout. some may experience a burning sensation during defecation. capsicum. inflammation. kidney disease. aid in digestion. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence for any of its supposed health benefits. calm the nerves. Evidence for its supposed aphrodisiac qualities is only anecdotal. staghorn. It is high in vitamin C and is good for colds. fever. It is used as a female aphrodisiac in Jamaican and West African societies. though it is generally considered very safe. starwort. treating bacteria. It has been used to treat bronchial congestion and narcolepsy. not to mention diabetes. Used as a mouthwash. catnep. Kamillosan. stitchwort. and has been used to treat impotence and sterility. Precautions: Can cause reactions in those allergic to ragweed. Herbalists have used it to treat arthritis. counteract insomnia. Some claim that smoking the leaves results in a mild marijuana-like high. Dosage: James A Duke. and stimulates the white blood cells. hay fever. and headaches.D.. arthritis. goat's pepper. Precautions: There is only one documented case of an individual having suffered any adverse reactions. As a tea. Stellaria media (common chickweed). or who are taking anticoagulants should consult a physician before using cayenne. hepatitis. and rheumatism) can result in dermatitis and blisters. Effects: Chamomile is said to stimulate the brain. Precautions: It is said to be nontoxic. which may aid in the alleviation of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. bronchitis. Dosage: One cup of tea a day. COUNTRY MALLOW AKA: Sida cordifolia. vomiting. and aid the immune system. though it is generally considered a safe herb. CHICKWEED AKA: Adder's mouth. obesity. tuberculosis. It may help prevent colds. Clove oil is toxic in large amounts. as swallowing could produce side effects. CELERY AKA: Apium graveolens. and permanent loss of the sense of taste. bruises. and hives in susceptible individuals. Dosage: The tea contains only 10 percent of the sedative-inducing chemicals of the herb. Herbalists have used it to treat muscular and nervous system problems such as sciatica. and strokes. Precautions: It is high in sodium. Effects: May improve blood circulation and help prevent blood clots. heart attacks. liver disorders. It is traditionally thought of as an aphrodisiac. CATNIP AKA: Catmint. pod pepper. field balm. and boils. COLA AKA: Cola nitida. Huperzia serrata.

have sleep problems. fear. It is also used to treat menstrual problems. allergies. Allium sativum. or astringent chemicals. Tanakan. neuralgia. and one aspirin three times a day for "cutting up" (reducing fat and increasing muscle definition). diabetes. recovering from an illness. Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian). macular degeneration. and has been shown to have antibacterial.has shown that those who took supplements of 300 mg/day of garlic had aortas that were 15 percent more supple than those who didn't. The effects wear off rapidly. don shen. malaria. On the other hand. enhancing its antioxidant effects by fully metabolizing allicin into other biologically active sulfur compounds while eliminating its odor. Ephedra sinica may contain a substance that prevents the growth of the Influenza B virus. multiple sclerosis. Canada snake-root. There is no evidence it can help sustain male erections. neuralgia and neuropathy. recommends one level teaspoon of the dried herb or one-half to one teaspoon of the tincture. arthritis. and seizures. Chinese angelica. high cholesterol. skin irritations. Use of the whole plant causes liver damage in animals. A stimulant. asthma. tang keui. facilitates nerve transmission. though some dispute this. It is said to help cleanse the body through sweating. herpes zoster (shingles). diabetes. Gentiana quinque-folia (stiff gentian. Traditional Chinese medicine has used it in conjunction with other herbs. as the caffeine-ephedra combination may have been responsible for almost two dozen deaths in recent years. pale gentian. the symptoms of menopause.. Garlic supplements should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. so caution should be exercised when combining them. and some types of cancer. vascular fragility. heart disease.D. Precautions: Very large doses of garlic may cause gastrointestinal problems. maidenhair tree. it can aggravate gastroesophageal reflux disease. desert herb. wild ginger. Don quai is similar to western angelica (Angelica archangelica). GENTIAN AKA: Bitter root. and these tannins. high blood pressure. ma-huang). Dosage: One teaspoon in one or two cups of water. anemia. and to relieve the symptoms of colds. sciatica. glaucoma. and nausea. or who have a weak digestive system may find that ma huang may make them feel more stressed out and run down. Large doses can cause headache. a bacteria that plays a role in the development of stomach ulcers and possibly even stomach cancer. helps the brain to metabolize glucose better. though he cautions that this should only be done after consultation with a doctor. Effects: Considered similar in effect to ginseng. a process developed by the Japanese ages garlic for a year. especially digestive and colon cancers. and overall brain functioning. though milder. or high blood pressure. and diabetes. FRANKINCENSE Effects: An antioxidant. indigestion. and blood pressure. hypothyroidism. hypertension. it is not known if ingesting this herb would have the same effects. Rokan. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence for any of its claims. DONG QUAI AKA: Angelica sinensis. Some claim it helps to burn off fat and contribute to weight loss. retinopathy. Herbalists have also used it to treat kidney problems and lung congestion. it can fight infection by stimulating the immune system. Dosage: A clove of garlic a day (about 4 grams). Ph. hypoglycemia.pneumonia. It is also one of the most powerful diuretics known. gastrointestinal disorders. compounds which lead to the development of cancer. it has been used to treat senility. and chest pain. Garlic will increase the blood thinning properties of aspirin and other anticoagulants. Gentiana officinalis. race ginger. glaucoma. allicin is not activated in garlic that has been aged or dried. swollen glands. Brigham Young weed. Indian ginger. GAY GEE AKA: Lycii. 50 mg of ephedrine. Zingiberis officianalis. Recently. In the 1930s. It is said to be useful in the treatment of asthma (by dilating the bronchioles). bronchitis. Those who are underweight. and has been used to treat cramps. dang quai. as the allicin breaks down quickly after it is cut or sliced. cancer. Ephedra could cause a positive response on a drug test for amphetamine use. it is said to benefit the stomach. as it has been found to produce the same consistent EEG changes as those produced by drugs prescribed for dementia. or four tablets or capsules a day in two divided doses. kidney disease. and skin cancer. gentian root. sores. It has been used to treat age-related dementia in Europe for years. Zingiber officinale. Gentiana crinita (fringed gentian). heart disease. which may be even more powerful. short-term memory.. Asarum canadense. arteriosclerosis. Precautions: It has been found to reduce the ability of sperm to penetrate eggs. It has been used to treat earaches. irritability. Studies have revealed that garlic destroys the Helicobacter pylori bug. tang shen. tang kwei. bitterwort. High doses may cause diarrhea. and these are recommended for those concerned about the odor. and which is characterized by restlessness. Garlic's effectiveness depends on its allicin production. whorehouse tea). A recommended dose of aged extract is 600 to 1200 mg/day. both of which are useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. and ephedra-based alkaloids are found in numerous over-the-counter remedies that have been used by millions.or brain-enhancement effect in healthy people with no brain impairment. nausea. Because of the relationship to PAF. cold extremities. increased body temperature. even in moderate amounts. simmered for 30 minutes. Ephedra sinica (Chinese ephedra. In Africa. intestines. EPHEDRA AND MA-HUANG AKA: Dymetadrine 25. excessive salivation. Its use in treating allergies. Though commercially sold ginkgo biloba products are tannin-free. and attempts by individuals to obtain a high have led to a few deaths. heartburn. suffering from extreme stress. diarrhea. as it could cause excessive bleeding. and vomiting. and has been used to treat diabetes. elevated thyroid. asthma. Supplements should provide at least 10 mg/day of alliin or a total allicin potential of 4000 meg/day (equivalent to roughly 4000 mg of fresh garlic). to stimulate the appetite. Studies which have shown it relieves the symptoms of gout through antiinflammatory properties and by lowering uric acid levels have employed injections. It may have no memory. or 2 to 5 mg/day of garlic oil. GINGER AKA: African ginger. teamster's tea. One study. Mormon tea. fever. gas. and vertigo. though this is not recommended. many of whom also regularly drink caffeinated beverages. confusion. epitonin. Dosage: Three cups of tea a day. Dosage: Two teaspoons of seeds per cup of water for up to two to three cups a day. hu suan. It should not be combined with MAO inhibitor drugs or 5-HTP. difficult urination. aid digestion. something no other known substance is known to do). the presence of which indicates inattention and lack of concentration). and antifungal properties. and is known to increase testosterone levels in men who are deficient. Dymetadrine 25 is an over-the-counter drug that is pure ephedrine. and circulation. American gentian). Gentiana catesbaei (blue gentian. migraine headaches. and is used to treat heartburn. and . insomnia. Joe and Teresa Graedon. may cause gastrointestinal disorders. Tebonin. improving circulation in the medium and small capillaries in the brain and extremities (it also increases the circulation of the microcapillaries. arthritis. antimicrobial. . though its effects are milder and slightly different. and tumors. Lycium chinenses. wolfberry. particularly since ephedra has been used for much of recorded history. insomnia. headaches. The fruit can cause severe allergic reactions much like poison ivy and poison oak. sweating.D. as well as allergies. Duke. Ephedra gerardiana (Pakistani ephedra). Proponents of ephedra say the evidence is inconclusive. squaw tea. Effects: Garlic inhibits the formations of nitrosamines. high blood pressure. where serotonin levels in the body are too high. Bodybuilders often take 100 mg of caffeine. Jamaican ginger used in an alcoholic beverage caused major neurological symptoms in some people. Effects: Has been used to treat anxiety and depression. Works synergistically with astragalus. a strong carcinogen found on mold in peanuts and grains. tremors. Dosage: James A.'American ephedra contains norpseudoephedrine. Ph. a major component of asthma. Effects: Said to be useful in treating insomnia and "emotional imbalances" such as apprehension. It may also be helpful in relieving the symptoms of such conditions as bronchial and cardiac asthma. It is high in antioxidants and carotenoids. It has been used to treat high blood pressure. narcolepsy. tinnitus. and allergies. inner ear dysfunction.DEVIL'S CLAW AKA: Harpagophytum procumbens. DON SEN AKA: Campanumaeapilosula. restlessness. It may inhibit mental deterioration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease for six to twelve months. and inflammatory conditions. recommend that a clove of garlic should be crushed at least ten minutes before heating to obtain the full cancer-fighting benefits. FENUGREEK AKA: Greek hayseed. The FDA does not recommend more than 24 mg of ephedrine a day. high blood pressure. so that larger and larger doses are needed to achieve the same effect. bronchial inflammation. gan Jiang. black ginger. heart rate. allergies. Ephedra nevadensis (American ephedra. nervousness. Effects: Gentian may increase circulation. molecules that are antagonistic to Platelet Activating Factor (PAF). Effects: Known as an antiaging herb. and individuals should exceed the average daily dose only under a physician's care. Poria cocos. though Dr. Fresh. which occurs as a result of a reaction between the compound alliin — a sulfur amino acid — and the enzyme allinase. GARLIC AKA: Allium canadense. and diabetes. and insecurity. rapid heart rate. nasal congestion. Ginkgo biloba contains ginkgolides. It has also been used in the treatment of gout. prevents free radical damage in cell membranes (and repairs lesions caused by free radicals). Effects: A good source of choline and beta-carotene. Effects: Acts as a vasodilator. respiratory ailments. and ulcers. Effects: Chinese and Pakistani ephedra contain ephedrine. cirrhosis of the liver. Isadore Rosenfeld states that sanitized capsules are also effective. or by those who have a history of abusing stimulant drugs. instability. Garlic can also trigger enzymes in the liver to deactivate afla-toxin. there may be a chance that some extracts are not. and stimulate the appetite. It is said to restore energy and improve digestion. lycium Chinese. dizziness. by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter muscle. nausea. FU LING AKA: Muk sheng (red fu ling). indigestion. Effects: It is believed that this herb can contribute to a long life span and a sunny disposition. Precautions: It should not be used by persons who suffer from anxiety attacks (panic disorder). though it may take six months before changes become apparent. and congestion has largely been replaced by more effective drugs that exhibit fewer side effects. There are twenty reported cases of ephedrine psychosis attributed to overuse. subsisting on a poor diet. and increases alertness (by reducing theta brainwaves. Because it contains sulfhydryl compounds (which regulate immune function) and the minerals selenium and germanium. It increases adrenaline production. motion sickness. GlNKGO BILOBA AKA: EGb 761. sedentary. a strong central nervous system stimulant. Precautions: Large doses can cause stomach upset. cowboy tea. it is used to treat fever. candidiasis. eczema. heart disease. Overuse may also lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. Ginkgold. whole garlic is the only effective form. gallweed). diabetes. Effects: In Europe. protects nerve tissue from damage resulting from hypoxia (lack of oxygen). Trigonella foenum-graecum. palpitations. skin irritations. or acid reflux. it can be a problem for those with clotting disorders.

Precautions: Solid research of its benefits is lacking. guarana. Oolong tea (also known as red tea or yellow tea) stands in the middle. tissue swelling. In addition to all the vitamins and minerals. and kidney disorders. They are said to increase longevity. Yamashire tea. and Firearms found that most liquid ginseng contains alcohol. bipolar disorder (manic-depression). B. tars). A member of the holly family. for up to one and one-half cups a day. they are high in chlorophyll. asthma. reduces heart rate. leading some to conclude that the disease may be due more to the habit of drinking tea scalding hot than to any particular ingredient in the tea. visual acuity. Effects: All teas contain mind-altering alkaloids known as methylxanthines. green tea may have a much lower level of caffeine than coffee (20 to 30 mg compared to 75 to 150 mg) because caffeine is more readily leached into coffee than tea. Products should only be made with six-year-old roots. thorn-apple tree. Precautions: Caffeine may be both physically and psychologically addicting. but at the expense of some of their nutritional value. recommends taking four to eight tablets a day of the Chinese medicine Ching Chun Bao. They should not be taken by those with an overactive thyroid. or "good" cholesterol. normalizes blood sugar. rather than being fermented by "sweating. Indian pennywort. Chinese ginseng. WHEAT AND BARLEY AKA: Green Kamut. The various saponins in guarana may enhance the health benefits of this herb. There should be at least a three-hour span between taking ginseng and taking vitamin C. tremors. possibly because the fats and oils in the seeds allow the caffeine to be digested much more slowly. Poly-gonum multiflorium. Effects: Both Gotu-kola and fo-ti-tieng have been used to treat obesity. aids circulation and digestion. and contribute to weight loss because of the metabolism-increasing effects of caffeine and the fatburning property of the polyphenols. alcohol. Many commercial products which contain ginseng. hagthorn. It is also said to prevent the buildup of plaque. and appetite suppressant. and as a purgative in ceremonial rituals. May tree. and energize the cells. insomnia. matcha tea. Those suffering from acute inflammatory disease. improves brain circulation. along with 24 percent active ingredients (gingkoflavonglycosides. coffee. flavone glycosides. Centella asiatica. some as much as 34 percent. Precautions: Solid scientific evidence is lacking for many of their benefits. and is not as bitter. It contains many bioflavonoids and is used by herbalists for various heart conditions— such as high blood pressure. redberry). especially if taken at high doses for prolonged periods of time. considers 60 to 240 mg/day safe). compounds which have 25 to 100 times the antioxidant properties of vitamins C or E." as is done with black tea. modern processing grinds the seeds at high temperatures. phosphorus.. headaches. resulting in a milder and longer-lasting high. stimulate the brain by increasing blood flow. theophylline. indigestion. and the symptoms of menopause. Gunpowder tea from China and matcha and sencha tea from Japan are examples of such teas. gota-kola. normalizes body functions. GREEN TEA AKA: Bancha tea. and consuming high amounts could cause restlessness. AKA (Fo-ti-tieng): Asian marsh pennywort. A tree resin similar to myrrh. Tea has a calming effect conducive to mental activity. Unfortunately. and Brenda Adderly. gunpowder tea. Taken with calamus root. and used by herbalists to treat diarrhea. Adding milk to green tea may prevent the absorption of at least some of the polyphenols. as it is fermented. there are over two hundred different varieties. Gotu-kola can cause dermatitis if applied to the skin. among other things. Fo-ti-tieng is so similar that botanists think it may be a geographic variant. Panax trifolius (dwarf ginseng). prevent tooth decay because of its high fluoride content. fever. and good ginseng is very expensive. emphysema. it is an effective sunscreen. It has been used as a general health tonic in China for the past forty centuries. at most. Barley also contains the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 2-0-GIV. memory and learning. Hit Energy. Chinese Imperial and Japanese Yamashire teas. aphrodisiac. helps the body resist toxins. Five to ten cups a day is believed to normalize blood sugar by regulating insulin production. phenol. heart palpitations. insomnia.. anxiety disorder. it has a halflife of three hours. but is processed by steaming before drying. they may improve memory and mental clarity. which according to some experts helps rid the body of toxins (including pesticides. Zoom. tremors. even though it comes from the same plant family.It may interact with such blood thinners as Warfarin (coumadin) and aspirin.g. Some prefer American ginseng because it is a milder form than its Asian counterpart and avoids some of the side effects. like ginseng.H. kukicha tea. most of what is available is cheap and offers very little in the way of active ingredients: one study in the 1980s found that 50 to 70 percent of the products sold were diluted or adulterated. drugs. as that may suppress the immune system. especially calcium. sencha tea. a nontoxic substance that normalizes body functions and protects against various stressors on the body. but they appear to be safe herbs.3 to 0. and yerbe mate. Effects: Works as an adaptogen. they can be stored in plastic containers in the fridge for up to a week. Taking higher doses should be done only under the supervision of a health professional. Panax schinseng (Asiatic ginseng. red ginseng always has an intact bark. varicose veins. and they must be consumed before they go bad (within ten minutes). and even longer frozen. but white may or may not be stripped. Hydrocotyle asiatica minor. Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng. C. and drugs. Precautions: Its concentrated form should be used only under the guidance of a physician. Josta (soft drink). Ph. also referred to as flavoglycosides. Dosage: From 120 to 160 mg/day of flavonoid extract in three divided doses (Dr. detoxify the body. tuberculosis. which is more suitable to physical activity. quite a few products available are lower in concentration and are taken in doses as high as 1000 mg/day. arrhythmic heartbeat. Ginseng may cause allergy symptoms. but since it creates heat in the body. though research has. GUAYUSA AKA: Ilex guayusa. and arteriosclerosis — digestive problems. nervousness. masculinizaton in women and feminization in men. as opposed to the sudden stimulation of coffee. while the Japanese bancha and kukicha teas. Both wheat grass and barley grass contain all the minerals essential for health. However.. such as soft drinks. high blood pressure. Guarana sodas have. have an antistress tranquilizing effect. however. cancer. Isadore Rosenfeld recommends half that. is considered an adaptogen. Thomas H. while James A. Dosage: From 500 to 3000 mg/day in divided doses. Guarana Tai (soft drink). and headaches. (2) leaves that are whole instead of broken. not borne this out. five-leafed ginseng. iron. Extracts may have lower levels of caffeine and higher levels of polyphenols than the tea. Dosage: Five cups or more a day for at least six months have been shown to significantly lower the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Crook III. and raise the levels of HDL. The extract must be at least a 50-to-l concentration (50 pounds of leaves used to make 1 pound of extract). boosts athletic performance and recovery from workouts. or high blood pressure. and skin rash. Imperial tea. though made from older leaves. cola. cobalt. though the caffeine content may sometimes be misleadingly referred to as guaranine. strictly speaking. GUARANA AKA: Brazilian chocolate. Effects: Wheat grass is an excellent source of such antioxidant vitamins as A. Green Magma. as some of the ginseng may be neutralized. Green tea is made from the same plant as black tea. grapeseed. GINSENG AKA: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng). five fingers. Dosage: One-half cup of tea using one ounce of gotu-kola per pint of water. gastrointestinal problems. More unfortunately. increased blood pressure. or "bad" cholesterol. the part of the plant which contains the highest amount of the active ingredients. and borage oil. as yet. based on many of the precautions cited above. High quality tea is dependent upon three things: (1) leaves and buds that are young and small.D. It has also been used to treat arthritis. May bush. being the lowest grade as they contain a high amount of twigs and stems. Further. Effects: A strong antioxidant that is said to relieve arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. and experts cannot come to a consensus on what is the best type. Precautions: Since these grasses cannot be digested by the human body in their solid state. which are also found in chocolate.A. caffeol. weakness. and zinc. Super Pep. Effects: May relieve anxiety and insomnia and improve circulation. stimulates macrophage activity in the immune system. and heart palpitations. heart palpitations. Energy Elixir. Effects: One of the richest plant sources of caffeine (up to 7. quickset. normalizes blood pressure. and aural acuity. Panax ginseng contains an estrogen-like compound that could cause problems in some individuals. Precautions: Has a higher caffeine level than tea or coffee. sulfur. it is related to yaupon and yerbe mate. Even within each variety. Large doses should not be taken during an acute infection. M. ren shen. and improves sexual performance (though it is not an aphrodisiac). Panax notoginseng (Tienchi ginseng). Though tea leaves have a higher caffeine content than coffee beans (1 to 4 percent as opposed to 1 to 2 percent). chronic sore throats. Tea that is brewed for only two to three minutes has about half the caffeine as tea brewed for five or more minutes. have the lowest amount of caffeine. it has traditionally been used by the indigenous peoples of South America as a stimulant. HAWTHORN AKA: Crataegus oxyacantha. Koreans routinely strip the bark during processing. fights free radicals. It has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and raise HDL cholesterol. fo-ti. and avoided as a general rule. Wonder-of-the-world). Siberian ginseng is. are still of good quality. skin eruptions. It does not cause the caffeine "jitters" that coffee normally does. myocarditis.6 percent). Preliminary research has shown that. and include caffeine.. not ginseng at all. abdominal pain. Extracts produce the most consistent results. GRASS. it should be avoided by those suffering from hot dry eyes. Effects: Traditionally used as a stimulant. chemotherapy. while Dharma Singh Khalsa. do not recommend taking it. a name bestowed upon it by early researchers who did not realize the two alkaloids were identical. Ph. color perception. whitethorn. or ginkgoheterosides). and it is pretty much gone after 6 hours. fleeceflower. contain too little of the herb to provide any health benefits. the quality can vary widely. anxiety. and radiation) and discourages the growth of harmful bacteria. diarrhea. hypertension. Brazilian cocoa. M. and 100 to 150 mg/day of caffeine maybe necessary for weight loss. rashes. the strongest and most effective form of ginseng. Improvements should be seen within three to six months. Camellia sinensis. or bronchitis should avoid American and Asian ginseng. 0. they must be juiced. Tobacco. which oxidizes some of the compounds and produces a product that is both bitter-tasting and potentially irritating to the stomach. which contains. reduces cholesterol. and a 1997 study by the Bureau of Alcohol. and some skin conditions. Studies on whether green tea or black tea causes esophageal cancer are inconclusive. Duke. wounds. It has been shown to lower levels of LDL. Tea also contains polyphenols. works as a general stimulant to combat fatigue and stress. GOTU-KOLA AND FO-TI-TIENG AKA (Gotu-kola): Brahmi.. Royal Manchurian ginseng. or three capsules a day in three divided doses. as it should not be harvested before then. stimulates endocrine activity and metabolic functions. Quality can vary widely.D. helps reduce insomnia and sleep disturbances. Gotu-kola is a plant found throughout Africa and the East and. and tea is" diluted more with water than coffee is. but not for as long as black tea. and lacks the toxic or carcinogenic compounds found in coffee (e. and E. Ho shou wu. kola nut. English hawthorn. potassium. Dosage: One teaspoon of flowers steeped in one-half cup of water. . a headache remedy. Women who drink more than four-and-a-half cups of green tea a day are much more likely to suffer from PMS. it has fewer side effects and more consistent results. when applied to the skin. GUGGULU AKA: Guggul. They may improve attention and concentration. Paullinia cupana.D. and (3) the absence of less beneficial parts such as twigs and stems. Many people believe Ginseng stimulates the brain and improves concentration. and theobromine.6 percent of the herb. taken three times a day. Works synergistically with red wine. creosote.

on which most of the studies have been done. glycyrrhizin. emphysema. including depression. The elderly or ill should take smaller doses. induces sleep and has much greater pain-killing abilities. Licorice is a legume. Studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association have revealed that at least three-quarters of all adult Americans show at least some sign of chronic liver damage — which could manifest itself as irritability. Overdosage or constant use (i. dry. and cold-related ailments. monarda. Effects: May have a relaxing. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves in one-half cup of water. body aches. or convulsions. instead. a resinous pyrone extracted from the root of the kava plant. dihydromethysticin. yagona. Only whole yam will provide benefits. back. anxiety. mushrooms and peyote). Kava works synergistically with chamomile. has been used to treat such viruses as herpes zoster (shingles). or glaucoma. It can be habit-forming. particularly on the palms. depression. No clinical studies have been done in the U. Precautions: There is little scientific evidence to back up any of its supposed benefits. relax muscles. Said by herbalists to be good for estrogen imbalances in women and in relieving the symptoms of diverticulitis. Unlike other psychoactive plants (e. Precautions: Kava should not be taken by those with Parkinson's disease (it could worsen muscular weakness and twitching). headaches. sakau. Effects: Jasmine is believed to promote relaxation and is a possible aphrodisiac. kava kava.. antidepressants. Generally. methysticin. both of which prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine. Most licorice candy does not contain any trace of the herb but. Glycyrrhiza glabra. soles. Monarda punctata. Precautions: It cannot be stored for long. is helpful in the treatment of sore throats and coughs. One man suffered congestive heart failure after eating a pound and a half of the herb for a week. as it is not as effective in inducing sleep. but it does have some pain-killing properties. headaches. and vaginitis. sweet wood. nausea. though this is something even the indigenous population of the South Seas do not engage in. grogginess. biochemical abnormalities. Mary thistle. How the kavalactones work is still not known. reduces flatulence. seka. At least eight compounds in licorice are MAO inhibitors. which may aid in the alleviation of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Dioscorea composita. blue balm. fatigue. so it may be beneficial even when used externally. and insomnia because of its ability to slow nerve impulses. KAVA AND KAWAIN AKA: Ava. Synthetic progesterone. flatulence. Effects: Its medicinal qualities are said to be similar to astragalus. mountain mint. alcohol. a water-soluble extract can be made. may contain dangerously high levels of licorice. it has been used to treat fatigue and prevent aging. It may also be good for the skin. LlGUSTRUM AKA: Ligustrum lucidium. dizziness. Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot). The initial dose should be about 70 mg of kavalactones. kava root of high quality will contain approximately 5 to 8 percent kavalactones. and vaccinia in vitro. are cheaper and less potent forms. It may also help protect the liver from otherwise beneficial pharmaceuticals such as antianxiety drugs. It has shown promise in treating liver disorders and hepatitis (including chronic hepatitis). as well as digestive. Because of its sedative effect. or by those allergic to it. An acceptable compromise is liquid extract formulas or standardized extract capsules. Effects: Lavender may relieve stress. According to Dr.. and by herbalists in the treatment of dizziness. It also stimulates the appetite. called prog-estins or prestrogens. up to one to two cups a day. JATOBA BARK A plant used as a tea in the rain forests of Brazil and Peru. cholesterol-lowering drugs such as Zocor (simvastatin) and Mevacor (lovastatin). sweet licorice. Dioscorea mexicanan. dosage should be between 3 to 6 ml/day in divided doses. it is used to add flavor to beer. licorice root. sudden muscle spasms. psoriasis. it differs from the usual fatsoluble extract in that it does not induce sleep. is slower to take effect. and shins (which may clear up when use is discontinued). some even claim that a salve made from it can enlarge women's breasts. St. however. and tossing a handful in bathwater is a good way to relax. Kawain. and skin that is pigmented or darkened. dihydrokawain. heart disease. These compounds may be able to cross the blood-brain barrier. wild artichoke. for the most part. and bladder ailments. kidney. memory. and tinnitus. Kaviase. In China. it contains two potentially immune-regulating ingredients. Effects: Contains the bioflavonoid mixture silymarin. fainting. If taking a tincture with a 1:2 ratio. Other symptoms include numbness of the tongue. kidney problems.S. An extract. and does not remain effective for as long a period as the prescription drug. such as Spanish lavender. depression (it can elevate blood cortisol and deepen the depression). It probably should not be used for severe anxiety or for long-term treatment. wati. Piper wichmannii. damage to the heart and lungs. No significant side effects have been reported. or steroid saponins. MILK THISTLE AKA: Carduus marianus. burns. The effects begin after twenty or thirty minutes and generally last two to three hours. Monarda didyma (bee balm. awa. which protects the liver against hepatitis. part of the same family as beans and peas. Reports indicate that 150 to 210 mg/day of kavalactones relieves anxiety. Duke. and relaxation. A pungent and numbing aftertaste deters the drinker from consuming too much. diabetes. cirrhosis. Ph. so it should not be combined with certain drugs. and one woman suffered cardiac arrest (among other side effects) after consuming four pounds a week over an unknown period of time. MEXICAN WILD YAM AKA: Dioscorea barbasco. Effects: Licorice has been used to treat depression. while one daily dose of this amount taken a half hour before bedtime induces sleep. Kava contains several active compounds called kavalactones. Laitan. and valerian. by those who are severely depressed. Some of its compounds show promise as anticancer agents. lethargy. syringin and a terpene compound. Lavandula vera. Mary's thistle. insomnia. Silybum marianum. and drowsiness in larger doses. and then only under the care of a physician. depression. This bioflavonoid mixture may also be useful in preventing or treating gallstones and in relieving the symptoms of psoriasis. Kava should not be taken on a daily basis for more than four to six months. horsemint. and toxins such as carbon tetrachloride. which include kawain (or kavain). the rootstock. it has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B and C. are stimulating rather than tranquilizing. dizziness. and excessive loss of potassium. and may aid in the treatment of Addison's disease. and decrease anxiety. Dosage: The most effective method of consumption is by eating the dried root. and yangonin. hypoglycemia. Works synergistically with skullcap. forearms. It is more effective when taken on an empty stomach. herpes simplex 1. It is recommended that kava not be combined with benzodiapezine tranquilizers. producing an anesthetic effect. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves or tops per cup of water. Oswego tea. LICORICE AKA: Gan cao. Used by herbalists to treat allergies. lethargy. and mild intellectual impairment — possibly indicating that this may be an important herb to add to the diet. high balm. Kavaform. HORSEBALM AKA: American horsemint. kasa. Lewena. anise. respiratory. An acceptable dosage is 1. severe menstrual problems. and inflammation of the bowels. and to inhibit HIV. Kava is not advisable when driving or operating heavy machinery. Milk thistle may even reverse damage that has already occurred. A member of the hemp family. used in the treatment of various types of ulcers. Silymarin and its basic component silybin may protect cell membranes from free . The practice of preparing the root and stem for the drink by having a designated person chew on them is no longer done because of health risks. heart disease. and vigilance. gastrointestinal distress. Dosage: From 6 to 15 g/day of a decoction made from the berries. chest pain.e. and increased risk of cancer. Piper methysticum. hypertension. polio type 1. Fatsoluble kava. yaqona.g. it does not enhance intellect or produce altered states of consciousness. low balm. alcohol. JASMINE AKA: Jasminum officinale.. though anecdotal evidence indicates it may enhance visual and auditory perception as well as produce more vivid dreams. hops. or whether older plants are more potent than younger ones. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one cup of water for up to three cups a day. "Medical studies have shown that kava can often relieve mild to moderate anxiety as effectively as benzodiazepine tranquilizers. lewena. Precautions: Some species. it should be taken just before sleep. It has been used to relieve the symptoms of various digestive. as the taste and thick fibers of the root make this an unappealing alternative. It can also inhibit tooth decay. the lower sterns. LAVENDER AKA: Lavandula officinalis. Probably the least effective method of consumption is as a tea. and relieves intestinal cramps. and has been used in the treatment of amenorrhea.5 to 3 mg/day in divided doses. heart palpitations. Harold Bloomfield. and the effects of different plants may vary according to the levels of the various kavalactones. vision disturbances. some European licorice candies. mountain balm. Waka is a Fijian term that refers to the kava taken from the plant's lateral roots. malaise. Precautions: Licorice should not be used by those with hypertension (it could raise the blood pressure even more). is not as effective for severe agitation. gastric irritation. Effects: May induce a sense of wellbeing in small doses. and waka is the most expensive and potent form. fever. Neither should it be used as a substitute for benzodiazepines. also known as kava alphapyrones or kavapyrones. severe anxiety. and skin problems. water soluble. Stronger effects may be achieved by chewing the root. Mentha sylvestris. kawa kawa. in addition to being prescribed for infections. Dioscorea villosa. high blood pressure. Extended use of doses equal to 400 mg/day of kavalactones and higher could result in a buildup of toxins in the liver. Effects: Contains carvacrol and thymol. and high doses of Tylenol (acetaminophen) and iron. inflammation of the skin and eyes. which are the precursor to the hormone progesterone. reaction time. kawa. keu. and some are concerned that it might be abused as it has psychotropic properties similar to opium and cocaine. There is one documented case of a man who lapsed into a brief coma after combining kava with the drug Xanax." It has been found to improve digestion. each kavalactone has a different effect on the body. Though kavalactones are not. Those suffering from depression should not take high doses. has been shown to control lipofuscin deposits. or products containing wild yam may be lacking in essential nutrients and may have many side effects. dizziness. on a daily basis for more than a week) can result in headache. sedative effect that promotes restful sleep. carpal tunnel syndrome.. for a maximum of one cup a day. In Japan. as water does not release the kavalactones the way oil does. holy thistle. and symptoms of menopause and PMS. Effects: Has an energy-boosting effect. It also has local anesthetic properties and can be used to treat urinary tract infections and bladder disorders. respiratory. A Polynesian herb used by native peoples to make an alcoholic drink. chronic fatigue. Effects: Contains DHEA and diosgenin. as saliva activates the kavalactones. and shortness of breath. pain. asthma. as it deteriorates rapidly and becomes very unstable when exposed to light and air. Derivatives have also led to such drugs as Carbenoxolone. or sleeping pills. According to James A.D. and covered with scales. which should be gradually increased to about 100 mg. It's uncertain whether the leaves and stems produce different effects from the roots.HOPS AKA: Humulus lupulus. Tea made from the dried and powdered root bark may not have the pleasant lilac aroma and flavor of freshly made kava. though it is believed they pass through the blood-brain barrier and affect certain neurotransmitters. licorice. and the poisonous Amanita mushroom. waka. antidepressants. English horsemint. May aid the respiratory and urinary systems and help in weight loss. inhibit the growth of cancer in vitro and in mice. muscle spasms.. the sedative compounds can be absorbed in the skin. retention of water and salt. and kasa.

along with calcium. and the tincture is used to treat mouth and throat ulcers. and depression. more frequent bowel movements in the first few days. tuberculosis. Dosage: From 200 to 300 mg of extract one hour before bedtime. insomnia. shingles. There appears to be little chance of any side effects with moderate use: studies have shown that less than one percent of users have suffered side effects — and then only gastrointestinal discomfort and loose stools. It may also help prevent cataracts and heart disease. and Methyprylon.D. brandy mint. Rauwolfia serpentina. a burning sensation on the skin. red eyes. and yeast infections. insomnia. low blood pressure. POLYNESIAN NONI AKA: Morinda species. Reishi can interact with Thorazine and barbiturates.5 to 4 percent isovitexin (flavonoids). Ph. Rare side effects include a rash or itchy skin. simmered for 5 minutes to make a tea. Precautions: It is toxic in large amounts. RAUWOLFIA AKA: Indian snakeroot. with any mind-altering drug. strengthens the immune system. Side effects include achiness. No significant side effects have been reported. Precautions: It can worsen heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease. or made into a jelly. abdominal pain. breathing that is slow and shallow. and decrease the effects of aspirin. It may interfere with the absorption of iron. Effects: Reportedly aids cell regeneration. maybe eaten when ripe. Dosage: One tablespoon of dried herb steeped in half a cup of water or one-half teaspoon of powdered rootstock with water twice a day. It is said to be an aphrodisiac. and terazosin. Origanum vulgare. bladder. and swelling in the feet and legs. as long-term effects are unknown. cocaine can increase the risk of heart block and high blood pressure. headache. convulsions. It is used to treat insomnia and Raynaud's disease. though low in nutrition. or acid reflux. it can result in changes in the seizure pattern. sore throat. and marijuana can cause drowsiness. multiple sclerosis. Origanum majorana. Carteolol. common stinging nettle. diarrhea. Duke. with MAO inhibitors. gout. headache. tendinitis. ROSEMARY . Those who suffer from epilepsy or who have had surgery in the past two months requiring general or spinal anesthesia should consult a physician first. Effects: Contains high levels of boron. Herbalists have used it to treat bad breath. a few handfuls of oatmeal in a warm bath can relieve the itching of hives. bloody vomit. Pergolide. psoriasis. asthma. Urtica dioica. ser-pentwood. constipation. It is well-known that oat bran lowers cholesterol. and bloating. it could result in an irregular heartbeat. and dry mouth. Effects: Rich in antioxidants. headache. vertigo. with Nicardipine or Nimodipine. dizziness. intermittent claudication. Purslane has been used to treat asthma. protein. it can result in an unpredictable increase or decrease in the anticoagulant effect. all of which may help relieve depression. It is also a rich source of vitamins A. The effects of both rauwolfia alkaloids and Dronabinol. or ulcerative colitis. May relieve mental fatigue and improve memory. with Clozapine. spicy foods can cause an upset stomach. colic. with Nabilone it could cause increased depression of the central nervous sytem. Dosage: Two or three teaspoons of herb in one cup of water once or twice a day. it should not be considered a substitute for yohimbe. and with Procarbazine. goiter. while carbonated beverages can decrease the rauwolfia effect. containing 3. and improves mental functioning. magnesium and potassium. Precautions: It should only be taken an hour or two before sleep. chronic fatigue syndrome. According to James A.. stiffness (muscles. though scientific evidence is lacking. periodontal disease. lamb mint. and slows aging. Precautions: High doses can lead to poisoning. Ethinamate. it could cause severe depression. common mugwort. Overdosage may cause heart problems. it could result in a drop in blood pressure. Those over age sixty may suffer increased adverse reactions or side effects. Side effects from the tea include upset stomach. Guanfacine. nausea. and lithium. Portulaca oleracea. NETTLE AKA: Common nettle. indigestion. PURSLANE AKA: Portulaca. balances the bodily systems. dwarf nettle. angina. vomiting. wintersweet. cardiac arrhythmia. faintness. MURIA PUAMA AKA: Ptychopetalum olacoides. winter marjoram. It has been used by herbalists as a tonic for the kidneys. MUGWORT AKA: Artemisia vulgaris. sailor's tobacco. Eating old. Nettle has been used by herbalists to treat anemia. which has a tranquilizing effect. coughs. there could be a marked increase in blood pressure. Performing isometric exercises while on rauwolfia may cause the blood pressure to rise too high. Dosage: One teaspoon steeped in one pint of boiling water for a few minutes before straining. uncooked plants can cause kidney damage and poisoning. ling-zhi. Effects: Said to have antidepressant and aphrodisiac properties. Dosage: Two to three teaspoons of leaves per cup of water. antihistamines. gastrointestinal problems. MYRRH AKA: Commiphora myrrha. peptic ulcers. and skin disorders. Combining rauwolfia alkaloids with alcohol can lead to greater intoxication. chills. skin problems. Precautions: It should not be taken by hemophiliacs because it is high in adenosine. Loxapine. and joints). Common side effects to prescription rauwolfia alkaloids include depression. coma. chest pain. It also contains high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids. and gonorrhea. Precautions: Those taking any medication or suffering from liver damage should consult a physician first. may protect the liver from various toxins. Rauwolfia serpentaria. bones. It may reduce symptoms of altitude sickness by thinning the blood. peptic ulcer disease. stuffy nose. nausea. and skin eruptions. ling-chih-tsao. lowered body temperature. and E. Effects: Has been used to reduce nervousness and insomnia. and effectiveness in such cases is very doubtful. Effects: Passion flower is said to relieve depression and anxiety and promote restful sleep. and pupils contracted to pinpoints. hypertension. which can increase the body's estrogen levels. not to exceed one and a half to two cups a day for eight to twelve days. central nervous system depressants. and Lisinopril. When combined with oral anticoagulants. Though it contains some yohimbine. mountain mint. and may be useful in treating chronic bronchitis. cramps. Dosage: Between 750 and 1000 mg/day of extract in three divided doses. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who suffers from an allergy to rauwolfia alkaloids. bursitis. it could cause excessive sedation. Less common side effects include black stools. and urinary tract. itchiness. counteracts stress. gum myrrh tree. and minerals. impotence. levodopa. wrinkles. improving mood and short-term memory in those with Alzheimer's. C. lethargy. It has been used to treat anxiety. nervousness. high blood pressure. It should not be taken for longer than two or three months on a daily basis. fever. C. Precautions: Scientific evidence is lacking in its treatment for the above disorders. Passiflora incarnata. and decreased by Sotalol. felon herb. Preliminary studies have shown that extracts have some success in helping individuals overcome opiate and nicotine (from cigarette smoking) addiction. and a pillow made from the bruised leaves may help insomnia. jaundice. stinging nettle. Dosage: Two to three tablespoons of leaves or plants in one cup of water. including glutathione and vitamins A. Overdose symptoms include drowsiness. passion vine. unusual bruising or bleeding. Effects: An antioxidant. heartburn. cancer. and spasms. Effects: An antioxidant. painful urination. purple passion flower. PEPPERMINT AKA: American mint. Effects: An adaptogen that boosts the immune system. heartbeat that is irregular or slow. a pulse that is slow and weak. betaadrenergic blocking agents. great stinging nettle. It may have a calming effect. Dosage: The fresh stems and leaves can be used as salad greens. with digitalis preparations. Also used as a stomach tonic and to treat rheumatism. or two to five drops of tincture at a time as needed. Effects: Used as a stimulant in Brazil. Rauwolfia alkaloids can increase the effects of antidepressants. difficult urination (even though it is normally a mild diuretic). but normal usage reportedly produces no adverse symptoms. with Leucovorin's high alcohol content. Dosage: The common dosage is a 200 mg pill containing a standardized extract of 80 percent silymarin (160 mg of silymarin) taken one to three times a day. and nightmares. wild marjoram. flushing. The effects of rauwolfia alkaloids may be increased by other antihypertensives. OREGANO AKA: Marjoram. depression. diarrhea. poor appetite. diarrhea. Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. with anticonvulsants. it could cause some side effects. kidney problems. worms. migraine headaches. Mentha piperita. OAT AKA: Avena sativa. wu-ling-chih. Effects: Dilates the blood vessels and contains the alkaloid reserpine. liver disease. Precautions: Evidence of its antidepressant and aphrodisiac qualities is lacking. Effects: An antioxidant. and neuralgia. The fruit. It has been used to treat viral hepatitis. trembling in the hands. folate. Urtica urens. REISHI AKA: Ganoderma. the two could be toxic to the central nervous system. arthritis. PASSION FLOWER AKA: Maypops. and high cholesterol. and E. Reishi is a mushroom that grows in the mountains of Asia. Fluoxetine.radicals through antioxidant properties. It is said to be good for abdominal pains. pussley. mint. drowsiness. or Sertraline are increased when combined. shortness of breath. rheumatism. Ganoderma lucidum. reduced sex drive. gingivitis.

and certain blood disorders. fevers. fever. and high doses should not be combined with high doses of 5-HTP. calamus. The plant has a strong unpleasant odor which some liken to smelly socks. Extracts must be at least 0. Just 300 mg/ day has proven effective against Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). as just 10 to 20 percent of the active ingredients are dissolved in water. It is said to stimulate the appetite. Precautions: It may cause the skin to be sensitive to light. John's Wort had only 20 to 90 percent of the potency listed on the label. for up to one cup a day. as it produces lethargy. It may help oxygenate the brain. Recent evidence has shown that it can completely prevent the ability of sperm to penetrate eggs and may cause a genetic mutation which. Effects: Contains crocetin. Scutellaria laterifolia. It should not be used for serious depression. though evidence is no more than anecdotal. It should not be taken with any tyramine rich foods or drugs. twitching. possibly because of chemicals called valepotriates and an as yet poorly understood ability to interact with either of the neurotransmitters serotonin and GABA. small spikenard. as it could cause dangerously high blood pressure.3 percent hypericin to be effective. Some of its components are very unstable. and it was used by Indians in the Northwest to increase endurance and stamina. hives. ST. colds and flus. Klamath weed. menstrual cramps. vacha. flatulence. and North America may each have very different pharmacological properties. Tipton weed. is correlated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. and herbalists have used it for treating digestive problems. In China. can be processed to make the narcotic MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine). Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla). Saffron oil. include depression. balances the bodily systems. digestive problems. high or low blood pressure. it should not be used by those with impaired kidney or liver function or those with chronic insomnia. giddiness. One-quarter to one-half teaspoon of powdered leaves at a time. It has been used to treat exhaustion. sweet cinnamon. and nausea. gas. but other studies do not bear this out. diarrhea. myrtle flag. headaches. dry mouth. Effects: A strong antioxidant. and sweating. Paxil. nocturnal emissions. John's wort as a tea is not very effective. Effects: Probably the most effective natural antidepressant known (it is used extensively throughout Europe). gout. PMS. Effects: Sage is antioxidant. asthma. It can interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. Undine's herb. Valdispert forte. stupor. Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. it may help relieve insomnia. Effects: An adaptogen that reportedly boosts the immune system. Dosage: One-half teaspoon of dried plant in one-half cup of water. inflammation. Johns-wort. Chinese root. Salvia officinalis. and improve memory. rheumatism. Isadore Rosenfeld does not recommend using it for more than eight weeks at a time. SHANKA PUSPI AKA: Convolvulus mycrophyllus. Aralia racemosa (spikenard). and increased appetite. Effects: When taken as a tea just before bedtime. SKULLCAP AKA: Blue skullcap. menstrual cramps. dysentery. It may be beneficial to those with atherosclerosis. Dosage: It could cause problems when used in large quantities. for up to one cup a day. and barbiturate addiction. and rheumatoid arthritis. obesity. Scutellaria baikalensis (Chinese skullcap). colic. Effects: Reported to reduce insomnia and anxiety. dizziness. and depression. altitude sickness. Nutrasleep. if found in adult women. nervous system disorders. restlessness. TARRAGON AKA: Artemisia dracunculus. improved mood. and is also used by herbalists to treat colic. insomnia. a central nervous system stimulant. VALERIAN AKA: All-heal. excessive perspiration. hoodwort. moon root. The most widely-used sedative in Europe. In 1998. for up to one cup a day. Precautions: When chewed. Scutellaria lateriflora. indigestion. stomach gas. Overdose symptoms. and chronic diarrhea. convulsions. It may have antiviral properties and be useful against herpes. It should not be taken during the day. liver disease. Dosage: Three to six capsules a day in three divided doses. relieve various stomach problems. and sinus conditions. hypertension. and improves mental functioning. There are a few recorded cases where high doses have caused liver damage. which lowers blood pressure. dandelion root. insomnia. and tense muscles. sweet calomel. goatweed. JOHN'S WORT AKA: Amber. licorice. incensier. a property which leads some to promote it as an aid for those wishing to quit. It can protect the liver against toxins. It has a very mild MAO inhibitor effect. finding that it makes them more alert. Crocus sativus. Precautions: Though it is said to be safe. It acts as a stimulant and improves blood circulation. and confusion. flag root. Its daily use should be limited to a few weeks. a study commissioned by the Los Angeles Times found that seven out of ten of the leading brands of St. but with fewer side effects. and other neurological problems. cancer. rat root. It should not be combined with Prozac. severe anxiety. infertility. sweet myrtle. SAFFRON AKA: Autumn crocus. and definitely no more than six months. and may also be helpful in treating nervous conditions and depression. the dried root can cause nausea in smokers. TURMERIC AKA: Curcuma longa. indigestion. Precautions: It contains a poison that can affect the central nervous system and damage the kidneys. Effects: Promotes energy and stamina. working much like Prozac and similar drugs. Works synergistically with kava. Effects: An herb used in India to relieve anxiety. fever. and dopamine —the first substance known to do so. HIV. It may take three to six weeks for it to fully take effect. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one cup of water for one to two cups a day.AKA: Compass plant. Effects: Relieves anxiety. night sweats. Schizandra fructus. It can interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. Fifteen to 40 drops of tincture three or four times a day. and insomnia. greater energy. SAGE AKA: Garden sage. It can be fatal at doses of 10 to 12 grams. and ^may relieve mental fatigue. muscle tension. osteoarthritis. SWEET FLAG AKA: Acorus calamus. Europe. Less common side effects include gastrointestinal irritation. It can kill lice when applied directly to the affected parts. whooping cough. Dosage: One teaspoon in half a cup of water once or twice a day. there should be at least a four week interval between taking an MAO inhibitor and taking St. which can occur at dosages of 900 mg/day or more. norepinephrine. Hypericum perforatum. impotence. Effects: Sarsaparilla is said to increase energy. Claims by herbalists that it is good for chest congestion. Works synergistically with artichoke. and milk thistle. estragon. Bioflavonoids in Chinese skullcap have antiinflammatory and antiallergic properties. helmet flower. curcumin. frigidity. or 5 to 20 drops of tincture a day. a few individuals may experience paradoxical reactions. cardiac symptoms. and a producer of estrogen-like effects. side-flowering skullcap. It may be used as a treatment for headaches. making accurate dosage difficult. sweet grass. SUM A AKA: Para todo. regulate hormonal activity and protect against radiation. Benefits may include longer and deeper sleep. It may also prove useful in treating amenorrhea and high blood pressure. delirium tremens. and be an aphrodisiac. Precautions: Raises blood pressure. It has proven beneficial in treating some liver disorders and appears to have some cortisone-like effects. It enhances three important neurotransmitters — serotonin. Effects: Reduces anxiety and insomnia to a moderate degree. mild anxiety. Works synergistically with astragalus. Biral. Valmane. sweet root. mouth and throat disorders. high blood pressure. irritable bowels. Precautions: Scientific evidence is lacking for many of its claims. Euvegal. wu-wei-tzu. chronic fatigue syndrome. SARSAPARILLA AKA: Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla). Precautions: It should not be taken by those with seizure disorders or in large quantities because it contains thujone. Pfaffia paniculata. or other anti-depressants. night sweats. counteracts stress. others recommend not using it for more than six to eight months at a time. Smilax offidnalis. gallbladder disease. Works synergistically with hops. SCHIZANDRA BERRY AKA: Schizandra chinensis. coughs. scullcap. rheumatism. seizures. and extracts using the whole plant are more effective than extracts derived solely from the hypericin compound. life-of-man. Dosage: From 600 to 900 mg/day in three divided doses of 0. Valeriana officinalis. and long-term effects are not known. hypericum. Spanish saffron. Standardized extracts are more likely to have active ingredients. which can cause convulsions in high doses. and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Some studies indicate that valepotriates may cause cancer. gastrointestinal problems. and can cause cataracts if the individual is exposed to bright light. but not enough to warrant food restrictions. . Has been used to treat exhaustion resulting from Epstein-Barr disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. or safrol. sweet rush. stomach cramps. The species native to India. It may be useful in treating muscle cramps. Excessive amounts taken internally can be fatal. Dr. It is also used by herbalists in the treatment of bladder infections. Effects: An antioxidant which also prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine. it has been used to treat dry cough.3 percent hypericin strength (Rosenfeld recommends 300 mg/day). neuralgia. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one-half cup of water. John's wort. as a tolerance toward the herb could develop. Virginia skullcap. Precautions: Contains a weak carcinogen. Herbalists have used it for catarrhal problems. grass myrtle. St. maddog-weed. An overdose of the tincture can cause confusion. headaches. It has been used by herbalists to treat amenorrhea. nervousness. and mild allergic reactions. blue pimpernel. irritability. headaches. mi die xiang. and insomnia. phu. colds. setwall. Rosemarinus officinalis. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves steeped in one-half cup of water for 30 minutes and taken one tablespoonful at a time. inflammatory conditions. including its ability to reduce insomnia and anxiety. Prolonged use or overuse can lead to poisoning.

it may also cleanse the blood. any other allergy. unless under the guidance of a physician. Dayto Himbin. tremors in the hands and feet. flatulence.5 to 1 percent of essential oils about one-half to two hours before sleep. Effects: An antioxidant. and the plague are unproven. It may also be good for backache. Baron-X. amphetamines. as that will destroy some of its beneficial oils). the pure oil is a strong poison.D.menstrual pains. control the appetite. and 100 mg/day to reduce anxiety. Dosage: Six to ten teaspoons of shaved bark boiled in a pint of water for five minutes. sweating. or those taking any drugs that interfere with norepinephrine's neuronal uptake or metabolism (including Selegiline) should use yohimbe only under a physician's guidance. as studies of those individuals taking the drugs seem to show a lower incidence of that disease. It may have the same effects on women. In high enough doses. It should also not be combined with antihistamines. it can produce mild hallucinogeniclike effects.D. Rare side effects include nausea. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone allergic to aspirin. convulsions.D. Precautions: As its Latin name suggests. Mucho Mate (tea). Duke. Salix caprea (goat willow. sallow). wounds. purple willow). It may take two to three weeks for any effects to occur. though a trip to the hospital or doctor is recommended in such cases. It is not physically addictive.. Precautions: Excessive consumption can lead to a feeling of exhaustion. and intestinal parasites. Those suffering from or being treated for depression. it can readily induce vomiting. Yohimar. liver disease. Sheldon Saul Hendler. Sheldon Saul Hendler. is isolated and sold as a prescription medication. hepatitis. the potency is directly related to the strength of its smell. The whole herb is a complex combination of adrenergics. heartburn. ZlZYPHUS Effects: Induces relaxation and sleep. lack of appetite. after treatment in a hospital. pussywillow). Indian black drink. does not recommend it for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. sores. YAUPON AKA: Black drink plant. headache. M. lethargy. kidney disease. VANILLA AKA: Vanilla planifolia. cocaine. sedatives. M. Duke. though other factors such as the steaming hot temperature at which the tea is sometimes consumed. Ph. lizard tail. According to Ward Dean. and their levels | in products may decline after a few months. A rare North American shrub. heart disease. overstimulation.D. M. constipation. including yohimbine. encourage the production of cortisone.. and work synergistically with other healing herbs. Yohimex. heart palpitations. marijuana. Ilex paraguariensis. cholinergics. angina pectoris. and dehydration. mate. narcotics. yerba del pasmo. YOHIMBE AND YOHIMBINE AKA: Actibine.. and inflammatory bowel disorders. and euphoric high lasting four to six hours. overstimulation. it is related to yerbe mate and guayusa. Researchers have noted a correlation between mate drinkers and cancer of the esophagus. Prohim. hypoglycemia. increased blood pressure. Willow is the herbal origin of aspirin. with the dosage cut in half and gradually built up to a full dose if side effects occur.4 mg tablet three times a day for up to ten weeks." The active compound. yohimbine alkaloids. 250 to 500 mg of the dried herb in capsules. Precautions: It should not be used by those with an allergy to yohimbine or any of the Rauwolfia alkaloids. it "is the only substance with a specific FDA-approved indication as an aphrodisiac. Artemisia absinthium. bipolar disorder. she fully recovered within 24 hours. There are no known overdose symptoms. diet pills. Ilex paraguayensis.S. which could be useful in cases of insomnia. restlessness. yerba mate. Ph. panic attacks. It contains a number of psychoactive alkaloids. panic attacks. salivation. psychotropic drugs. There is one case on record of an 18-year-old college student who took approximately 20 grams of powdered valerian root in capsule form and experienced fatigue. vascular disorders such as migraines. any psychiatric disorder. Effects: A mild sedative. to contain caffeine. Overdose symptoms in susceptible individuals include tiredness the following day. WORMWOOD AKA: Absinthe. . and so should not be combined with tyraminerich foods or MAO inhibitors. and reserpine alkaloids.. The effects of yohimbe can be decreased by alcohol. Yoman. mate yerba. and headache. Ph. WILLOW AKA: Salix alba (salicin willow. with the added benefit of helping them lose weight. blood pressure disorders. and alcohol consumption may also play a role. Rare side effects include restless legs during sleep and stomach upset. emetic holly. In traditional Chinese medicine. and toothache. but can create a psychological dependence. yohimbine hydrochloride. According to James A. benefit the nervous system. Herbalists use Yerbe mate for allergies.D. tightness of the chest. Thybine. Paraguay tea. YERBEMATE AKA: Holly. coffee addiction. it even increases the sex drive of men with normal libido. and liver enzymes were all normal and. yerba mansa. hallucinations. Effects: A caffeine-like stimulant reputed to relieve fatigue and insomnia. and is the only plant native to the U. rapid heart rate. It should not be used with alcohol. Dosage: One cup of tea or one dropperful of extract. cassene. Effects: Yohimbe is said to produce a tingling feeling along the spine. Taking it on a regular basis with large doses of vitamin C could cause it to build up to dangerous levels in the body. and is much safer. lack of coordination. Yovital. Valepotriates are very unstable. mild confusion upon awakening. yerba. using the herb in its natural form (dried bark) is dangerous. Ray Sahelian.. or one cup of tea a day. it is often combined with other herbs for a sedative effect. substances which act counter to each other and which could cause serious health risks. Dosage: Two teaspoons of powdered root in one cup of hot water (the herb should not be put in boiling water.. and has shown positive results in treating both psychological and physiological impotence. Less common side effects include anxiety. Ph. epilepsy. flushed skin. Corynanthe yohimbe. diabetes. Salix purpurea (purple osier. which is rather small (0. some antihistamines. an overdose is not generally considered life-threatening. M. Effects: A mild stimulant because of its caffeine content. vomiting. Morning Thunder (tea). James A. Indian Black Tea.. There are no known life-threatening or common side effects. blood. Ilex vomitoria. It could interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. Has been used by herbalists to treat fever. dizziness. called yohimbine or yohimbine hydrochloride. her EKG. Some supplements may contain little or no active yohimbine. many herbalists caution that the potent herb should never be used without the advice of a physician or herbalist. While yohimbine is not an MAO inhibitor. pleasant. South American holly. Precautions: May be habit-forming if used for a prolonged period of time or cause poisoning if taken in large quantities. yaupon holly. or schizophrenia. abdominal cramps. Dosage: The plant can be made into a tea by drying in the oven until black and then steeping in hot water. Pausinystalia yohimbe. ulcers. insomnia. The doses needed to produce the hallucinogen-like effects are very high and potentially toxic. which quickens its effects and reduces the nausea. nerve pain. and tremors.1 percent). and headaches. recommends one 5. followed by a mild. Yohimbe can decrease the effects of antidepressant and antihypertensive drugs. or any moodaltering drug. With the dried root. recommends 300 to 500 mg/day of concentrated root extract containing 0. Mark Mayell recommends 15 to 20 drops of tincture. in fact. The amount of yohimbine in herbal products can vary considerably. The berries are slightly poisonous and can cause vomiting and diarrhea. Indians have used it to induce ecstasy and visions. tranquilizers. tobacco consumption.D. and mild pupil dilation. withy). recommends no more than two cups of tea or two capsules of 500 mg each per day. indigestion. It has been traditionally used in Mexico for gastrointestinal disorders and as a mild brain stimulant. Works synergistically with 500 to 1000 mg of vitamin C. or narcotics. white willow. yohimbe is. Nathaniel Phillips does not recommend taking it with meals. catkins willow. Dosage: Two teaspoons of leaves or tops in one cup of water for one-half cup a day to be taken in one teaspoonful doses. cassina. Aphrodyne. An overdose may cause nausea. Salix nigra (black willow.D. muscle relaxants. W. Yocon.D. Effects: May aid in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease much in the same manner that antiinflammatory drugs for arthritis seem to. withe.

and should go away within two months. helps the immune system work better. nausea. liver. stomach ulcers. bran. and red cabbage in their raw state can destroy or inhibit the absorption of B-l. fatigue. Those with ulcers may have to take an antacid to prevent aggravating their condition. as nicotinic acid reportedly raises the histamine level in the body. reduces blood clotting. eggs. are also found in plant foods. neurosis. and hyperirritability.4 mg/day for men. liver. wheat germ. restlessness. Alphalin. and neomycin. eyes. Some say this only occurs with pure niacin. fainting. Astaxan-thin. at least 10. sensitivity to light. fresh green vegetables. blurred vision and related eye problems. Food Sources: Avocados. prunes. and mucous membranes. and some cases lead even to death. sensitivity to tartrazine dye. and recent research has shown that it may protect against memory loss and other forms of cognitive impairment. though other researchers have not been able to duplicate their success. red palm oil. and a person who is deficient in B-l. eggs. clams. joint swelling. or headaches for about 10 to 20 minutes when first starting supplementation. but some evidence indicates that the continuous release of niacin may be detrimental to the liver. It is also necessary for the synthesis of cortisone. alcoholism. broccoli. Retin A. drowsiness. poultry (white meat). due to its higher degree of absorption. Dosage: The RDA for vitamin A is 5000 lU/day. weakness. Effects: Improves memory and other mental functions. emotional instability. Its benefits are enhanced when taken with adequate amounts of other B vitamins. excessive amounts may cause a yellowing of the skin (carotenosis). depression. irritabilty. ringing in the ears. and hunger pains. manifesting itself in anxiety. An unusual sensitivity of the skin to sunlight may be an early warning sign. and what might be a low dose for one person could be toxic to another. dementia. In doses larger than 50 mg (the RDA is 18 mg/day for men. nuts. Aquasol A. The victims of pellegra suffer from dermatitis. loss of manual dexterity. Beta-carotene appears to prevent lung cancer and tumors of the mouth and throat. and that taking aspirin an hour before taking B-3 or drinking a glass of water with the vitamin can prevent these symptoms. A deficiency is known as pellegra. a deficiency of vitamin D. and pellegra. progesterone. NAD. and marine animals. blurred vision. milk. dimallela salina (a marine plant). Thiamine. extremely high doses — over 750 mg/day — can cause abdominal cramps. sensitivity to noise. A deficiency (dosages below the minimum daily requirement of 1 mg/day) known as beriberi often results in physical and mental deterioration. impaired night vision. beta-carotene has been found to increase the death rate of smokers due to lung cancer if their levels of vitamin C are low. It should be taken only under the guidance of a physician if any of the following conditions are present: diabetes. Drs. though antibiotics may disturb the natural balance of these bacteria. and protects the membranes of brain cells. Mycelized vitamin A can be at least five times as powerful as oil-based supplements. lima beans. Individuals with allergies may have problems. and insulin. gout. is non-toxic. Food Sources (carotenoids): egg yolks. edema. or hemorrhaging. split peas. or wine can also contribute to the destruction of this vitamin in foods. Afaxin. lightheadedness. sulfa drugs. High doses can result in deficiencies of other B vitamins. and apparently one case of . roasted peanuts. and B-6 may not be able to produce niacin in this manner. which exists in some plants. maintain the health of the skin. The fat substitute Olestra can interfere with the absorption of carotenoids. apprehension. calcium supplements. irregular menses. which is harmless and disappears when the dosage is reduced. vomiting.000 lU/day. muscle pains. spinach. soybeans. weight loss. It may enhance the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents. and wheezing. These disappear when the dosage is reduced. tomatoes. sweating. oral contraceptives. effects which can heighten sexual pleasure. nausea. as it helps metabolize them. and improves the oxygen-carrying ability of red blood cells. hair loss. aids in the functioning of the nervous system. gout. fainting. rapid pulse and heartbeat. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxan-thin. it may cause dry skin. helps fight infections and speeds up healing. Food Sources: Asparagus. pro-vitamin A. vision problems. helps relieve air and seasickness. In some cases. lima beans. chronic heavy drinking. chicken. porphyria. nervousness. whole-grain cereals. though only recently has a process been developed that can stabilize this nutrient so that it can be taken orally. coffee. and vitamin A can interfere with the effectiveness of phenytoin. Those with poor health habits — such as smokers —and those with specific problems that inhibit absorption of vitamin A and beta-carotene — such as those with gastrointestinal or liver diseases. such as with a B-complex supplement. is reportedly harmless. some people seem to be able to manufacture it from their intestinal bacteria. oatmeal. choline. Effects: A strong antioxidant. BETA-CAROTENE. or ulcers. pollution. and the equivalent amounts of B-2 and B-6. Individual needs vary widely. is commonly used in prescription doses of 10. and sulphur. low blood pressure. fight canker sores and bad breath. spirulina (an algae). Recommended dosage is 50 to 1000 mg/day. faintness. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Other carotenoids could lower the chance of heart attack in men with high blood pressure by 60 to 70 percent. alpha and beta carotenes from carrots. a class of drugs used with anesthesia to relax the muscles during surgery. or NADH (the reduced form). tingling. VITAMIN B-l AKA: Betalin S. loss of smell. vitamin E. retinol. sunflower seeds. whole wheat products. Other uncommon side effects may include abdominal pain.000 international units (IU) of A are needed if more than 400 lU/day of vitamin E are taken. Some may also find that they have an abnormal glucose tolerance such as found in diabetics. beans. rashes. Retinol is the form of vitamin A found in animal foods. and eating fish. Precautions: There is a wide variation in the amount individuals need. confusion. Stuart Berger recommends a maximum daily dosage of 17. and is characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances leading to a redness of the skin and inflammation. glaucoma. Cooking. poor memory. diarrhea. a flushing or redness of the skin accompanied by a tingling. vitamin D. loss of vitamin C. and the drugs cholestyramine. brown rice. milk. women on oral contraceptives have a decreased need for vitamin A. A deficiency can result in dry skin. wheat germ. L-tryptophan can be converted by the body into B-3. as the liver can store enough for months or even years before it is depleted. and phosphorus. SustA. vinegar. The absorption of vitamin A can be inhibited by alcohol. and one admittedly flawed study using 17 subjects suggests that 5 mg twice daily can improve the symptoms of Alzheimer's. Beta-carotene. even if none is consumed in the diet. works as an antioxidant (prevents vitamin C from oxidizing). body flush. mineral oil. or vitamin A acid. yeasts. has 5 to 20 times the antioxidant activity of beta-carotene. and marinating meat in soy sauce. 1 mg/day for women. antacids. confusion." though the latter is not life-threatening. it will increase the effect of anticoagulants. aspirin. dry cracked lips. and usually resulting from injections of B-l— include allergic reactions. fish. estrogen. There are other common precautions that should be kept in mind: polyunsaturated fatty acids with carotene can work against vitamin A if antioxidants are not present. tomatoes. Much more research is needed. as the body only converts it into vitamin A when it is needed. and a natural metabolite. fish. degeneration of tooth enamel and gums. nicotinic acid. which. dizziness. Dispatabs. About 20 to 25 mg of zinc may be needed to help utilize vitamin A that is stored in the liver. or diabetes— may require a higher dosage. and testosterone. And vitamin A should not be taken with the acne drug Accutane (isotretinoin). dates. do not take high doses of vitamin A. Effects: Vitamin A is essential for the skin. which have lots of fat and thus are readily damaged by free radicals. premenstrual headaches. poultry. depression. helps repair cell damage. may help prevent macular degeneration. cirrhosis. diarrhea. rash. insomnia. The vitamin can relieve gastrointestinal problems. gall bladder or liver disease. as well as the sex hormones estrogen. absorption diseases. though it takes 60 parts tryptophan to make one part niacin. gall bladder problems. fatigue. found in spinach and collard greens. reduced levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. and burns. kelp. Betaxin. Food Sources (vitamin A): Beef. headache. fish. vitamin A acetate. stabilizing the appetite. calcium. it can also produce a false reading in a test for the level of theophylline (a drug used for the treatment of bronchial asthma) in the blood. butter. severe itching. of B-3. If taking a broad spectrum antibiotic.000 to 35. The cholesterol-reducing drug Questran (cholestyramine) may interfere with the absorption of vitamin A to such an extent that supplementation may be needed. high blood pressure. nails. herpes. of which there are over 600. the majority of health professionals recommend 10. Beta carotene (sometimes called carotene or pro-vitamin A) is found almost exclusively in plant foods and is a precursor to vitamin A. kidney. hives. but are not as plentiful or important. and symptoms — though rare. and various prescription drugs can all take their toll on the body's supply of vitamin A. B-2.000 ID/day are taken. oranges. gas. diarrhea. If more than 10. lycopene from tomatoes. Even rarer are incidents of nervousness and panic caused by high doses of nicotinic acid. figs. and "niacin hepatitis. headaches. problems with bone growth. Deficiency is rare. loss of appetite.000 IU taken over an extended period of time can result in abdominal pain. pink grapefruit. loss of appetite. resulting in an increase of free radicals rather than a reduction. sinus trouble. Precautions: It should not be taken by those sensitive to niacin or who have liver disease. shellfish. overactive thyroid. while others say that this only occurs with nicotinic acid. nicotinamide. weakness. Paradoxically. egg yolk. bone pain. sleep disturbances. an excess of iron. Should be taken in 3 or 4 divided doses with meals. folic acid. throxine. called variously niacinamide adenine dinucleotide.500 lU/day. and vision.000 IU daily for maximum health. and redness of the skin in some people. which can be prevented by increasing the intake of other B vitamins accordingly. vitamin A palmitate. which can cause a flushing. and those with gout may find their symptoms increasing because of increased uric acid levels in the blood. ease the severity of (or even prevent) migraines. shields the skin from the harmful effects of the sun's UV rays. vitamin A acid. higher dosages should only be taken under the careful eye of a qualified professional. heart. though Dr. Carotenoids. after it is converted by the body. It is best taken with the other B vitamins. including pantothenic acid. bloating. Dosage: The RDA is 1. brussel sprouts. lean meat. parsley. Vitamin B-l should be taken with carbohydrates. food processing. liver damage. Antibiotics. yeast. one of the main causes of blindness in old people. vitamin B-l also helps in stabilizes the brain and nervous system's energy production from glucose. rapid or irregular heartbeat. and liver and eye damage (the main storage sites in the body for vitamin A). carbonated citrates in food and drinks. liver. in the latter case. and increased susceptibility to infections. There are some reports that large doses of vitamin C can prevent these problems. protects against stress. though 100 to 300 mg/day is probably the optimal range. though a diet too high in carbohydrates may increase the need for B-1. muscle tremors. niacinamide. and Related Nutrients VITAMIN A. Precautions: Daily doses of vitamin A higher than 25. manganese. sea food. Food Sources (Beta-carotene): Some fruits. Nutritionists recommend taking more beta-carotene than vitamin A. diarrhea. High doses can produce false positive results in tests for uric acid and urobilinogeh. Biamine. Both beta-carotene and vitamin A each have their own specific antioxidant properties. vitamin C. irritability.000 to 25. numbness in hands and feet. A recent study by the Salk Institute for Biological Studies indicates vitamin A may be an important factor in memory and learning. retin A. along with adequate supplies of the B vitamins. fish liver. carotene. B-12. has shown promise in mental enhancement. brewer's yeast. on the other hand. irritability. hair. infection. prolonged diarrhea. There are time-release niacin tablets that avoid the flush. liver enlargement. The active coenzymatic form. VITAMIN B-3 AKA: Niacin. vitamins C and E. swelling over the long bones. very low blood pressure. fish liver oils. 13 mg/day for women). and is used in the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles). dizziness. Those with kidney disorders should consult a physician before increasing intake of vitamin C. It should be noted that there is good evidence that toxicity can result from long-term intake of as low as two and one-half times the RDA. Carotenoids are more effective if taken in combination—for instance. dark-green and orange vegetables. Antacids. dry rough or scaly skin. jaundice. milk. lean pork.CHAPTER 3 Vitamins. stress. fever. a situation which alarms some because the average American diet is already deficient in this important class of nutrients. Bewon. barbituates. as these can render insulin inactive. inability to recall recent events. the flushing usually occurs on an empty stomach. Both vitamin A and beta-carotene are absorbed more readily if consumed with foods containing fat and any hard physical activity is avoided for four hours afterwards. CAROTENOIDS AKA: Aeon. shortness of breath. heartburn. Vitamin A acetate and vitamin A palmitate are synthetic forms found in fortified foods. Vitamin B-3 is a histamine releaser. caffeine. itching. Humphry Osmond and Abram Hoffer contend that B-3 is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. and lutein from spinach. impaired liver function. barbituates. colestipol. tobacco. stress. Overdosages can also affect thyroid and insulin production. It is used to treat vertigo. weakness. Minerals. and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels. vomiting. It should not be taken in high doses in combination with vitamin C and the amino acid L-cysteine except under the supervision of a doctor. and gastrointestinal disturbances.

canning. wheezing. Cobalamin. pork. and — in one case — it has decreased the liver's uptake of the chemical used to make that organ visible for a liver scan. so a diet rich in animal fats may be more likely to result in cholesterol plaques if there is insufficient B-6. dosage should not exceed 10 mg/day. brown rice. weakness. others. probenecid. brain damage. Dosage: 3 meg/day. Dosage: There is no RDA. roasting or stewing of meat. and protector against stress. It also helps keep the bones strong and metabolizes calcium. particularly dried fruits. magnesium. and yeast are the best sources. phenobarbital. cramps. canning. Niacin can reduce the effectiveness of antidiabetic drugs. recent evidence suggests that some older people who have less stomach acid and more digestive bacteria may need to take as much as 25 meg/day. milk. a metabolic brain enhancer said to detoxify the body. famotidine. heat. Ser-Ap-Es. Anocobin. poultry. irritability. Niacin can be destroyed by alcohol. It helps in the synthesis of acetylcholine. A deficiency of both B-6 and folic acid is correlated with a high level of the amino acid homocysteine. Apresoline. and protect the liver. fish. difficulty walking and maintaining balance. while reducing oxidation within cells. yet no toxicity was observed in tests where individuals took 500 to 1000 micrograms (0. It can reduce the effectiveness of levodopa (but not carbidopalevodopa). potassium supplements. Effects: Prevents oxygen deprivation in the body's tissues. Diabetics may find that B-6 can be used to decrease their need for insulin. BORON Food sources: Most fruits and vegetables. and a carbidopa-levodopa combination does not have this problem). those who have undergone stomach surgery. digestive disorders. It is best if taken with a multivitamin which includes calcium. cycloserine. High protein diets increase the need for B-6. Among the other benefits are the healing of wounds and minimizing the side effects of many antibiotics. and tobacco. With cocaine. Tagamet. estrogen. Food Sources: Beef. headaches. a dose of approximately 1000 micrograms taken immediately before sleep has about a 50% chance of creating dreams in color. panthenol. sleeping pills. diary products. nausea. sunlight. nuts. According to Pearson and Shaw. laxatives. enhancing their blood pressurelowering effect. coffee. eczema. yeast. convulsions. however. and death. diisopropylamine-dichloracetate (DIPADCA). Food Sources: Bananas. pyridoxinal. arthritis. and have no value as vitamin supplements. Food Sources: Avocados. deficiency is rare. The only B vitamin that can be stored by the body (the liver can store three to five years worth). can increase the need for niacin. though initial large doses can cause temporary diarrhea. and maximizes blood transport from the blood to the heart and brain.D. Rubion. carrots. Deficiency is rare. potatoes. strict vegetarians may not get enough. Nicotinic acid can also interact with ganglionic blocking drugs. sleeping pills. estrogen. lentils. preferably with meals. Preliminary studies have shown that supplementation of B-12 and folic acid may prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's. Bedoc. The active ingredient is dimethylglycine (DMG). alcohol. sale of B-15 is illegal. and those with hemophilia should consult a physician first.D. Its advocates contend that DMG increases energy. indicates a diet so poor that deficiency symptoms of other vitamins are also likely to be present. Pepcid. Precautions: While there appear to be no adverse effects with doses as high as 6 mg/day. fresh vegetables. It should be taken in 3 to 4 divided doses. mental confusion. egg yolks. is essential for the synthesis of antibodies. pantothenic acid. the measurement of catecholamines in the blood or urine. hydralazine. tobacco. Pyridoxine. and pyridoxamine — working together. Those with gout should consult a physician before taking supplements. duodenal ulcers. which avoids the niacin flush. and difficult breathing. and water. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with Leber's disease (optic nerve atrophy). less frequently. and can also cause liver damage and. C. Allergies to this vitamin are rare. which also helps the muscles contract). learning disabilities. 50 to 200 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses. and Zantac). Effects: Encourages RNA and DNA synthesis in nerve cells. According to Earl Mindell. Sheldon Saul Hendler. rash.hypothyroidism. leading to serious central nervous system problems. it could cause an increased flushing of the skin. and reactions (the symptoms for which include acne. and magnesium. There are no known overdose symptoms. Rare symptoms include hives. depression. Deficiency symptoms of B-12 can be masked by taking more than 1000 meg/day of folic acid. and phosphorus. Do not exceed 500 mg/day. hives. Research has shown that women can cut their risk of heart disease in half by consuming at least 400 meg/day of folic acid and 3 mg/day of B-6. It is recommended that those age 51 and over take 4 meg/day. leading to neuritis. malfunctioning of the nervous system. Effects: Vitamin B-6 protects against stress and is needed by the brain for transporting and metabolizing amino acids to develop various neurotransmitters (such as norepinephrine. Its effectiveness can be reduced by tobacco and obesity. chloramphenicol. vitamin C (if taken within two hours of each other). and sulfinpyrazone. Vitamin B-6 is actually a trio of very similar substances — pyridoxine. seaweed. and it has been used to treat depression. niacinimide. It is not a vitamin. Rubramin. nervousness. nizatidine. ranitidine. Rubramin-PC. as there is no evidence that the body has a need for it. It may play a key role in fat metabolism. in some people. Similarly. estrogens. and a swelling or crusting of skin around the lips) usually occur with injections. Isoniazid. and difficulty in walking. vegans. radiation. glossitis. chicken. and tobacco. serotonin. ethionamide. None of the benefits claimed for it or DMG have any basis in fact. Those on a high-protein diet will need more B-6. loss of balance. wheat germ. oats. Dosage: It is generally recommended that initial doses should be 100 mg/day. Rare side effects consist of itchy skin. Isoniazid. High doses of B-6 can lead to increased susceptibility to cadmium toxicity. M. usually resulting from overdose. Though it is a water-soluble vitamin that needs to be supplied every day. The RDA for adults is 3 micrograms. Betalin 12. Lab rats experience an increase in their rate of learning. Chloram-phenicol. A deficiency is known as pernicious anemia. Effects: A strong antioxidant. consist of faintness (from anaphylaxis). and rash. Life-threatening symptoms. and penicillamine can all reduce the absorption of B-5 and cause anemia and tingling or numbness in the hands and feet. Serpasil-Apresoline. clumsiness. pork. cimetidine. "Nicotinic analogues" or "niacin analogues" are drugs used to treat specific conditions. grapes. severe psychosis. heavy drinkers. or alcohol could result in excessively low blood pressure. chloramphenicol. cyanocobalamin. or took 100. Combining with betaandrenergic blocking agents. brain-wave abnormalities. and is an essential growth factor needed for healthy brain and nerve function. Kaybovite. sulfa drugs. blackstrap molasses. Precautions: It can cause heartburn or. yogurt. milk. Alpha Redisol. plays an indirect role in making choline available for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. and immuno-suppressants. lamb. and possible cardiovascular disease. VITAMIN B-6 AKA: Beesix. depression. it is believed men can enjoy similar benefits from such an increase. Vitamin B-5 can be destroyed by alcohol.. estrogen. sulfa drugs. A highprotein diet with meat. inflammation of the mouth and tongue. cycloserine (Seromycin). broccoli.D. cholestyramine. prunes. hydroxocobalamin.5 to 1 mg) for up to five years. improves the immune system (mainly be creating phosphocreatine. neomycin. Dilantin can deplete the body's stores of B-12. Dosage: Approximately 150 to 250 mg/day. 1000 mg twice a day with meals helps relieve the suffering from allergies. pantothenic acid. food processing (up to half the B-6 in flour may be lost in the refining process). and diarrhea. birth control pills. though experimenting with supplements could be risky. Vitamin B-6 can be destroyed by alcohol. liver. does not recommend supplementation under any circumstances. wheat bran. moodiness. Dexol T. Rodex. As it is only found in meat and dairy products. liver. It may also help in relieving the symptoms of depression and sickle-cell anemia. according to John Mann. Effects: Boron helps keep the brain alert and able to perform simple functions. Combining with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors could increase the risk of heart or kidney problems. Prilosec. and strength (mainly by reducing the lactic acid in the muscles). if it does occur. endurance. The vitamin can interfere with the effects of hypnotic barbiturates. is needed for the transportation and storage of folic acid. insomnia. and sexual organs. brewer's yeast. liver and other organ meats. Taking more than 200 mg/day can cause peripheral neuropathy and such high dosages should be administered only under the guidance of a physician. In fact. A naturally occurring deficiency is probably extremely rare.. Vitabec 6. immunosuppressants. and Penicillamine (a drug unrelated to penicillin which is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and rare genetic diseases). and memory loss. and those taking estrogen. Codroxomin. Droxomin. B-2. enriched cereals. and phenytoin. anemia. rather than tablets. hair loss. it can help manufacture choline in the body. Rezide. though lack of deficiency in nonmeat eaters leads some to speculate that some vegetables may contain bacteria that produce B-12. those who do not produce enough intrinsic factor in the stomach to help utilize it. a mucoprotein secreted in the stomach which aids in the absorption of this vitamin. fish. Dosage: Start at low doses and gradually increase to 100 to 200 mg/day. overcoming deficiency. The effects of pernicious anemia may include nerve transmission problems. resulting in acne. dairy products. Precautions: Too much B-6 in the body can result in night restlessness and very vivid dream recall. and Unipres). caffeine. Hexa-Betalin. and water.000 micrograms in a single dose. ethionamide. There is no known toxicity. and dopamine) needed for mental energy and memory. VITAMIN C AND BIOFLAVONOIDS . a numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. estrogen. and is characterized by blood and skin disorders. sleeping pills. Combined with folic acid and methionine. brewer's yeast. mecamylamine. itching. whole grains. Necessary for the proper functioning of the thymus. Vitamin B-5 occurs in such a wide variety of foods that a deficiency is rare and. stamina enhancer. with such symptoms as pain in the arms and legs. which go away once the dosage is reduced. though some permanent nerve damage (such as loss of sense of touch) may remain. Nicotinic acid can also interfere with the Benedict's reagent test for sugar in the urine. food processing. and symptoms include poor appetite. cantaloupe. Pyroxine. Ph. kidney. Alphamin. possibly by the cellulose in a largely vegetarian diet. Precautions: Though it is nontoxic. protects against stress and fatigue (promotes the release of energy in foods). aspirin. Vitamin B-12 injections are generally regarded as worthless. soybeans and soy products. Some tablets sold contain the B-12 intrinsic factor. isoniazid. Taken by itself over an extended period of time may increase the need for B-l. Redisol. lower cholesterol. VITAMIN B-5 AKA: Calcium pantothenate. eggs. and anticoagulant drugs. antacids. gradually increasing to 250 to 1000 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses. and other foods high in B-3 can provide adequate amounts. used to treat tuberculosis. lacks many of the beneficial effects of niacin. fatigue. helps stabilize the brain's metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins and its synthesis of myelin in the nerves. and riboflavin. It is absorbed best when taken with meals that contain calcium. anticonvulsants. The vitamin also helps the immune system by producing antibodies and red blood cells. depression. It may help promote sleep when combined with inositol. manganese. there is evidence that DMG and another component. cabbage. A deficiency can be similar to thiamin and niacin deficiencies. methyldopa. sleeping pills. and is needed for the utilization of PABA and choline. Best taken with vitamins B-l. Dosage: Some suggest 10 to 75 mg/day. The recommended dose is 3 mg/day. Because the body can recycle the vitamin. It should not be taken by those who are allergic to pantothenic acid. which plays a role in heart disease. and years of chronic inadequate intake may precede the onset of symptoms. Cyanabin. peas. seborrheic dermatitis. nervousness. stomach medications (such as Prevacid. the ingredient Hydralazine (contained in such blood pressure medications as Apresazide. kidney. Doses higher than 500 mg/day may be toxic. spleen. beef. magnesium. cooking. food processing. those with chronic malabsorption problems. nuts. Those at risk include smokers. L-dopa (though the drug Sinemet may be able to bypass this interaction.. VITAMIN B-15 AND DIMETHYLGLYCINE AKA: Calcium pangamate and pangamic acid. It can also be destroyed or have absorption interfered with by acids and alkalies. a tingling in the hands and feet. egg yolk. meat. pregnant women. oral contraceptives. VITAMIN B-12 AKA: Acti-B-12. memory loss. Chronic megadoses of 2 to 6 grams/day used to treat carpal tunnel syndrome have led to vitamin toxicity and sensory neuropathy. colchicine. Berubigen. eggs. bran. and an underactive thyroid gland can interfere with the absorption of this vitamin. Kaybo-vite1000. potassium (extendedrelease forms). cheese. and hypoglycemia. The vitamin needs to be taken with calcium to be properly absorbed and utilized by the body. nerve disorders. there is some evidence that it can be manufactured by intestinal bacteria. are potential carcinogens. The following drugs may increase the need for B-6: birth control pills.

polycythemia (an increase in the blood's total cell mass). Symptoms include bleeding gums. beer. though these may be just temporary. which reduce oxidation damage. Protriptyline (also known as Vivactil). and poor healing of wounds. Triavil). protects against bacteria and viruses. it lengthened the life span of mice 33-50 percent). creatinine. thyme. can inhibit sugar-induced high blood pressure. Selegiline. It also removes the cellular aging pigment called lipofuscin. has a higher level of bioavailability —patients given this form of the vitamin only need 20 to 30 percent of the usual dose of vitamin C. as well as chromium polynicotinate and chromium chloride. whether this also occurs in females is unknown. reduces fatigue. mexiletine. It is also essential for the production of an enzyme-like substance called Glucose Tolerance Factor or GTF (chromium combined with nicotinic acid and amino acids). In general. nervousness. Refined sugar should be avoided for three reasons: it has been stripped of its chromium (along with the magnesium). Risatarun. G-6PD deficiency. Cenolate. One. that the body can use. especially in cases of those who are diabetic. beta-carotene. or GTF. or sodium ascorbate. those with epilepsy or seizure disorders should only do so under a physician's guidance. Vitamin C can increase the effect of barbiturates. and a class of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. calcium ascorbate. Flavorcee. dark place. athletes and those who exercise heavily — male or female — may need up to 400 meg/day (though Dr. Ph. It can also cause problems in people with sickle cell anemia. though a 1999 research paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association recommends that this be increased to 200 mg/day. C-Span. it requires chromium to metabolize it. dicoumarol. green leafy vegetables. they retain less of this mineral in their bodies. and vasopressin. preventing one of the major factors of aging. There are no known symptoms of toxicity. Vitamin C may also deplete the sulfur reserves in the body. It is similar in effect to centrophenoxine or Lucidril. it may also have a mild muscle-building effect on people with a regular exercise program. Nortriptyline (also known as Aventyl. Some recommend 1000 to 3000 mg/day. strengthens memory and learning. Deficiency symptoms related to scurvy that accompany a sudden withdrawal of high dosages are rare. There should be at least a three-hour span between taking vitamin C and taking ginseng. It is more effectively utilized by the body if taken with bioflavonoids. cortisones. and frozen vegetables should not be thawed before cooking. Precautions: People with manic-depression should not take DMAE. Daily dosages above 500 mg/day may deplete the level of copper in the blood of males. In doses above 200 mg/day. it can counteract the effects of a fatty meal. in turn. others 2000 to 5000 mg/day. cortisone. preventing mood swings. deanol. even a few can cause the body to excrete it at up to three times the normal rate. Studies on lab animals have shown.AKA (Vitamin C): Ascorbic acid. dull headaches. Dosages above 4000 mg/day can increase kidney stone formation in those already susceptible (though magnesium supplements may prevent this problem). With vitamin E. and vomiting can occur. Chromium picolinate is a scientifically developed form which appears to be more efficient than regular chromium. Sinequan). Women taking 2000 mg or more a day may experience fertility problems. LDH. salicylates. One study in 1996 showed that chromium picolinate caused chromosome damage in cells that had been grown in a laboratory. Chromium picolinate's reputation as a muscle-building nutrient may be overrated. Deficiency (which may be very widespread in the U. thalassemia (hereditary anemia). and it causes a loss of chromium through the urine. Deaner. sweet potatoes. which can lead to a toxic buildup after several doses. M. and pesticides). Doxepin (also known as Adapin. and work synergistically with C. as it enters the body tissues faster and remains there longer than regular vitamin C. Some contend that the U. Bioflavonoids. and tetracycline. Some recommend no more than 200 meg/day on the basis that no adequate research has been conducted on levels higher than that. It has often been taken in doses up to 10.S. in that it elevates mood. DMAE AKA: Acumen.. students with high vitamin C levels did better on IQ tests than those with lower levels. its effect possibly due to the fact that subjects may have been deficient in chromium to begin with. and Ester C) can stop these symptoms. birth control pills. and researchers have identified over 500 of them. Vitamin C should not be taken in large doses in conjunction with vitamins B-l and the amino acid Lcysteine. Precautions: Some people cannot convert chromium chloride or chromium from chelated supplements into the "biologically active" form. loose teeth. kidney stones. they may have reduced receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine. Smart drug expert Michael Hutchison even states that dosages of 10 to 20 grams are not unheard of! In fact. amphetamines. which aids in the making and proper utilization of insulin. as such a high dose of C will deplete this B vitamin. Chromium salts. Ester C.D. Dimethaen. blood glucose. and aids in restful sleep. gas. which use them for energy. Cevita. ascorbyl palmitate. The dosage is about 250 mg/day. and fruits and vegetables should be cut with a sharp knife immediately before consumption. There are two new forms of vitamin C. which include rutin and hesperidin. leading to anemia. Earl Mindell recommends 100 mg of bioflavonoids for every 500 mg of C. in which case chromium should only be taken under a doctor's supervision. Sunkist. hemorrhaging. or muscle tension (especially in the jaw. though some research indicates that human placentas and nursing mothers may have this ability. though many people may respond well to lower dosages. and adultonset diabetes. as there could be a negative interaction between them. individuals taking 2000 mg or more a day may lower the resistance of their white blood cells to fight one common form of bacteria. a slight deficiency which may have no readily identifiable symptoms and which may lead to health problems years down the line. Elevan. Dosage: The current RDA is 60 mg/day. magnesium ascorbate. tranquilizers such as phenotiazine. are part of the C complex of vitamins. but a growth factor needed by certain organisms.S. serious kidney disease or kidney failure. Effects: When combined with phosphatidyl choline and vitamin B-5. gastritis. Dr. copper pots. herring. More than eight aspirin a day for more than a week can cause the body to excrete more vitamin C. It also helps regenerate vitamin E after the latter has done its own job of eliminating free radicals. attributable. lengthens the life span of lab animals (in one study. It is believed that sufficient amounts keep the blood sugar on a consistent level. aspirin. magnesium ascorbate. AKA (Bioflavonoids): Flavonoids. shellfish. sulfonamides. and decreases the amount of sleep needed. corn oil. According to some studies. as they can render insulin ineffective. Vitamin C can give false readings for the following blood and urine lab tests: blood bilirubin. and CoEnzyme Q10. Cevi-Bid. potatoes. Dosage: Gradually increase the dosage until it is around 500 to 1000 mg/day. protects the body against the effects of pollutants (particularly the metals lead. There is one case of a false-positive reading for a test of porphyria in a man who took one-third of an ounce a day. Studies seem to indicate that 200 meg/day for women is a good dose. but does not prevent the occurrence of subclinical deficiency. The prescription drug Deaner (deanol) is chemically similar. Contrary to earlier beliefs. to prevent vitamin loss. mixing it fresh each time. in fact. Trimipramine (also known as Surmontil). Chromium supplements should not be taken at the same time as vanadium supplements. calcium ascorbate. so an effective dosage is much lower than for the other two supplements. Precautions: Supplements should not be taken by those with increased iron absorption (caused by such conditions as hemochromatosis).D. that it might take a dose of several thousand times the recommended dosage to produce adverse side effects. Works synergistically with choline. or gout. and lead to salicylate toxicity if such supplements are taken. to the low absorption rate (about 2 percent of intake). though often high. helps preserve the elasticity of the skin and capillaries. large doses of C does not destroy B-12 (if taken more than two hours apart) or contribute to the formation of kidney stones in those not already susceptible. Piracetam. is a fat-soluble form (vitamin C is basically water-soluble): it remains in the fat tissues until used by the body and is not wasted through excretion. clams. and the chromium content of brewer's yeast. vitamin P. population) can lead to diabetes mellitus (though this condition may result from a chromiumpoor diet that is deficient in other minerals. Re-doxon. though rare. improves intelligence. the neurotransmitter essential for short-term memory. helps the intestine absorb iron. plus the minerals calcium and magnesium. Cecon. helps wounds heal faster. smoking (each cigarette can destroy 25 to 100 mg). it encourages the production of other enzymes that utilize C and is water-soluble. thrombosis. as it can worsen the depressive phase. bran. a natural antihistamine. it produces acetylcholine. and legs). cheese. however. Man is the only animal that cannot synthesize vitamin C in the body (apes and guinea pigs have a similar problem in that their bodies cannot synthesize it fast enough). mushrooms. as bruising with a dull knife and letting cut food stand can destroy vitamin C. Amoxapine (also known as Asendin). antibiotics. neck. increase the iron absorption from iron supplements. As people get older. Bimanol. emotional disturbances. chicken. Too high a dosage (at least 500 mg/day in some cases) can cause anxiety. do not seem to be absorbed by the body very well and so are of little use as supplements. and providing energy throughout the day. ascorbyl palmitate. berries. protects against heart attacks. diabetes. Hydergine. Cemill. insomnia. Stuart Berger states that bioflavonoids. Chewable vitamin C can lead to severe dental erosion. too) and arteriosclerosis (though chromium's exact role in this is not yet clear). placing vegetarians at risk. There is some evidence it stabilizes the cell membranes of neurons. Food Sources: DMAE exists in tiny amounts in the brain and is found in such seafoods as anchovies. Ester C. Atrol. as yet. It can also slow down the metabolizing of aspirin by the body. which is enough to produce the desired effects. Cevalin. nausea. or an allergy to vitamin C. meat. so lower doses should be taken if any of these supplements are also being taken. varies among brands. protects against heart and blood diseases. one study recommends oral doses as low as 10 to 30 mg/day. The picolinate and polynicotinate forms (the latter sold under the brand name Chrome-Mate) also act as antioxidants. Moreover. folk acid deficiency (from such conditions as alcoholism). with the ideal balance of ten parts bioflavonoids to one part rutin and hesperidin. as this mineral is mainly found in eggs. is not a vitamin at all. leukemia. vitamin C by itself may reduce the effectiveness of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants. liver. Pertofrane). Cervoxan. In fact. cevitamin acid. Those taking 3000 mg or more a day may experience reduced levels of the amino acid cysteine in the blood (though this condition is not serious) and lowered resistance to high altitude conditions. Pabenol. No letdown or depression is experienced if use is discontinued. wheat germ. tomatoes. It should be stored in a cool. a waste product that may inhibit nerve cell functioning. including Amitriptyline (also known as Elavil. and urinary glucose. but not soaked. SCOT. high fever. Extra care should be taken when using the powdered form. citrus fruits. Endep. one would probably have to ingest several pounds a day to reach toxic levels. older people can tolerate higher doses. levodopa. vitamin C works preemptively. Effects: Works as an antioxidant (unlike antioxidants vitamin E. organic solvents. dimethylaminoethanol pace-tamidobenzoate. occult blood test for colon cancer. cooking. Effects: Chromium assists in the breakdown and distribution of proteins and carbohydrates in the body. Tonibral. Lowering the dosage or using a buffered form (such as sodium ascorbate. Food Sources: Bean sprouts. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be eaten within a few days. increased blood pressure. and water can all contribute to the loss or reduced effectiveness of this vitamin. this insulin. Difo-rene. increase the side effects from estrogens (if vitamin C taken is more than 1 g/day). excluding man. Stuart Berger recommends only 40 meg/day for those who exercise at least 5 times a week). undetermined. Paxanol. states that there is no solid evidence that bioflavonoids help the body utilize vitamin C better. and it has a mild. Rare symptoms include abdominal pain and anemia. ulceration of the nasal tissues and toxic levels can occur with long-time exposure in workers who deal with chromium in metal plating or making dyes. Those who experience stomach problems or heartburn from taking ascorbic acid may eliminate these problems by taking calcium ascorbate. which are an inorganic form of chromium. vitamin C. They give plants their color. The other. It may take up to three weeks before the effects are noticed. mercury. Imipramine (also known as Tofranil). perhaps. Drugs whose long-term use may increase the need for vitamin C include barbiturates. protects the lungs by preventing oxygen from converting into peroxides. baking soda. which disappear if dosage is reduced. however. in 3 or 4 divided doses. heat. or they may have altered feedback in their brain metabolism. CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM PICOLINATE Food Sources: Beef. Limbitrol. and diminishes the duration and severity of herpes blister outbreaks. lowers blood cholesterol. and may need to take a folic acid supplement. DMAE-H3. anticholinergics. poultry. Varesal. either because they have lower levels of acetyl-choline. the breakdown of neuronal membranes. so it is readily excreted by the body. liver. uric acid. as C will readily oxidise to the toxic form dehydroascorbate. dizziness. Sheldon Saul Hendler. one study shows that synthetic vitamin C is absorbed more fully than "natural" vitamin C from orange juice or vitamin C with rutin. as it can deteriorate . Etrafron. may be the end result of long-term deprivation of vitamin C. Ce-Vi-Sol. headaches. especially damage done to blood vessels from high cholesterol. and aluminum) and chemical toxins (such as formaldehyde. black pepper. A few more things should be kept in mind: cases of allergies to this mineral have been reported. Ascorbicap. RDA of 60 mg/day prevents these obvious symptoms. helps build collagen (the connective tissue in the body). Additionally. reduces anxiety.000 mg/day without serious consequences. diarrhea. or the so-called vitamin P. depression. Dosage: The RDA has not yet been established. Dimethylaminoethanol. With too high a dose. cellulose sodium phosphate. Vegetables should be washed. Desipramine (also known as Norpramin. It can cross the blood/ brain barrier more readily than choline or lecithin. and sardines. stress. There are no known serious side effects or contraindications.. A deficiency is known as scurvy which. Cetane. Pamelor). oxygen. light-headedness. and should be avoided by those who are allergic. intercepting the oxidants that initiate the free-radical cycle) is needed for the manufacture of neurotransmitters and cell structures. Chromium picolinate. cauliflower. whole-grain cereals. vitamin A deficiency. produces sounder sleep. light. boosts the immune system. sodium ascorbate. quinidine. the first sign of diarrhea (called the "bowel tolerance") is a sign that the body's optimal dosage of vitamin C has been surpassed. The only deficiency symptom of bioflavonoids that has been identified is bleeding gums. steady stimulant effect which is said to lead to no letdown or side effects. increases alertness and mental functioning. brewer's yeast. Alcohol. as some of the ginseng may be neutralized. phenacetin. takes carbohydrates from the blood and gets them to the brain cells. what this means for individuals taking the supplement is. may help safeguard against and reduce the symptoms of colds and flu. Some brands contain tartrazine dye.

fever. eta. Unfortunately. another antioxidant. wheat germ oil. as do those eating a lot of polyunsaturated vegetable oils. or 2-MEA. High levels of alpha-tocopherol can suppress levels of gamma-tocopherol in the blood. another carcinogen. citrate. Recent evidence indicates that the pill form may be harmful. barbiturates. apricots. Pinus pinaster. beta. Synthetics are only 50 to 70 percent as effective as naturals. doses of 400 to 800 ID/day can reduce heart attacks by 77 percent in those already suffering from heart disease. so those with high blood pressure or heart disease should not take more than 200 IU without consulting a physician first. vitamin Be. it is impossible to maintain adequate levels. it is one of the polyphenol extracts known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). soybean oils (cold-pressed and unrefined only). anticancer drugs (e. Common side effects include breast enlargement. FRENCH MARITIME PINE BARK EXTRACT AKA: Pine bark extract. both in their natural forms. Supplements should not be taken by anyone with hormone-related cancer. trimethoprim. vitamin B-9. and deplete the body of vitamin A if vitamin E is taken in excessive amounts (and yet. a component of air pollution. and vomiting. and breast enlargement (in men as well as women) are unsupported by hard evidence. some. The extract can also cross the blood/brain barrier and protect brain cells from harmful compounds in the body. food processing. though these are rare. It can even halt. A dose of 400 lU/day. kale. Dosage: Supplements are generally in the 100 to 800 meg/day range. vitamin U. lettuce. especially cooking with copper pots. beans. rare side effects include rash. malaise. Those engaged in regular strenuous exercise have a greater need for this vitamin than most people. sunlight. To increase potency. tobacco. dl-alphatocopherol. Claims that it is a causative factor in phlebitis. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic to any of the B vitamins. insomnia. GERMANIUM AKA: GE-132. Marguerite Kay had published erroneous research papers on aging. or fumarate has no known adverse effect). along with sufficient amounts of the other B vitamins (the addition of 1500 mg of inositol. Effects: Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant. as most only contain alpha-tocopherol. researchers are evenly divided on whether vitamin E is harmful or not. milk. as it is excreted by the body rather quickly. Effects: One of the most potent antioxidants available (it is 50 times more powerful than vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than vitamin C). and sufficient amounts of protein may restore hair growth). others 800 to 1200 lU/day. it has been shown to prevent liver damage and liver cancer caused by DHEA. recommends 50-100 mg/ day. Studies have also shown that it can protect against stroke. and sterility. Preliminary studies have shown that supplementation of B-12 and folic acid may prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's. in dosages above 1000 micrograms/day. coffee. Folic acid in the body can be destroyed or inhibited by alcohol. nausea. cooking in copper pots. molasses. Pinus maritima. antibacterial drugs. Olestra. Vitamin E can increase the effect of oral anticoagulants. inorganic iron (ferrous sulfate. When high dosages are combined with high dosages of BHA. antituberculosis drugs. liver. diabetic retinopathy.000 mg/day over a six month period. and sometimes reverse. interact with antipsychotic medication. Deficiency symptoms include gastrointestinal problems. birth control pills. Combined with vitamin B-12 and methionine. Ph. irritability. enhances the ability of brain cells to use oxygen. carrots. and bronchospasm. egg yolk. hives. the manufacture of DNA coding in the cells. or if a person is taking coumarin-type drugs or drugs with anticlotting properties. d-alpha-tocopheryl acid succinate. enlarged prostate. If taking a multivitamin supplement with iron. the University of Arizona found that microbiologist Dr. with daily doses not to exceed 1600 lU/day. Only the "d" forms are produced in nature. helps prevent heart disease. adequate amounts of inositol and choline should also be present in the diet. neomycin. Epsilan-M. Folk acid can interact with the anti-convulsant drugs (such as sodium phenytoin) used to treat epilepsy. In 1998. an end product of muscle metabolism. strengthens and repairs connective tissue. Though vitamin E is fat-soluble. but these are extremely rare. Dosage: Some suggest 100 to 1000 lU/day. certain rare medical conditions are present. Those with thrombophlebitis (blood clots in the leg veins) or liver disease should consult a physician first. can help protect against lung. E can increase the benefits and decrease the side effects of A). Dosages above 1000 micrograms/day range may block the absorption of vitamin B-12. Food Sources: Almonds. some recommend switching back and forth between these mixed tocopherols and D-alpha-tocopherol. avocados. itching. it can extend the effectiveness of vitamin C over a longer period of time and can effectively protect against the hydroxyl free radical. One study indicates that. mineral oil. irritability. fresh wheat germ. or five times the minimum daily recommended intake for men. smaller amounts are found in asparagus. It may also increase athletic performance because of its antioxidant properties. which plays a role in heart disease. Only gamma-tocopherol can eliminate peroxynitrite. occasional diarrhea and constipation. colorectal. Individuals using mineral oil on a frequent basis may need more vitamin E. rancid fat and oil. blocks the formation of nitrosamine. Vitamin E can be destroyed or rendered ineffective by birth control pills. peas. pernicious anemia. while the synthetic products are a mixture of both "d" and "1" forms. Permanent nerve damage may result. Cases of allergies to this vitamin are extremely rare. each of which is absorbed differently in the body and stays in the body for varying amounts of time. epsilon. it acts more like a water-soluble vitamin. prevents lung damage from nitrogen oxides. each a mirror image of the other. internal bleeding or ecchymoses (discoloration of the skin due to blood leaching into body tissues) if there is a deficiency of vitamin K. cholestyramine. therefore d-alpha-tocopherol would be a natural vitamin whereas d-alpha-tocopherol would be synthetic. impaired concentration. Eprolin. as it will interfere with the effectiveness of the drug. however. higher doses have not led to greater protection. and it may slow the aging process by protecting the skin and brain cells (which have high percentages of fat compared to the rest of the body's cells) from free radicals (as people age. broccoli. Overdose symptoms consist of fatigue. gas and abdominal discomfort. seeds. It also strengthens the immune system. Vitamin E supplementation should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. methotrexate). VITAMIN E AKA: Aquasol E. cerebral hemorrhage. such as ferrous gluconate. organic iron. Those with chronic liver disease may be candidates for a folic acid deficiency. vitamin E may cause blood clots if taken in doses above 800 lU/day. Current research is attempting to determine whether it has any effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Germanium sesquioxide. doses in the 800 lU/day range may cause weakness and fatigue — symptoms which disappear a day or so after supplementation is stopped — and damage to the skeletal muscles. and some forms of cancer. flour (whole wheat and dark rye). in recommended doses. zeta. though it is still not known whether it can protect healthy people from getting the disease. Chew-E. Its anticoagulant effect is five times greater than that of aspirin. upset stomach. impotency. and has antiinflammatory properties that protect against such ailments as arthritis and allergic reactions. are found in nature (alpha. and may restore hair to its original color when 5 mg of folic acid are combined with 300 mg each of pantothenic acid and PABA. A common side effect is yellow urine. and may do an incomplete job of neutralizing some harmful compounds. say a healthy diet can offset this deficiency. While most synthetic vitamins are just as effective as the natural forms. it can manufacture choline in the body. and sex glands. forgetfulness. nightmares. Dosage: Antioxidant expert Laster Packer. estrogen. and water. even from a healthy diet. In one preliminary study dosages above 400 micrograms/day blocked the absorption of zinc in the body. Allergies can also occur when vitamin E is used in skin preparations. whole grains. increases the ability of cells to make energy. freezing. mushrooms. nausea. cabbage and other dark leafy vegetables. vitamin O. In the past few decades in the U. chapped lips. gamma. and sweet potatoes. sore tongue and throat. it may slow the progress of Alzheimer's to a moderate degree. dilate the blood vessels. dizziness. Deficiency symptoms include bleeding gums. Works synergistically with the steroid DHEA. salmon. fresh fruits. cortisone. It also aids the immune system. paraaminosalicylic acid (PAS). and remove nitrogen oxide. as it could cause excessive bleeding. which also include grape seed extract. chlorine (including chlorinated drinking water. and spinach). brussel sprouts. miscarriages. graying hair. According to John Mann. especially damage done to blood vessels from high cholesterol. Eight different forms of vitamin E molecules. soybeans. and the symptoms may include anorexia. chloramphenicol. Folic acid is considered one of the B vitamins. A chronic deficiency may lead to a condition called megaloblastic folic-acid-deficiency anemia. was found in subjects' urine. A deficiency of both B-6 and folic acid is correlated with a high level of the amino acid homocysteine. it may shorten the life span. decrease the effect of iron supplements in those with iron-deficiency anemia. heat. green leafy vegetables (such as collard greens. the dtocopherol (right-handed) form and 1tocopherol (left-handed) form. peptonate. Effects: Needed for synthesis of RNA and other molecules in the brain. delta. but hard evidence is still lacking. synthetic and natural are equally as effective in preventing heart disease and inhibiting the oxidation of LDL cholesterol.. however.S. sulfasalazine. It may also cause abdominal pain. Pycnogenol. Precautions: No adverse side effects have been found in doses as high as 35. estrogen. and infertility. abdominal bloating.to eight-hour span between taking the supplement and vitamin E. . Vitamin E exists in two forms.D. Precautions: No known toxicity up to 3200 IU. diarrhea. It also works synergistically with French maritime pine bark extract. cantaloupe. It is reported to extend the life of red blood cells. brewer's yeast. When given in doses of 2000 lU/day. muscle aches. A dosage of as little as 50 lU/day. thyroid. such as Warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin. blood pressure pills such as Dyazide (triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide). Still. heat. Paradoxically. and can counteract the effects of a fatty meal. and it can relieve the symptoms of psoriasis and swelling of the lower legs. FOLIC ACID AKA: Folacin. Vitamin E prolongs the clotting of blood. pyrimethamine. In lab rats. aspirin. d-alpha-tocopherol. anticonvulsant drugs. As yet. vitamin M. Viterra E. PCAGeS. their ability to absorb E decreases). nuts and oils of nuts. Regular supplementation has also been proven to protect against exercise-induced DNA damage that may lead to cancer. BHT. there seems to be a direct correlation between the decline in the amount of vitamin E in the diet and the rise in heart attacks.. sulfa drugs. Too high a dosage can mask symptoms of pernicious anemia. colestipol. lack of development of red blood cells. fatigue. though zinc levels remained within the normal range. which can lead to problems such as bleeding-type strokes. and theta). which can directly damage DNA. and thin the blood. and oxygen. which is common in most communities). Evidence indicates that it may suppress the immune system when taken in doses of 100 IU or more. weakness. there is no evidence that each of these forms serves a specific purpose. and — especially —prostate cancers. Recent evidence indicates that an optimum level of 200 lU/day can protect the elderly from heart disease and dementia.g. food processing. peanuts. Those taking methotrexate as part of a chemotherapy treatment are advised not to take folic acid supplements. it may increase life span when combined with the sulfhydryl drug 4-thiazolidine carboxylic acid. a food additive and suspected carcinogen. though it should not be taken by those who are allergic to vitamin E. It is recommended that those who are elderly or who have digestive problems take the dry or succinate form. A complex of some 40 antioxidant flavonoids and organic acids working together synergistically. dl-alpha-tocopheryl. Pheryl-E. a very destructive nitric oxide radical found at sites of inflammation which can lead to cancer and heart disease. and helps maintain brain's protein metabolism. in some people. or vitamers. is reportedly enough to protect against heart disease (the RDA is only 30 lU/day). pumpkins. It can also inhibit the effectiveness of sulfonamides like Gantrisin. and those with liver disease and pernicious anemia should consult a physician first. Beyond this. make sure there is at least a six. nerve damage caused by such neurological disorders as cystic fibrosis and chronic liver disease. it is recommended that 25 micrograms of selenium be taken with each 200 IU of vitamin E. Vitamin E breaks down sodium nitrate. Dosages above 600 lU/day should not be taken by those with high blood triglyceride levels or a thyroid condition. According to one study. It has been used by NASA astronauts to fight the breakdown of red blood cells from radiation.rapidly. and raises the levels of HDLs. dry dull hair. Lab animals given extremely high doses have experienced adverse effects on their adrenal. gas. weight loss. It also helps the body utilize vitamin A better. strengthens the capillaries. the "good" cholesterol. It can also be destroyed by cooking. and blurred vision. folate. and may.. analgesics. nausea. Controversy has arisen over the efficacy of natural versus synthetic forms of vitamin E. iron supplements (in healthy individuals). helps preserve the lung function of elderly people. heart disease. The findings are supported by the fact that excessive amounts of creatinine. as well as boost the immune system. stress. stress-related ulcers. including one study that concluded that vitamin E had some positive effects on aging. It can elevate blood pressure when first taken. Even so. PCAGeO. especially when taken in conjunction with selenium. such is not the case with E. vitamin C (in dosages above 2000 mg/day). Food Sources: Eggs. 50 to 100 mg of B-6. breast tumors. and headaches. Works synergistically with vitamin E.

Evidence also indicates it may reduce lung damage from asbestos. chlorella. a food enzyme. prevent eczema. not to exceed 10 mg/day. Even a mild deficiency can lead to abnormal heart rhythms. impotence. yellow in color. M. chronic fatigue syndrome.D. tea. and whole-grain flour. and PCAGeS are organic forms which have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in mice. grape seed extract (Activin and Resivit). pork. and usually occurs in individuals with kidney failure. De-Gel. softened stools. peanuts. radishes. herring. the toxic effects of the heart drug digitalis. shellfish. Effects: Inositol acts as a cell membrane stabilizer. nervousness. plays a role in the manufacture of DNA and RNA coding in cells. It may be a more potent cancer-fighter when taken by itself than when taken as part of a high-fiber diet. foods rich in oxalic acid (almonds. and sometimes fatal convulsions. depression. impaired blood clotting. compared to 80 to 85 percent in the latter. or salt-free foods contain less myoinositol than fresh foods. and Phillips' milk of magnesia. relieve the symptoms of varicose veins. wheat germ.. Effects: Germanium stimulates the immune system. A deficiency. The OPCs are polyphenol extracts derived from plant sources. diuretics. it may prevent some of the side effects of vitamin A and D overdoses. Food Sources: Almonds. The magnesium stored in the body can be depleted by the synthetic vitamin D in milk. and tuna can have high levels. but levels can vary widely. Dosage: Inositol has so far been found to be nontoxic in doses as high as 50 grams. and kidney failure. InsP6. magnesium and calcium intake should be a 1:1 to 1:2 ratio). Effects: Like French maritime pine bark extract. and is one component of insoluble fiber. M. though more research is needed to determine its exact role in this disease.. aids in the metabolism of calcium and vitamin C. a new process (called the phytosome process) also binds grape seed extract OPCs to lecithin. recommends 1 to 2 grams of IP6 plus inositol.. kidney stones and gallstones. GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AKA: Activin. apricots. tooth decay. brewer's yeast. Dosage: Optimal dosage appears to be 100 to 200 mg/day for the average healthy individual. heart disease. but OPCs are 100 percent bioavailable. A sugar-like molecule that exists in large amounts in the brain. ginseng. Effects: The OPCs are antioxidants. Improves brain functioning by oxygenating the brain. a B vitamin. though miners in northern Chile exposed to manganese dust have commonly developed a disorder known as "locura manganica. filberts. mushrooms. Myoinositol is the nutritionally active form. organ meats. barley. can cause confusion. AKA (IP6): Inositol hexaphosphate. Parkinson's disease. they share a similar chemical structure. It also fights cancer. and maintain skin health.D. reduce heart attacks. muscles. poultry. and lower cholesterol. It has been shown to provide some benefit in improving sensory nerve function in those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. phytate. impulsiveness. fatigue." the fact that the French consume just as much dietary fat and cholesterol as Americans. for the most part. or relieves anxiety are. diary products. phytic acid. it is one of the polyphenol extracts known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). peaches. even in doses of 10 g/day taken for several months. magnesium lactate. vomiting. Balch. but signs of severe deficiency include loss of coordination. suma. and may be an antioxidant. Most people may not get enough.D. MANGANESE AKA: Manganese gluconate. sardines. oral contraceptives. improve the strength and elasticity of blood vessels. The average American diet for adults provides approximately 1 g/day of myoinositol. a rapid pulse. Consuming large amounts of caffeine (coffee. heightened libido.Food Sources: Aloe. coffee. and should be in the proper proportions of one part magnesium to nine parts vitamin C. seeds. Precautions: Frozen. and slowed speech. shiitake mushrooms. antacids. whereas biofiavonoids are. Grape seed extracts are superior to pine bark extracts. corn.N. the most effective form for scavenging free radicals. Maalox. as it is the nutritionally active form. chick peas. Dosage: 15 to 25 mg/day. and athletes should be especially aware of their intake. and cooking. and is 50 times more powerful than vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than vitamin C in its antioxidant properties. prevent edema and inflammation. PCOs. itself. does not recommend supplementation until more research is done. barley. garlic. blackstrap molasses. proanthocyanidins. They have often been mistakenly referred to as bioflavonoids. fruits. calcium buildup in neurons (a common condition found in those with Alzheimer's). myoinositol hexakisphosphate. Chronic deficiency can result in various cardiovascular problems. enhances the immune system. lentils.. beans. memory impairment. not biologically active. is a phospholipid molecule that is a small component of cell membranes. No adverse effects have been reported in those taking supplementation of myoinositol or phosphatidylinositol. in turn. the most popular being French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). colorless. and malabsorption disorders such as Crohn's disease. eye and ear problems. making it preferable to the unbound form. until recently. Brazil nuts. croplands. keep cholesterol low. often resulting in diarrhea. relieve the discomfort of PMS and menopause. They can also lower LDL cholesterol levels. and protects against cancers. Claims that myoinositol lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. calcium. Some over-the-counter products are hidden sources of magnesium. and viruses. Magnesium absorption can be decreased by a diet high in fats and proteins. sunflower seeds. grape seed extracts also contain the gallic esters of OPCs. wheat beans. . onions. whole grains. a beneficial intake of 100 to 300 mg/day can be obtained through dietary means.D. and stress. nontoxic. protects against cardiovascular disease. including Bayer Plus. Without exception. figs. convulsions. eggs. irritability. and Landes pine bark (Flavan). the daily intake of the average American is about one-half to one-third of what it was nearly a century ago. broccoli. M. comfrey. and whole grains.S. SELENIUM AKA: L-selenomethione. Sheldon Saul Hendler. green vegetables. unproven. can be treated by levodopa. milk. a lowering of serum cholesterol. brown rice. seafood. tumors are deficient in superoxide dismutase. Ph. garlic. followed by a depressive stage of extreme drowsiness. bananas. Phytic acid (IP6) is an antioxidant. phytates in vegetables. and keep hair healthy. oatmeal. while pine bark extract does not. brown rice. as yet. a reduction in the growth of hair and nails. and oxalic acid in spinach. Abul Kalam M. and contributes to the formation and growth of cell membranes. antibiotics. activates some enzymes and other minerals. high blood pressure. and toxicity involving magnesium generally occurs in the 9000 mg range. The first sign is a manic stage characterized by inexplicable laughter. phosphatidylinositol. though some recommend 2 to 5 mg/day. Deficiency symptoms are vague and illdefined. canteloupe. nerves. Effects: Manganese is involved in the formation of bones and the growth of connective tissue. cabbage. headaches. and hallucinations. and Phyllis A Balch. heart medications such as digitalis and digoxin. It is one of the most powerful of the antioxidant minerals. cerebral sclerosis. organ meats (such as liver and kidneys). candidiasis. Precautions: Only the organic form (sesquioxide) of germanium has the beneficial effects. poor memory. depression. phosphate. nuts. tremors. osteoporosis. allowing them to be better absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and more fully utilized by the body. and scaly dermatitis. tea). It also helps redistribute body fat.. however. mainly due to their intake of red wine. as the former contains 92 to 95 percent OPCs. confusion. canned. though these last two effects may result from its effects on phosphatidylinositol levels in brain cells. milling (in grains). magnesiumcontaining laxatives. and the heart. Bufferin. though the former is the one that should be taken. It works synergistically with green tea to reduce colon cancer. whole-grain breads and cereals. Food Sources: Brazil nuts. Epsom salts. bran. muscle contractions. tannins in tea. apples. prevent kidney stones. insomnia (when combined with calcium). which is virtually unheard of. to break it down before it can be released. magnesium citrate. yet do not suffer the same rate of cardiovascular disease. Ph. GE-132. reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. It protects against anxiety. shellfish. alcohol. Shamsuddin. iron. was unjustifiably considered a deadly poison. though it is not. as exercise depletes the body of this nutrient. phytic acid. selenium ascorbate. The third and final stage is distinguished by symptoms much like those of Parkinson's disease and. selenomethionine. Magnesium ascorbate is a combination of the mineral with vitamin C. procyanidolic oligomers. nuts (almost all kinds). soft drinks) can deplete the amount of inositol in the body. selenocystine. Premarin. delusions. Dosage: It appears to have low toxicity.. Food Sources (Inositol): Beans (almost all kinds). It may also cure arthritis. Overdose is rare. sunflower seeds. anticancer drugs. diabetes. mainly because it is not bound up in protein. protect against age-related and degenerative diseases by increasing collagen's ability to repair itself. processing. Magnesium in foods can be depleted by poor soil conditions. avocados. C. nausea. kidney disease. A trace element that. Dosage: A maximum intake of 500 to 750 mg/day. and has been used in the treatment of AIDS." or manganese madness. tea. grapefruit. According to James F. Mylanta. magnesium orotate. fiber (including bran). Rare side effects include skin eruptions. migraines. Magnesium orotate may help control lipofuscin deposits. nuts. Magnesium can be toxic in high dosages if calcium and phosphorus intakes are also high. and — in women — the tension of PMS and postmenopausal bone loss. anticonvulsants. manganese sulfate. loss of appetite. Magnesium salts have a laxative effect in healthy individuals in doses of 3000 to 5000 milligrams/day. dried peas. PCAGeO. high blood pressure. sodium selenite. MAGNESIUM AKA: Magnesium ascorbate. diarrhea. No definite deficiency symptoms have been identified in humans. INOSITOL AND IP6 AKA (Inositol): Myoinositol. and can bind with proteins. Because of its depletion in soil on U. lemons. promotes sleep. In combination with vitamins C and E and choline. celery. allowing phytase. sodium selenate. cantaloupes. and unable to bind with proteins. Much more research needs to be done. prevent some of the damage caused by sickle-cell anemia. peas. procyanidins. and much more research needs to be done to determine its effects on human metabolism. onions. dairy products. They are one of the keys to understanding the "French paradox. magnesium oxide. rice. oats. but no studies on humans have yet been done. and eye diseases. Barley.C. hard water. aids in cell division and the production of DNA and RNA. soy products. most citrus fruits (lemons are one exception). and up to 3 g/ day have been taken for short periods of time with no apparent ill effects. which contains manganese. soybeans. helps utilize vitamins Bl and E. maintain cardiovascular health. green leafy vegetables. cucumbers. reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. magnesium gluconate. spinach. Its plant form is known as phytic acid or IP6 (inositol plus six phosphate groups of PO4). and it can interfere with calcium absorption if too much or too little is taken (ideally. inositol is considered part of the B vitamin complex. brown rice. protects cells (particularly blood cells) from excess iron by chelating the iron atoms. Manganese is a little-understood mineral. Precautions: Those with severely impaired kidney function or some types of heart rhythm abnormalities should consult a physician before taking supplements. and a component of phosphatidylinositol which. tumors. and wheat germ may have high levels if grown in soil that is high in selenium. tomatoes. In addition. cocoa. Resivit. Effects: Magnesium provides energy. veal. Food Sources (IP6): In descending order: Corn. plays a key role in the chemical reactions of some 325 essential enzymes. sometimes toxic. sesame. acts as a free radical blocker. Food Sources: Avocados. Those who have taken it to relieve insomnia or anxiety have generally taken 1 to 2 g/day of myoinositol.D. calf's liver. Precautions: Overdose through diet is extremely unlikely. insomnia. The absorption of manganese may be decreased by high dietary levels of magnesium. OPCs AKA: Oligomeric proanthocyanidins. reduce the probability of developing diabetic retinopathy. like Parkinson's.

Zinc 220. There are no studies comparing the two. Food Sources: Beef. . pancreas. skin-color changes. even in those who are not deficient. There is one case where the anticancer drugs mercaptopurine (Purinethol) and methotrexate caused a deficiency. The dosage normally used for treating acne. lamb. in particular. or cortisone medications. it is a component of 90 essential enzymes. Zinc gluconate is said to help speed recovery from the common cold. zinc acetate. and sweat. Zinkaps-220. Some studies have found no harmful effects in people whose daily intake averages 1500 micrograms/day. Emodinamin. nonfat dry milk. a restoration of loss of taste. Angiomanin. is relatively nontoxic. Vasoprin. most of the supplements sold to the public are zinc gluconate. It strengthens the immune system — some say that when selenium and vitamin E are taken together. fish (particularly herring). wheat germ. some feel that zinc deficiency is very common in the U. claim that an inorganic form. and phosphorus for zinc to work with maximum efficiency. Medical conditions associated with insufficient zinc in the body include chronic infections or inflammatory diseases. Pearson and Shaw. kidney disease. which may help protect against lead poisoning from the environment. and methyprednisolone (Depo-Medrol. prednisolone (Deltasone). though these higher doses should be taken only while under the guidance of a physician. soybeans. brittle or blackened nails. Sadamin. indicating most people do not get enough." Another risk group may be office workers who are at a copy machine all day. R. keeping them more elastic. anorexia. and death. zinc sulfate. which is 14 percent zinc by weight and is not widely researched. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate are both well tolerated by the body. bladder. especially sexually active men. liver. Cafardil. Selenium has a synergistic effect when taken with vitamin E. strict vegetarians. A zinc deficiency can make a vitamin A deficiency worse (conversely. Sumycin). acute poisoning is evidenced by fever. the body's antibody defenses experience a thirty-fold increase. canned foods. a phosphorus compound that prevents the body from absorbing the zinc in the food. peroxidized fats. organ meats. as both are strong antioxidants. when given in doses around 220 micrograms/day. Metal-binding drugs such as penicillamine (Cuprimine) can cause zinc to bind with copper. Studies have shown that. It has been used to treat psoriasis (when used in combination with sulfur). or taking vitamin B-6 supplements. in both. Men. mental dullness. Dosage: 300 to 600 mg/day in three divided doses with meals. There appear to be no contraindications with any drugs or any other vitamins. zinc gluconate. Nutritionist Nicola Reavley sets the toxic dosage at 600 to 750 meg/day. suggests 400 to 1000 meg/day is equivalent to the anticancer doses given to animals. but appears to have no effect on skin cancer. or vomiting. which is 22 percent zinc by weight. fiber. Zinc acetate causes fewer gastrointestinal problems than the other forms. and heavy exercisers need higher than normal levels of zinc. though some say organic selenium is three times less toxic than inorganic selenium. jaundice. When combined with zinc. garlic breath. difficulty in concentration. however. because zinc is concentrated in the bran (largely absent from white bread). these generally disappear with continued use or when use is discontinued. Hygroton. shortness of breath. and Xavin. Precautions: The FDA's recommended intake is 50 to 200 micrograms/day. ground mustard. Dosage: No RDA has been established. M. may cause an excessive amount of zinc to be excreted and may retard wound healing. bran (wheat and rice). and also helps the blood resist bacterial infections. while selenomethionine and selenocystine — two organic forms — are potentially harmful. there is a greater need for zinc. Too much zinc. it improves moods and thinking. More readily available zinc is found in meats than from other sources. Some say that a combination of zinc and manganese supplements help guard against senility. Orazinc. at 200 meg/day. turkey. eggs. is very near the toxic level for some individuals. brussel sprouts. clams. Zinc supplements can also irritate the stomach lining and perforate ulcers. acne (when used in combination with vitamin A). but taking frequent small doses throughout the day with meals may prevent some of these. muscle cramps. SULFUR Food Sources: Dried beans and peas. Niconicol. protection against prostate problems. stomach. but since sulfur is an important component of many amino acids. as these machines use selenium plates. nausea. however. Stuart Berger sets the upper limit at 300 meg/day and Earl Mindell. discoloration of skin. Birth control pills increase the amount of zinc in the red blood cells but. PMS Egozinc. A mineral important to many of the brain's enzyme systems. there appears to be no link between high selenium levels and amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS. but the latter is less susceptible to side effects. Angiomin. sunflower seeds. whereas cadmium is concentrated in the white part of the grain. and improves shortterm memory. and boosts the immune system. cadmium. Dacilin. which occur with an overdose. and progressive paralysis. Selenium in its natural state is poisonous. If high doses of vitamin B-6 are taken.. ovary. lean beef. zinc ascorbate. Vedrin. and suggests supplementation of 50 to 200 meg/ day. ZINC AKA: Chelated zinc. There have been documented cases of cystic fibrosis patients who have become gravely ill or died after taking supplemental doses that would have been well within the safe range for the average person. slow healing of wounds. blackstrap molasses. which release this mineral into the air. seafood and shellfish. There are significant amounts of zinc in the brain. though this occupational poisoning has been characterized as "mostly accidental and rare. dilates blood vessels. Whole grains and breads that have been prepared without yeast have a high level of phytic acid. onions. heartburn. psoriasis. Complamex. though it may help eradicate moles and brown spots. decline in the number of red and white blood cells. esophagus. Precautions: People with ulcers. rapid breathing. maybe exposed to toxic levels. helps in the manufacture of DNA and RNA. yet is not widely available. Clofamin. nausea. wheat germ. this is especially true if extra bran has been added (though phytic acid is now believed to prevent colon cancer). skin. can take the place of zinc where both are present. Other studies have correlated high levels of selenium with a low incidence of leukemia and cancers of the rectum. cadmium. Sulfur works synergistically with the B vitamins to maintain basic body metabolism and strong nerves.Ph. synthesize proteins. possibly leading to heart disease. urine. The best supplements to take are those composed of chelated zinc. inflammation of the spinal cord and bone marrow. Decreased absorption of zinc can be caused by tetracycline (Achromycin V.. Dosages above 80 mg/day can cause levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) in the blood to fall. Complamin. skin rash. Regreton) and thiazide diuretics may also increase the excretion of zinc. upset stomach. diarrhea. and can cause symptoms when approximately 2400 to 3000 micrograms/day is taken over a long period of time. betamethasone (Celestone). healthy hair. Corticosteroids. phytic acid (phytates). and form insulin. drowsiness.S. skin flushing or a sense of warmth. desoxycortisone (Percoten). sore throat. soft drinks. have a greater need for it than women. rheumatoid arthritis. Some have reported mouth irritation and taste distortions when dissolving lozenges (those made for swallowing) in the mouth for 10 to 20 minutes. most multiple vitamin supplements contain the inorganic form. Dr. zinc pyrithione. and prostate cancer. especially for alcoholics or diabetics. and mercury). Organic selenium (made from highselenium yeast) has a higher nutritional value and is more readily absorbed by the body than inorganic selenium salts (sodium selenite). can interfere with the body's absorption of copper.. it may improve mental performance. calcium.D. Verazinc. metal and refinery workers. as do persons eating high-fiber diets. Any stomach discomfort can usually be avoided by taking zinc after meals or with milk. cabbage. EDTA (a food additive found in beer. fish.D. bad teeth. nausea. pork. fever. Jupal. The zinc content of vegetables is dependent on the soil in which they are grown. Individuals taking zinc should take adequate amounts of vitamin A. A form of niacin that passes through cell membranes more readily than niacin.. and yellow eyes and skin. including superoxide dismutase. Overdose symptoms include a metallic taste in the mouth. poultry. There may be minor reactions such as blurred vision. dizziness. egg yolk. essential for the growth and development of the reproductive organs. cadmium. depression. and strong nails. When combined with selenium. low sperm count and. iron supplements.Effects: Selenium detoxifies heavy metals (such as arsenic. There are no known deficiency symptoms. lead. and some may experience the overdose symptoms mentioned above. Zincate. however. as long-term effects are not known. a toxic mineral which can be found in food as a result of pollution. Those involved in smelting operations can suffer from zinc poisoning by inhaling the fumes. Diuretics like chlorthalidone (Combipres. Necessary for good complexion. heart palpitations.D. Egozinc. Zinc pyrithione is used for shampoos and hair conditioners and is not intended for oral use.. Depo-Predate). Also. diarrhea. loss of hair. a high level of copper can collect in the blood and sap the brain's supply of zinc). the consequences of this have not yet been determined. dizziness. SK 331 A. which can lead to a deficiency in the long run. Effects: Zinc is important in protecting cell membranes against free radical damage. Effects: Xanthinol nicotinate increases ATP production. The risk of toxicity is low because selenium is quickly excreted by the body. garlic. Ph. helps the body get rid of carbon dioxide. This is a problem with white bread. Most of the medical research has been done with zinc sulfate. in severe cases. reportedly slows down some of the aging processes. as selenium is used in the processing of some metals. vomiting. which can even occur from eating too much high-zinc foods or from foods which have been stored in galvanized containers. even after several months of high dosages. XANTHINOL NICOTINATE AKA: Androgeron. Dosage: The RDA is 70 meg/day for men and 55 meg/day for women. and inhibits the oxidation that leads to hardening of the tissues. pumpkin seeds. chills. cardiovascular problems. those eating sufficient protein are most likely getting adequate amounts of sulfur. skin inflammation. and foods high in vegetable oils). indigestion. Despite early reports. an early symptom of overdose is a garlicky scent in the breath. itchy skin. and irregular menses. headaches. Circulan. Dosage: Doses higher than 15 to 30 mg/day are not recommended. zinc chloride. pancreatic disease. alcohol. Mysteclin F. Alcoholics. and lower cholesterol deposits. Xanidil. and most adverse effects disappear within a few weeks. sodium selenite. diabetics. consist of chest pain. There is no consensus on the optimal dose —some say 100 to 300 meg/day. heartburn. Rare side effects. Precautions: It is not known whether any overdose symptoms are associated with organic sulfur. gastrointestinal problems. breast. legumes. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone with an upper respiratory infection. Additional reported benefits include faster healing of wounds. On the other hand. living in hot climates (heavy sweating depletes the body's supply to a significant extent). as the body may mistake these amino acids for sulfur-containing amino acids and make them perform functions they are incapable of carrying out. stress. whole-grain flour. otherwise known as Lou Gehrig's disease). prednisone. it can improve mental performance. oysters. bran. or a sudden drop in blood pressure when going from a sitting to a standing position. fatigue and lethargy. Landrina. hair loss. side effects occur in many individuals in the 100 to 200 mg/day range. The only known deficiency symptom is a heart condition known as Keshan's disease. aids in the smooth contraction of muscles. peanuts. metabolize carbohydrates. liver. Zinc can be destroyed or inhibited by alcohol. and gastrointestinal tract. and thalassemia. Effects: Helps provide the brain with sufficient oxygen. almost nothing is known about chelated zinc. One study found that 200 micrograms/ day can protect against lung. Other drugs that inhibit or deplete zinc include penicillamine and the antibiotics chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) and oxytetracycline (Terramycin). but inorganic sulfur may pose problems. or liver problems (xanthinol nicotinate can cause liver dysfunction) should avoid taking it. atrophy of the sex glands. folic acid supplements. zinc supplements may increase the need for vitamin A). impotence. scaly skin. phosphorus-containing additives used in foods. and tobacco. These medications include dexamethasone (Decadron). lowered resistance to infections. and some drugs. Ph. as yet. It also helps the body absorb vitamins (especially the B vitamins). sicklecell anemia. extreme fatigue or weakness. though Sheldon Saul Hendler. 135 mg/day. irritability. It may cause postural hypotension. fatigue. and is often characterized by hypogeusia (a loss of taste and smell). though vitamin C may decrease the absorption of inorganic selenium if taken at the same time. nuts. as this mineral is lost through semen. Likewise. ulcers in the throat or mouth. while others claim good results with doses of up to 3000 meg/day. colon. Permanent side effects are rare. Dosages above the 50 to 150 mg/day range can cause severe anemia due to iron and copper deficiency (Conversely.

Unlike serotonin. it does so much more readily than L-tyrosine. possibly because it contains sulfur. where serotonin levels are too high. found in semen. and also works synergistically with vitamin E and selenium. the pill distributes it. though sufficient amounts of lysine may help counteract this. upset stomach. brown rice. CYSTINE Effects: Cystine removes heavy metals from the body and is used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema. and alertness — and L-tryptophan. seizures. scleroderma. and liver against the harmful effects of alcohol. Chances are that if the label says only "amino acids. beta-carotene. 5-HTP AKA: 5-hydroxy tryptophan. Effects: The body converts it to spermine. which the brain uses to manufacture the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine —both of which have a stimulating effect. neurotransmitters are important factors in brain chemistry. On the other hand. poultry. or pregnancy. Amino acids can be in either the "L" or "D" form. ARGININE AKA: L-arginine. when buying powdered amino acid supplements. any one of the nonessential amino acids. shock. illness (fever). gas. Effects: Cysteine is a strong antioxidant believed to purify the body. and which is characterized by restlessness. and hormonal levels all play a part). In turn. recommends no more than 1. nuts. N-acetyl-cysteine. it apparently does not reduce fat to any significant extent. high blood pressure. a highly imbalanced intake of amino acids could have an adverse effect on protein synthesis in children. Both NAG and cysteine are helpful in preventing damage to the body and subsequent side effects from radiation. and milk. meat. cysteine. tremors. In fact. grains. cancer. Long-term effects are not known. 5-hydroxy 1-tryptophan. and thus may be of some benefit to bodybuilders. or nutrients — that assist the body in metabolizing them. Ph. nightmares. In order to get an energy boost. along with the foods rich in carbohydrates. it is necessary to eat the foods high in Ltryptophan (bananas. A synthetic amino acid. Precautions: Supplements should not be taken by those with schizophrenia. such as Dr. vomiting. and increase the sperm count in men. and — in rare cases — death. Amino acids should be taken with cofactors — such as vitamins. N-acetyl-Lcysteine. valine). states that because cysteine cannot cross cell membranes. The functioning of the brain relies on amino acids. M. increased body temperature. Stuart Berger. Nausea and fatigue occur initially. and lentils) in the meal before the food that contains carbohydrates. and the possible promotion of the herpes virus (though Sheldon Saul Hendler. along with vitamin C (in doses three times the amount of cysteine so that the body does not produce too much cystine) and vitamin B-6. there is concern that the vitamin may convert 5-HTP to serotonin in the blood or tissues. Also. Crohn's disease. or carcinoid syndrome. milk. L-methionine. by stimulating the production of T-cells).. The large doses given to sick people are safe only for short periods of time. leading to a slower reaction time." the bottle may contain mostly inexpensive protein filler and not much of any amino acids. eggs. age. It works by binding to harmful metals in the brain and body and removing them. Lphenylalanine. Effects: EDTA has been used in chelation therapy to treat Alzheimer's patients. though there is no evidence that it aggravates this condition. a substance that deactives free radicals. drugs. M. which helps to convert tryptophan to melatonin. glycine. It may boost the immune system and help fight liver cancer.5 g/day. rapid heart rate. popcorn. blood tissue.. though Sheldon Saul Hendler. and pollution by detoxifying acetaldehyde. Some 5-HTP supplements contain vitamin B-6 (pyroxidal phosphate). Complete proteins provide the proper balance of all the amino acids.. protein-rich foods. To get the mental lift from L-tyrosine. Those with allergies. those with herpes should avoid arginine supplements and argininerich foods. while the brain creates 5-HTP and immediately destroys it. even though L-tryptophan needs carbohydrates to get into the brain. hardening of the arteries. and has been used to treat allergies. there are some experts. time of day. ornithine may be used in place of arginine. CARNOSINE AKA: L-carnosine.D. Genetic problems can also lead to deficiencies. Food Sources: Carob. L-cysteine. and you must be sure that. A deficiency can result in male infertility. loss of appetite. arthritis. arginine. it is necessary to eat the proteins (meat. seafood. cramps. Pearson and Shaw claim that it can restore hair growth and extend a person's life span. can become essential. stuffy or runny nose. Precautions: Anyone with diabetes or blood sugar problems should not take supplements in doses above 3000 mg and in combination with large doses of vitamins B-l and C except under the guidance of a physician. Overdose symptoms include the serotonin syndrome. isoleucine. as these are the essential components for the development of neurotransmitters. Food Sources: It is found only in animal foods such as eggs. for adults under such condition as stress to the body (extreme heat. The line between essential and nonessential amino acids is fuzzy. aspartic acid. Reduced levels have been found in people with senility and memory loss.CHAPTER 4 Amino Acids Though most of the amino acids needed are manufactured by the body. More ominously.of 1. cereals. nine are not. so you may not encounter it when buying supplements. Freeform amino acids are ones that have been taken from complex proteins. premature aging. it can cross the blood/ brain barrier. long-term memory.D. and brain cells. Though amino acids play an essential role in brain function. L-tryptophan.D. and chronic diseases. fish (all kinds). It has been proven to extend the life span of mice and guinea pigs. tofu. ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID AKA: EDTA. where two amino acids play opposite roles and are not compatible with each other: L-tyrosine. for example. as it can inactive insulin production. helps offset the effects of iron deficiency. hydroxyproline. as they can severely disrupt the brain chemistry. Daily use can lead to increased tolerance. sunflower seeds) first. Though it does seem to have a stimulating effect on human growth hormone when taken along with lysine. cystine. L-lysine. time of meals. despite the therapeutic value found in some "D" forms. however. diarrhea. because they enhance the effect of L-tryptophan. Ph. supplements or medications. diabetes. and lowered sex drive may also result. Andrew Weil (author of Natural Health. Anecdotal evidence indicates that it could increase the toxicity of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in those already susceptible. use an excess of histamine in their bodies. and tyrosine. ornithine. Manufactured from methionine or serine by the liver. and obesity. says this last has not been proven). increased free radical activity. Rare side effects include long-term fatigue. Subjects in the early stages of Alzheimer's have shown definite improvements in brain-cell function. or bladder stones. The reason for this is that. it is necessary to eat foods high in L-tyrosine. it is also a good idea to take a variety of amino acids together and in their proper proportions to one another. sweating. caution that nondietary amino acid supplements may produce effects different from those found in food. fast thinking. Carnosine is a composite of two amino acids that work synergistically with other antioxidants such as vitamin C. counteracting any sedative effects of 5-HTP. and cheese.. Daytime drowsiness. Precautions: Cystine should be used with caution by those susceptible to kidney. Ray Sahelian.D. Supplementary forms should not be taken by children or teenagers. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone with ulcers or other gastrointestinal diseases. and sleepiness. Too large a dose can result in diarrhea. nuts. sweating. the safe level for healthy people has not yet been determined. oxitrip-tan. beans. in such cases. It induces calmness and reduces insomnia. milk. particularly in relation to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. these are known as the essential amino acids — L-histi-dine. Dosage: The RDA has not yet been established. such as the Psychotropic Drug Handbook. Pearson and Shaw recommend taking three times as much vitamin C as the total cysteine intake and plenty of fluids to prevent the formation of kidney and bladder stones. and these foods include meats. 5-OHT. and the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. asparginine. M. and the adverse consequences of radiation in chemotherapy and X-rays. and has shown some promise as an appetite suppressant and in treating mild depression. peas. L-thre-onine. with the result that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effects. eggs. used by the brain to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin— which has a sedative effect on the brain. and L-valine — and all are provided by proteins in the diet. gelatin desserts. . L-leucine. helps prevent cataracts. chocolate. fibromyalgia. a thickening or coarsening of the skin. contributing to clear . proline. Dosages over 20 to 30 grams a day could lead to enlarged joints and bone deformities. mostly the "branchchain" ones (leucine. The other fifteen not needed in the diet are alanine. The "L" forms are readily absorbed and utilized by the body as proteins. poultry. meat (all kinds). confusion. Effects: Carnosine stabilizes some thirteen important functions of the body and is also an antioxidant that fights certain free radicals found in air pollution and second-hand smoke. Those over 60 may need smaller doses. who do not believe they should be taken as supplements. selenium. cataracts. It should also be taken on an empty stomach and with water. whole wheat bread. oatmeal. removing heavy metals and protecting the blood. N-acetylcysteine (NAG) is form of cysteine more fully utilized by the body. and seeds — lack some essential amino acids and must be eaten in combination for best results.5 g/day. extreme cold. Incomplete proteins — such as those found in beans. and it can sometimes be hard to determine if 5-HTP will make you alert or drowsy (dosage. To relax or fall asleep. Some reference texts. lungs. which could cause adverse reactions or increase the manufacture of norepinephrine and dopamine. Effects: It is converted by the body into serotonin after it has been converted from the amino acid tryptophan. generally from higher doses. Recovery is complete if dosage is stopped. It is said to help fight cancer by boosting the immune system (more specifically. Dosage: Up to 1 to 3 g/day. B-complex. carnitine. seafood. However. hypoglycemia. excess prolactin secretion. and headaches. liver. Arginine is needed for the normal functioning of the pituitary gland. It plays a role in the formation of the skin. glutamine. through the bloodstream. Natural Medicine) and Dr. It may also help tissue healing after surgery protect the liver against damage from exposure to carbon tetrachloride.. the FDA bans sale of the latter. There is one instance. diarrhea. Food Sources: Some cereals. serine. excessive salivation. but may eventually disappear. obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD). protect the liver by detoxifying harmful substances. supplements are useless. and is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. the label specifies the amount of free-form amino acids in the product. a feeling of fullness after a meal. It has also shown promise in treating anxiety. raisins. Cysteine helps protect against radiation damage when combined with vitamins C and Bl. It works synergistically with melatonin. smoking. nausea. E. glutamic acid. minerals. NAC. bronchitis. panic disorder. as certain deficiencies or excesses of some neurotransmitters can cause mood disorders. and migraine headaches. CYSTEINE AKA: Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate. sunflower and sesame seeds. as children require arginine for growth and.D. which is manufactured from histidine. intestinal tract. PMS. while the "D" forms must be converted by the body into a usable form first. L-isoleucine. toxic agents). Those with any form of liver or kidney failure should take high doses for a prolonged period of time only while under the care of a physician. dairy products. as there is the possibility it could cause bone and skin disorders. though Leon Chaitow recommends up to 8 g/day and Hendler suggests a more conservative dose.

those taking MAO-inhibitor drugs should avoid phenylalanine. Cysteine may also make some people more sensitive to the food additive MSG. Piraglutargine. pyrrolidon carboxylic acid. recommends 200 to 1000 mg/ day with vitamin B-6 and magnesium. (Leon Chaitow.. and problems with blood circulation. broccoli. rather than taking supplements. selenium. weight gain. a man taking four grams a day of L-glutamine for three weeks became psychotic. liver. Effects: Pyroglutamate improves memory. if taken later in the day. fruits. Effects: Methionin is an antioxidant that is also said to protect against the accumulation of chemicals and heavy metals (e. pyroglutamic acid. and a weakened immune system.D. PYROGLUTAMATE AKA: Adjuvant. though Leon Chaitow recommends 1 to 3 g/day. in combination with other substances. phenylalanine can help suppress addictive behavior and cravings. better memory. A dose of 1000 to 1500 mg of DLPA may be taken in the morning without food. Amino Mass. A deficiency can result in mood swings. and poultry (all kinds). M. Deep Thought. potatoes.Ph. A stable tripeptide made by the body from the three amino acids L-cysteine. provides no known benefit. fatigue. In combination with B-6. 2-oxo-pyrrolidon carboxylic acid. Early studies seem to indicate that phenylalanine and tyrosine encourage the growth of melanomas (or skin cancers. Food sources: Dairy products. Taking it with 25 to 50 mg of vitamin B-6 may increase the amount converted to serotonin in the brain. a genetic metabolic disorder). but is totally absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Arginine Pidolate. and DLPA combines the effects of both. Whereas a deficiency can lead to one form of schizophrenia. Ph. Laboratory tests have shown that glutamic acid retards the formation of or dissolves kidney stones. Ph. GSH 250 Master Glutathione Formula. but there is no evidence that it suppresses appetite or enhances the libido. and for the relief of depression. Excessive histadine intake in males can lead to premature ejaculation.g. Leon Chaitow. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with pigmented malignant melanoma cancer. Dosage: The RDA has not been established. with hallucinations. One study suggests that methionine might be destroyed by excessive alcohol consumption. It should only be combined with MAO inhibitors under the guidance of a physician. Those with high blood pressure should only take it under the guidance of a health professional. it may cause insomnia. Earl Mindell. Dosage: 100 to 250 mg/day. fish (all kinds). ulcers in the digestive tract. unable to cross the blood-brain barrier.D. advises against supplementation. impeded protein synthesis. Those with diabetes or blood sugar problems should avoid doses above 3000 mg except under the care of a physician. grapefruit. Phenylalanine helps create the neurotransmitters. and blood.. and glycine. Over 2 g/day of glutamine can cause manic behavior. D. as a combination of L-cysteine and large doses of vitamins Bl and C may inactivate insulin. arginine pyroglutamate. strawberries. In a second reported case. which may elevate mood based on its action as a neurotransmitter.. nuts. cataracts. Additionally. Deficiency symptoms include bad skin tone. John's Wort. and can be avoided by reducing the dosage. and eating it with carbohydrates may help improve the rate at which it enters the brain. D-phenylalanine. Precautions: Methionine should always be taken with B-6 —to prevent an excess of homocysteine — and magnesium. There is some evidence that. Alpha-aminoglutaric acid lactam. It reportedly deactivates free radicals and counters the effect of lipid peroxides. pumpkin and sesame seeds. claims only the "D" form produces these beneficial results. an overdose can lead to another form (sufferers are referred to as histadelics. both should be taken in smaller doses to prevent the serotonin syndrome. render selenium available to the body. L-glutamic acid. meats. and dopamine. more energy. a rare hereditary disease chiefly characterized by a toxic buildup of copper in the organs and tissues of the body). whereas the "D" form elevates mood and enhances memory. pyroGlu. glutimic acid.. which plays a role in smooth muscle function and the dilation and contraction of blood vessels. Ph. Effects: It has been found to enhance learning. Dosages of over 4 g/day in women can trigger menstruation. asthma.5 g/day. alertness. glutiminic acid. switching to DLPA. oranges. Food Sources: Asparagus. Sheldon Saul Hendler. GSH. It may help protect the liver against damage from carbon tetrachloride. tomatoes. in reducing the healing time for ulcers. this time with 100 mg of B-6.D. hyper-activity. and helps protect against radiation damage. play a key part in the production of the brain neurotransmitter choline (not to mention adrenaline. L-PROLYL L-LEUCYL GLYCINE AMIDE A tripeptide formed by three amino acids linked together. HlSTIDINE AKA: L-histidine. and better moods. a buildup of toxic wastes in the body and fat in the liver.. and reduces anxiety . It should not be combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants. It has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. grandiose delusions. glutamic acid lactam.O. a second dose may be taken later in the day. aspartame (NutraSweet). Effects: Subjects have reported clearer thinking. N. Food sources: Almonds. prevent fat from getting into the arteries and liver. watercress. chicken. recommends no more than 1. ill temper.all over the body. cadmium. Precautions: Persons with kidney disease. insomnia. It has also reportedly helped in the control of obesity (by reducing the craving for carbohydrates) and alcoholism. PCA. lima beans. It is believed that DLPA activates the morphine-like endorphins in the body. high cholesterol. psychosis. One study has shown that a significant percentage of individuals suffering from depression exhibited rapid improvements in mood when given 500 mg/day of L-phenylalanine (which was gradually increased to 3 to 4 g/day). one of the deadliest forms of cancer). with 20 to 30 mg/ day of vitamin B-6 (not to exceed more than 50 mg/ day). Plants contain mostly the "D" form.O. Precautions: Glutamic acid. PHENYLALANINE AKA: DL-phenylalanine (DLPA). 500 mg of magnesium. N. and atherosclerosis. a brain chemical that protects against ammonia metabolic waste. chiefly norepinephrine. mercury) in the brain and body. and impotence. Ray Sahelian recommends 10 to 50 mg one-half to one hour before sleep. and an increased ability to focus and pay attention. high blood pressure. concentration.4 grams a day. It is often used by those attending raves. meat (all kinds). and prevent certain tumors when used in combination with choline and folic acid. chronic pain. A deficiency can lead to partial or total deafness and one form of schizophrenia (sufferers are referred to as histapenics).. Side effects generally occur in doses above 100 mg. eggs. M. while Mark Mayell claims that the "L" form stimulates the nervous system and libido. Dosage: Some suggest starting with 250 to 500 mg/day and increasing to as much as 1 to 2 g/day. The precursor N-acetyl-cysteine has been proven a more potent source of glutathione. severe liver disease (especially that resulting from cirrhosis or Reye's syndrome).D. beef. while animal proteins contain mostly the "L" form. GLUTAMINE AKA: L-glutamine. milk. Effects: Phenylalanine may contribute to a more positive mental state. and research has shown that it can offset the adverse effects of immune system suppression caused by intense exercise. and some fruit or fruit juice to help convert the amino acid to norepinephrine. Methionine is believed to relieve some cases of schizophrenia by lowering the level of histamine in the blood. A deficiency can result in moodiness. and irritability. and vitamin B12).D. Another study showed significant improvements in those with depression when 250 mg of L-phenylalanine was combined with 5 to 10 mg of Eldepryl. in some cases. Precautions: Histidine should not be used by manic-depressives with elevated levels of histamine or by women suffering from premenstrual depression. It manufactures GAB A. It removes heavy metals from the body. black beans. avocados. Pyroglutamate is able to cross the blood/brain barrier. an increase in learning ability. methionine can decrease the level of histamine). It does not break down into the toxic product cystine (which can crystalize and produce kidney stones). GLUTATHIONE AKA: Glutaplex. A free-form amino acid that produces glutamic acid. When combined with St. and nausea during pregnancy. it produces the compound phenylethylamine (PEA). and has been useful in the treatment of arthritis.) It may help counter jet lag when taken first thing in the morning or right after a long flight. hormones which act as painkillers. and vitamins B-2 and E. L-phenylalanine. the consequences of this are as yet unknown. Some warn that the daily dosage should not exceed 2. loss of hair. The effectiveness of glutathione can be increased by lipoic acid. it promotes the manufacture of both red and white blood cells. Food sources: Found only in animal foods such as eggs. and vivid uncontrollable thoughts. Dosage: Between 1 to 6 g/day with vitamin C. Likewise. poor sexual arousal.. It has been used to treat schizophrenia and senility. and some cases of Parkinson's disease. It is used to make various nootropic drugs such as piracetam and oxiracetam. Hendler. Mental Edge. cauliflower. and a better emotional state. peanuts. One individual taking high doses of glutamine experienced sleep loss.. METHIONINE AKA: L-methionine. cabbage. heart palpitations. epinephrine (or adrenalin).. Those with sensitivity to the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) may experience an allergic reaction to glutamine. along with 100 to 200 mg a day of vitamin B-6 to facilitate the effects of the amino acid. and doctors usually have patients restrict their intake of these amino acids. and suppresses the appetite. that produce mental arousal. alertness. enhances mood and cognition. or the diet drug dexfenfluramine (Redux). fish. Other symptoms include headaches and nausea. D. watermelon. It is recommended that both "D" and "L" forms be used. 500 mg of vitamin C. Mayell says these symptoms only occur with the "L" form. dairy products. nervousness. first thing in the morning and at least 30 minutes before breakfast. though not as strong. and 50 mg of vitamin B-6.D. helps protect nerves by maintaining the myelin sheath. recommends 1 to 4 g/day in divided doses. anemia. Selenomethionine is a variant in which selenium atoms replace the sulfur atoms. and is found in significant amounts in the brain. especially in the treatment of depression or for increased energy. allergies. or those with seizure disorders should not take glutathione supplements without first consulting a physician. as it helps regulate the body's biological clock. the cerebrospinal fluid. and a voracious sex drive. cottage cheese. and learning.. alertness. Effects: Histadine is converted by the body into the neurotransmitter histamine. or taking it only in the morning. but the exact dosage needed has not yet been determined. sunflower seeds. It may be more effective to consume the three amino acids and allow the body to manufacture glutathione on its own. It should be taken no more than once or twice a week. purslane. Too much phenylalanine can result in overstimulation. Capsules are preferable to other forms because they avoid the rotten egg smell that usually accompanies it. R. or Wilson's disease (otherwise known as hepatolenticular degeneration. lecithin. vegetables. which can be countered with a supplementation of 500 mg of methionine. improved alertness. Similar in effect to piracetam.. combining 200 mg of 5-HTP with MAO inhibitors can result in high blood pressure and emotional instability. a neurotransmitter which soothes and calms the mind. peaches. Dosage: It is about ten times more potent than tryptophan. more motivation and ambition. milk. and play an important role in the biosynthesis of two other amino acids — cysteine and taurine. Dosage: Some suggest 250 to 500 mg/day. A sulfur-containing amino acid. Effects: Glutathione is said to protect the brain cells against the cross-linking of proteins — a condition which reduces the efficiency of the brain cells — and increases the flow of oxygen and blood to the brain. Mayell advocates a more modest dose of 375 to 500 mg of the "L" form or 750 to 1000 mg of DLPA. soybeans. phenylketonuria (or PKU.D. as should pregnant or lactating women. which may be the key to its antiaging effect.

D. it is important for muscle function. Individuals deprived of full-spectrum light may suffer a deficiency of taurine in the pineal and pituitary glands. Food sources: Bananas.D. as it intensifies the side effects of these drugs. It may be necessary for proper growth of the human body. It could also trigger headaches in those already susceptible. soybeans and soybean products. Women require taurine more than men because its synthesis is inhibited by the female hormone estradiol. Supplements can create mild gastric problems if taken on an empty stomach. Dosage: 500 to 1000 mg/day for arginine pyroglutamate. mental disturbances (particularly aggressive behavior). it can be manufactured in the human body from cysteine. working up to 750 mg twice a day until effects are noticed). and for muscle coordination. headaches.. It may be harmful to pregnant women. a result which may have been due in part to leucine and isoleucine's assistance in the breakdown of glutamate. yogurt. it should be taken with the following amino acids in these proportions: one part tryptophan. A deficiency may be characterized by insomnia. pineapple. chicken liver. Precautions: The fish or shellfish should be baked. fish (all kinds). norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Subjects given these amino acids over the course of a year retained more of their muscle strength and ability to walk than those given a placebo. though some studies have given subjects as much as 15 grams a day with no serious consequences. Supplements should be taken with vitamins B-6 and C. so supplementation is not advised. Eating sugary snacks can cause wild swings in insulin production and interfere with the body's ability to absorb tryptophan. M.e. Precautions: There is good evidence that taurine is a central nervous system depressant and that it can impair short-term memory. VALINE AKA: L-valine. Taurine has been used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.D. indigestion. and cases of unipolar depression (i. Works synergistically with choline.. a Japanese firm that did not specialize in drugs or nutritional supplements. Tyrosine should not be taken by anyone with melanoma. those with high blood pressure should take it only under the guidance of a physician. or Lou Gehrig's disease. eat fish alone or with carbohydrate-rich foods (e. it acts as a depressant. and plays a role in the manufacture of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Hightryptophan foods should be combined with carbohydrate-rich foods such as bread. Dr. It is said to help the heart function better by conserving potassium and calcium. and may even prove beneficial in other brain disorders such as Huntington's chorea). Dosage: 1 g/day. Food sources: Eggs. and constipation. Those taking MAOinhibiting antidepressants should not take tyrosine supplements. as fat and deepfrying destroys some of the beneficial effects. and heart palpitations. Proteins inhibit the brain's ability to absorb this amino acid. lamb. Elevates mood and energy (it has been effective in treating patients with depression). potatoes). Ph. atherosclerosis. PMS.and depression. shellfish. Scientists have still not unraveled the complicated process by which tryptophan is converted into serotonin. a blood disease called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS). Side effects may include nausea. disrupted sleep patterns and mental functioning. and chronic pain. According to Leon Chaitow. Stuart Berger recommends 2 grams of tryptophan. milk. valine was added because of a deficiency noted in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients. Leon Chaitow. seaweed. Specific tryptophan metabolites could cause bladder cancer. that it be taken on an empty stomach. lentils. and may worsen the symptoms of bronchial asthma and lupus. In 1989. Positive results have been recorded in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Dosage: 100 to 500 mg/day. Dosage: The RDA has not been established. as well as other serious consequences. two parts valine.. N. steamed. peanuts. bread. binge eating. and muscle atrophy in chronic heavy drinkers. though some research indicates that 1 gram of tryptophan may be sufficient for most people (this applies only to late at night. though the mental stimulation only occurs if the brain has used up these neurotransmitters. and 1 gram of vitamin C on an empty stomach before going to bed. It may help protect the liver from damage due to carbon tetrachloride. alertness. as the brain needs these to turn the amino acid into norepinephrine. pork. and has been used to treat stress. a bit less for plain pyroglutamate. pumpkin seeds. High levels are found in human milk. cottage cheese. gastric discomfort. and help regulate insulin and blood sugar levels. Though it is not found in any plant foods. and related illnesses are attributable to L-tryptophan itself. and it may be of some benefit in treating cystic fibrosis. immune function disorders. Mark Mayell recommends that dosage not exceed 2 to 3 g/day (initial dosage should be 250 to 500 mg/day. TRYPTOPHAN AKA: L-tryptophan. Any physical or mental benefits of supplementation by healthy individuals is unproven. sunflower seeds. It has proven helpful in the treatment of jet lag. a dosage of 6 g/day in three divided doses for a two week period is recommended for the treatment of depression. broiled. turkey. Effects: Boosts the brain neurotransmitters epinephrine (adrenaline). depression. It is not recommended that more than 2 grams a day be taken. Dosage: For the cure of insomnia. and other acetylcholine-enhancing nutrients. the need for tryptophan will be higher). and dopamine. Deficiency symptoms include nervousness. to sleep during the day. Effects: An electrical-charge stabilizer in the nerves of the brain and nervous system (it can decrease or even prevent epileptic seizures. meat. Since taurine controls the synthesis of glutamate. in combination with leucine and isoleucine — two other branched-chain amino acids — Valine has shown promise as a treatment for amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Effects: Normalizes the nitrogen balance in the body and it is necessary for proper mental and neural functioning. obsessive-compulsive disorder. and some types of epilepsy. meat (all kinds). fish. fatigue may result. or stewed. Precautions: An overdose can lead to feelings of "crawling skin" and hallucinations. DMAE. and some question whether oral doses are effective in this regard. Three to four ounces of fish seems to be the optimal amount for most people. spirulina. which regulates mood and sleep patterns. gall bladder disease. or potatoes for best results. If the level of tryptophan is high in relation to the other amino acids. The FDA contends that the illness suffered by these victims. anxiety. For best results. unaccompanied by a manic phase) that do not respond to tryptophan. Precautions: It forms a harmful interaction when combined with MAO-inhibitor drugs or tricyclics. advises against supplementation. and that it be taken with 25 mg/day of vitamin B-6 or B complex and 250 to 500 mg of vitamin C. some 5. hay fever. One study funded by the National Institutes of Health has found that.. brittle fingernails. panic attacks (when taken with vitamin B-6). chicken. pasta. the sale of L-tryptophan supplements was banned in 1990.. that it not be combined with other amino acids. eye problems. those who experience such symptoms should cease taking it immediately.O.D. Sheldon Saul Hendler. stress. and a nitrogen imbalance in the body. recommends 100 mg per kilo of body weight per day. and may help in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and tardive dyskinesia. D. Parkinson's disease.000 people suffered debilitating health problems from impurities in a batch of Ltryptophan distributed by Showa Denko.D. Because there are rare cases where tryptophan can cause excitability and insomnia. 36 of them died and many more were left permanently crippled. Effects: Tryptophan is necessary for the manufacture of the neurotransmitter serotonin. This combination also may prevent. nausea and vomiting are likely to occur in doses used to treat depression (6 to 9 grams and higher). but many experts dispute the validity of these reports. bad skin color and tone. Food sources: Fish. some forms of vascular migraines. eating more will not result in any significant increase in effect.. As a result. Because it might increase blood pressure in a small percentage of susceptible individuals. attention. N. some supplemental B-3 (in a ratio of two parts tryptophan to one part B-3) and magnesium may also be helpful. improves reaction time. and motivation. Arginine pyroglutamate also increases muscle mass by stimulating the growth hormone. two parts methionine. Precautions: None known. unripened cheese. liver damage resulting from alcoholism. . but not cow's milk.O. TAURINE AKA: L-taurine.. Eye problems may result if a zinc deficiency is also present. leading to depression and mental impairment. and even reverse. as they can have adverse effects on blood pressure.g. Cases have also been reported for uncontaminated batches and for the similar compound L-5-hydroxytryptophan.. grass allergies. High doses can cause irritability. TYROSINE AKA: L-tyrosine. grilled. and a craving for carbohydrates. evening primrose seeds. cocaine abuse. milk. chronic liver disease. 100 mg of vitamin B-6. depression. particularly shellfish. and three parts phenylalanine.

skin problems such as psoriasis. Monounsaturated oils like high oleic safflower. Omega3 can also protect against rheumatoid arthritis by suppressing the prostaglandins and leuko-trienes in the body that produce the symptoms of this affliction. A deficiency of Omega-3 seems to be associated with behavior. according to some. can contribute to cancer. minerals. and stroke. eating a high-fiber diet. particularly saturated fats. including eicos-apentaenoic acid or EPA (found in fish oil).D. high oleic sunflower. an improved memory can usually result after only a few days of taking choline or lecithin. and health problems (e. low tolerance of fats in the diet. cauliflower. as most supplements only contain 10 to 20 percent phosphatidylcholine (look for supplements that contain at least 35 percent phosphatidylcholine). ischemic heart disease or any other condition that could lead to healththreatening clotting of the blood.D. so it is only necessary to take it twice a day. eggs. Remove all partially hydrogenated fats from the diet and use cooking oils only once. a stiff neck.g. despite the fact that it may be too stimulating for some people. and linoleic acid (also known as Omega-6 or CLA. and much research needs to be done in this area. as is linseed oil. A deficiency of Omega6 seems to be associated with colds and increased use of antibiotics.1 g/day. Certain forms of choline. The body manufactures all the fats it needs. insomnia. It is best utilized when combined with eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA). soy oil. salmon. flaxseed oil. food processing. expeller-pressed vegetable oils. peanut. they should only be used in salads and other uncooked foods. Be aware that cultured or pond-reared freshwater fish. estrogen. gamma-linolenic acid (found in borage seed and primrose oil). Fish from fast-food restaurants are no good. fenugreek.D. and alcohol dependency. Sheldon Saul Hendler. Some studies have shown that phosphatidylcholine is effective against viral hepatitis types A. dandelion flowers. meat.. Lecithin has a time-release effect. M. There are three basic types: saturated. Lack of it can also lead to decreased mental functioning. Keep oil in the refrigerator after opening. Other overdose symptoms include nausea. the results are poor thinking. and then only sparingly. heart disease. There is no known toxicity level for choline. attempts to reverse the symptoms (loss of memory. Omega-3. Polyunsaturated forms such as safflower oil. Don't cook with polyun-saturated oils. and is necessary in maintaining cell membrane fluidity. memory loss. such as much of the white fish sold . other B vitamins. because it may deepen the depressive phase. he recommends 2 to 4 g/day under a doctor's supervision. though the dose may have to be larger. and tuna (albacore and bluefin) are good sources of Omega-3. heart disease. for example) with supplements of phosphatidylcholine or choline have proved disappointing. Ph. fish. Brazil nuts. These fats compete with and slow down those metabolic processes dealing with the essential fatty acids. and strokes. impair the immune system. Both have been shown to be effective treatments for bipolar disorder (manicdepression) in those individuals who have shown little or no improvement with standard drugs such as lithium. docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA). though choline needs inositol (another B-complex vitamin) to achieve this. Effects: Since damage to fats is central to biological aging. an important neurotransmitter that aids memory. frequent urination. which are called the essential fatty acids (EFAs). The RDAs of both have not been established. in the case of hydrogenated fats and oils. and the processing (or hydrogenation) of vegetable oils. red meat. high oleic sunflower. egg yolks.. learning. AL721 AKA: Egg lecithin. too. and possibly cancer. canola. and it is believed that supplementation may prevent such stones from forming. arthritis. high blood pressure. Food Sources: Eel and cold-water fish such as herring. walnuts. Very high doses of choline over an extended period of time may produce a vitamin B-6 deficiency. Four grams a day of Omega-3 reduce cholesterol and blood pressure. and Alzheimer's disease.. Food Sources: Very little free choline is found in foods. It can also protect against cardiovascular disease. the most important EFA. It is this same imbalance of the two that creates gallstones. in these cases. Precautions: Choline should not be taken by those who are manic-depressive. and chronic hepatitis. depriving cells of nutrients and prohibiting the evacuation of toxins. and docosapen-taenoic acid (DPA). Taking very high doses could also result in hemorrhaging in normal individuals. certain types of cardiac problems. Those with gastric ulcers or a history of ulcers should only take choline under a doctor's orders. Consuming large amounts of caffeine (coffee. Tourette's syndrome. when this happens. Other symptoms include thirst. seed oils. liver.g. particularly when heated and exposed to air. and butter when sauteing. soybeans. lowering the blood cholesterol level. Choline and inositol also maximize the efficiency of vitamin E. and orientation. and may prove to be useful in treating kidney disease. Soybean oil is the best source. vomiting. classified as a B vitamin. a fat-like compound which destroys fats such as cholesterol. which removes important vitamins. states that up to 10 g/day of phosphatidylcholine or 1 g/day of choline can be taken without side effects. but it does have two significant drawbacks — the supplements sold in health food stores usually have lots of fat. sulfa drugs. B. they can be categorized according to their degree of saturation. If an oil is rancid or smells bad. don't do much good and. Choline can also cause muscle tension. shrimp. refined sugar. heart attacks. The reason for this lack is threefold: the introduction of white flour. cirrhosis and fatty degeneration of the liver. and phosphatidylcholine (or pure lecithin) — all of which may enhance memory. except for two— alpha-linolenic acid (also known as Omega-3 or Alena. various steroid hormones. gall stones. including the fat soluble vitamins. as it may worsen the depression (even those who aren't manic-depressive may experience depression if taking doses in the range of 20 grams a day). liver disease. and sesame oils are more stable and less likely to oxidize. and monounsaturated. There are different types of Omega-3 fatty acids. brewer's yeast. and this category can encompass a variety of essential nutrients. and Friedreich's ataxia. but reports of improved mental abilities specifically from AL721 are only anecdotal. sardines. An extract of egg yolk. Precautions: Determine intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 and reduce fat intake. or psoriasis. choline chloride. olive. cabbage. CHOLINE AND LECITHIN Choline. Saturated forms. mackerel. Precautions: It should not be taken by those suffering from manic-depression. peanuts. and as little as two servings of fish a week may protect against heart disease. and taken with adequate amounts of vitamin E and selenium. If taking lecithin. or those taking prescription anticholinergic drugs. Food Sources (in descending order of total beneficial fish oils): Herring. An imbalance of these two fatty acids is said by some to be associated with cancer. Lecithin may not cause these. bluefish. and may be prevented by eating yogurt. also recommends taking DMAE with lecithin. diabetes. can even be toxic to the brain. gastric ulcers. memory deficits. and water.. and abnormal blood clots. and one part phosphatidylethanolamine. where they make up 60 percent of the total brain mass. cancer. Dosage: 2 to 10 g/day is considered a sufficient dose. Hydrogenated fats are known to increase levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the body. M. or 300 mg of choline. Never deep-fry (avoid eating at fast-food restaurants). leading to heart disease. A polyunsaturated fat that is the main structural fatty acid in the brain's gray matter. It works with inosi-tol to emulsify fats and cholesterol. restlessness. short for conjugated linoleic acid). The need for vitamin E may increase as a person's intake of DHA increases. Huntington's disease. green leafy vegetables. In addition to being classified as essential or non-essential. and necessary for the transmission of messages via the nervous system throughout the body. especially if more than 16 grams a day are taken. poppyseeds. cardiovascular problems. cod. Dharma Singh Khalsa. cabbage) than in foods that are high in saturated fatty acids (e. high blood pressure. Choline and lecithin can be destroyed by alcohol. as it can increase blood sugar and decrease insulin secretion in the body. egg yolk. Effects: An important component in the development of vision. and high oleic safflower when quick-frying. and an overall loss of health. tea. rheumatoid arthritis or related inflammation. from those in beef to hydro-genated oils. as it can reduce the ability of the blood to clot. trout.D. and this can lead to such chronic degenerative diseases as cancer. Use oils such as olive (especially extra virgin olive oil. is the one people are most deficient in. refined flour. Supplements should be used only under a physician's guidance by those who have a tendency to hemorrhage or bleed easily. and C. AL721 is seven parts neutral lipids. containing 2 percent lecithin and supplying both essential fatty acids (Omega-3 [9 percent] andOmega-6 [57 percent]). B-12. but only when it is accompanied by unsaturated fatty acids. though it should be taken with 1 g/day of vitamin B-5. learning. It shows some promise in enhancing the immune system and in the treatment of herpes. a supplement of chelated calcium should also be taken to keep a stable balance of phosphorus and calcium in the body. and methionine. The kinds of fats commonly ingested. Recommended dosage is 2. Dosage: Sheldon Saul Hendler. salmon. Though Alzheimer's patients suffer from a deficiency of acetylcholine in the brain... cold-climate oils are more beneficial than warm-climate oils. cholesterol. or going rancid. and both choline and inositol are components of lecithin. They have been used to effectively treat tardive dyskinesia. One study has shown that subjects given fish oil with 50 percent docosahexaenoic acid — or about four times as much as is normally present — showed a significant decrease in aggression. and they can usually peroxi-dize (go rancid) quite easily. and dizziness. One study found that MIT students showed a greater ability to recall a list of words after taking 3 grams a day. Effects: Reportedly improves memory in healthy people. and other degenerative illnesses. as it is highly carcinogenic. don't heat oil until it smokes. Unfortunately. There are at least three different forms of choline — choline bitartrate. but results have proven inconclusive in treating such other neurological disorders as Parkinson's disease. epilepsy. which only supply Omega-6. cheese. use butter or monounsaturated oil for baking.5 to 3 g/day in three to four divided doses. cauliflower. AIDS. and fiber. natural and unprocessed fats and oils can be harmful. as it is the most natural type). don't use it. and gastric cramps. most of what we get being in the form of lecithin: beans.CHAPTER 5 Lipids Lipids are fats and fat soluble compounds. another fish oil fatty acid. Ph. in fact. and cause atherosclerosis. Effects: Lecithin from egg yolk is said to improve thinking. For salad dressings. nor should it be taken by those with Parkinson's disease. two parts phosphatidylcholine. headaches. polyunsaturated. and other animal products). soybeans and soybean products. Primrose oil is a good source of Omega-6. peas. soybeans. swordfish. except for those with hypertension. cholesterol buildup. meat. unlike most other oils. Both choline and phosphatidylcholine have the same effects. as a decrease in phosphatidylcholine and an increase in cholesterol as a consequence of aging makes these membranes more rigid. soft drinks) can deplete the amount of inos-itol in the body. and sunflower oil oxidate and turn bad quickly. drug addiction. and mental alertness. Deficiency may lead to high cholesterol. M. hardening of the arteries. In general. heart disease. does not recommend taking supplements. The intake of phosphatidylcholine by the average American is 3. There is no definitive evidence that either choline or phosphatidylcholine protect against cardiovascular disease. including 1 gram of B-5. DMA AKA: Docosohexaenoic acid. this is higher than that consumed by Europeans. judgment. Dosage: Phosphatidylcholine is more beneficial when consumed in foods that have polyunsaturated fatty acids (e. While hydrogenated fats (also known as trans fats or trans fatty acids) are harmful because they are processed. though phosphatidylcholine is a necessary component of every cell membrane in the body and is believed to have the best memory-boosting effect. eventually leading to cells that are malnourished and loaded with toxins. it is mainly found in fish oils. being white fish cooked in unhealthy fats and almost completely depleted of Omega-3. Precautions: It lacks sufficient vitamin E to prevent it from rapidly per-oxidizing. D. tuna. arthritis. The body odor and diarrhea are often the result of intestinal bacteria breaking down the choline into trimethylamine (though liver disease may also be a cause). flounder. should be taken with any form of choline or lecithin to help convert them to acetylcholine. and animal organs. and both also emulsify cholesterol. Choline may interact with antide-pressant drugs and morphine. and dry skin. tofu. though this has yet to be proven. the consumption of beef as the main source of protein.. use only unfiltered. as eating a lot of fish cannot counteract a high-fat diet. such as choline bitartrate and choline chloride can cause a fishy body odor and diarrhea. or drinking acidophilus milk. or by diabetics. Choline can be manufactured by the body from folic acid.. and wheat germ. and obesity. and seems to have a synergistic effect with nootropic drugs. phosphatidylcholine with unsaturated fatty acids may also play an anti-aging role by keeping cell membranes fluid. short for alpha-lino/emc acid). such as butter and animal fats. Peroxidized fats in lecithin can damage DNA. eating good fats is important to developing and maintaining the healthy brain. and the different dietary fats. but may still be too low.g. neuropathy). is a precursor to acetylcholine. FATS AND OILS The largest number of fat cells in the body are found in the brain.

LlPOTROPES Lipotropes are substances attracted to fat. electrical activity in the brain. it is believed to increase the blood flow and the utilization of oxygen in the brain. Diabetics should avoid taking fish oil capsules. Taking too much Omega-3 in capsule form may over-stimulate the prostaglandins. Additionally. dizziness. nausea. other substances in fish may contribute to Omega-3's beneficial effects and may not be present in fish oil capsules. maintaining immunity. severe depression. Parkinson's disease. Dr. alertness. of other plant foods. and the bottle should have both a pressing date and a four-month expiration date. the four most important being choline. As yet. Still. A significant number of people. Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are the active forms of choline and methionine. beta-carotene). Food sources: Fish. Though the exact mechanism by which it works is unknown. and even though the aphpa-linolenic acid in fish oil is already converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) while that in flaxseed oil has to be converted in the body. learning. and sociability. It should not be taken too late in the evening. and to treat Alzheimer's disease. Dosage: 100 to 200 mg/day to be taken with meals. headaches. and are necessary for DNA synthesis. CDP-choline is used in Japan and Italy to stimulate brain circulation following brain injury or brain surgery. One of the four main phospho-lipids found in lecithin. especially when ill. Effects: They play an important role in the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline. psoriasis. high cholesterol and other cardiovascular diseases. Phosphatidylserine has its highest concentration in the brain. and it has been used to treat lupus. which has high concentrations of vitamins A and D. but should take higher doses only under the guidance of a qualified health professional. phosphati-dylethanolamine (PE). and phosphatidylinositol (PI). or beneficial compounds.g. mood. SAM has no known side effects.S. and preventing cancer. rice. selenium. the ability to handle stress. have a limited capacity to biochemically convert the flaxseed oil. Avoid cod liver oil. methionine. PS. where it plays a role in various nerve cell functions. flaxseed oil has one hundred times the level of lignans. eczema). It can also prevent the normal clotting of blood. Those with serious degenerative diseases might need more. folic acid. they can raise blood sugar and lower insulin secretion. daily hormone rhythms. vitamin E. as it still allows certain wavelengths of light to enter). as clear and colorless oils have most likely been deodorized and bleached. . prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. It has proven superior to ginkgo biloba and other herbs in its benefits. it needs to be refrigerated at all times when not in use. cancer). and similar degenerative brain disorders. Dosage: 3 or 4 ounces of fish. take one tablespoon twice a day. and vitamin B-12. One of the forms. and it should have some color to it. Because they could cause excessive bleeding. Precautions: No known side effects. A PS "complex" may only be 20 percent pure PS. even though research has been conducted almost exclusively on fish oil and the results extrapolated to flaxseed. the others are phosphatidylcholine (PC). and so the dosage should be adjusted accordingly. Diets heavy in highly unsatu-rated Omega-3 oils should be supplemented with anti-oxidants (vitamin C. It has been used effectively in the treatment of people both in the early stages of Alzheimer's and in severe cases. SAM. and high temperature. and with fish oil capsules. When taking flaxseed oil.g. it is recommended that no more than 5 g/day be taken. green leafy vegetables. is being investigated as a treatment for depression. and osteo-arthritis. multiple sclerosis. vocabulary skills. Precautions: CDP-choline can cause agitation. The effects of Omega-3 in flaxseed is assumed to have the same effects as the Omega-3 in fish. concentration. Omega-3 oil supplement should meet the following requirements: it should be in a black plastic bottle so as to prevent exposure to light (brown glass is unacceptable.in the U. fibromyalgia. Donald Rudin recommends one teaspoon of linseed oil (about 2 grams of Omega-3 fatty acids) as a minimum daily requirement to correct any nutritional deficiency. rheumatoid arthritis.. allergic and inflammatory conditions (e. and loss of blood pressure. as Omega-3 is easily destroyed by light. PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AKA: LECI-PS. All are vital components of cell membranes. soy products. memory.. fat-soluble vitamins that can easily build up to toxic levels in the body. fish oil supplements should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. may have very little Omega-3 (they may also be high in pesticides and such industrial chemicals as PCBs). and those that aren't may contribute to cell-destroying lipid peroxidation.. harming the body. and autoimmune diseases (e. oxygen. Effects: It improves brain functioning in all areas measured: the functioning of nerve cells. Fish oil capsules are high in cholesterol. worsening their condition.

or about one tablespoon of brewer's yeast.C) are two synthetic polyribonucleotides that have shown promise as anti-cancer treatments. which can cause joint pain and kidney stones after prolonged use. but only for athletes whose training sessions are long and rigorous. OROTIC AND INOSINIC ACIDS AKA (inosinic acid): Hypoxan-thine riboside. recommends taking up to 1.D. M.. Its acidity can also cause upset stomach. Both orotic and inosinic acids are converted by the body into DNA. M. It has increased the life span of lab rats by 20 percent. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with gout or high urate levels. inosine.. Sheldon Saul Hendler. and may have anti-cancer properties.D.. thereby slowing the deterioration seen in older people.D. possibly prevented with the ingestion of baking soda with the supplements. congestive heart failure. as it produces large amounts of uric acid. Food sources: Brewer's yeast. Athletes use inosinic acid to stimulate protein synthesis in muscle cells. sardines. Any supplement with less than 12 percent RNA is also of limited value.C). RNA. Precautions: According to W. Sheldon Saul Hendler. resulting in extreme pain and permanent damage to the body).5 g/ day. along with its resistance to misprogramming of the genetic code caused by the by-products of lipid per-oxidation. which help manufacture nucleo-tides and nucleosides. Dosage: Phillips recommends 1. Effects: Has improved memory in lab animals and protects against oxidizing chemicals contributing to aging. Poly (I. Poly (A)/Poly (U). Inosinic acid promotes the dilation of blood vessels — increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery in the body — and increases both RNA and DNA production. RIBONUCLEIC ACID AKA: Ampligen.CHAPTER 6 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are large molecules which contain genetic material. the cause of gout (the uric acids forms crystals in the joints and kidneys. does not recommend supplementation. Ph. Effects: Orotic acid is a possible B vitamin and is a precursor of the pyrim-idines.5 to 2 g/day an hour before workouts or training. as it. increased immunity to bacterial and fungal infections in humans. particularly in regard to breast cancer.. dosages higher than 2 grams a day degrade into uric acid. too. Poly (A)/Poly (U) and Poly (I. Yeast can be 6 to 10 percent RNA but does little good because the cell walls of the plant cannot be digested to any significant extent by the body. can have too little RNA to have any effect. Those with kidney disease or other kidney problems should avoid using this supplement. Ph. A few Russian studies have shown that they may be helpful in treating hearts damaged by heart attacks. presumably building muscle mass. but much more research needs to be done. Nathaniel Phillips. . Dosage: No side effects have been reported for normal people given up to 80 g/day. Levels of RNA decrease starting at age 40. and cholesterol.D.

meat. as DL-carnitine will cause some individuals to develop a myasthenia-type syndrome. bean sprouts. such as vitamins C and E. VitaCarn. stimulation of the immune system. It is generally agreed that the liquid form in the soft gelatin capsule is better absorbed than the capsule form. and anti-viral properties. It also slows down the cell damage caused by agerelated conditions and may accelerate the repair of damaged DNA in cells ravaged by free radicals. the part of the cell which creates energy. seafood. MnSOD. which can be reduced or eliminated with lower dosages.. attention. Overdosing can produce severe muscle weakness. SOD. and it is advisable to take supplements to counteract this. improve oxygen utilization. liver disease. increase energy storage in muscle tissue. allergic skin reaction..S. and blood clots. will reduce the effect of L-carni-tine. chickpeas. the former being the biologically active form and the latter being the inactive form which may counteract L-carnitine's benefits.. Ward Dean. SAPONINS AKA: Triterpene glycosides. and methionine are needed in the diet for this to occur. They have been used to treat diabetes. A coenzyme. improvement of athletic performance. and E) should be able to prevent this. Cytochromes are a component of ATP production. Interestingly. It may help protect the brain from the effects of aging by preventing the accumulation of lipofuscin in the brain. tomatoes. Food Sources: Beef. unlike other anti-oxidants. While it is synthesized by the liver from lysine and methionine. Studies have shown that doses of anywhere from 2000 to 3500 mg a day can slow the onset of Alzheimer's and mental deterioration. it is not destroyed in the process. alleviates angina attacks. tomatoes. . it acts much the same way as vitamin E. levocarnitine. Dosage: The body manufactures sufficient amounts on its own. adequate amounts of vitamins C. though some have experienced only mild diarrhea with doses as high as 26. peri-odontal disease. cardiovascular problems such as high blood pressure. R. there is no RDA. sardines. Alcar.. plus iron. Food Sources: Asparagus. Alpha Lipotene. Very high doses may produce an abnormally low blood sugar. Dosage: 100 mg/day. Other effects include weight loss. B-3. It takes about three weeks before the effects are noticed. yams. illnesses. diabetes. Most supplements are in the 30 to 50 mg range. SUCCINATES Succinates are metabolites necessary for energy production in cells. Effects: Saponins are believed to have anti-oxidant.. LA. Nacetyl-1-carni-tine. cataracts. but is superior in that. Works synergistically with the co-enzyme NADH.D. help the body adjust to high altitudes. enhance the synthesis of glutathione. helps control hypoglycemia. M. nausea. Ph. polyunsaturated oils. Lipitor. however. helps cure some forms of gum disease. They may also bolster the immune system. preventing the transportation of fats to the mitochondria and suppressing membrane enzymes.D. and flavonoids (found in citrus fruits). but not the U. carrots. decreased blood pressure. which cancels out the effectiveness of levocarni-tine. It is also found in chicken. genis-tein (found in soybeans).g.D. and overstimula-tion. alertness. Octacosanol is one of several long-chain alcohol molecules found in wheat germ oil. as well as legumes and whole grains. Carn-itor. and kidney disease. L-car-nitine. whole grains. D-carnitine. white blood cells that serve the immune system.CHAPTER 7 Miscellaneous Nutrients ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AKA: ALC. infertility. prevents damage to tissues caused by hypoxia. milk and dairy products.. Less frequent side effects include diarrhea. It is found in high amounts in the human heart and liver. and vomiting. It produces a mild feeling of relaxation and well-being. Though a nutrient. Classified as a nonvitamin nutrient. without the hazard of metabolizing into free radicals. Precautions: The few studies that have been conducted show no evident toxic side effects. Precautions: There is no evidence that supplementation produces any benefits. Ph. and protects against peroxidation (a means by which oxygen and unsaturated fats combine to form free radicals). At present. and B-6. but research indicates that a range of 10 to 90 mg/day is safe and effective. IDEBENONE AKA: Avan. Cu/ZnSOD. ProXeed. kidney disease. mackerel. ALC has many of the same effects. and stress can all drain the body's supply of this nutrient. M. Precautions: Can sometimes be metabolized by the body to create certain compounds that have damaging effects similar to those caused by free radicals. enhances communication between the brain's hemispheres. Dosage: Optimal doses have not yet been determined. abdominal pain. and may prove helpful in treating diabetes. Allan Sosin.2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid. protects the cell membranes from free-radical damage. It may cause gastrointestinal disorders and a change in body odor. anti-inflammatory. CoEnzyme Q10 should be yellow or orange in color. unlike E. Effects: Said to increase energy and endurance. and improved mental abilities.000 mg a day. though experts point out that there are many causes of male infertility which carnitine does not cure. Ph. increases the levels of choline acetyl-transferase in the brain. can attack free radicals in both the watery and fatty parts of the body. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AKA: Cell Guard. The amount of carnitine in meat is in direct proportion to the redness of the meat. COENZYM Q1O AKA: CoQIO. anti-cancer. Effects: It is said to lower blood cholesterol. language ability. monounsaturated oils. improve stamina and endurance. dihydrolipoate. Drug use. liver. heart.D. and has been used in the treatment of diabetes. recommends 10 to 50 mg/day. Effects: A potent anti-oxidant which can regenerate other anti-oxidants. OCTACOSANOL Food Sources: Alfalfa. there is no evidence that supplements will benefit those whose levels are already normal. used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and manic-depression. muscular dystrophy. wheat germ. transports fats into the mitochondria. oats. ProXeed. cardiovascular and cere-brovascular diseases. fish oil).D. Precautions: Those with kidney damage should use supplements with extreme caution.D. Precautions: There is no evidence that supplementation provides any benefits. however. sharpen reflexes. Valproic acid. if not.Ph. physical activity. and spinach all have significant amounts. spinach. M. in cells. CoEnzyme QlO can be supplied by dietary means or from the body's own resources. Ray Sahelian. Prava-chol. adequate amounts of anti-oxi-dant vitamins (beta-carotene. Ubiquinone. and those undergoing tube feeding on a liquid intravenous diet (total parenteral nutrition). and mental and physical stress. Effects: Said to increase energy and endurance. wheat germ oil. recommends 1000 to 6000 mg/day. It is said to improve long-term memory by protecting brain cell membranes from damage by free radicals. is marketed as a cure for low sperm count. and spatial abilities. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence to support any of its claims. and form another anti-oxidant. Food Sources: Meat. though it may take up to six months to begin to work. specifically memory. and Zocor can also deplete levels of CoEnzyme QlO in the body. soybeans. Precautions: Daily doses above 50 mg may result in gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and upset stomach. According to Sheldon Saul Hendler. The body can usually manufacture it from amino acids L-tyrosine and Lmethionine. prevents cholesterol from sticking to arterial walls. ginseng. "Vitamin B-T" supplements contain dextro-carnitine as well. or liver disease. ALC belongs neither to the vitamin nor the amino acid category. Effects: The same benefits as CoEnzyme QlO. DL-carnitine. a lower incidence of heart disease.D. it may contain fillers. alpha-lipoic acid. brain and nerve degeneration. High doses could cause over-stimulation. angina. HIV). though certain medical conditions may cause deficiencies. walnuts. Mevacor. peanuts. and men run a greater risk of deficiency than women. reduces triglyceride levels and removes ketones (fat waste products) from the blood. Effects: Chemically related to choline. it is available in Europe. C.. potatoes. It may help fight cancer by boosting the effect of lymphocytes. and whole grains. There are several thousand different phytochemicals. Saponins are only one of a class of nutrients called phyto-chemicals which are found in all fruits and vegetables. M. Food Sources: Broccoli. Deficiencies of CoEnzyme Q10 have been associated with cardiovascular disease. recommend 50 to 100 mg/day and say that there are no serious side effects even in the 300 to 600 mg/day range used to treat diabetics. Joe and Theresa Graedon. recommend 60 to 180 mg/day. Some cholesterol-lowering drugs such as Lescol. thiotic acid. and. LlPOIC ACID AKA: l. It is chemically similar to carnitine but is more efficient. CYTOCHROMES AKA: Cytochrome-C. Ph. Exercise.. high cholesterol. Longchain acetylcar-nitines (LCACs) work counter to ALC. Supplements should contain only L-carni-tine. infections (e. It may also enhance the immune system and prevent atherosclerosis. keep the body metabolism balanced under stress. as it is oil-soluble. extreme confusion. insure that the two main enzymes that convert food into energy function properly. LIP-SOD.. There are two forms of carnitine: L-car-nitine and D-carnitine. say experts recommend between 50 to 150 mg a day.. a citrus-flavored drink mix containing two types of L-carnitine. plus a mild visual enhancement.. carnitine. It works synergistically with pho-phatidylserine. motor activities. and it can be very expensive. In this last respect. At present.g. guarana. and Beth Ley Jacobs. Dosage: Earl Mindell. potatoes. Dosage: 1 to 3 g/day in two divided doses. Saponins are steroid-like chemicals connected to sugar molecules that occur naturally in plants. muscle weakness. CoEnzyme QlO should be taken with oily or fatty foods (e. and is an excellent source of vitamin E. can increase levels. and male infertility. with white albacore tuna packed in cans with spring water having the highest amount. exposure to cold. It acts as an anti-oxidant. CoEnzyme Q10 may protect against or reverse some of the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. neither will it build muscle or protect against diabetes. liver ailments such as hepatitis. including lycopenes (found in tomatoes). Effects: Helps manufacture ATP (used by the brain for energy). An anti-oxidant that is very similar to CoEnzyme QlO. the two organs in the body which need the most energy.. A deficiency can cause damage to heart tissue. lysine. increases the life span in lab animals up to 56 percent. and cancer. high cholesterol.D.

so tablet supplements must be enteric coated so that they can be safely absorbed in the small intestine. Peyronie's disease. The production of SOD in the body decreases as we age. albumin. Behcet's disease. Liposomal superoxide dismutase (LIPSOD) is SOD that has been encapsulated in a liposome "delivery vehicle. zinc. where the genetic information resides and cellular energy is produced. green plants. and various autoimmune disorders such as scleroderma. Food Sources: Barley grass. Precautions: There is some debate whether it could be a carcinogen. cabbage. and Kawasaki disease. TELOMERASE Called the "immortality enzyme" because it encourages cell division for an indefinite period of time. Effects: It could extend life span and health indefinitely. unresponsive anemia. It shows promise in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. brussel sprouts. Crohn's disease. Alzheimer's disease. damage caused by radiation therapy and heart attacks. Some say that telomerase by itself does not create cancer cells. while others counter that its ability to promote cell division could cause cancer cells to proliferate unchecked. leading to the death of the cell)." Both SOD and LIPSOD have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. and manganese SOD (MnSOD). wheat grass. and possibly AIDS.It ranks fifth among proteins in terms of the amount in our bodies. Superoxide dismutase works synergistically with copper. the most common and hazardous free radical. . which protects the cytoplasm of the cell. which protects the mitochondria. There are two forms of SOD: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD). preventing the cells from dying of old age (normal human cells divide approximately 75 times over a person's life span before the telomere —the protective end of the chromosome — wears away and becomes too short to protect the chromosome. globulin. and manganese. after collagen. broccoli. Precautions: Stomach acid destroys SOD. as it has been found in 90 percent of all cancer cells. Raynaud's syndrome. and hemoglobin. Effects: An extremely powerful anti-oxidant enzyme that works syner-gistically with catalase to counteract superoxide.

breathing difficulties. insomnia. and increasing the dosage by 5 mg/day until reaching the optimum daily dosage (which may be as little as 25 mg/day for women. guanfacine (antihypertensive effects only). it has caused liver damage leading to the formation of tumors. anyone with impaired liver function or unexplained vaginal bleeding. Stephen Cherniske. porphyria. and vitamin C. and enhance mood in those with depression. avoid synthetic steroid hormones. M. High doses (above 10 mg) may cause irritability. alcohol. Effects: It is said to increase energy and restore sexual drive — particularly in older individuals — increase muscle and bone mass. production of which is believed to decline with age. worry. fibroid tumors of the uterus or endometriosis. menstrual irregularities. Common side effects include stomach cramps. though usage has ranged anywhere from 50 to 2000 mg/day. and anxiety. In combination with cholesterol-lowering drugs. rye. birth control pills. Psicosterone. appetite loss. It can increase the toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants and Phenothiazine tranquilizers. Profuse bleeding could be life-threatening. Serum DHEA levels can be increased by taking supplements of chromium. though epileptics have been taking it for nearly half a century. and pessimism. M. so taking it may protect brain cells against mental deterioration such as Alzheimer's and senility. He also recommends that users take only DHEA or DHEAS and avoid any product sold as a precursor to DHEA. overstimulation. 40 mg/day for men). insomnia. fear. chronic anger. as the latter prevents the cancer and uterine tumors in postmenopausal women that sometimes develop from estrogen therapy. menstrual irregularities. and much more research is needed to uncover any additional side effects. PMS. gallstones. and abnormal bleeding. or hormone replacement drugs. Additionally. ESTROGEN One of the six steroid hormones in the body. bloody skin blisters. or anyone who has had blood clots. protect against osteoporosis (bone loss). increase the chance of liver damage from other drugs. it may boost the estrogen to dangerous levels. A neuropeptide currently under study for its brain-boosting effects. osteoporosis. mild diarrhea. clofibrate. and licorice have estrogen-like properties. the formation of blood clots. soybeans. bleeding gums.. and those taking it should start out at a low dosage. some of which are irreversible. depression. cause unpredictable changes in blood sugar when combined with oral antidiabetics. It received much publicity in 1998 when it was revealed that the St. such as the promotion of the growth of prostate cancer in men and breast and uterine cancers in women. alcohol and drug withdrawal. Mark McGwire.CHAPTER 8 Hormones Hormones are organic compounds secreted by specific cells that control the functions of other cells receptive to those hormone molecules. including testosterone and estrogen. Those with Alzheimer's have levels lower than healthy individuals of similar age. and breast cancer. as well as memory and thinking. after that. Louis Cardinals' home run king. agitation. as women appear more responsive to the hormone than men. aggressiveness. though the drug company involved is keeping silent until it can develop a variant that is patentable. and blood clots leading to stroke or heart attack may result when combined with tobacco. congestive heart failure. some recommend a more modest dose of 19 mg/day for women. diabetes. For general health. or leg. dehydroisoandrosterone. jaundice. and increase the risk of pancreatitis when combined with didanosine. irritability. dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). osteoporosis. Precautions: Men with prostate problems should not take DHEA. For men. slurred speech. Michael Hutchinson recommends 100 to 300 mg/day (in two or three divided doses) for life-extending and cognitive-enhancing purposes. kidney disease. hypercalcemia in breast cancer. phenobarbital. and DHEA in the body. water retention. avoid stress. Its use against such a wide range of disorders maybe attributable to its ability to normalize and promote electrical activity in the body and brain in several ways. It may deplete the levels of vitamins B6. Precautions: Possible side effects include prostate cancer and enlargement. anxiety. and heart disease. loss of coordination. It may cause harmful interactions if used in conjunction with aspirin or blood thinners. chickpeas. A steroid manufactured in the adrenal gland that is similar to testosterone and is a precursor to all steroid hormones in the body. loss of tolerance to contact lenses. fatigue. and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For women. flaxseed. A natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. tender swollen breasts. and a change in menstruation. However. diabetes. It has been used to treat epilepsy. Though stress may cause the body to decrease its production of DHEA and increase its production of cortisol. converting more rapidly to testosterone than DHEA. migraine headaches. and reduce the percentage of fat in the body. The risks for younger women include fertility problems. both of which could otherwise lead to heart attacks and strokes. particularly those of attention and memory loss. Little is known about this hormone. yams. Side effects include acne (regardless of a person's age). Food Sources: Mexican wild yam. CHOLECYSTOKININ-8 AKA: CCK-8. Ray Sahelian. gynecomastia (breast growth). Parkinson's disease. in humans. Ray Sahelian. It should be taken only under the guidance of a physician. A recent study has found that it has no effect on testosterone levels in the blood or muscular strength in men. Its advocates believe it useful for those struggling with obesity. It is found in the bloodstream in greater amounts than any other steroid. cryptosporidium infection. For others. and obesity. recommends starting out at 5 to 10 mg/day. fatigue. hair loss. Gabatol. Effects: It metabolizes to produce GHB in the brain. taking a DHEA pill cannot repair the damage to the body caused by stress. heart palpitations. E. It may also relieve or even prevent the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women. It may even protect women's brains from damage caused by strokes. migraine headaches.D. swollen feet and ankles. A neurotransmitter and central nervous system depressant. Less frequent side effects consist of rash. Individuals under 40 should have their levels checked first. breast lumps. transdehydroandrosterone. making supplementation questionable.. and rifampin. it can be enhanced by meprobamate. irritability and mood changes. a sense of tightness in the chest. It works synergistically with vitamin E. terazosin. about half the dose normally taken by epileptics. in rare cases. dextrothyroxine. stimulants (including herbal stimulants). and anxiety. Prasterone. Food Sources: Alfalfa sprouts. any reports of people feeling better physically or mentally (especially with regard to sexual drive) are purely anecdotal. Men also produce estrogen. compulsive eating. acne. insulin. Bromocriptine. hops. stomach or side pains. sexual problems. growth of uterine fibroids. hypertension. avoid alcohol. angina. tamoxifen.S. The risks for younger men include infertility. moodiness. dong quai. depression. by keeping the level of cortisol low and by helping neurons grow new dendrites. Over-the-counter brands are unregulated by the FDA. anyone who smokes. weight changes. it should be taken no more than two or three times a week. impulsiveness. and excessive vaginal bleeding. increase the amount of calcium absorbed in the stomach. It may cause an increased sensitivity to sunlight and sunlamps and. and nothing is known about long-term effects. which is needed to keep sperm strong and fertile. Nonsupplementation methods of increasing DHEA are simple and basic: exercise regularly. It can be depleted by stress. also cautions against using any supplement that contains additional ingredients such as ephedra or yohimbe. it may also interact with such anti-depressants as Prozac and Zoloft. it is recommended that it be taken only under the guidance of a physician. the latter appears to be much more powerful. Dosage: For humans. or a heart attack. and may even extend life (it has been shown to extend the life span of animals by as much as 50 percent and. its production declines steadily. Women may experience a slight increase in body hair and a deepening of the voice at dosages greater than 25 mg a day. breast enlargement and discomfort. the optimal dosage is as yet not known. impatience. In tests where lab rats were given doses equal to dozens of times that normally taken by people. irritability. Some researchers state that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that it has any beneficial effect on aging or any diseases (most studies have been short-term and involved a dozen people or fewer). baldness. High doses (above 10 mg) may cause irritability. 31 mg/day for men. Certain herbs such as blue cohosh. Oral DHEA may be at least partially destroyed by the liver. In women taking estrogen. and maintain the health of the heart. strokes. Effects: A class of neuropeptides currently under study for their brain-boosting effects. memory loss. Those on estrogen replacement therapy may have to adjust their dosage of DHEA accordingly. leg pains. oddly enough. high blood pressure. hair loss. it has also shown some success in treating AIDS. alcohol. nausea. viral and bacterial infections. Dr. as one that has been shown to enhance learning. a stroke. ulcers. and heart irregularities. violent behavior. . ANDROSTENEDIONE AKA: A-Dione. Levels of this hormone in the body decrease with age (by as much as 95 percent). GABA AKA: GABA Calm. Recent research has shown that older women with cardiac conditions risk a much greater chance of heart attacks and blood clots in the first year of estrogen treatment but. chest pains. asthma. one expert. considers any dose over 10 mg to be too high. and exists in normal brain tissue in amounts six and one-half times greater than in other parts of the body. and testicular atrophy. maintain ideal body weight. avoid smoking. used it to enhance his athletic performance. the amount of DHEA in the body has been found to bear an inverse correlation with mortality levels). involuntary incontinence. Those who have had cancer of the breast or reproductive organs. vomiting. a polypeptide composed of seven amino acids. diarrhea. It may increase the regeneration of body tissue and accelerate healing by encouraging the growth of the protein collagen. it can reduce inflammation and clotting of the blood. and ursodiol. folic acid. Because sufficient research has not yet been done. autoimmune diseases. and their ingredients and purity may be questionable. brown blotches on the skin. and thyroid medications. a blood clot in the lung. headaches. aggressiveness. Deandros. facial hair. but further tests with rat have shown that vitamin E can offset this damage. dehydroepiandrosterone. arthritis. fibrocystic breast disease. primidone. increasing stress to the body and decreasing the individual's panic threshold. increase the chance of blood clots when combined with antifibrinolytic agents. gamma aminobutyric acid. acne. PMS. heart disease. Rare symptoms include stroke. Most supplements are 25 mg. anxiety. According to author Michael Hutchinson. Estrogen can lessen the effects of oral anticoagulants. because the estrogen may induce a deficiency of DHEA. oily skin. fluid retention. may increase mental abilities in those with normal capabilities. cancer. and changes in sex drive. It is found at its highest levels in the body between ages 20 to 25. voice changes. arthritis. epilepsy. vomiting. hostility. It is not known if this same effect occurs in humans. barbiturates. Too much insulin can also lower levels of this hormone. aggressiveness. as it may result in the body's reducing or halting its own testosterone production. Phenytoin. Menstrual irregularities and bleeding between periods may occur when combined with marijuana. as they may not need supplementation. The effects of estrogen can be lessened by hydantoin anticonvulsants. Ethotoin. and then only after having tests to determine the levels in the body and whether the liver is functioning properly. cardiac arrhythmias. Dosage: It may not be needed by those under age 45. It is also possible that the increased energy levels felt by those taking it may be only short-term. Mephenytoin. carbamazepine. dizziness. Effects: Improves physical and mental health. and DHEA may carry the same risks as testosterone. Women on estrogen are also given the hormone progestin. diabetes. DHEA has been administered to those battling such disorders as depression. use is experimental. high blood pressure. It should not be taken with grapefruit juice. Caffeine can lower DHEA levels and raise cortisol levels. vaginal discharge or bleeding. increase the amount of Cyclosporine and adrenal corticosteroid drugs in the blood. and decreased by stress. but may not have the same effects. DHEA AKA: Astenile. night restlessness. Effects: Can improve the mood of postmenopausal women. or are over age 60 should consult a physician first. get plenty of sleep. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ANALOGS AKA: ACTH. diabetes. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who is allergic to any drugs containing estrogen. 10 to 50 mg in the morning may be sufficient for energy and mood enhancement. a dose of 5 to 25 mg two days a week may be sufficient. brain. menopause. thyroid hormones. these risks dropped dramatically after four years of treatment. reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation and sleep by regulating the firing of nerve cells and countering the excitatory effects of acetylcholine. apparently by encouraging the growth of brain cells and the connections between them. and involuntary movements. Pearson and Shaw cite ACTH 4-10. Overdose symptoms include nausea. pain. GABA Plus. Diandron. Though DHEA can be converted to A-Dione. vision changes.

headaches. Japanese radish.. doses of B-12 above 3000 meg.8 percent after six months). . it is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light. and in nondepression cases can cause fatigue. When taken counter to the body's normal circadian rhythm (e. and long-term effects are still not known. loss of vitality. Taking HGH when it is not needed may train the pituitary gland to release less and less of it. B-6. including the onset of puberty. Smoking one joint of marijuana. made from animals. insomnia. 1000 mg of calcium. It is used as a treatment for adults with deficiencies resulting from pituitary disease. confusion. liver. and following a diet that is high in healthy proteins and low in fat. pot bellies. 7-KETO The hormone 7-keto is metabolized from DHEA. ibuprofen. peanuts. faster healing of wounds. lack of darkness during sleep (caused even by such seemingly innocuous offenders as night lights). awareness. pumpkin seeds. avoiding eating before exercise. Melatonin output in the body can be improved by eating the foods mentioned above. and harmful side effects may yet be uncovered. bringing about sagging skin. and other neurotransmitters. Dosage: Levels produced by the body are measured in picograms (trillionths of a gram).D. steroids. Some elderly people lose their ability to produce it altogether. Effects: Stimulates the appetite. allergies. tranquilizers. and ornithine may stimulate the body to make more HGH. chicken liver. Precautions: The above studies also indicate that a deficiency may lead to decreased sensitivity to alcohol and.D. is found principally in spirulina. and certain cardiovascular conditions such as Raynaud's disease and hypertension. multiple sclerosis. depression and suicide fixation. Russel J. very little of it is biologically available. surgery. sedatives (such as Prozac. France. colas. It begins to decline about 14 percent each decade starting at about age 20. Most studies have been done on rats. arginine. professor of neuroendocrinology at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. and smoking marijuana. SEROTONIN Food Sources: Complex carbohydrates (whole grains). lack of sunlight during waking hours. it can regulate platelets (which help blood coagulate). and melatonin may not be effective in countering them. otherwise. "We do not at this time believe that melatonin should be a routine part of the average nutritionalsupplement program. and is now being tested as a possible anticancer drug (it may inhibit some types of cancers. soy products. lower cholesterol. and possibly schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Reiter. stronger bones. and autoimmune diseases such as arthritis.D. It appears to be nontoxic. skin. On the other hand. as the body uses it to convert tryptophan into serotonin. jet lag. and spray —with pill dosages in the 10 to 50 mg range. calcium. on the other hand. tomatoes. Some research does not confirm its supposed benefits. diarrhea. g. MELATONIN AKA: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine. alertness. does not recommend its use more than once or twice a week. cottage cheese. as it could worsen the symptoms. and a reduced sex drive. the ability of blood vessels to expand and contract. and magnesium. It should not be used to treat insomnia. and lupus. the sexual organs. then increasing the dosage every few days until positive effects are felt. ginger. including mania. however. Dosage: Mark Mayell recommends 500 to 750 mg to reduce anxiety. Side effects may include depression. anxiety. nursing. Effects: Higher energy levels. Parkinson's disease. Studies with rats and mice indicate that overproduction of this substance in the brain may lead to sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol and. recommends starting out with 10 mg/day. Some suggest it may even delay the aging process. Taking it may improve the performance of brain cells and stimulate them to produce the cognitive-enhancing neurotransmitters dopamine. Dosage: Not yet established. Optimum dosage has not yet been determined. regrowth of vital organs. and leave the individual feeling groggy upon wakening. but clinical trials have shown that a single daily dose of 25 mg raised the hormone to optimum levels for subjects aged 64 to 81. and a reduction in fat (14. Most pills are 2. or convert it into DHEA and then to over 150 steroid hormones. hypothalmic disease. It may also extend the human life span. including androgens and estrogen. and maintains that it is not needed by healthy people under 40.. as it could reduce their effectiveness. as it most mimics natural conditions. insomnia. and indomethacin (which can completely block the nighttime increase of melatonin). most synthetic forms are manufactured outside the U. on the other hand. who publishes the newsletter Nutrition and Healing. headaches. memory. tobacco. M. or trying to get pregnant. It is available in a variety of forms — pill. Precautions: It should not be taken by women who are pregnant. and other symptoms of old age. Disruption in serotonin levels can result in any number of psychological disorders. resist cancer. Unlike sleeping pills. eating foods that have a high arginine-tolysine ratio (e. barley. and gigantism. He also recommends that it be taken only under the guidance of a physician.. maintaining stable blood sugar and insulin levels (even if it means snacking). alcohol. It also works as a powerful antioxidant (as much as 500 times more powerful than DMSO). calcium-channel blockers. which. Sublingual supplements allow the melatonin to reach the brain quicker. and prevent obesity. enhanced sleep. and Alan Gaby. and serotonin. may be "overkill. taking too much (more than 0. grogginess or fuzzy thinking upon arising from sleep. and Britain. High levels can be maintained by aerobic exercise (especially if separated from eating and sleeping by at least two hours). rice. bananas. which may explain why older people have insomnia. such as falling asleep at the wheel of a car. Animal experiments suggest that it can extend life span. particularly those that are hormone-related — e. and Xanax). possibly. it can have negative effects on memory and cognitive processing. the ability of smooth muscles to contract (including abdominal muscles. shrink the prostate.1 mg (equal in amount to a few grains of salt) can enhance sleep. sweet corn. and synthetic growth hormone has only 10 percent of the effectiveness of the natural form. As a person ages. Valium. Reiter himself takes less than 1 mg/day. and 750 to 1500 mg an hour before bedtime for insomnia. sleeping pills. states. which push food through the digestive system). prostate cancer — when taken in doses of 40 mg a day or more). among other things.5 to 3 mg. nightmares. and it resets the body's clock rather than just knocking the person out. The production of melatonin can also be inhibited by exposure to electromagnetic fields. to assist the body's own production of melatonin. plus 25 to 50 mg of B-6 early in the morning. menopause. Serotonin imbalances may also contribute to the onset of headaches." though probably not harmful. Effects: May improve mental ability. because it accumulates in the body. fluvoxamine (Luvox). Precautions: Too high a dose can result in irritability. why this happens is not known. whole grains. which can be converted by the body into melatonin. raisins). noradrenaline. desipramine (Norpramin. improved memory. osteoporosis. Production decreases with age when the pineal gland becomes worn out and calcified. meditation. averaging around 10 pg per milliliter of blood per day and 50 to 150 pg per milliliter at night. smoother skin. aspirin (which can cut production by 75 percent). sublingual tablet. maintaining ideal body weight. Tryptophan. obsessive-compulsive disorder. can increase melatonin levels in the body 4000 percent. sugar (particularly sugar ingested just before bedtime). and the effects of other neurotransmitters. PREGNENOLONE A hormone formed from cholesterol in various organs of the body. Those with low serotonin levels tend to binge on fatty or sugary foods. taking tryptophan supplements (banned since 1989 because some improperly manufactured supplements caused harm to some users). the body can manufacture it from tryptophan or 5-HTP in foods and supplements. Food sources: Oats. elevated mood. as opposed to the synthetic form. beta-blockers. Paradoxically. by those working night shifts). caffeine (including coffee. natural and synthetic forms are identical. sharper vision. Precautions: It cannot pass through the blood/brain barrier. and depression. Effects: Serotonin has some of the most important functions in the brain and body. A master hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates a number of the body's functions and life cycles. Precautions: It should only be taken under the guidance of a physician. the level of NADH decreases. Supplements of L-glutamine. which do not produce their own melatonin. increased muscle mass (up to 8. It is important in regulating mood and behavior and. and aggressiveness. Down's syndrome. as side effects are still not known. as they produce enough on their own.3 mg) in efforts to fall asleep could result in a melatonin hangover the next day. visual and auditory perception. and the brain. greater alcohol consumption. restoration of immune function.. convert it into progesterone. then cutting back to 2 to 5 mg/day with occasional periods of nonuse. those taking steroid drugs such as cortisone and dexamethasone.5 to 5 mg a day one-half to one hour before bedtime. and mood by facilitating the transmission of impulses between neurons. somatotrophin (STH). nuts. doses as high as 75 to 150 mg will have no effect. though it may not be able to reverse it (it has been shown to increase the longevity of lab rats an average of 20 percent).noradrenaline. impulsiveness. regrowth of hair. The body can use it as it is. One study has shown that it can worsen clinical depression in some cases. Crook and Adderly advise its use only for combating jet lag. cream. NEUROPEPTIDE Y A neuropeptide currently under study for its brain-boosting effects. and those with overactive immune system abnormalities. and lower heart rate and blood pressure. especially alcohol and other depressants." Reiter recommends an alternative program of 100 mg of B-3. The sale of melatonin is banned in Canada. AIDS.S. including the adrenal glands. but a time-release supplement at bedtime is probably best. so it can be effectively used to treat insomnia. M. and chicken. Taking it at the wrong time could cause problems. Its effects may be enhanced by taking it with 25 to 50 mg each of vitamin B-3 and B-6. Pertofrane). Humatrope. Manufactured in the pituitary gland. getting enough niacin. Some medications.. It should not be combined with other drugs. aggression. Effects: Provides needed energy to brain cells for neurotransmitter production and information processing. HGH. Women taking up to 75 mg a day for birth control research have shown no apparent side effects. though much research still needs to be done. less consumption of alcohol. leukemia. M. Researchers recommend taking only 0. The ability of carbohydrates to raise serotonin may be negated by just 5 percent protein in a meal. as it could worsen these conditions. and starch. it doesn't interfere with REM sleep (the dream state). Precautions: One Chinese study indicates that increased levels of GABA in the brain are not conducive to learning and memory.4 percent after six months). Melatonin is only effective as a sedative if the pineal gland's production is low. especially hypertension medicines. micronized pill. The use of synthetic growth hormone has been associated with heart disease and the production of antigrowth hormone antibodies. though this type of bingeing does not necessarily indicate a serotonin deficiency. NADH AKA: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Taking adequate amounts of vitamin B-3 can free up more tryptophan to be converted to melatonin. Taking calcium and magnesium at night may also benefit melatonin production. women who take it for birth control do not get sleepy. Human growth hormone may be expensive and difficult to obtain. PMS. and 500 mg of magnesium at night. though some studies have shown that as little as 0. according to Dr. and Ray Sahelian. breast cancer. Though foods may contain some serotonin. It is known to produce vivid dreams. capsule. Dosage: Ray Sahelian. and sleepiness. There may be a risk of contamination from viruses in the natural form. it appears to be the main hormone associated with aging.. Apart from this. eating and sleeping disorders. and plenty of vegetables will help maintain stable serotonin levels. which can then be converted to melatonin. leaving open the question of quality control. lower blood pressure. Most animal growth hormone is virtually ineffective. turkey. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE AKA: Growth hormone. Levels in the body decline with age. healthy children. carob. It also relieves the symptoms of PMS in women and prevents arthritis (it was first developed in the 1930s as an arthritis medication). liquid. as there are numerous causes that result in a loss of sleep. It has also been shown to boost the immune system. fruit (eaten in place of sugary snacks).g. Effects: Regulates the body's clock. and other relaxation techniques. and it may ease some symptoms of autism. prayer. most MAO inhibitors. as will regular exercise. Vitamin B-6 can stimulate the body to produce more melatonin. side effects may include carpal tunnel syndrome. radiation therapy. those with severe mental illness. seeds. epilepsy and diabetes. and chocolate). and even as a birth control pill. migraines. including lymphoma. as it interferes with sex hormones.. enhanced sexual performance. can interfere or react with melatonin. Researchers are looking into it as a possible treatment or cure for such things as Alzheimer's.g. green tea. and injury. hypertension. consequently.

Syntopressin. Liothyronine. Effects: Increases theta wave activity in the brain which. heart palpitations. high blood pressure. or a slightly underfunctioning thyroid. Precautions: It may create symptoms of toxicity when taken alone. DDAVP. or isoproterenol for asthma should consult a physician first. VASOPRESSIN AKA: ADH. Desmopressin. and Ritalin (metahylphenidate) also release large amounts. A neuropeptide which. Precautions: Any thyroid drugs should be taken only under the guidance of a physician. Levothroid. epinephrine. Eltroxin. Adiuretin SD. headaches. unusual swelling. vomiting. Its effect can be inhibited by cholestyramine. Arginine-vasopressin (argipressin) and lysine-vasopressin (lypressin) are forms of vasopressin that have an additional amino acid. For others. and memory disturbances . AVP. lysinevasopressin. estrogens. ephedrine. It may even have antidepressant qualities. according to most studies. L-desamino-8-D-arginine. nausea. leg cramps. Effects: A class of drugs that mimic the hormone produced in the thyroid gland. A hormone and natural brain peptide secreted by the pituitary gland that has antidiuretic properties. angina. Vasopressin should be snorted into the upper nasal cavities. irritability. and creativity. and more frequent bowel movements. argipressin. dry skin. oral anticoagulants. LVP. along with its analogs. and digitalis medications. as it helps imprint this information in the brain. Thyrolar. or who use epinephrine. Subclinical hypothyroidism. stimulant drugs such as amphetamines. and low energy levels. Thyroid. It should also be avoided by those with kidney disease and epilepsy. rinderpressin. and shortness of breath. nasal ulcerations. Dextrothyroxine. in turn. retention. . fever. Alzheimer's. S. amnesia. colestipol. Thyroxine. Levoid. and congestive heart failure. headaches. lypressin. muscle cramps. [United States Pharmacopeia] Posterior Pituitary Units.Effects: Believed to be identical to DHEA. who have had adrenal gland deficiency.and long-term recall. heartburn. It can counteract the effects of the drugs mentioned above. Dosage: A total dose of 12 to 16 units/day from a nasal spray bottle (one whiff. these may be alleviated when taken in combination with Aldosterone. in each nostril three to four times a day) will improve memory. Synthroid. THYROID HORMONES AKA: Cytomel. a language or new field of study). as inhaling it deep into the lungs may trigger spasms of the larynx and shortness of breath. The condition is also characterized by such symptoms as cold hands and feet. or approximately 2 U. ephedrine. Desmospray. as it could lead to a rare condition called water intoxication. and reports claim it intensifies orgasms. rapid and irregular pulse. diabetes. and habitual use of these drugs depletes the brain's supply of this hormone. their effects are basically the same. which is prescribed for diabetes insipidus and memory loss resulting from aging. menstrual irregularities. Thyroid hormones should not be taken by anyone who has had a heart attack within the past six weeks or for any reason other than a thyroid deficiency. betaadrenergic blocking agents.P. which can be life-threatening. It is littleknown and often overlooked by doctors. diarrhea. and nervousness. insomnia. abdominal cramps. depressant drugs such as alcohol and marijuana suppress the secretion. Postacton. In combination. memory. rash. DAY Ritter. menstrual problems. Thyroglobulin. heat sensitivity. possibly causing a rapid or irregular heartbeat. and it is only available as a nasal spray. as it narrows the blood vessels. heartbeat irregularities. hand tremors. Common symptoms include tremors. chest pain. It has been shown to restore memory lost as a result of aging. it occasionally results in nasal congestion. diarrhea. LSD. irritability. is currently under study for its brain-boosting effects. traumatically-induced amnesia (caused by physical injury to the brain). arginine-vasopressin. which may be why users frequently do not remember events when drunk or stoned. concentration. but without the side effects from metabolization. insomnia. It is recommended that those with cardiovascular problems (particularly hypertension and angina pectoris) should not use vasopressin. THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE AKA: TRH. It may prove helpful in retaining new information (e. cocaine. and phenytoin. and methylphenidate. recognition. and enhanced by large continuous doses of aspirin.. Levothyroxine. consist of a "hot" feeling. oral contraceptives. and diminish the effects of barbiturates. thin hair. Some say that angina patients will experience heart pain. Addison's disease. Excessive use of the drug should not be combined with excess water consumption. and improvements may be noticed within seconds. Pearson and Shaw discourage use in such cases. Levoxyl. can be one reason for poor concentration. Overdose symptoms. tricyclic antidepressants. short. and possibly chemically and electrically-induced amnesia. weight loss. itching or irritation of nasal passages. changes in appetite. and senile dementia. runny nose. Combining it with cocaine can result in excessive stimulation. Euthroid. oral antidiabetics or insulin.g. Conversely. Korsakoff's syndrome. as it is absorbed into the mucous membranes of the nose and taken directly into the brain. it can enhance the effects of amphetamines. Less frequent symptoms include hives. Proloid. Minirin. Liotrix. headaches. mental confusion. antidiuretic hormone. It can also interact with sympathomimetics. Vasopressin is released by experiences of great trauma or intense arousal (which may be one reason why such emotional moments have such a strong impression and can be remembered with vividness long afterwards). cortisone drugs. increases attention span. nervousness. sweating. Diapid. Diapid is the synthetic version. Those who have heart disease. as well. It works extremely fast. weight loss.

Effects: Said to elevate mood and improve memory and concentration. sage. anxiety. and the bottle is opened only when dispensing oil (they can evaporate or oxidize quite readily in the open air). Cedrus deodora. Before they could be rescued. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain. lavender. Works synergistically with bergamot. Ocimum canum. juniper. and fatigue. possibly causing blisters and burns. and be an aphrodisiac. Laurus camphora. produce euphoria (in some people). Prices can vary depending on such factors as the origin of the plant. and dark place. German chamomile is used to treat skin conditions such as acne and eczema. Eucalyptus radiata. Effects: Contains high amounts of cineole. CELERY AKA: Ache. flatulence. laughing and giggling at first. respiratory tract. Also. arthritis pain. Allergic reactions or photosensitivity are possible. Pure. CARAWAY AKA: Carum carvi. as well as reduce nausea and weakness during recovery from illness. Drinking alcohol is said to intensify its effects. and promote feelings of contentment. indigestion. Effects: Said to relieve stress and stress-related headaches. It is used to treat various digestive problems. As for their benefits. Precautions: Should always be used with a base oil. they became aggressive and belligerent. Elettaria cardamomum. Effects: Said to relieve stress and anxiety. Cedrus libani. and be an aphrodisiac. . geranium. Precautions: Do not use the essential oil internally unless under the guidance of an expert aromatherapist. and sexuality. Studies have shown that pleasant aromas increase productivity in the workplace by as much as 25 percent. especially for more than two or three weeks at a time. so caution is advised. BASIL AKA: Ocimum basilicum. and relieve stomach cramps. and amygdala. Precautions: Should not be used by those with asthma or allergies. Said to increase concentration. including bronchitis and whooping cough. it is used as a digestive aid. which may cause problems arising from the compound thujone. or both (by putting 5 or 6 drops in warm bath water). Effects: Said to relieve stress. Precautions: It may be irritating if applied directly to the skin. neroli. CLARY SAGE AKA: Salvia sclarea. two suffered from extreme nausea. as it can be quite toxic. as it may cause dermatitis. BERGAMOT AKA: Citrus aurantium bergamia. and cold sores. and most of the purported effects are based on anecdotal evidence or folklore. Perfumes and fragrance oils sold by cosmetics companies are synthetic (the term "nature identical" is a tipoff). Even among practitioners. flatulence. Many oils work synergistically with each other. with age. ANGELICA AKA: Angelica archangelica. CARDAMOM AKA: Cardamon. Constant use of basil may dull the mind. One case on record relates that several workers who tried to clean up fifty quarts of coriander oil spilled from a large container were overcome by the fumes within a half hour. and depression. and depression. CORIANDER AKA: Coriandrum sativum. undiluted oils are extremely concentrated and should never be inhaled directly from the bottle or applied to the skin. and contribute to a calm sleep. those with asthma. affecting emotion and memory by stimulating the hypothalamus. It should always be diluted before being applied to the skin. as they can produce effects that are the opposite of what they normally provide. then dark brown. coughs. Essential oils themselves can be rather expensive. smallage. and to treat heartburn. neroli. as that has the most reliable therapeutic properties. They can last a year or more if stored properly in a cool. especially in its pure state. act as an aphrodisiac. the method of extraction. contribute to a restful sleep. Cedrus atlantica. and extra caution should be used to prevent using too much. Works synergistically with bergamot. Effects: Said to promote a sense of spirituality. or a l-to-10 ratio of essential oil to a carrier oil such as sweet almond. as they can be irritating (a cotton swab soaked in vegetable oil and applied to the eye should relieve discomfort). break up congestion in the lungs. Cinnamomum ceylanicum. and PMS. vaporizers. and sandalwood. flu. rose. Effects: Said to improve memory. and ylang-ylang. The fresh oil is colorless. diarrhea. It is more of a resin than an oil. or the use of herbal oils as medicines. which may cause adverse reactions in some people and — possibly — cancer in large doses (varieties low in estragol include Ocimum Americanum. CAMPHOR AKA: Camphora officinarum. and urinary tract. and all suffered from extreme fatigue for the next few days. and relieve headaches and the symptoms of PMS. those whose blood pressure is abnormally high or abnormally low. as it can be irritating in its pure state. BAY AKA: Bay leaf. and rose. and are of little benefit in aromatherapy. has been practiced for thousands of years. CEDAR AKA: Cedarwood. Though several different trees produce essential oils which are marketed as cedarwood. some aromatherapists recommend that only Cedrus atlantica be used. little is known about the specifics with which they work: only a handful of studies have been done on aromas and aromatherapy. Essential oils. stress. as the wrong dosage could prove fatal. while some may contain compounds which could be carcinogenic if used regularly for an extended period of time. They should not be used by those suffering from epilepsy or other seizure disorders. absorbed through the skin (by using three or four drops as a massage oil. Effects: Said to promote psychic awareness. Precautions: It may cause allergic reactions in some people. Absolutes — which are essential oils that are viscous or semi-solid — are cheaper. and not be used on a daily basis. Precautions: Should not be used by anyone who suffers from epilepsy. Some shops or catalogs sell dispensers. It has been used to treat various respiratory infections. including colic. including juniper. lamps. CINNAMON AKA: Cassia. Effects: Said to increase energy and promote awareness. jasmine. and nausea. sore throat) and skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. olive. and menstrual pain. lavender. and whether it was grown organically or not. and turns yellow. and are thought to have effects on the human mind and body as well. and has to be melted by heat before being used. It is a very strong oil. and they should not be taken internally (as little as a half teaspoon of pure oil can be fatal). Effects: Said to relieve depression. mental functioning. or those being treated for cancer. placing a bandage over it. and oregano. as it can cause the skin to become sensitive. anxiety. Apium graveolens. induce intense and colorful dreams. as it may take a hundred pounds of plants or more to produce one ounce of oil. Cinnamomum camphora. Effects: Said to increase energy. EUCALYPTUS AKA: Eucalyptus citriodora. Despite the synergistic effect with alcohol. It has been used to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. cypress. and checking it 24 hours later for any adverse reactions). muscle spasms. It can also relieve arthritis pain and the symptoms of respiratory ailments. and are not recommended for therapeutic use.CHAPTER 9 Essential Oils Aromatherapy. and contribute to a restful sleep. Eucalyptus globulus. Precautions: Avoid sunlight if applying directly to the skin. relieve nervousness and fatigue. Cinnamomum cassia. improve the respiratory system. Precautions: Contains estragol. combining the two can lead to a dangerously heightened sense of drunkenness (and accompanying hangover) with extreme nightmares. and learning by as much as 17 percent. It may cause an allergic reaction in some people. Many essential oils can cause such side effects as headaches. There are over a hundred different varieties of basil. Roman chamomile is used to treat stomach aches. avoid getting essential oils in the eye. and memory. cedar. Smells can have a direct influence on the brain. improve memory and creativity. a small amount of vitamin E can help preserve the freshness. Precautions: Some brands may be adulterated with other essential oils. They can either be inhaled (by putting a drop or two in a bowl of steaming water). Pimenta acris. happiness. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue. Effects: Said to increases energy. which can be irritating (patchtest an oil by dabbing a drop of it on the skin with a cotton swab. Oils should generally be reserved for treating specific conditions. jasmine. there may be some discrepancy about specific effects. and Ocimum gratissimum). and diarrhea. dyspepsia. are believed to help protect plants from certain diseases and pests. hippocampus. Cinnamomum zeylanicum. colitis. especially with spice oils such as thyme. BENZOIN AKA: Styrax benzoin. CHAMOMILE AKA: Anthemis nobilis or Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). It is used in Europe to treat infections of the skin. or diffusers that provide a longer-lasting effect. or concentrated liquids extracted from various parts of plants. dry. Precautions: It should not be used without the guidance of a trained aromatherapist. as well as ease the symptoms of common respiratory problems (colds. chamomile. Precautions: Avoid sunlight if applying directly to the skin or using in bath water. lemon. dizziness. the dark brown oil should not be used. Works synergistically with angelica. or sesame seed oil). but may contain trace amounts of toxic solvents used in the extraction process. Matricaria chamomila or Matricaria recutita (German chamomile). rather than stimulate it. Effects: Said to increase energy. geranium. PMS.

irritability. Effects: Said to increase energy. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue. digestive problems. olibanum. Effects: Said to increase happiness. induce calmness. and even skin cancer. Works synergistically with bergamot. GRAPEFRUIT AKA: Citrus paradissi. energy. myrtle. It has been used to stimulate the appetite and treat cold sores. It is used for a wide variety of disorders and medical problems. LAVANDIN AKA: Lavandula delphinensis. and sinusitis. It is often confused with oregano. Effects: Said to relieve stress. Precautions: Individuals with other allergies or asthma may suffer an allergic reaction to lavender. Effects: Said to relieve stress and anxiety. lemon balm. It is also used to treat skin and mouth problems. sweet balm. NUTMEG AKA: Myristica fragrans. and pain. MARJORAM AKA: Knotted marjoram. induce calmness. and promote feelings of optimism. Effects: Used as an aid in meditation. FENNEL AKA: Foeniculum vulgare. and pine. and contribute to a deeper. and pine. as well as athlete's foot and hemorrhoids. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension and increase life span. lemongrass. GINGER AKA: Zingiber officinalis. along with geranium and citronella. melissa. lemongrass. diuretic. and vetiver. diarrhea. Works synergistically with bergamot and lavender. fatigue. MYRRH AKA: Commiphora myrrha. Effects: Said to increase energy and concentration. though some still consider it unsuitable for use. Precautions: It is a very strong oil and should only be used under the guidance of an expert aromatherapist. Jasminum officinale (common jasmine). and insomnia.Effects: Contains cineole and eucalyptol. Melissa officinalis. Effects: Said to have a mild calming effect similar to lavender. relieve depression. and to promote calmness and feelings of spirituality. lemon. elevate mood. Precautions: It could cause a rash or blisters if applied directly to the skin or added to bath water. whose calming properties are not as great. Precautions: If applied to the skin. as it could produce an effect opposite to the one intended. bergamot. Effects: Said to relieve insomnia and depression. FRANKINCENSE AKA: Boswellia carteri. rose. neroli. and euphoria. Works synergistically with detoxifying and cleansing oils such as juniper. Effects: Said to slow down and deepen breathing. It is also used for its detoxifying. it is often used to imitate rose and verbena. hyssop. which could cause serious side effects. catarrh. Works synergistically with angelica. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension. It is a common ingredient in cold remedies. Works synergistically with jasmine and rose. pine. asthma. and strength. and to increase feelings of love and euphoria. both of which stimulate the central nervous system. Jasmine absolute using the process of enfleurage — placing leaves in trays of carrier oil to extract the essential oil — is considered the safest. It is used to treat muscular aches and pains. lavender. Works synergistically with cedar. high blood pressure. LEMONGRASS AKA: Cymbopogon citratus. Precautions: It is often sold as lavender. clary sage. migraines. nausea. it can cause a rash when exposed to sunlight. migraines. confidence. The oil has antiviral and antibiotic properties. stress. lemongrass. lavender. lime. JASMINE AKA: Jasminum grandiflorum (royal jasmine. more restful sleep. it can cause an allergic reaction or irritation. and turpentine. melissa grass. Precautions: Since so many flowers are needed to produce an ounce of essential oil. it is often adulterated with other oils such as lavandin. menopause. Lavandula officinalis. colds. clary sage. depression. as well as maintaining concentration during prayer and meditation. LEMON AKA: Citrus Hmon. bee balm. depression. as the hot steam could have an adverse effect. Spanish jasmine). The oil could be adulterated with turpentine. even though it has a sweet fragrance and is not as potent. It may cause irritation when applied to the skin. PMS. It has been used to treat various skin disorders. and depression. cedarwood. and contribute to health and healing. shock. lemon. LAVENDER AKA: Lavandula angustifolia. and rose. lavender. and pine. anxiety. Effects: Said to cleanse the mind. high blood pressure. and improve memory and concentration. chamomile. Because it is so expensive. sweet marjoram. and increase concentration. virtually all of the products on the market since the late 1980s are absolutes. It has been used to treat such conditions as anorexia. Lavandin is a hybrid of lavender and aspic. insomnia. flatulence. juniper. Works synergistically with sandalwood. fennel. cedar. Works synergistically with eucalyptus. Pelargonium odoratissimum. Precautions: It should be used with caution by asthmatics. It has been used to treat sinus congestion. Precautions: It should not be used by those suffering from epilepsy. It has been used to treat diarrhea. and asthma. and rheumatism. . and it should not be used as a diuretic without supervision. and increase energy. Never use oil that is cloudy or pale. Citrus aurantium bugardia. chamomile. and hangovers. neroli. eucalyptus. and body. lavender. Precautions: Can increase chances of sunburn when applied to the skin. Works synergistically with bergamot. it should not be used indiscriminately because it is high in phenolic resin. Precautions: If applied to the skin in its pure state. JUNIPER AKA: Juniperus communis. geranium. cheaper brands may be adulterated with artificial esters. and to aid concentration during meditation. Precautions: It may increase the chance of a sunburn if applied to the skin. sexuality. though none have been reported. patchouli. MYRTLE AKA: Myrtus communis. and pine. and thyme. MELISSA AKA: Balm. Cymbopogon flexuosus. Boswellia thurifera. juniper. NEROLI AKA: Citrus aurantium. Effects: Said to relieve anxiety. Works synergistically with geranium. Precautions: Should not be used for kidney problems. anxiety. lavendin. LIME AKA: Citrus limetta. and ylang-ylang. or even a skin rash if exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. It is often adulterated with petitgrain. Precautions: Since it is quite expensive. Effects: Said to increase energy. Origanum marjorana. rosemary. Some brands may be adulterated with the much less expensive and less effective citronella. Precautions: It may be irritating when applied to sensitive skin. marjoram. clary sage. Works synergistically with benzoin. or lemongrass. It is used to adulterate melissa and. spirit. It has been used to treat muscular aches and pains. GERANIUM AKA: Pelargonium graveolens. Effects: Said to reduce stress and depression. Works synergistically with cypress. Effects: Said to relieve stress and insomnia. Some aromatherapists are also concerned about the combination of principal constituents anethol and estragol. Precautions: It should not be used on young or sensitive people. Lavandula vera. and antiseptic qualities. and muscular aches and pains. Citrus bigaradia. neroli. lemon. as it could cause kidney damage. Works synergistically with lavender. geranium. which may contain trace amounts of toxic solvents. Lavandula fragrans. catarrh. and has been used to treat a variety of respiratory problems.

even in small amounts. The oranges used must be natural and organic. Its medicinal properties have not withstood scientific scrutiny. sore throats. and to clear up such skin problems as acne. Effects: Said to promote awareness. as it is quite powerful. rose. VERBENA AKA: Aloysia citriodora. lavender. YARROW AKA: Achillea millefolium. it can cause rashes and allergies. or Verbena officinalis. jasmine. Precautions: The pure oil may irritate sensitive skin. linseed. and promote feelings of happiness and well-being. coconut oil. Effects: Said to elevate mood and refresh the spirits. popularly known as cananga. Effects: Said to increase awareness. stomach aches. vetivert. It is used mainly in perfumes and soaps. Precautions: It can cause narcosis. and contribute to feelings of contentment and love. PALMAROSA AKA: Cymbopogon martini. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension. increase concentration during meditation. as most are sprayed with ethylene to give them more color and coated with wax to seal in the moisture. as at least half of the essential oil is menthol. nausea. Effects: Said to relieve stress. When rubbed into the forehead. and contains high amounts of cineole. varicose veins. lavender. it can increase susceptibility to sunburn. Precautions: Undiluted. ORANGE AKA: Citrus aurantium. Effects: Said to promote alertness. Precautions: The huge demand for this oil has led to the practice of cutting trees before they reach maturity. It should not be used as a massage oil. lavender. Precautions: When applied to the skin. Overuse could damage the kidneys. It may be adulterated with castor. Precautions: Yarrow should only be used in its diluted state. it can relieve tension headaches. lemon verbena. myrtle. ROSE AKA: Rosa centifolia (cabbage rose. and neroli. Works synergistically with bergamot. Precautions: If applied to the skin. sage. Effects: Has antioxidant properties. It can also increase alertness and concentration. anxiety. It has been used to treat eczema and other skin disorders. geranium. VETIVER AKA: Andropogon muricatus. If applied to the skin. SANDALWOOD AKA: Santalum album. Precautions: Prolonged or excessive use may cause headaches or nausea. rose. Due to the neglect of this plant as a cash crop. Effects: Said to reduce stress and depression. Effects: Said to relieve depression and fatigue. rheumatism. and sadness. and urinary tract infections. sandalwood. PEPPERMINT AKA: Mentha piperita. PEPPER AKA: Black pepper. it could make it more susceptible to damage from the sun. migraines. and nutmeg. hallucinations. and act as an aphrodisiac. and as a fixative in aftershaves and colognes. Works synergistically with benzoin. so cheaper brands may be adulterated with lemongrass and citronella. neroli. an alcohol that has a cooling effect on the skin. Works synergistically with cedar. TANGERINE AKA: Citrus reticulata. melissa. It should not be used by young or sensitive individuals. increase energy. When applied to the skin. and improve memory. It has no medicinal properties. improve memory. and turpentine. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain and stimulates the central nervous system. hangovers. and tension. It has been used to relieve the muscle aches accompanying flus and fevers. skin rashes. It has been used to treat such gastrointestinal disorders as gas. hemorrhoids. clary sage. Piper nigrum. improves circulation. and sandalwood. only milder. and congested sinuses. gas. Verbena triphylla. Rosa damascena (damask rose). VANILLA AKA: Vanilla planifolia. lemon. gaiac. or the inferior variant Cananga macrophylla. It is also sold as an absolute. hyssop. and palmarosa. lemon. Its use is not recommended. it can make it more susceptible to skin rash when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. and insomnia. colds. Provence rose). Works synergistically with cardamom. diarrhea. And it should not be used undiluted. and the mood swings of PMS. and induce feelings of calm and happiness. frankincense. Precautions: Contains compounds (such as thujone) which could cause severe adverse side effects and be carcinogenic if used for an extended period of time. and promote feelings of love and sexuality. Works synergistically with bergamot. It is sometimes used as a tonic for the heart and digestive system. Citrus aurantium sinensis. Lippia citriodora. It may cause insomnia in some people. and constipation. fatigue. vaginal infections. Illicium verum. Precautions: it is quite costly. It has been used to speed the healing of wounds. insomnia. cypress. STAR ANISE AKA: Badian anise. an antiseptic. and to treat headaches. It has been used to treat motion sickness. it can increase susceptibility to damage by the sun. Rosa gallica. jasmine. the oil can be toxic and irritating to the skin. frankincense. ROSEMARY AKA: Rosmarinus officinalis. anxiety. shingles (herpes zoster). and more than two or three drops in bathwater may sting or blister the skin. and some aromatherapists advise using clary sage instead. Effects: Contains large amounts of cineole. khas-khas. and rose. irritability. It should not be confused with vervein. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain. khus-khus. juniper. neroli. It has been used by herbalists to treat digestive problems. and myrtle. Precautions: It should not be used in bath water. vomiting. even the spice can cause severe adverse reactions. and hay fever. Effects: It can slow down rapid breathing and rapid heartbeat. . Effects: Said to relieve stress. It is used as a digestive aid. It is said to increase life span. alertness. Precautions: When applied to the skin. verbena. Its effects are very similar to neroli. depression. Precautions: It may be adulterated with aspic. indigestion. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue and depression. neroli. PETITGRAIN AKA: Citrus aurantium bigaradia. Precautions: It is often adulterated with cedarwood and turpentine. Effects: Said to reduce stress. YLANG YLANG AKA: Cananga odorata. so less expensive brands may be adulterated with cheaper oils or synthetics. or even death. Chinese anise. depression. relieve stress. or in addition to homeopathic remedies. catarrh. orange. and concentration. and orange. Precautions: It is not recommended for use as an oil. jasmine. Vetiveria zizanoides. and verbena. and increase concentration. Effects: Said to reduce stress and nervous tension. It is quite rare and expensive. anxiety. and ylang-ylang. which may contain trace elements of toxic solvents. Works synergistically with cinnamon. vomiting. flu symptoms. heartburn. at night (as it will prevent sleep). as it can be irritating to the skin. depression. It has been used to treat dermatitis. cheaper brands may be adulterated with other oils such as bois de rose. clove. and insomnia. and acne.Effects: Said to increase energy. It is said to relieve stress. and increases awareness. tension. and most of the oil now sold is either cocoa butter. It stimulates the nervous system. Works syngergistically with clary sage. Works synergistically with jasmine. depleting a once abundant crop. this oil is now hard to come by. Effects: Said to reduce stress. lime. SAGE AKA: Salvia officinalis. and palm oils. Precautions: Since it is so expensive.

though the exact psychoactive principle remains a mystery. Related to the nightshade family. numbness of the limbs. Mushrooms may also accumulate such toxins as arsenic and cesium. It is also noteworthy that the mushroom is believed to have contributed to the frenzied behavior of the Norse Vikings known as Beserkers. trembling. This is because the kidneys detoxify muscarine. The fact that it is prepared with other plants could present additional problems. carcinogenic and potentially deadly). eaten fresh. the setting or circumstances under which it is taken. and death. two species of mullet (Mugil cephalus and Neomyxus chaptalli). Banisteriopsis martiniana. The secretions have been found to contain steroid alkaloids. Any mushroom should probably be sauteed before eating because in its raw state. Effects: The pollen of this New Guinea plant is said to induce narcosis. either. Scorpion. though its use can cause toxicity in sufficient doses. sacha ayahuasca). popularly known as psychedelics or hallucinogenics. though the medicine men can reputedly control the duration of the madness quite accurately. AMANITA MUSHROOMS AKA: Amanita muscaria (bolond gomba. who aggressively seek out this mushroom.000-plus plant species identified so far. ARCHONTOPHOENIX Effects: The nuts of this New Britain palm are said to be psychoactive. latue. Banisteriopsis quitensis. made from the liver and bone marrow of a giraffe. Effects: Causes violent intoxication. like Diplopterys cabrerana (a third species. Narrenschwamm. Latua venenosa. Amanita pantherina has been known to make people sick for up to twelve hours. An overdose can produce twitching. as such. Indian holy men supposedly smoke the dried venom of the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and the common cobra (Naja naja). BAIBAI AND BUDZAMAR AKA: Bebai. chicken liver. what is not well-known is that other animals have psychoactive properties. them. oco-yaje. sauerkraut. may be psychoactive themselves. with 1 to 3 mushrooms per dose thereafter. Lycioplesium pubiflorum. rather than nullifies. In reindeer-hunting communities in Siberia. yaje-uco). or dried. Dosage: One medium-sized mushroom is taken initally. Moth larva. There is another type of caapi made from the vine Tetrapteris methystica. It is said to endow the user with telepathic abilities. are among the most powerful and controversial substances known to man. Dosage: The bark can be made into a drink. yet they appear to have no psychoactive ingredient. there are certainly many in which the psychoactive ingredient has yet to be identified. to pass into the urine largely intact (reindeer. Diplopterys cabrerana (Banisteriopsis rusbyana. however. will likewise consume the fly agaric-filled waste. it has been identified as either Paneolus papilionaceus or Pholiota spectabilis. paranoia. It is possible that medieval alchemists had been able to extract some form of psychoactive substance from the salamander. popularly known as caapipinima (painted caapi). and on what trees it grows near. Effects: Causes a pleasurable intoxication and colorful visual hallucinations lasting six to twelve hours. Cobra. William Burroughs describes his experiences with yage in The Yage Letters. cocoa. and so should not be combined with any substances contraindicated for this type of drug. chacruna). compounds similar to rocket propellants (which are. Ants. but others found they could participate in the experience by drinking the shaman's urine. Mushrooms should not be combined with alcohol. Precautions: Also causes delirium and insanity. which may be permanent.CHAPTER 10 Entheogens Entheogens. Another "dancing mushroom" is Gymnopilus (Pholiota) spectabilis. but allow muscimole. Papuans boil the leaves and bark with the leaves of ereriba to make a drink. nausea. Spanish fly. and comprise approximately one-tenth of the 600. wild fennel oil. tranquilizers. and would not exist in sufficient quantities to produce the required effects if it were). as it could cause headaches. though bacteria from decay and algae eaten by the fish are two possibilities that are also considered unlikely. dreamy intoxication — accompanied by vivid hallucinations and giddiness — that lasts four to eight hours. AGARA AKA: Galbulimima belgraveana. has an odd yellowish color and tastes very bitter. vomiting and even death. An average cup of the native decoction can contain 400 mg of psychoactive alkaloids. dill oil. it intensifies.N-dimethyltrypta-mine) as well. Disagreements by various Pacific Islanders concerning the physical characteristics of the relevant fish and the specific parts of the fish purported to be psychoactive only add to the confusion. and possibly the physiology of the individual taking it." which caused those who ate it to laugh and dance giddily. Urine can be recycled four or five times in this manner. the above are the only two that are psychoactive. supposedly. The main psychoactive ingredient is the alkaloid harmine. and subsequent feelings of sickness. aged cheeses. they have often been used in religious ceremonies and. Gluckspilz. followed by a deep sleep. Various other plants are often added to the drink depending on the region. and under no circumstances are more than 3 mushrooms taken at any one time. The use of atropine by some medical professionals to treat the negative effects is counterproductive. Bees and wasps. chagropanga. called oco-yaje by Colombian and Ecuadorian Indians along the Amazon) and various species of Psychotria. Several Native American tribes of Southern California have ingested ants as a means of inducing visions and obtaining supernatural powers. A timber tree native to Malaysia and Australia that is related to the magnolias. ARBOL DE LOS BRUJOS AKA: Latua pubiflora. delirium. locally referred to as budzamar. Effects: A pleasant. Salamander. or narcotics. followed by a deep sleep characterized by vivid dreams and visions. It also increases visual acuity and sensory awareness. Honey made from the nectar of the belladonna plant will retain some of the plant alkaloids' psychoactive effects. as well. the unpleasant side effects of nausea and vomiting were lessened in this manner. It may work synergistically with the juice of the bog bilberry (Vacinium uliginosum). so extreme care must be taken when picking them in the wild. pickled herring. some of which. Much of the information is sketchy and anecdotal. tu ying hsin). it is the only known species of latua and is used by the medicine men of the Mapuche Indians in central Chile. A species of Kyphosus (possibly Kyphosus fuseus or Kyphosus vaigiensis) of Norfolk Island in the Pacific. though these side effects usually start and end quickly. mukhomor. Another member of the Cycas genus. Cycas circinalis. recklessness. it may contain methylhydazines. to determine tolerance. a toxin found in the mushroom. It should not be combined with avocados. as the yage inactivates the stomach enzyme that usually destroys DMT. AYAHUASCA AND CAAPI AKA: Banisteriopsis caapi (caapi. excess amounts of caffeine. and are occasionally passed off as such on the underground drug market. violent intoxication. aggression. This notorious aphrodisiac. amphetamines. red is the strongest. While German anthropologist Christian Ratsch states that the fish may contain DMT. ephedrine. minor convulsions. or alcohol. mihi. Banisteriopsis inebrians. The degree of psychoactivity is related to its color — yellow is the weakest. Precautions: The initial effects are nausea. antihistamines. ibotenic acid. producing higher. milk or milk products. the bark and stems can be chewed. or the "laughing mushroom. and allegedly by witches in Portugal. cadana." and was once used as a cheap high in the U. . Banisteriopsis muricata (mii. yake. but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. Effects: Causes hallucinations because of the alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine. or it can be brewed in a tea. ripe bananas. pilde. made from the bark by the Maku Indians on the Amazon in northwestern Brazil. The name "fly agaric" is derived from the fact that flies will drop into a helpless stupor after sucking on its juices. though the particular species has not yet been identified. An overdose can result in nightmarish visions. The amanita family of mushrooms can range from those that are harmless (and actually quite delicious) to those that are deadly poisonous. Giraffe.S. excess amounts of chocolate. or just chew the leaves and bark. yaje. Richard Rudgely speculates that the bone marrow may harbor DMT. muscimole. induces an opium-like sleep filled with vivid dreams. natema. one of which is a neurotoxin that can cause convulsions and death. others are not so sure (Jonathan Ott asserts that the DMT would not be psychoactive if taken orally. though the former is also known as waraitake. also known as cantharides. is said by the Humr people of the Sudan to induce hallucinations and vivid dreams. called umm nyolokh. is used by magicians on islands in the Torres Straits to enter an altered state. These are sometimes referred to by ethnobotanists as ayahuasca analogues or ayahuasca borealis. Diplopterys cabrerana contains DMT (N. Ayahuasca and caapi are two species (of approximately 100) of a South American liana. canned figs. mescaline. or "dancing mushroom. the psychoactive principle has yet to be identified. The surgeonfish (Acanthurus sandvicensis) and the rudder fish (Kyphosus cinerascens) are also rumored to be hallucinogenic. Amanita verna) and other similar-looking mushrooms can be lethal when ingested. and travelers are advised not to urinate in their presence out of fear for the person's safety). cooked. It has been said that a "bamboo grub. there is mention in ancient literature of the maitake. fly agaric. and the often theatrical and bizarre behavior exhibited by those partaking of the so-called hallucinogen may be due more to social expectations and psychodrama than to any actual pharmacological ingredient." That the effects are genuine — as evinced by infants who have shown all the classic signs of nightmares after consuming it — and that it is not an allergic reaction— as non-toxic species produce no reactions in those who have also eaten the toxic ones — has been proved. nutmeg. heart problems. of course. Precautions: There are often unpleasant physical symptoms. Other varieties of amanita (Amanita phalloides. yage. or jungle vine. It is an MAO inhibitor. dapa. They are thoroughly dried first. One researcher has reported that those stung by a scorpion experience hallucinations. reportedly without the subsequent hangover. sedatives. Although 28 biologically active alkaloids have been identified. parsley oil. Multiple bee and wasp stings can induce euphoria and heighten the perception of colors and geometric forms. pinde. dizziness. It can be dried and smoked. broad beans. The quality of the experience may reflect the variety and potency of the plant. bejuco de oro. latuy. intense vomiting and diarrhea. The puffer fish is supposedly one ingredient of the Haitian zombie drug. There may be many more psychoactive plants that have yet to be identified. only the shamans were allowed to eat the fly agaric mushrooms." called bicho de tacuara by the Malalis of Brazil and identified as the larva of the Myelobia smerintha moth. yeast extract. clearer visions. The main psychoactive ingredients include muscazon. These and other mind-altering substances act by intensifying the user's mood and the situation he or she is in when taking the drug. excess amounts of licorice. more recently. In Japan. is actually the wings of the Cantharis vesicatoria beetle. and two species of goatfish (Mulloidichthys samoensis and Upeneus urge) are known by some as "dream fish" or "nightmare fish. Amanita pantherina (panther mushroom). Combinations of tropical plants containing DMT and beta-carbolines may produce similar effects to ayahuasca. ANIMALS While it is common knowledge that toad secretions can induce altered states. The drink. A number of these plants are used by various indigenous peoples around the world in their ceremonies. in therapeutic situations. and orange is in between — on where and when it is grown. ha ma chun. tiger drug. cooking will not remove or deactivate them. kahi. sorcerers' tree. or the plant can be made into a snuff. An analysis of such poisons has yet to be conducted to determine if they have psychoactive properties. A drink. the method with which it is prepared. Dosage: The dosage is a closely guarded secret. the hallucinogen. depending on the dosage. though not in dangerous levels. and bufotenine. Fish. and acts as an aphrodisiac.

It improves physical endurance by stimulating the skeletal muscles. A member of the nightshade family that is native to the highlands of South America. produces a psychedelic effect similar to LSD. To discontinue use. diarrhea. as popular in Asia as tobacco is in the West. CALEA AKA: Bitter grass. cold remedies. in effect flatlining the body's state of arousal. and acts as an aphrodisiac. an increase in the thyroid effect. headache. drip coffee does not. It is not related to the opium poppy. weakening bones. anxiety. on the brain. gradually decrease the amount over a month or more. some stimulant drugs sold by mail or over-the-counter. which may contain elements of ecstasy and eroticism. confusion. or tranquilizers. it can be particularly addictive or habit-forming. The plant is very similar in appearance to the highly poisonous blue flag. betel nut. zacatechichi. it can lead to an increased effect of both substances along with a rapid heartbeat. indigestion. BORRACHERA AKA: Lochroma fuchsioides. chocolate. A member of the potato family. however. The lethal dosage has been estimated to be about 10 grams. a clarity of the senses. irritability. more than 300 mg of caffeine a day. or panic disorders. witches' berry. irritability. More severe and infrequent symptoms include confusion. A 10-inch length is said to produce mild LSD-like hallucinations. Effects: Calea may produce a sense of calm. All coffee. and others show that high doses can impair a person's ability to work with numbers. morrel. Precautions: The Basuto also use the bulb as an arrow poison and as a method of committing suicide. Withdrawal symptoms can begin 12 to 36 hours after the last dose. . Effects: The stimulant is the alkaloid arecoline. Precautions: Constant use will stain the teeth. it has no effect on memory or clarity of thought. Some mail-order "look-alike" drugs that mimic amphetamines have reportedly triggered strokes and irregular heartbeats that ultimately led to death. Combined with caffeinated beverages. and accuracy in performing tasks. bladder and colon cancer. but this may be blamed more on the stimulant phenylprolanolamine (PPA) than on the caffeine and ephedrine found in these drugs. mouth. vomiting. Decaffeinated coffee still contains some caffeine and can also cause these symptoms. CALAMUS AKA: Acorus calamus. The Indians are said to finish off with a few puffs of calea leaves rolled into a joint. and dilates the bronchial tubes (making it easier to breathe). caffeine may benefit the performance of simple tasks but have no effect on more complex ones such as reading comprehension or advanced mathematics. guarana is adequate. drowsiness. Long-term high-dose caffeine intake can promote calcium loss due to its diuretic effect. confusion. turmeric. central nervous system stimulants. or headaches. is not recommended. It is also used to treat fever. rambling speech and thought. as the paper niters absorb the harmful oils in the coffee grounds. constipation. energy. cardamom. myrtle flag. allowing the body to shift into high gear. Taken with alcohol. kidney disease. bladder irritation and urinary problems (especially in women). Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who is allergic to stimulants. symptoms can last from one and one-half to seven days. Toxicity may vary from plant to plant and from person to person. low blood sugar. It improves typing skills. The calamus leaves give off a sweet smell when scratched and the roots have a pleasing aroma and sharp taste. It is used by some to treat such ailments as asthma. sweet flag. and with tobacco. oral contraceptives. BORRACHERO AKA: Ipomoea carnea. gotu kola. hot skin. and possibly even nausea and vomiting. but may not create the feeling of tension that amphetamines do. and some asthma drugs. then placed in the mouth and chewed or sucked on for hours. As for the natural forms. convulsions. rendering them useless. and the roots have a bitter. ping lang. abnormal heart rhythms. It contains the substance asarone. Effects: Stimulates. stomach ulcers. dwale. the health problems associated with ephedrine and caffeine have led the FDA to ban drugs and diet aids that contain these two ingredients. and tea and coffee rank lowest. plus cloves. Some studies show no improvement in recall or response time. though more recent studies refute these findings. It can also worsen existing health problems. learning impairment. The psychoactive property has not been identified. It interferes on a cellular level with the compound adenosine.D. matacabra ("goat killer"). This will produce stimulation and euphoria. Overall. grass myrtle. and heart disease. In addition. it gives a mental boost by releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream. increased sensitivity to the effects of the caffeine (Tagamet can increase caffeine levels by as much as 70 percent). anxiety. but apparently does contain several psychoactive alkaloids. depression. crushed leaves (30 to 200 mg) or the root (30 to 120 mg). and in high enough doses. Dosage: Two tablespoons of dried leaves brewed for five minutes in a pint of boiling water. The leaves and petals are dried and rolled into joints. cocoa. Effects: Supposedly made into a hallucinatory drink by the Sibundoy Valley Indians of southern Colombia. Ph. treatments for ulcers and stomach problems. It does not replenish a person's noradrenaline once it is used up. and North America may each have very different pharmacological properties. and toothache. rash. and hallucinations lasting for a day or more. making it preferable to black tea. flag root. which can either be chewed or brewed in a tea. and sometimes resins. dangerously high blood pressure. A physician should be consulted first if any of the following conditions are present: hypoglycemia. According to James A. Still. or has a peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum. which is similar to mescaline and amphetamines. muscle twitches. convulsions. naughty man's cherry. it is still one of the most widely used drugs in the world. impaired concentration. Though it is readily absorbed into the bloodstream. It contains the psychoactive alkaloids atropine. rapid heartbeat. sorcerer's cherry. permanent brain damage. poison black cherry. in addition to containing about 100 mg of caffeine per serving. fever. blue flag does not give off any smell. or Isoniazid. sweet cinnamon. Dosage: One joint per day — smoking more does not seem to extend or intensify the high. supari. Dosage: Some people in Asia and the Middle East eat or smoke the dried. sweet grass. When combined with sugar. and relieves fatigue. caffeine is likely to be more stimulating. and hysoscyamine. with cocaine. mate. leaf of God. insomnia. sleep inducers. tamarind. permanent eye damage. it is used in various medications including sleep remedies. and a burning feeling in the stomach. causes bowel movements. or high blood pressure. nausea. Side effects include dry mouth. Effects: A psychoactive plant with ergot alkaloids found in Ecuador. vomiting. devil's herb. fever. contains at least three compounds that act like opiates. epilepsy. soft drinks. and coma. increases the production of stomach acid and urine. can result in a feeling of drunkenness. Mexican calea. Caffeine can lead to a condition in coffee drinkers called coffee intoxication. Dosage: An initial dose should be a 2-inch length of root the thickness of a pencil. Europe. increased production of gastrointestinal acid. Ingesting too much arecoline. contains polyphenols. vacha. diarrhea. with sedatives. it should be derived from plant sources. Dosage: A slice of betel nut is mixed with part of a leaf from the Piper betel vine and a piece of lime. A few cups of coffee a day can help prevent gallstones in men. with MAO inhibitors. hangover. it can lead to an accelerated heartbeat and a decreased caffeine effect. increased urination. indigestion. areca nut. the presence of polyphenols in coffee and tea may prevent cancer by inhibiting the conversion of highly carcinogenic nitrosamines in the body. According to studies.BELLADONNA AKA: Apples of Sodom. Duke. Green tea. It has been shown to trigger panic attacks in susceptible people — which it does by lowering the body's production of DHEA and increasing its production of cortisol — and interfere with the ability to sleep in most coffee drinkers. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high that lasts for about a half hour. murderer's berry. and drowsiness may result. and interference with DNA replication. but can be as little as one berry. hypertension. Other adverse effects include heart palpitations. and some Zimbabweans to communicate with the dead. sweet myrtle. The root should not be stored for more than a few months. Precautions: It may cause vomiting in high doses. It may also affect dopamine. And it may have a negative effect on a person's ability to quickly process ambiguous or confusing stimuli. and other neurotransmitters. and possibly convulsions. sweet calomel. CALIFORNIA POPPY AKA: Eschscholtzia californica. mental alertness. A favorite stimulant for thousands of years. and death from heart failure. reaction time. has heart disease or irregular heartbeats. nutmeg. with Cimetidine (Tagamet). caffeine can slow a person's reaction time and intensify the effects of alcohol. Food and drug interactions are also a cause for concern. anxiety. who suffers from insomnia. kola nut and yerba mate are the best caffeine sources. which is then slowly sipped. If caffeine must be consumed. high blood pressure. Overdose symptoms include excitement. fatigue. as in many cola drinks. Consuming it with other caffeine-containing drugs. BOOPHANE DISTICHA Effects: The bulb of this South African plant is hallucinogenic. deadly nightshade. rat root. nervousness. increased sensitivity to the sedative or tranquilizer. followed by dizziness. severe throbbing headaches. and can include lethargy. thle-pela-kano. Effects: Caffeine is one of the most powerful legal stimulants. and gums a dark red or black. Atropa belladonna. MAO inhibitors should not be taken less than a week before or a week after taking calamus. elevates mood. and may contribute to birth defects. energizes. Calea zacatechichi. then decline with increasing consumption. rapid heartbeat. Any improvements in mental functioning may peak at a certain dosage. in which more than four or five cups a day results in irritability. and trouble sleeping. Adding milk ties up some of the beneficial chemicals. sweet root. hound's berries. as the synthetic form does not have the fatburning properties the natural form does. and either depletes or limits the absorption of many vitamins and minerals. though William Emboden and Jonathan Ott say there is none. Dosage: The majority of the research shows that healthy people can consume up to two cups of coffee (200 mg) a day without suffering any ill effects. researchers still do not understand its full effects upon the human body. including decaffeinated. with marijuana. coffee. Precautions: Contains the dangerous alkaloid apoatropine. which increases energy. Grapefruit juice can increase the level of caffeine and extend its effects by up to one-third. it can lead to convulsions or extreme nervousness. acetylcholine. guarana. restlessness. muscle twitches. osteoporosis. CAFFEINE Food sources: Bissy nut. black cherry. It should be taken on an empty stomach to prevent vomiting. scopolamine. stomach ulcers. vivid dreams. The arecoline that is swallowed can rid the body of some intestinal parasites. as it will lose potency. concentration. mainly by causing the release of norepinephrine in the brain. banewort. death's herb. petty-morrel. Certain antibiotics such as Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and Penetrex (enoxacin) can significantly intensify and prolong the effects of caffeine. unpleasant taste. Not all researchers are convinced of its mental benefits. bronchitis. insomnia.. and many overthe-counter medications. hallucinations. and four to five cups a day can reduce colorectal cancer by 24 percent. and is used by the Basuto people for its male initiation rite. Boiled or percolated coffee can increase serum cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease. a weakened immune system. BETEL AKA: Areca catechu. or heroin. though this last effect may just may be an indirect result of the first two. or betel that is not yet ripe. or sympathomimetics can result in overstimulation. along with traces of nicotine. The various species native to India. The psychoactive principle has yet to be identified. More than five cups a day can increase the heart attack risk to three times that of a non-coffee drinker. rectal itching. tea (excluding many herbal teas). or strong antioxidant nutrients (which protect against arterial damage that can eventually result in heart attacks or stroke). fear. blurred vision. the root can kill lice when ground into a powder and applied to the infected area. and mild diarrhea. and with thyroid hormones. nausea. Effects: Hallucinations. An overdose can weaken the sex drive and create other unwanted side effects. beautiful lady. A member of the daisy family that grows from Mexico to Costa Rica and is used by the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca. sweet rush.

Datura aurea. Effects: Contains phenethylamine alkaloids. Coca usually contains less than 0. Combining the two can supposedly increase the high. Caffeine may account for some of its psychoactive properties. COLEUS AKA: Coleus blumei. sodium. along with many compounds that modify the cocaine. Some species of Erythrina are known to contain isoquinoline-type alkaloids. the latter a biochemical manufactured by the brain of a person in love. Said to work synergistically with a teaspoonful of dried saw palmetto berries. Lycopodium selago. with 80 percent of its alkaloids consisting of scopolamine. Though it is an addictive psychoactive which some believe mimics the effects of marijuana. Use is not recommended. not much is known about its pharmacology and cognitive effects. The psychoactive ingredient is not known. Effects: Used by several South American Indian tribes to make a hallucinogenic drink that takes effect in about 15 minutes and has a duration of four to five hours. They can be chewed. it also contains two other ingredients that inhibit the natural breakdown of anandamide. Precautions: It may irritate the skin or. In Peru. among others). However. Dosage: One-quarter to one-half bean. and vitamin A. CARDAMINE CONCATENATA Effects: A hallucinogen. but these have not been verified by others. or the jack bean. It should not be taken by anyone with allergies. three stems of Lycopodium selago will induce a hypnotic narcosis. Effects: A feeling of drunkenness accompanied by hallucinations. Brunfelsia tastevinii (keyahone). has been found to be nontoxic in doses of up to 200 mg per kilogram of body weight when injected into mice. CAWE AKA: Chawe. it may be a distant. another species of club moss is often added to San Pedro. only one of over a dozen compounds in the coca leaf which have a similar effect. tares. According to its users. Effects: It has been used for centuries as a gentle stimulant by indigenous peoples of South America. which reacts the same way marijuana does. Researcher Daniele Piomelli has found that chocolate contains anandamide. and heart. A giant cactus found in Mexico. hallucinations. and three chocolate bars a month was too little for it to be perceived as having any significant effect. borachuela. It also has significant levels of caffeine. Cestrum parqui. rendering it safer to the user. and vitamin C. CULEBRA BORRACHERO AKA: Methysticodendron amesianum. Effects: Sold in Brazil as a marijuana substitute. riboflavin. all this is lost when it is refined into cocaine. in fact. as it can delay healing. and different parts of each plant are used. Loline. no hallucinogenic agent has been isolated in either of them or in any of the 150 species of coleus. sedatives. and there are no other known chemicals that could account for this effect. use these mint plants in the same way they use the hallucinogenic hojas de la Pastora. Duke. psilocybin-like state. ivraie ("inebriating"). niacin. though a related species. DAMA DE NOITE AKA: Cestrum laevigatum. and telepathic and clairvoyant insights" for a duration of some two hours. Still.5 percent active cocaine — because of this. The appearance of the bean is very similar to mescal beans —they are often mixed together by herb merchants. Precautions: It is extremely potent. though its stimulant effect gives one the feeling of being smarter and mentally sharper. for psychoactive effects. Effects: Similar to marijuana. Dosage: It can be smoked like marijuana or brewed as a tea. Mexico. Precautions: Brief nausea a half-hour after consumption. It has not yet been determined whether it improves any mental functions. particularly B-l. if ingested. It appears to keep the teeth and gums healthy. Theobrama cacao. taumellolch ("delirium grass"). the main alkaloid. rather than through the more direct routes of the lungs and bloodstream common to cocaine users. Chocolate and nuts should be avoided by those with herpes. It helps the body dispose of toxic metabolites. any more could trigger the toxic effects mentioned above. however. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high for about an hour. tranquilizers. a natural chemical also found in the brain. snakebite. Dosage: Between 50 to 70 large fresh leaves. an alkaloid found in chocolate that is similar to caffeine but which does not have as strong an effect on the nervous system. cause a burning feeling in the mouth. DATURA AND BRUGMANSIA AKA (Datura): Concombre zombi (zombi's cucumber). a ceremonial beverage. or steeped in lukewarm water for an hour and drunk as a tea. it increases the life span. vitamins. Precautions: James A. with those eating just three chocolate bars a month living the longest. . reducing tooth decay. and delirium. and alleviate somewhat symptoms of altitude sickness. researchers agree that the "high" produced by chocolate is extremely mild. which manifests itself as a "trippy. and convulsions. Lolium temulentum. COCA AKA: Erythroxylum coca. The only known species of its genus. It is sometimes added to San Pedro. have a positive effect on respiration. and death may result. Dosage: According to William Emboden. CHOCOLATE AKA: Chocolatl. relative of datura. Of its several ingredients.CANAVALIA MARITIMA A legume that is supposedly used as a marijuana substitute. There are several different varieties of coca. A 1998 Harvard study by Dr. smoked. The psychoactive ingredient has not yet been isolated. who use it to treat altitude sickness and brew it into a tea called mate de coca. and partially prevent the absorption of calcium. This genus of 40 species of South American and West Indian shrubs belongs to the nightshade family. kidneys. mitskway borrachera. its psychoactive properties have not yet been isolated. riboflavin. CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA Effects: Supposedly induces strange dreams and hallucinations. including uric acid.. In addition to providing proteins. and said to act as an aphrodisiac when taken an hour before sex. (Chocolate does contain antioxidants known as phenols. has found that Chinese club moss (Hu-perzia serrata) and Lycopodium club mosses both contain the beneficial compound huperzine. but some researchers state that most of its effects are attributable to theobromine. Symptoms include vomiting. Theobromine mainly affects the muscles. coleus pumilus. No psychoactive ingredient has yet been isolated. thiamine. and minerals (calcium. wolf's foot. this common wild grass contains psychoactive alkaloids. and rheumatism. are roasted and used as a coffee substitute in the West Indies. who use it to foretell the future and diagnose their patients. DARNEL AKA: Borrachera. Use can result in delirium and coma.D. and because it enters the body through the mouth and stomach. researcher Christian Felder of the National Institute of Mental Health calculates that a 130-pound person would have to eat the equivalent of 25 pounds of chocolate in one sitting to get anything close to a marijuana high. iron. as it can worsen symptoms. The plants are also used to treat fevers. CHIRIC-CASPI AND CHIRIC SANANGO AKA: Brunfelsia chiricaspi. claim that only the fresh leaves exhibit psychoactive properties. It is said to induce a restful sleep filled with sexually oriented dreams when taken an hour before going to bed. it may also have a sexually stimulating effect caused by theobromine and the possible ingredient B-phenethy-lamine. It can decrease the effectiveness of antihistamines. and both may be called by the same common name. Effects: Excitement. Effects: An inebriant with narcotic properties. Ph. or anyone with canker sores. dried leaves will not do. in fact confuses these two). and that it takes 50 to 70 to do the trick. Young et al. William Emboden states that researcher R. or about 0. Precautions: It is addictive.) Chocolatl is a bitter Aztec drink made from the cacao beans and flavored with pepper. colorin —and piule seeds (the Rhynchosia species — Young et al. but it is not known if they are psychoactive. yet Lycopodium complanatum can have a stimulating effect. Brunfelsia grandiflora. The psychoactive ingredient of the coca leaf is cocaine. Dosage: The average Indian consumes about two ounces of dried leaves a day. I-Min Lee of 7841 older men found that those who ate chocolate lived longer than those who didn't. Effects: Lycopodium selago can induce a mild hypnotic narcosis or a comatose state. a pounding heart. and other spices. Datura alba. and relaxants. The mature seeds of Canavalia ensiformis. It contains many vitamins. the main psychoactive ones are datura and San Pedro. colorful visual hallucinations and patterns. but this alone could not account for the increase in life expectancy. Chocolate can neutralize the effects of sugar. as the high arginine content can aggravate the symptoms. Gordon Wasson has reported mind-altering effects. DAM/ANA AKA: Turnera diffusa. potassium. The Tarahumara Indians crush the branches in water to make cawe. which can place stress on the endocrine system and deplete the body's stores of potassium and zinc. as eating more chocolate was not correlated with longer life. it is rarely addictive. including thiamine. COLORINES AKA: Erythrina flabelliformis. CLUB MOSS AKA: Lycopodium complanatum. Precautions: The toxic dose is very small. Pachycereus pectenaboriginum. and can cause severe hypertension in anyone taking an MAO inhibitor or antidepressant. is said to have psychotropic properties. and extremely divergent. It can deplete the body of inositol and the B vitamins. Some have questioned the results of this study. depending on the dosage taken. it appears each species is distinctly different from the others. and has a high (40 to 60 percent) fat content. none of which is related to cocoa. cizana. vanilla.7 grains of cocaine. Effects: Despite the fact that the Mazatecs of Oaxaca. Sensitivity to chocolate can trigger migraine headaches. Precautions: Overuse may cause liver damage. ClMORA A hallucinogenic drink consumed by the Indian witch doctors in Peru and Ecuador. Datura arborea. which produce effects similar to the arrow poison curare.

it is often combined with cannabis or tobacco and smoked. and getting the venom in the eyes or mouth can cause severe poisoning. Single doses of up to a gram orally have no effect . canned figs. after which the plant can be chewed thoroughly and swallowed or consumed as a tea. IT-290. loco weed. antihistamines. dizziness. The psychedelic trip may be accompanied by dizziness. The ground seeds are often added to maize beer and. Brugmansia sanguinea. and even death when combined with avocados.5 to 5 mg) can also be combined with marijuana. munchiro borrachero. during World War II to unsatisfactory results. Contrary to tabloid reports. sauerkraut. yeast extract.. angico. licking toads can be dangerous. maikoa. 5-hdroxy-N. Similar methods of incapacitating a person occur in Fiji. huilca. only the Sonoran Desert toad has venom that is psychoactive (other toad venoms are just toxic). with the entire effect lasting only 10 to 20 minutes.5 mg. or tranquilizers. If taken on a full stomach. huanto. the minor ones are atropine. according to Richard Rudgley). when smoked or injected. A close relative to DMT. yerba del diablo). NMT. milk or milk products. Pip-tadenia peregrina. DONA ANA AKA: Coryphantha macromeris. alcohol. producing an entheogenic effect commencing in 2 to 5 minutes. atropine. parica. broad beans. dekuba. man-t'o-lo. AKA (5-MeO-MMT): 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine.N-dihexyltrypta-mine. white man's plant. licorice. Brugmansia Candida. The tryptamine AMT produces a stimulating effect similar to LSD and amphetamines. Timothy Leary and Ralph Metzner reported no ill effects at doses of 1 mg/kg of body weight. huanduj. DMT AND RELATED TRYPTAMINES AKA (DMT): Anadenanthera colubrina. parsley oil. hot dry skin. AKA (5-MeO-MIPT): 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine. Datura suaveolens. DMT could cause nausea. A small spiny cactus found in southern Texas and northern Mexico. in Mexico." essentially agreeing with a colleague who compared it to "having a large elephant sitting on one's head. pickled herring. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops of oil taken orally. sebil. cebil. chicken liver. intoxication lasting days (up to twenty days in some cases. Datura dolicho-carpa. An MAO inhibitor. The reported hallucinogenic effects of 5-OH-DMT are disputed by research. and lasts 2 to 3 hours). cohoba. huantuc. reinforcing old stereotypes. since most types of toad venom are toxic. DMT is not active orally. businessman's trip. pineapple. floripon-dios. though tolerance is rapid. jouzmathel. and it can also be smoked or injected intramuscularly. AKA (DHT): N. Effects: Similar to mescaline. It should not be combined with any MAO inhibitors. peaking in 15 minutes. misha toro. where it is added to beer or wine. vilca. and it is the active hallucinogenic ingredient in several South American plants. and diagnose illnesses. the duration of the effects is dependent upon the dosage. it can result in bad trips. and norscopolamine. speak with the dead. dimethyltryptamine. Parica is a generic name for snuffs of all kinds. AKA (DET): N. kidney damage. James Town Weed. Datura discolor. Unless combined with MAO inhibitors at a 10 mg dose. Datura suaveolens is often added to ayahuasca. The task of classifying the numerous species is made even harder by the ability of the indigenous people to produce hybrid plants. Overdose symptoms include convulsions. Similarly. confusion.. it can produce an immediate high that can last thirty minutes. and Davis' conclusions about the ingredients of the zombi drug itself have been attacked by some as reliant on too little evidence. toe. Dosage: Readily snorted. An effect of equal intensity is produced by 25 to 30 mg of DMT free base smoked. drunk as a tea. with the entire experience accelerated dramatically. chills.N-dibutyltrypta-mine.N-diethyltrypta-mine. AKA (5-MeO-DMT): 5-methoxy-N. one of the main psychoactive alkaloids.. According to Jonathan Ott. Other side effects include diarrhea. Brugmansia aurea. Dosage: The spines are removed from 8 to 12 fresh cacti. where datura is sometimes added to kava. and loss of motor coordination. 5-MeO-MIPT acts more like amphetamines. and — according to Wade Davis — is used as an antidote to the zombi drug in Haiti. with the experience lasting a total of 30 to 45 minutes. Brugmansia vulcanicola. AKA (AMT): Alpha-methyltrypta-mine. Like Rohyp-nol. Datura sanguinea. wichri. The hallucinogenic trip begins after about an hour or two and lasts for about twelve hours. Dosage: It can be smoked.N-dimethyltryptamine. Other related tryptamines are listed above. Although DMT-containing plant snuffs are active. peaks after two. Precautions: Nausea and vomiting may result if taken on a full stomach. it is four times as potent as DMT. coma. fennel oil. Used by many shamans to foresee the future. Allowing about four hours between doses has been reported to avoid tolerance. TMA. the former resulting in a frightening "dissolution of reality" when smoked and the toad venom producing a much gentler experience when dried and smoked. vomiting. parsley. maicoa. and coma. DILL Effects: Oil of dill will produce hallucinations. Existing naturally in human cere-brospinal fluid. eaten. Datura ferox. The onset following smoking is almost immediate. pressure in the head. Unlike DMT. as stomach enzymes break it down before it can pass to the bloodstream. but intramuscular injections produced visual hallucinations with as little as 10 to 12. qui-qui-sa-waal. when smoked. As a snuff. heart problems. and lasts twenty. T-9. loss of memory. Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions. The effects of DPT are nearly identical to those of DET. though it can cause a serious case of poisoning if brought into contact with the eyes or mouth. and injected. nutmeg. South American Indians use it in the form of snuff (and variously call it cebil. huilca. dutra). sebil. tree datura. this latter method involves boiling in water for an . PMA. thorn apple. incoherence. However. and liver damage. as chronicled in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. AKA (DBT): N. toa. and a blurring and distortion of vision. cohoba. was tested as a "truth serum" by both the Nazis and the U. and type of effect.5 mg. he accidentally overdosed at 100 mg. and brain.. rapid heart and respiratory rates. Precautions: The main alkaloid is scopolamine. In Africa and Asia. panic. AMT was made famous by Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters. Brugmansia arborea. DMT is active in the same dose range as by intramuscular injection. and Datura fatuosa was once used by Incan priests to sedate patients during surgery.S. meteloidine. vilca. the "date rape drug. yerba de huaca. huanco. eaten. bananas. Datura fastuosa. niopo. its potency is roughly equivalent to that of DMT (a dose of 50-60 mg takes effect in 15 minutes. Addiction is unknown. the dried leaves of Brugmansia are added to tobacco to induce diagnostic visions for treating various diseases. The film based on Wade Davis' The Serpent and the Rainbow bears only a passing resemblance to the book. DET is active orally. Overdose symptoms include mental disorientation. which is highly toxic. much of it inconsistent and inaccurate. They may have names like MMDA. the two types of 5-MeO-DMT produce vastly different experiences. Datura wrightii. A member of the nightshade family. Precautions: The level needed to induce hallucinations is very close to the toxic level. one-hit grass.N-diisopropyl-tryptamine. Datura versicolor. chocolate. yopo. and like any psychedelic.N-dimethyltryptamine. AKA (MMT): N-monomethyl-tryptamine. Carlos Castaneda's The Teachings of Don Juan and subseqent books dealing with datura make up a fictional framework on which hang numerous bits of information cribbed from some 200 esoteric works. DESIGNER PSYCHEDELIC Custom-made synthetic drugs made by chemists." It should be noted that. The tryptamine DET produces a trip that is milder and longer-lasting than DMT. The CIA experimented on prison inmates and mental patients. there are several methods used to prepare the seeds for consumption. rash. revealing that the snuff is inactive in doses up to 1 gram. AKA (Brugmansia): Borrachero. disorientation. 5-MeO-DMT is not active orally. Brugmansia insignis. kinde borrachero. but only at high doses. receptors for DMT have been discovered in the brains of mammals. providing stimulation without the hallucinations. aged cheeses. Parenteral injections of 5 to 10 mg were also found to produce results. and in Tanzania it is added to beer. and DMT and LSD show crosstolerance. attaining a peak in 2 to 3 minutes. agitation. a dry burning in the mouth. vomiting. with one exception: above 100 mg. nausea. The effective oral dose of AMT appears to be approximately 20 mg. 5-MeO-DMT is produced both synthetically and in the venom glands of the Sonoran Desert toad of Arizona. and oral doses are inactive up to 350 mg. dangerously high blood pressure. huacacachu. difficulty swallowing. The high is similar to that of LSD or mescaline.Datura Candida. DMT cannot be taken orally. duration of effect. AKA (DPT): N. chamico.. Tolerance to the entheogenic effects of DMT develop rapidly. devil's trumpet. devil's weed. An overdose could result in blood rushing to the head and rupturing weak capillaries. jimson weed. AKA (DAT): N. or yopo). but dissipates rapidly as well. niopo. convulsions. and confusion. intranasal administrations of 5 to 20 mg of pure DMT was inactive. Experiments have found that smoking 6 to 10 mg of the free base can result in a high that begins within a minute. 2CB. Jonathan Ott and others have concluded that 5-MeO-DMT has "little recreational value.. stinkweed. Datura ceratocaula (tornaloco). but about 1/5 as potent.N-dimethyltryptamine. DMT and its precursor tryptamine are similar to certain hormones secreted by the pineal gland. cocoa... agitation. tanga. Datura was just one of the psychoactive plants used by European witches. narcotics. AKA (DIT): N. A CIA experiment nearly killed three individuals with 2.. it has proven to have a negative effect on serial learning in doses as low as 0. Datura inoxia (Datura meteloides. DMT (in a dose of 3. Reportedly. dill oil. Effects: Deep sleep and hallucinations. Datura metel (dhatura. yupa. which may be due to the contaminant skatole. AKA (5-OH-DMT): Bufotenine. or taken as an enema. which also suggests that it creates cardiopulmonary distress and may be toxic even in doses as low as 10 mg when injected intravenously. the many varieties are divided into the plant forms and the tree forms. but shorter. buyes. hisioma. and 2CT2. When smoked." it was once used by criminals to incapacitate their victims. Precautions: They can vary widely in potency. permanent damage to the eyes. dizziness. campanilla. Writer William Burroughs self-experimented with DMT in doses of around 65 mg. Effects: Possibly unique among psychedelics. An overdose can be dangerous. ritalin. toloatzin. It has also been used in initiation ceremonies. The side effects of Datura stramonium include fever. The average intramuscular dose of the hydrochloride salt is 50 to 60 mg. mescaline. rectal doses of up to 125 mg DMT in 15 ml water were "without any discernable effect" . The venom must be dried and smoked to inactivate the toxins. Orally. Initial intoxication may be so violent that the user may have to be physically restrained. Datura volcanicola. heart. in combination with MAO-inhibitors. and Africa. Precautions: Some characterize the odor of DMT as the smell of burning plastic. DMT may cause severe headaches. wysocean). sedatives. caffeine. Furthermore.N-diallyltrypta-mine. N. Anadenanthera peregrina. loss of coordination. Datura stramonium (devil's apple. ephedrine. Brugmansia suaveolens. Scopo-lamine. amphetamines. to treat a number of physical ailments. tonga. peaks quickly. or tobacco and smoked. The main psychoactive alkaloids are hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Anadenanthera rigida. toloache. tolouaxihuitl. insulin. and death. the latter of which is native only to South America and now considered to be a distinct genus: Brugmansia.. producing a traumatic experience that left him leery of the drug afterward..5 to 5 mg of an intramuscular injection after they were premedicated with reserpine and chlorpromazine.N-dipropyltrypta-mine. it can produce an immediate high that can last one to ten minutes.

Other regional plants may also be added to vary the effect. and temporary amnesia. Virola divergens. can be put into gelatin capsules. which can also be made synthetically. If combined with any other MAO inhibitors. headaches. madness. lOCHROMA AKA: lochroma fuchsioides. followed by headaches and confusion for another ten minutes. Effects: A fairly strong sedative and tranquilizer. Virola sebifera. It acts as a sedative and. The leaves can be nibbled and held in the mouth. but twice as powerful — plus scopolamine and several other active alkaloids. A tree found in the rain forests of Colombia and Brazil.3 percent). parica. it is a member of the nutmeg family. goat's joy. pipilzintzintli. containing strychnine. Research on the Homalomena genus is limited. Pernettya furens. HYDRANGEA AKA: Hydrangea arborescens. Tabernanthe iboga. this is also very close to the toxic dose. or the crushed root can be brewed into a tea. Recent experiments with smoking the leaves has shown that this can also produce a short-term trip. the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. yopo. It is said to take effect in an hour and can result in an LSD-like trip that lasts a few hours. Dosage: 4 to 8 seeds. dried or boiled down to an amber-red crystalline state. It may also be used as an additive to ayahuasca. sakrona. henquale. eboka. English valerian. seven barks. turnsole. respiratory failure. difficult urination. diarrhea. Hyoscyamus niger. Despite its popular name. devil's eye. Ska Pastora. and added to alcoholic drinks by Indians in California and Mexico. Effects: Hallucinations involving all the senses. The psychoactive ingredient is ibogaine. Virola theiodora. valerian. Various ancient cultures have used it as an anesthetic. Precautions: Indigenous peoples of Colombia and Brazil usually mix it with water and take it as an enema to avoid the side effects associated with snorting. hydrangea paniculata grandiflora. restlessness. HOPS AKA: Humulus lupulus. Valeriana officinalis. Filtered. or the roots and bark can be boiled into a tea. confusion. it was used briefly as an antidepressant. hainanensis. Dosage: One gram of bark or roots can heighten feelings of sexuality and awareness — users claim that they can engage in sex for up to seventeen hours and remain awake during hunting for two full days. dilated eyes. JUREMA . Virola surinamensis. disorientation. and that the leaves can retain their potency even when dry. The only member of the dogbane family known to be used as a hallucinogen. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations. It can also be boiled down to a viscous residue and. with a small amount of flour added. and irritation of the mucus membranes. it was one ingredient in witches' brews in the Middle Ages. irrational behavior. The resultant snuff is then blown into the nostrils with a tube. henbell. Hyoscyamus. Precautions: It can cause mental confusion. Virola calophylloidea. though Jonathan Ott calls this "a dubious proposition. vandal root. Virola calophylla. shamans who use it claim to contact the dead. and indigenous peoples use this high a dose only on rare occasions. it is used to add flavor to beer. paralysis. sakiru. HAWAIIAN BABY WOOD ROSE AKA: Argyreia nervosa. stinking nightshade. It is also said to act as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. The roots can be chewed or swallowed. Contains the highest amount of lysergic acid amines of any of the morning glories (0. The chief psychoactive ingredients are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. Doses of 3 grams or more are needed to induce hallucinations." Precautions: In high doses.hour and straining before drinking. as overuse could cause poisoning. Early research indicates it may be a treatment for opiate addiction. Virola rufula. are removed (often with a toothbrush). A member of the nightshade family. Virola multinervia. profuse sweating. capitata. HlERBA LOCA AKA: Huedhued. Cleaned seeds are chewed and swallowed or ground into a powder and put in gelatin capsules. and at least one psychotherapist (C. High doses could result in death. osyrensis. blackout. and death. nausea. yato. EPENA AKA: Akurjua. generally the thick red resin is scraped from the inner bark. Effects: Similar to that produced by morning glory seeds. poison tobacco. Precautions: The extremely bitter taste can trigger vomiting. splendens. speciosa. Overuse can cause dizziness and symptoms of jaundice. black henbane. but stronger. Dosage: No more than one joint of leaves. then ground and sifted. constipation. or the plants can be ground up. German valerian. the leaves of which are combined with the leaves and bark of agara or Galbulimima belgraveana. though no psychoactive compounds have yet been isolated from it. Virola cuspidata. IBOGA AKA: Eboga. shakhrona. delirium. Virola pavonis. According to William Emboden. Homalomena ereriba. facial twitching. great wild valerian. It can also cause numbness of the limbs. wild valerian. despite the identification of over 140 species from South America to Asia. Virola venosa. hot dry skin. marijuana-like high accompanied by a slight feeling of drunkenness. Salvia divinorum. can produce a mild marijuana-like high. Effects: Used by Kamsa Indian shamans of Colombia as an inebriant. At the turn of the last century. HENBANE AKA: Bang (bangue. pseudorubicunda. despite a commonly held belief to the contrary. and physical inertia. It may be accompanied by a feeling of contentment that can linger for a few days. Cecropia obtusifolia. In addition to Argyreia nervosa. fetid nightshade. nyakwana. Effects: The hallucinogenic effects take hold almost immediately and lasts about thirty minutes." Precautions: The Malaysians use Homalomena rubescens as a fish poison which they call ipoh. one researcher experienced hallucinations after only 3 pairs of leaves. It is very dangerous. and taking it on a full stomach can cause nausea. in higher amounts. ebene. along with a feeling of drunkenness and sedation. Dosage: Though common doses are said to range between 20 and 80 pairs of leaves (approximately 50 to 200 grams). cold-water infusions of the ground seeds are said to prevent fewer hazards than ground seeds eaten whole. It has traditionally been used in combination with the fly agaric mushroom in Afghanistan. The tea is not drunk more than twice a day for more than two or three weeks at a time. setwall. Virola loretensis. throbbing headache. baby Hawaiian woodrose. Some nausea may also occur. vomiting. HOJAS DE LA PASTORA AKA: Hojas de la Maria Pastora. or to treat various disorders. which is not psychoactive. and to increase muscle strength and stamina. Jupiter's bean. resulting in uncontrollable sneezing. and wallichii). aggregata. rapid heartbeat. and there are reports that it is even smoked. GUARUMA AKA: Cecropia mexicana. Effects: A marijuana-like effect when smoked. bengi). Some people eat the resin in the form of pellets. hakudufha. containing high amounts of hyoscyamine — similar to atropine. Effects: Contains THC. Hojas de Maria Pastora. then filtered for use as a drink. vertigo. Dosage: Half an ounce of roots or rhizomes boiled in a covered pot for five minutes and drained. loss of muscular control. No psychoactive component has yet been isolated. nausea. Side effects include uncontrollable trembling for five minutes. Epena can exaggerate any existing pain. soaked in water for an hour. obtusifolia. smoking any more than that could result in severe toxicity. Precautions: Contains a cyanide-like compound which can result in death. yakee. lusquiamus. but is a woody liana in the morning glory family. side effects include a hangover characterized by blurred vision. It is chemically similar to datura. hog bean. Effects: A pleasant. occasionally smoked with tobacco or marijuana in Kashmir and Pakistan. it is not a member of the rose family. A member of the hemp family. as well as several other alkaloids. inability to focus the eyes on close objects. Virola elongata. Dosage: The seeds and dried leaves can be smoked. Ska Maria Pastora. Virola peruviana. Natives of New Guinea use Homalomena cordata for "rain magic" and Homalomena versteegii for "love magic. it can cause vomiting. Precautions: The white fuzz on the seeds. convulsions. Dosage: Though preparation varies from one area to another. loss of motor coordination. its taste is slightly less objectionable. problems with ejaculation. Precautions: It may amplify feelings of depression. heart problems. but not as intense or as long (about two hours). wild hydrangea. unfortunately. then consumed as a tea. Virola carinata. insana. Vermont valerian. Naranjo) has found it to be useful in inducing fantasies and childhood memories. fever. Virola melinonii. Extreme nausea might be the result of strychnine ingestion. barnesii. dizziness. Effects: Hallucinations similar to LSD. HlMANTANDRA BELGRAEVEANA Effects: The Gimi people of New Guinea use the bark of this tree to induce trance states. a dozen other species of Argyreia contain lysergic acid amines (acuta. ERERIBA AKA: Homalomena belgraveana. and permanent insanity. Precautions: The tea's aroma is intolerable to most people. Effects: Said to be a narcotic. Precautions: Side effects include dry mouth with accompanying thirst. It should not be confused with the Hawaiian woodrose (Ipomoea tuberosa). stinking Roger. HELIOTROPE AKA: All-heal. castilago. Effects: An effect similar to sacred mushrooms. and death may result. shkaPastora. phu.

cathidine. Precautions: Though it is not known what toxic effects. Effects: Said to produce bliss and hallucinations. Researchers have said that even smelling the plant can induce altered states but as yet no studies have been done to determine the psychoactive elements of this plant. Dosage: The leaves can be smoked. and paranoia. a true hallucinogen. Mimosa verrucosa. or even smoked in a cigarette. nervous problems. Effects: The bark of this tree causes a dream-like state when smoked with tobacco. Kaempferia galanga. caffeine nut. Effects: The roots of this shrub in eastern Brazil said to produce a "miraculous drink" called ajuca or vinho de jurema. KARA AKA: Capparis. allergies. Precautions: Overuse can cause insomnia. The roots. though some may cause death (especially among people with heart conditions) or paralysis of the central nervous system. vinho de jurema. or as much as coffee. Solandra guerrerensis. Russian pharmacologists have found it to have a number of medicinal uses. are said to induce an altered state. Mimosa somnians. in fact. darkened lips. Effects: A state of euphoria not unlike a very mild effect from hallucinogenic mushrooms or LSD. KAWANG AKA: Castanopsis acuminatissima. Effects: The fruit is said to induce intoxication. Dosage: The leaves are roasted and pulverized and mixed with tobacco that is then used as a snuff. Sceletium expansum. tecomaxochitl. cathinine. taking it orally is said to result in a high that lasts longer and is less intense than with the other methods. cola vera. Lactuca virosa. gisol. Mimosa nigra. KRATOM AKA: Gratom. Precautions: Though it is not believed to be physically addictive. Medical researcher John C. it is the only known species of tree in the rare gomortegaceae family. maraba. Dosage: The buds. and ephedrine. qat. heart trouble. Jonathan Ott says trace amounts of morphine have been discovered in lettuce (lactucarium. William Emboden considers it "perhaps one of the most unusual hallucinogens in terms of mode of use. and death. high doses can have a depressive effect. KiKISIRA AKA: Bubbia. KEULE AKA: Gomortega keule.AKA: Ajuca. burns. It also contains high levels of vitamin C. injected as a liquid. clarity of thought. quat. It is rich in essential oils. numbness in the peripheral regions of the body. but appears to have no psychoactive ingredients. Effects: Used by Indians in northern Mexico as "visionary inebriants. and hallucinations because of its amphetamine-like alkaloids cathine. Because it can mimic other hallucinogens unrelated to each other. The main psychoactive ingredient appears to be DMT. which can be smoked like a joint or chewed. There is some confusion about which of the above plants the Hottentots used to achieve an altered state. pinahuihuitztli)." LAGOCHILIS INEBRIANS There are 35 different species of this plant that grow from the Middle East to Central Asia. it was first used as a surgical anesthetic in the Vietnam War. or they can be brewed into a tea. KAEMPFERIA AKA: Galanga. Effects: Used by people native to New Guinea as a condiment and to treat boils. vitamin K. dried skin. users may experience dizziness. which is related to the nutmeg family. Dosage: About 5 grams of the alkaloid will induce lethargy. and loss of sex drive. Ketalar. Effects: An Ethiopian shrub that is said to produce bliss. KORIBO AKA: Tanaecium nocturnum. Tea made from the root-bark is also said to be psychoactive. KUBILGIM AKA: Diospyros species. KYKEON A drink composed of barley mixed with ergot. Effects: Can stimulate the central nervous system and improve mood. The two species of Sceletium are known to contain an alkaloid which induces sedation. loss of appetite. Found only in a small section of central Chile. or prepared as an infusion. and trunk can be chewed or smoked. Effects: A New Guinea plant said to induce altered states. Precautions: The ergot. hualhual. Effects: The roots and leaves of this plant are said to have psychoactive properties." Studies have shown that it contains some psychoactive alkaloids. agitation. Prolonged use can result in emaciation. tchat. snorted as a powder. who rub the bulb into incisions cut into the their heads to induce visions. and depression. and the mildly psychoactive mint Mentha pulegium that was popular in ancient Greece and Rome. and glaucoma. KOLA NUT AKA: Bissy nut. it is not known how much more is needed to produce hallucinations. loss of appetite. especially as a treatment for skin diseases. kutum. caatinga. super K. Heavy users may experience prolonged speech and memory impairment. a distended stomach. Jonathan Ott warns budding experimenters that "ergot has poisoned and killed countless human beings throughout history. Mesembryanthemum tortuosum. and loss of sex drive. gauwgoed. though they lose their potency when they dry out). Cola nitida." Precautions: Though it does not appear to be addictive. This and related species are used in cough medicines. . and cause muscle spasms. This once popular hallucinogen is now rarely used. jurema branca. Precautions: Side effects include headache. chewed. when steamed and eaten. listlessness. Effects: Said to induce euphoria. rigid muscles. Mimosa pudica (dormilona. Precautions: Side effects may be similar to those of PCP: loss of the ability to talk or communicate. Vetalar. it is considered by William Emboden to be "one of the most complex of the hallucinogens. though large doses are toxic. muigin. Instead of the effects mentioned above. among others. It contains about 2 percent caffeine. which suggests that the other alkaloids play an important role. Effects: Sedation and hallucinations. Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite). mambog. eaten whole. Mimosa hostilis (Mimosajurema). can interfere with blood flow. Dosage: The nuts can be chewed. Sceletium tortuosum. A close relative of PCP. kwashi may have. pallor. and one of the most dangerous. Jonathan Ott questions whether this is. but milder. miraa. it is a trace constituent in human milk and cow's milk also. cola nut. KWASHI AKA: Pancratium trianthum. Effects: Produces a vivid 30. and unusual cardiac disorders. nervousness. Mesembryanthemum expansum. LETTUCE AKA: Lactuca sativa. along with theobromine. KlERI AKA: Hueipatl. it is habit-forming. and wounds. special K. A member of the coffee family that is sold as an opium substitute in southeast Asia. if any. twitching. mitragynine itself is a depressant. excessive energy. KHAT AKA: Catha edulis. stomach and headache medications. Effects: The seeds are said to be psychoactive. and depression. while low doses may be stimulating. An overdose can cause respiratory failure. and mambog refers to the thick syrup made from the leaves. The psychoactive ingredients include the indole alkaloid mitragynine and eight other alkaloids. umganu. Surgical doses of the injectable liquid range from 400 to 700 mg. Precautions: It is not addictive. water. kieli. it is considered a hallucinogen by Botswana Bushman. leaves. espina dormilona. kaugoed. and is a natural product of brain chemistry. duermidillo. and stems can be chewed (the leaves are even swallowed. Sclerocarya caffra. While the leaves produce a stimulating effect. Studies with animals have shown that. It is also used as an animal tranquilizer. guru nut. producing a high similar to opium. though it is unknown whether this involves hallucinations or whether there is even a psychoactive ingredient.to 45-minute LSD-like experience characterized by a dream-like state with intense visual images. which act on the central nervous system and the autonomic system. giddiness. leaves. Kratom refers to the leaves. stomach pains. numbness of the limbs. euphoria. Ketaject. confusion. KANNA AKA: Channa. despite its local reputation as a hallucinogen and dream enhancer. tschat. gangrene. A member of the ginger family commonly used as a condiment in Asian cooking. guaring. and perfumes. Sclerocarya schweinfurthii. Mitragyna speciosa. Effects: Though nothing is known of its psychoactive properties. regular users do develop a dependence. Why bananas (which have no psychoactive ingredients whatsoever) have gained such a reputation and lettuce has not is somewhat of a mystery. Dosage: About 50 mg. but then. kat." More recently. weariness. Its potency is about 5 to 10 percent that of PCP. Solandra brevicalyx. Overuse can cause tremors. Effects: The seeds of this tree. norpseudoephedrine. which may persist even after use is discontinued. and hallucinations. Cola drinks contain very little kola. or lettuce opium). KETAMINE AKA: Green. It can be taken as pills. chat. Lilly describes his experiments with ketamine in The Scientist: A Novel Autobiography. An overdose can result in delirium and loss of consciousness. Effects: Altered states. More than one or two cups a day may be dangerous. ketamine hydrochloride. Other species of Pancratium are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids. or brewed into a tea consisting of 1 teaspoon of nut to one cup of water.

According to Young et al. insanity. Precautions: The dose needed to get high is close to the toxic level. increased body temperature. rapid pulse rate. high blood pressure. Cannabis indica. pot. is the processed resin from the cannabis plant. and — though marijuana is not classified as a hallucinogen — visual and auditory hallucinations for one to three hours. emetic weed. N-acetyl-LSD. the townspeople's hallucinations and temporary madness were the effects of a mercury compound used as a fungicide. it has been used in various medical preparations since ancient times and. and so dangerous when combined with substances contraindicated for this type of drug. mandragora.. Orange Sunshine). hemp. its powers were seen as allencompassing. Mandragora officinarum. and the toxic effects resulting from chemotherapy. pukeweed. A semi-synthetic drug first made in 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann from the ergot fungus in rye. temporary amnesia (because of its suppression of the brain hormone vasopressin). "Of all the sedating-tranquilizing-psychotropic plants known. love apple. dry reddened eyes. restlessness. tremors. loss of coordination. tremors. Effects: A trip usually begins 45 to 90 minutes after ingestion. and the mental instability of the user. particularly around the face and jaw. where serotonin levels in the body are too high.4-methylenedioxyam-phetamine. Precautions: Side effects include severe muscle tension. constipation. moodiness. excessive salivation. the snuff of the virola tree. Precautions: Those susceptible to migraines will experience headaches when smoking lobelia. It could lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. LSD-25. contaminants (including other drugs) mixed in with the LSD. or hash. . devil's testicle. hashish. lysergic acid. Tennis player H. Effects: Hallucinations. and mainly involve euphoria. it has a longer-lasting (if slower) effect when eaten. but lasting only half as long. trance mediator.. Anthony's Fire purports to be the story of an entire French town that succumbed to the effects of a naturally occurring LSD in the grain used to make the town's bread. Methyllysergic acid diethylamide (MLD-41). vomitwort.Dosage: The wild lettuce plant (or the hearts and roots of iceberg lettuce) is liquefied in a blender until about a pint of liquid is produced. Precautions: There can be bad trips. hasheesh. and seizures. rapid heart rate. emetic herb. it is not known whether they are psychoactive. Dosage: 50 to 150 milligrams. can result in bronchitis and other respiratory ailments. bladderpod. problems with ejaculation. rapid heart rate. and Cannabis ruderalis. insomnia. sinsemilla. with a sense of physical and mental well-being.. MDM. but very little effect when consumed as a tea. tremors. Dosage: Approximately 50 to 500 micrograms will result in altered consciousness. charas." According to the ancient "doctrine of signatures. excessive salivation. the resin smoked or eaten with spices (charas) or baked into brownies (hash brownies). where serotonin levels in the body are too high. MDA AKA: EA-1298. John G. are mainly attributable to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). consisting of one to three species: Cannabis sativa. grass. stenophylla. nerve damage. It is generally mixed with epena. are very poisonous. MACONHA BRAVA AKA: Zornia latifolia. It can be made into a drink with water or milk (bhang). though he did not become aware of its extraordinary properties until accidentally ingesting some five years later. The residue is placed in an opium pipe and heated. "marijuana is the least debilitating of all common intoxicants and has never accounted for a substantiated drug death. vomitroot. the dried tops of the female plant full of resin smoked with tobacco (ganja." medicinal plants resembled that part of the human body for which it could affect a cure and. which is produced by boiling marijuana or hashish in a solvent. E. and contains about 8 to 14 times the THC of marijuana. but could result in psychological dependence. a belief that has yet to be substantiated. cannabis. Justicia pectoralis var. severe headache. nausea. Both. The oldest and best-known of the synthetic chemical variants of the amphetamine molecule. as it can enhance empathy between people. It . and seizures. The original chemical. weed. it is usually defined as a psychedelic amphetamine. sterility. made into a candy (majun). or dealing with assassin bugs that tend to inhabit crops. It has an acrid taste when smoked. dope. is addictive. apples of the genie. Satan's apple. and loss of appetite. and causes a prickly feeling in the mouth and throat when consumed as a tea. lasting eight to twelve hours. Effects: Its effects. which are caused by the potent compound scopolamine. Though it contains alkaloids. impotence. which are sometimes attributable to the general surroundings and atmosphere in which the drug is taken. sweating. There is no evidence to support the claim that it damages nerve cells in the brain. Cannabaceae. XTC. and which is characterized by restlessness. rapid heart rate. delirium. European mandrake. but high doses can cause bad reactions. Hash smoke. dizziness. Effects: A calm and relaxing feeling. curia. There are numerous derivatives and analogues of LSD. kif. Dosage: About 2 tablespoons of crushed leaves and stems in a pint of water. wild tobacco. Precautions: William Emboden reports that at least three shamans have died from using the snuff of this plant. Lobelia inflata. mandragon." writes William Emboden. The effects peak at 500 micrograms. dilated pupils. an uncontrollable fear of death.. lack of energy. Hash oil. Mandragora officinarum (European mandrake) is a very different plant from Podophyllum peltatum. Precautions: Side effects include a rapid pulse. contains about 15 to 30 times the THC. It could lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. Delysid (LSD-tartrate). LSD AKA: Acetyllysergic acid diethy-lamide (ALD-52. It can also be smoked as a joint. intense concentration. Hashish. The molecular structure of its psychoactive properties are unique in the plant world. and releases the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the body. cramps. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high. Methylenedioxy-amphetamine. and erection problems in men. amnesia. though it could just as well produce a bad trip. depression. as some individuals have taken as much as 1 to 2 grams and survived. or the body in general. . sedative. After-effects include sluggishness. majun. heart damage. the leaves are smoked as a "marijuana substitute. fever. and can last eight to twelve hours. and inability to concentrate. producing a high from as little as 25 micrograms. It can cause orgasm problems in men and women. with the pipe pointed downward so that the residue does not get in the stem. and habitual use could require higher and higher doses to achieve the same effects. For use in a gelatin capsule. and death. "the mandrake . diarrhea. red lobelia. a sense of well-being. cardinal flower. and which is characterized by restlessness. high blood pressure. Indian tobacco. MARIHUANILLA AKA: Leonurus sibiricus. dilated eyes. lysergic acid diethylamide. or causes damage to the chromosomes. and occasional long-lasting psychological problems. It is one of the most powerful drugs known. confusion. Blauer was killed in 1953 when given an intravenous injection of 500 mg of MDA in an experiment funded by the Army Chemical Corps. aphrodisiac. MDMA AKA: Adam. that is sometimes used to flavor cakes. It has been used in psychotherapy and counseling. MASHA-HARI AKA: Bolekhena. MARIJUANA AKA: Bhang. kif). Since the resin is soluble in oil but not water. since mandrake resembled the human form. even today. reefer). and poison. It does not cause brain damage. Methylene-dioxymethamphetamine. Acid. however. ganja. LICHENS Effects: Some varieties of Alaskan lichens are reported to be psychoactive. Side effects include a burning thirst. depression. Additional dangers include buying marijuana laced with other drugs or the herbicide paraquat. or drug addiction. Precautions: A user may experience dry mouth. it is now believed to belong to its own genus. and blurred vision. Cannabis sativa. alcohol and tobacco are considerably more dangerous. Ecstasy. Effects: Smoked as a marijuana substitute in Mexico. difficult urination. which is simmered and strained. stiff muscles resulting from brain injuries and multiple sclerosis. This member of the nightshade family has been used as a painkiller. Effects: No psychoactive property has yet been isolated from this plant. a double dose is boiled down to a gummy residue and mixed with dried leaves. and erection problems in men. which can vary widely. It is an MAO inhibitor. anxiety. and panic. or Myristica fragrans. The term "Indian tobacco" may refer to any number of unrelated plants. The resultant white smoke is held in the lungs for about half a minute. sweating. and other toxic reactions. will produce many side effects but few of the psychoactive benefits that users seek. with the result that the trip will not be longer or more intense with greater dosage. confusion. high blood pressure. though there are Indians in the Brazilian and Venezuelan forests that reportedly use some species of this plant by itself. vertigo. This drug does not occur naturally. increased body temperature. may apple. especially when combined with tobacco smoke. After considerable controversy about its genus and species. An analogue of MDA. It can cause orgasm problems in men and women." Pharmacologically. asthma. An overdose can result in painful muscular tension. Casual users sometimes experience vomiting and nausea. More than 15 grams may trigger sudden vomiting. Lobelia cardinalis. Effects: Same as MDA. Socially and medically. MACE A spice produced from the outer covering of the nutmeg seed. confusion. After-effects include a feeling of sluggishness. insanity. high blood pressure. diarrhea. the effects of which may range from totally inactive to mildly psychoactive (ALD-52 and MLD-41 are two of the more psychoactive ones). or American mandrake. Satan's testicles. Fuller's The Day of St." MANDRAKE AKA: Apples of the fool. It is not physically addictive.. LOBELIA AKA: Asthma weed. A1986 Italian study found that smoking one joint can increase melatonin levels in the body 4000 percent. or almost double that of naturally grown plants. Cannabis indica. some advocate its use for relieving the symptoms of glaucoma. gag root. The liquid is then left in a bowl under heat lamps or the hot sun until it has evaporated. 3. Dosage: The dried leaves can be smoked as a cigarette (joint. has the most extensive and bizarre history. circulation problems.. coma. It elevates serotonin levels in every area of the brain except the cerebrum and cerebellum. Effects: In Brazil. Precautions: The dosage needed to produce hallucinations is also close to the toxic dose. Effects: A high that can range from mild pleasantness to unbridled delirium. perceptual distortions. Some growers have been able to produce superpotent strains that contain 20 percent THC. There is no evidence that it causes flashbacks. dilated pupils. Experimental Agent 1475. disorientation. sweating. leaving only a sticky brownish-green residue. the brain. Lethal dosage is unknown. diarrhea.. resulting in a strong hangover the next day. the grain having been accidentally ground into flour for bread instead of being planted as seed. It also causes contractions of the uterus in pregnant women. even when taken on an empty stomach.

yyahhitl. Dosage: No more than one-quarter to one-half bean. substances. eggplant. Precautions: No psychoactive compounds have yet been identified in this plant. and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Common side effects of nicotine chewing gum include nausea. hoarseness. and so should not be combined with any substances contraindicated for this type of drug. Overdose symptoms may include psychotic reaction. It is the main psychoactive alkaloid in peyote. followed by fainting. including that of former Dallas Cowboy Mark Tuinei. MEXICAN MARIGOLD AKA: Tagetes lucida. of those that are. narcotic. though not in dangerous levels. reduced appetite. nausea. headache. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations lasting four to fourteen hours. Psilocybe. producing nausea and vomiting. confusion. Precautions: They should not be used by anyone with liver problems. they may contain methyl-hydrazines. abdominal pains. increase tolerance to pain. numbness in the face. slightly enlarged pupils. NICOTINE AKA: Nicotiana attenuata. was not only unlikely to contain any psilocybine but was a "disgusting. and in the Voodoo and Santeria religions. such as heroin — and one of the most toxic drugs known. it is known to stimulate. he said. Effects: Hallucinations. yia. They are found all over the world. Less common side effects include dizziness. diarrhea. hearing and visual abnormalities. Precautions: None of its alkaloids are known hallucinogens. Insulin. or boiled and the liquid drunk with Kool-Aid or injected. have other botanical names (see above). a weak. reduce feelings of hunger. The main psychoactive ingredients in all of these is psilocine and psilocybine. Dosage: The lethal dose is 50 mg. nausea. Ipomoea sidaefolia. Nicotiana tabacum. And not all souls are the same. tlitliltzin). stomach disruption. due to the uncertainties regarding this family. Mysticism and Make-Believe. author of Brave New World. An overdose (generally said to be in the 50 to 60 mushroom range) can result in severe poisoning. The cessation of nicotine intake — cigarettes in particular—may increase the effects of many drugs. They can easily be mistaken for other. Nicotiana bigelovii. John Sandford's In Search of the Magic Mushroom. and upset stomach. Effects: Used as an aphrodisiac. vomiting. Nicotiana ingulba. Nicotiana gossei. Common side effects of smoking are believed to include persistent cough. leaving users more vulnerable to colds. red bean. sacred mushrooms. rash. Not all varieties of morning-glory seeds are psychoactive (Flying Saucers. and paralysis of the breathing muscles leading to death. but goes through the bloodstream first. Of the over 500 compounds in tobacco. Mushrooms are usually sauteed before eating as. diarrhea. and severe abdominal pain. and much chemical analysis needs to be done to determine its psychoactive properties. and may produce such symptoms as dizziness. 1 to 5 grams (dry weight). it is one of the most addictive substances known —even more addicting than most hard drugs. Precautions: Concentrated nicotine can enter the brain within seconds of smoking a cigarette. though these may pass quickly. and last for approximately twelve hours. and hallucinogen by some Africans. Religious scholar R. the nicotine in one cigar can kill at least two people. yyahitlm. Tremors. and death from asphyxiation. Pearly Gates. Precautions: Use by borderline schizophrenics may worsen their condition irreversibly. which is highly toxic and has resulted in many deaths. Heavenly Blue. euphoria. it may take a whole cupful to produce the desired effect. it has been used by witches in ancient Greece and medieval Europe. only in Mexico is it used as a hallucinogen. In fact. though taking it on an empty stomach may prevent the nausea (Jonathan Ott states that side effects may be due to the fact that users eat whole ground seeds rather than filtered. Prolonged excessive use is said to result in permanent insanity. It may someday result in drugs that treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. and Wedding Bells are among those that are) and. It is extremely addictive. peak after two hours. dizziness. unconsciousness. coughing. depending on the size and species. salivation. convulsions. reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. tingling in the hands and feet. weakness. stroke. Pentazocine. and other hallucinogenic plants. According to legend. which is roasted. magic mushrooms. sluggishness. notably Carlos Castaneda's The Teachings of Don Juan and subsequent sequels. fainting. and confusion. Nicotiana glauca." Potency can vary widely. sensory receptors.5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine. teonanacatl. Dosage: 100 to 300 seeds (about 5 to 10 grams) to produce the same effects as 200 to 300 meg of LSD. ololiuqui. dizziness. heart damage. insomnia. NIGHTSHADE AKA: Solatium nigrum. tremors. It has been used in psychotherapy and as a treatment for opiate and alcohol addiction. Mushrooms may also accumulate such toxins as arsenic and cesium. ketamine. Effects: Produces vivid hallucinations similar (though reportedly less intense) to LSD—beginning within a half hour and lasting three to six hours — muscular relaxation. improve the ability to perform various tasks. caffeine. pupil dilation. Effects: Hallucinations. kidney dysfunction. depression. as "the mushroom is similar to your soul. help schizophrenics function better. heart palpitations. stimulant.and long-term memory. San Pedro. state that only 15 of the crushed Turbina corymbosa seeds in one-half cup of water will produce the desired effect. and Theophylline. Psilocybe cubensis. C. and Stro-pharia.produces the same rundown feelings the next day as MDA does. high body temperature. disorientation. Jonathan Ott was offered one such sample which. The MDMA sold on the street can often contain such additives as MDEA (a close relative of MDMA). though tolerance does develop rapidly. Ipomoea violacea (badoh negro seeds. 3. Aldous Huxley. Sources: Bell peppers. Readers should not be misled by popular books that contain misleading and erroneous information. rapid and abnormal heartbeat. Nico-tiana benthatniana. headache. It reacts adversely with alcohol or depressants. Contains a chemical called ergine (d-lysergic acid diethylamide). Effects: It is believed to improve both short. irritated and damaged lung tissue. Nicotiana velutina. irritability. MESCALINE AKA: Mescal buttons. xpuhuc. The beans are often confused with colorines. followed by uncontrollable bursts of emotion that may mimic schizophrenia. vomiting. dangerously low blood pressure. and giddiness. strongly disagrees with Huxley's positive assessment. Glutethimide. Chewing tobacco and snuff is not believed to be as addicting. compounds similar to rocket propellants which are carcinogenic and potentially deadly. Panaeolus. cold sweats. in fact. especially if the individual lies on his back and breathes deeply. as the nicotine does not enter the brain directly. Effects: Said to induce hallucinations. shortness of breath. Imapramine. nausea." It is an MAO inhibitor. and other. rapid pulse. selegiline. tey-huintli. increased susceptibility to disease. and bad trips. yahutli. visual impairment. in his books Mysticism Sacred and Profane and Drugs." MORNING GLORY AKA: Ipomoea purpurea. and other infections. emphysema. chewed. Turbina corymbosa (coaxhuitl. sleeplessness. paranoia. ye-tumutsali. as they will produce no results when eaten whole. They are mildly toxic. chills. or 5 to 15 mushrooms. vomiting. help those with Alzheimer's focus better on tasks. the latter of which can be manufactured synthetically. Stomach cramps may also occur. and they can be somewhat indigestible and mildly toxic if not cooked. and the only addictive one. or belladonna. Rivea corymbosa). there are four other genera that have hallucinogenic properties: Cono-cybe. in their raw state. or Andrija Puharich's The Sacred Mushroom: Key to the Door of Eternity. convulsions. crawling with bugs. frijolitos. increased salivation. but only in Mexico are they used in rituals. Not everyone sees the "infinite clockwork. overstimulation of the central nervous system. and reduce stress. Furosemide. increased bronchial secretions. numbness. Mexican morning glory. and then block. reported on his wondrous experiences with the drug in the equally-famous books The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell. 10 to 15 grams of fresh mushrooms. and it has been implicated in some deaths. increased blood pressure. Ipomoea tricolor. It takes you where the soul wants to go. There have been reports of dependency problems. Sophora secundiflora. cold-water infusions of the ground seeds). Reports of the effects of this plant vary considerably. Nicotine can alter the effects of any central nervous system drug. which begin one to two hours after consumption. lightheadedness. Although other members of the morning glory family in other parts of the world have higher levels of psychoactive compounds. a problem that increases with the age of the user. anxiety. The effects of nicotine can be increased when combined with sugar. and death. and anorexia may also occur. yauhtli. and heart failure. herpes outbreaks. including Acetaminophen." or the cosmic secrets of the mushroom. shivering. panic. piule. It contains the alkaloid cytisine. Mescaline is chemically similar to the hormone epinephrine and the neurohormone norepinephrine. diarrhea. cooking will not remove or deactivate them. Effects: A narcotic or mild psychedelic that is said to induce feelings of tranquility when smoked. Propranolol. elevated heart rate. Initial side effects include vomiting. Nicotiana megalosiphon. Side effects include over-excitement. Overdose symptoms include excessive salivation. Overdose symptoms may include delusions and hallucinations. MESCAL BEAN AKA: Coralillo. weakness. John Allegro's The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross. difficulty concentrating. headache. constriction of blood vessels. and senility. Texas mountain laurel. NlANDO AKA: Alchornea floribunda. Propoxyphene Hydrochloride. Dosage: Psychedelic mushrooms can be eaten. It is not physically or psychologically addicting. tomatoes. Aside from the fly agaric mushrooms. There is a myth that the mushrooms can be preserved in honey. Some dealers may sell ordinary mushrooms laced with LSD. Oxazepam. Nicotiana trigonophylla. caffeine. Precautions: Common side effects include nausea. Nicotiana rustica. vomiting. According to Mexican Mazatec healer Maria Sabina in de Rios' Visionary Vine. dry mouth. the alkaloid nicotine is the most powerful. . crushed. potentially hazardous. heart palpitations. It was used by native peoples throughout the Americas to induce trance states and visions. Commercially sold seeds may be coated with a poison to discourage use as a psychedelic. though most of it is destroyed by burning. tobacco. yyahutli. The hard seeds must be cracked or ground up to release the ergine. poisonous mushrooms. even faster than heroin injected into the arm. high blood pressure. and just 60 to 120 mg (a drop or two) of pure nicotine can kill the average adult if applied to the skin. rapid. schizophrenia. prevent toxic chemicals from killing off brain cells. and anxiety disorders. 'nti-si-tho. and a buzzing or ringing in the ears. the closest substance to LSD found in nature. The Copelandia cyanescens fungus that is cultivated in Bali is more potent than any of these mushrooms. yyauhtli. sweating. sneezing. Young et al. Zaehner. MUSHROOMS AND PSILOCYBINE AKA: Liberty caps. preventing the neurotransmission of new information. convulsions.4. fermenting mess. nausea. cancer. high blood pressure. It should not be confused with deadly nightshade. and irregular pulse. "Morning glory" actually refers to two distinct species which. shock. smoked or snorted as a powder (it can be years before dried mushrooms lose their potency). tumutsali. amphetamine. paralysis of the respiratory muscles. and swallowed. premature aging. Even a fraction of a bean more could result in toxicity and death. One expert has claimed that it is "toxic.

Dosage: The tree sap is heated with pieces of bark. Nt7TM£G AKA: Made shaunda. no hallucinogenic cactus contains strychnine. devil's snuffbox. It reacts adversely with stimulants or depressants. its primary manifestations being excitability. only a tablespoon of leaves and stems are needed to achieve its effects. Precautions: It has an extremely bitter taste that makes it hard to swallow and invariably induces vomiting and an hour or two of nausea. pitchery. Lycoperdon mixtecorum is the more powerful of the two species. Precautions: The seeds differ from mescal beans and colorines only in the fact that they have a touch of black on the end. pix-uri. PANDANUS Effects: The Wopkaimin people of New Guinea induce an altered state of consciousness. even in small doses. Common side effects include severe nausea and diarrhea. It contains the drug myristicin. shivering. decreased respiration. The dose needed to get high is close to the toxic level. or used as an enema. Effects: Lycoperdon is a Mexican fungi that produces auditory hallucinations. Speech and memory problems may persist for some time after use is discontinued. Eating half of a Sderoderma mushroom induces . Dosage: The leaves are roasted. and memory). though Valium is said to counteract its effects. despair. fever.. bloodshot eyes. Its association with violent behavior may be greatly exaggerated. Effects: It produces a complex high of spectacular hallucinations involving all senses that begins three hours after ingestion and lasts up to 12 hours. Precautions: The psychoactive alkaloids are MAO inhibitors. which can be converted by the body into an amphetamine-like psychedelic. purple passion flower. Myristica fragrans. PAGAMEA MACROPHYLLA Effects: The powdered leaves are used as a snuff and are reportedly psychoactive. mushrooms. then drunk after it has cooled. but "dissociated" from their bodies. dizziness. PSYCHOTRIA AKA: Batsikawa. pishikawa. vomiting. and rolled into a "quid. Effects: Used by Australian Aborigines to endure long journeys without suffering fatigue. Precautions: An overdose can be fatal. Lycoperdon marginatum (gi-i-sa-wa). Calvatia utriformis. it even smells like marijuana. and can cause headaches. restlessness. In fact. nausea. Echinocactus williamsii. the leaves of which are reportedly psychoactive. rapid heart rate. Effects: It is a narcotic whose effects are similar to curare. and then mixed with an alkaline plant to release the nicotine. or thirst. Effects: The high can range from mild euphoria to full-blown delirium that lasts four to twelve hours. which is not psychoactive). Dosage: 5 to 20 grams. resulting in a strong hangover the next day. and methyleugenol. pedgery. intravenously. and has been used to help cure personal problems. all of which are psychoactive. Precautions: If taken by those with any borderline psychosis. devil's pepperpot. Duboisia hopwoodii. difficulty urinating. pixiepuff. some of which are as yet unidentified (e. or more. watery eyes. the latter of which can cause excitement and hallucinations. Psychotria viridis (amirucapanga. Overdose symptoms (above 10 grams) include dizziness. agitation. It is dangerous at almost any level. while the chance of negative effects is 100 percent. concentration. It has been used as a surgical and veterinary anesthetic (Sernyl and Sernylan respectively) but. PUCHURI AKA: Licaria puchury-major. double or blurred vision. on the street. Another species of Pandanus on New Guinea has been found to contain DMT. loss of balance. convulsions. Effects: In low doses it can act as a stimulant. and muscular rigidity. vomiting. except magnified. There are reportedly some 30 analogues of PCP available. Taking it may produce a dangerous and nasty delirium — according to Ronald K. uncontrollable eye movements. Effects: The seeds are used in Brazil as a sedative and tranquilizer. a flushing of the skin. but in high doses it can act as a depressant. nausea. and when combined with other MAO inhibitors. Medically. PARSLEY AKA: Common parsley. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops. high blood pressure. Contrary to popular opinion. PEYOTE AKA: Lophophora diffusa (Anhalonium williamsii). Effects: Though it was not known as a hallucinogen when Jonathan Ott's Pharmacotheon was published (1993). schizophrenia-like delusions and mental confusion. seizures. depression. or taken orally. fistball. though technically it is not a psychedelic. and suicidal behavior. Dosage: The dried leaves can be smoked or brewed as a tea (one-half ounce of leaves per pint of boiled water). chewed dry. PITURl AKA: Bedgery. and other psychoactive plants. The vomiting and nausea can usually be minimized by fasting or taking Dramamine beforehand and remaining perfectly still during the visions. and panic. the white hairs do not contain strychnine (they are cellulose. Lophophora williamsii (Anhalonium lewinii. though one level teaspoon is said to produce euphoric effects. a preoccupation with death. vomiting and headaches will result.. garden parsley. profuse sweating. Petroselinum crispum. eugenol. PASSION FLOWER AKA: Maypops. Dosage: It can be smoked. it can often be passed off as mescaline or DMT. moistened. Rhynchosia phaseolides. A member of the coffee family that grows along the Amazon. called the "Karuka madness. flushing of the skin. including LSD or mescaline. Patients who received it during surgery remained aware. hog. and possible liver failure. Peyotl zacatecensis). rapid heartbeat. Users claim it has cured illnesses and alcoholism. Ph. batsikawa. fuzzball. PCP AKA: Angel dust. New Britain near New Guinea. The tea produces feelings of tranquility and sedation. when taken orally. t-tabs. sami ruca). encyclidine. Rhynchosia pyramidalis. it has shown promise in protecting against brain damage resulting from stroke.D. The level of alkaloids varies widely from plant to plant. loss of muscular coordination. Precautions: Larger doses are fatal. Called a pseudohallucinogen because its primary effect is delirium. numbness of the extremities. Siegel. which are moistened just before eating or. matsi kawa. mescal buttons. There are numerous species of Psychotria. vaginally. Sernyl. Common side effects at low doses (below 5 mg) include sedation. passion vine. kawa kui. PUFFBALLS AKA: Blind man's ball. and impairment of various mental functions (thinking. the chance of positive effects is 60 percent. one aspect of which is a form of hallucination. The term piule is also used to refer to morning-glory seeds. This altered state can last up to 12 hours.g. Psychotria nitida. and hallucinations. peace pill. puckfist. animal tranquilizer. The psychological side effects are the same. Common side effects at high doses (above 10 mg) include agitation. Common side effects at moderate doses include decreased blood pressure." which is then smoked. Precautions: It should be avoided by anyone with liver problems. snorted. constipation. Bovista nigrescens. blurred vision. Effects: The oil. can induce hallucinations. Purity can range from high (white crystals) to low (moist and yellowish) and. Effects: Contains the potent hallucinogen DMT. it is not a depressant. though it contains more than forty other drugs or compounds. dizziness. and have been found to contain safrole. and violent behavior. Contains the psychoactive alkaloids harmine and harmaline. increased salivation. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high when smoked. in the roots. it has a greater chance of worsening the condition than any other drug. or plant fiber). mescaline is its chief psychoactive alkaloid (its principal alkaloid is peyotline. or rectally. It contains the alkaloids nicotine. dry mouth and throat. Duboisia myoporoides. d-nor-nicotine (which is four times as toxic as nicotine) and. a washed-out feeling for a day or two. apathy. It is often added to ayahuasca. Peyote is a small cactus with white tufts of hair and no spines. hunger. and its use on people was discontinued when patients reported out-ofbody experiences and disturbing visual hallucinations. It produces a strong high with hallucinations (mainly out-of-body experiences and perceptual distortions normally associated with sensory deprivation) lasting one to six hours. repetitive movements. Some Indians eat 4 to 30. OSTEOPHLOEUM AKA: Osteophloeum platyspermum (Osteophloeum platyphyllum). They can also be soaked in water (they dissolve quite readily) and the liquid consumed as a tea. peyotl. less commonly. Sderoderma citrina (earth ball). It may take at least a day before a person feels normal again. sensory input organization. The leaves and stems are also said to be ground or chewed up. Petroselinum sativum. however. matsi kawa) and some which may be devoid of psychoactive alkaloids. fallen stars. Dosage: The usual dose is 6 to 12 dried buttons. PUERARIA PHASEOLOIDES Effects: A plant in West Nakanai.Precautions: Contains the alkaloid solanine — also present in green potatoes — which is somewhat toxic. Passiflora incarnata. a coma that can last for up to 12 hours. hyoscyamine and scopolamine as well. learning. A peyote high is much different from a mescaline high. decreased heart rate. dusty stars." by eating the nuts of this plant. paranoia. rock parlsey. aching muscles. PlSHICOL Effects: A psychoactive cactus: Research is needed to uncover its psychoactive components and effects. chacruna. Precautions: Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions and severe damage to the liver and kidneys. PlULE AKA: Rhynchosia longiraceomosa. Generally. subsequent research has shown that it is used as a hallucinogen by the Quichua tribe of Ecuador. Lycoperdon mixtecorum (gi-i-wa). unlike most anesthetics.

convulsions. Dosage: Up to one joint of dried leaves is said to produce a relaxed feeling with no subsequent depression. Effects: The fruits of this plant were once prepared and used as a snuff by Indians in the Pariana region of Brazil.S. he oftentimes could not remember them. SCIRPUS AKA: Bakana. bakanoa. reportedly without the nausea. produces a honey that is toxic (this plant can be used as a tea. anxiety. euphoria. though excessive use may cause toxicity). intellectual clarity. and it is probably used in the hallucinogenic drink cimora. according to William Burroughs. Precautions: The oil of any herb in any dose can be toxic. relates how an entire army was poisoned from the honey of this plant. Xeno-phon. tremors. Genista canariensis (Canary Island broom). sweating. Effects: Was once used as a narcotic and hallucinogen by people in the northern Caucasus. SAFFRON AKA: Crocus sativus. Effects: Intoxication. a severe strain on the heart. A member of the fig family found along the Brazilian Amazon. swamp tea. All 3 varieties (Cytisus and Genista) have about the same potency. RAPE DO INDIOS AKA: Maquira sderophylla (Olme-dioperebea sderophylla). Precautions: Cytisine is known to be toxic (it is related to nicotine). difficult urination. experimented with it and found that. It is not addictive. both of whom found it unreliable. though no adverse side effects have been reported when the plant is properly prepared and smoked. Senecio cardiophyllus. it is a member of the nightshade family and a close relative to tobacco. An alkaloid found in belladonna. sinicuiche. it was used as an analgesic for childbirth until it was found to cause an abnormally high infant mortality rate. Contains the psychoactive alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. includes mental clarity. mitten tree.visual disturbances and a deep narcosis that lasts approximately two hours. wild rosemary). difficult ejaculation. Precautions: They smell like fecal matter. RHODODENDRON AKA: Rhododendron ponticum (Azalea pontica. and death through respiratory failure when it is eaten. Dosage: The slightly wilted leaves are crushed and soaked in water. cardo. can be processed to make the narcotic MDA. Another Greek historian. Sassifras variiflium. Ledum palustre. Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom). Reports of STP trips lasting several days may be apocryphal. rapid heart rate. Precautions: Side effects of STP include rapid heart rate. are reported to be rare. marsh tea. and DOB may produce similar results. the two are not related. Effects: A deep sleep accompanied by vivid hallucinations and bright colors. leaves. delirium. SCOPOLAMINE AKA: Hyoscine. and motion sickness. Effects: There is one report of a "visionary experience" after an ingestion of 10 ml of Brazilian oil of sassafras. Senecio canicida. hot dry skin. Ledum palustre (marsh cistus. It is known that at least one species. Though. Spanish broom contains the toxic alkaloid spartenine. which begins in about an hour and lasts for about six hours. high blood pressure. In high doses it can cause poisoning. Nevertheless. who used it to induce prophetic dreams. huando. Ledum hypoleucum. herva da vida. seeds. A shrub in the Ecuadorian Andes that is toxic to animals. it is a cactus. SHANSHI AKA: Coriaria thymifolia. It is still used in some sleeping medications. the Soviets.5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine. and feelings of terror may occur. Senecio gray anus. constipation. and pupil dilation.5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphet-amine. Some medicine men use it for folk healing and divination. or ground up and rubbed on the skin with fat. disorientation. even though the subject may have been willing to give up secrets. Effects: The smoke from the burning leaves is said to be a narcotic. sinicuitl. SASSAFRAS AKA: Ague tree. The roots of plants contain the lowest amount of scopolamine. AKA (DOB): 2. Dosage: The roots. It has been found to impair serial learning at doses of 0. Effects: Contains the alkaloid mescaline. Cytisus canariensis. Precautions: It contains a poison that can affect the central nervous system and damage the kidneys. cinnamon wood. The synthetic drug DOM has a chemical structure similar to mescaline. hermoso. serenity tranquility peace. The exact method of preparation has apparently been lost over time. and can also be used to treat asthma. dilated eyes. or boiled in water for at least two hours and strained to make a drink. SENECIOS AKA: Peyote. It can be fatal at doses of 10 to 12 grams. who stated that the burning smoke of the plant was as intoxicating as wine. It may also produce intense hypnagogic imagery (hypnagogia is the half-awake. and the juice is placed in the sun to ferment. and to cause overexcitement. In the early 1900s. cuchuma. eaten. like peyote. Dosage: The lining of the inner skin wall can be chewed. gumbo. abnormal thirst. SCOTCH BROOM AKA: Broom. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations — including the sensation of flight —which are due to some as-yet-unidentified glycoside. gastrointestinal spasms. and. chills. and deafness or auditory hallucinations. half asleep state that can occur just before or after sleep). A species of petunia. Senecio praecox. including the following effects: giddiness. relaxation. more tranquil high. but psychological dependence may occur with habitual use. Precautions: Side effects. unconsciousness. and brilliantly colored visions. Effects: A peyote-like high. Effects: STP produces a strong intoxicating and stimulating state — similar to that induced by LSD or mescaline—which can last eight to twenty-four hours. in World War II. 2. saxifrax. DOB and DOI are related synthetic phenethylamines. Rhododendron caucasicum).5 mg. and San Pedro produces a less stimulating. and a heightened sense of color for about two hours. Precautions: It is extremely dangerous. Heradea pontica. AKA (DOI): 2. which is a hallucinogen. it has been used as an ingredient in aphrodisiac drinks. inability to focus vision. then ground up and rolled into a joint. but not hallucinations. though DOI produces a trip that lasts up to 30 hours. Trichocereus peruvianus. STP AND RELATED DRUGS AKA: DOM. Effects: Hallucinations. a darkening and shrinking of the surroundings. SHANIN AKA: Petunia violacea. SlNICUICHI AKA: Heimia salicifolia. even though its cytisine alkaloid has not been proven to have psychoactive properties. In Europe. brewed into a tea. It was tested as a truth serum by the Germans and U. Precautions: Believed to be at least partly responsible for the beserker frenzies of the Vikings. the seeds the highest. henbane. An overdose can lead to a bad trip. drowsiness or euphoria. moth herb. Effects: Hallucinations. though no psychoactive property has yet been isolated from it. Sassafras albidum. and flowers can be smoked. but excessive use is said to be harmful. Precautions: The nectar may be toxic. Its supposed hallucinogenic effects are disputed by research. and cold and allergy remedies. as it contains several chemicals that are toxic to the liver. Senecio toluccanus. several joints may produce the effects mentioned above. giganton. The main psychoactive ingredient appears to be an as-yet-unidentified alkaloid. Heimia myrtifolia and heimia syphilitica are geographical variants. Precautions: Common side effects include dry mouth. and another species is used by the Kwaikutl Indians of British Columbia as an inebriant.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine. restlessness. Effects: Hallucinations. Sinicuichi can also refer to other. Nausea. Tricho-cereus pachanoi (Opuntia cylindrica). SCOPOLIA AKA: Scopolia carniolica. fever. or safrol(e). Senecio hartwegii (pey-ote de Tepic). it has been found to have an amphetamine-like stimulation on the central nervous system of rats. Precautions: There are cases on record of poisonings from related species Coriaria arborea and Coriaria ruscifolia. narrow-leaved Labrador tea. Spartium junceum (Spanish broom). This maybe the same plant referred to by the Greek historian Herodotus. a heavy drunken feeling. unrelated plants. Effects: Hallucinations. more intense auditory and visual perceptions. datura. though it does not elicit the euphoria associated with mescaline. Effects: Saffron oil. Experiments by Jonathan Ott and others on eleven species of the Lycoperdon failed to discover any psychoactive effects or compounds. Precautions: It is usually consumed over a 45-minute period to avoid sudden overstimulation. The high. the main aspect of which appears to be the sensation of flight. . ROSEMARY AKA: Ledum groenlandicum. The Tungus people of Siberia preferred this over the fly-agaric mushroom. pinan. and amnesia. headaches. which include hypothermia. Senecio cervarifolia. loss of appetite. It is used by the Yacqui medicine men of northern Mexico as a supposed hallucinogen. Said to induce psychic visions. nausea. and mandrake. SAN PEDRO AKA: Aguacolla. The blossoms of the plant are aged for about 10 days in a sealed jar until they are dry and moldy. bakanawa.

TURKESTAN MINT AKA: Lagochilus inebrians. it can induce psychosis in higher doses. and death may result. may result in headaches. A South African member of the mint species. None of the chemicals known to exist in tupa are hallucinogenic. It is sometimes combined with MDMA. TAKINI AKA: Helicostylis pedunculata. Precautions: The term kinnikinnick can also refer to other plants and to mixtures of these plants. the Middle East. Effects: Bark extracts of this Ecuadorian tree are used by hunters to sharpen the senses. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops. Doses of 20 to 25 mg are mildly stimulating. Precautions: Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions and severe damage to the liver and kidneys. michai bianco. 2C-B AKA: 2. Desfontainia hookeri. Dosage: The leaves and stems are boiled in water to make a tea. It can be taken orally or injected. Effects: Hallucinations and narcosis. Effects: A Chinese vine said to induce visions and "communication with spirits. harmul.5 to 3 mg. Precautions: Jonathan Ott and others have concluded that 5-MeO-DMT has "little recreational value." essentially agreeing with a colleague who compared it to "having a large elephant sitting on one's head. and DOI is active at doses of 1. is reputed to be an aphrodisiac. and by some North American Indians as an ingredient in love magic. When smoked. it should not exceed 1 ounce of seeds. Effects: An intoxication similar to opium. Colorado River toad. Effects: Used as an inebriant by the Hottentots. Precautions: While it may be useful in treating schizophrenia in low doses. chapico. Precautions: Some initial unpleasant effects. take hold in about five minutes and lasts for approximately an hour. The seeds are commonly used as a spice. 5-MeO-DMT is not active when taken orally. Dosage: 1 to 5 mg of STP. causing seizures and resulting in hospitalization. The full extent of its effect is not yet known. it is unrelated to American or European rue. TUPA AKA: Lobelia tupa. WILD FENNEL Effects: The oil. Wade Davis has reported that Bufo marinus was one ingredient of the Haitian zombi potion. which include auditory and visual hallucinations. Effects: Said to induce hallucinations. among others. Mongolia. WILD DAGGA AKA: Leonotis leonurus. there is good evidence to suggest that it contains psychoactive alkaloids. peaks after two. It is not known whether it induces hallucinations or contains any further psychoactive properties. Precautions: The alkaloids are MAO inhibitors and if mixed with any other drug or food contraindicated for this substance. Sonoran Desert toad. an alkaloid that is also found in some mushrooms and plants and which produces an LSD-like high. The venom can remain potent for two years.5-dimethoxy-4-bromo-phenethylamine. Effects: Enhances all the senses without distorting them. sold in Egypt as zitel-harmel. Bufo marinus. UVA-URSI AKA: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. can induce hallucinations. Desfontainia spinos. and getting the venom in the eyes or mouth can cause severe poisoning. bufotenine is not. Parenteral injections of 5 to 10 mg were also found to produce results. when taken orally. Precautions: It has a very bitter taste. Manchuria.22 percent). and lasts twenty. Dosage: Unless combined with MAO inhibitors at a 10 mg dose. If dosage is increased. though it does not appear to play a part in any religious or ceremonial rituals. Effects: Used as a folk medicine and intoxicant by various peoples of Turkestan. TOAD AKA: Bufo alvarius. Peganum harmala. wild rue. and Spain. and the oil. since most types of toad venom are toxic. spend. WATER LILY AKA: Nymphaea ampla. kinnikinik. TAIQUE AKA: Borrachero de paramo. hurmur. Effects: Used as a folk medicine and narcotic in southern Chile. Effects: The fumes of the latex from this tree is said to be psychoactive. though it contains andromedotoxin and arbutin as its active ingredients. doses of 300 to 750 mg may cause hallucinations. DOB is active at doses of 1 to 3 mg. doses of 20 mg can cause long-lasting effects which may lead to panic reactions. Dosage: Starting dose should be l/3 ounce of seeds (or 250 mg) — no more — chewed thoroughly and swallowed. it is four times as potent as DMT — experiments have found that smoking 6 to 10 mg of the free base can result in a high that begins within a minute. A designer psychedelic which is DOB without the side-chain methyl group. Effects: Contains the hallucinogenic alkaloids harmine and harmaline. though 5-MeO-DMT is legal. Precautions: It is toxic and may adversely affect the motor nerves. Dosage: It is active in the range of 12 to 24 mg. nymphaea caerulea. rue. harmel. trautrau. though they may have a nicotine-like effect. kinnikinnick. licking toads can be dangerous. YUN-SHIH AKA: Caesalpinia sepiaria. Precautions: It is related to a family of South American plants from which arrow poisons are made. tabaco del diablo." It should be noted that. The dried leaves are used as a tobacco substitute. heart troubles. Effects: The Sonoran Desert toad of Arizona produces large amounts of 5-MeO-DMT in its venom glands — which can induce a gentle high when dried or smoked — along with small amounts of the narcotic bufotenine. Effects: The dried leaves are smoked by the Mapuche Indians of Chile as a narcotic. Helicostylis tomentosa. TAGLLI AKA: Pernettya parvifolia." . bear-berry. SYRIAN RUE AKA: African rue. Some Indians of South America use it along with tobacco in shamanistic rituals. The effects. Native to India. spand. neither of which is hallucinogenic. but can result in drowsiness and dreaminess for an hour or two.DOB produces extremely long-lasting effects. Interestingly. VEPRIS AMPODY Effects: One of the richest sources of DMT (up to 0. and it has caused one death due to an individual's mistaking it for MDA and taking a massive dose. TSICTA AKA: Tabernaemontana sananho. harmal. techepak. The venom must be dried and smoked to inactivate the toxins.

Bufferin Arthritis Strength. Diclofenac. tremors. a greater susceptibility to kidney damage when combined with gold compounds. experts strongly recommend that this combination be avoided. Common side effects include nausea. estrogens. it can aggravate any stomach irritation and bleeding caused by aspirin. Cimetidine.. diarrhea. fever. Less common side effects include difficulty in swallowing. vomiting. spastic blinking. muscle twitches. or who is going to have surgery within the next two months (including dental surgery) requiring general or spinal anesthesia. nasal congestion. reducing fat. It is consumed immediately after mixing. Those with gout should consult a physician first. and it should always be used in conjunction with adrenal corticosteroid drugs. milk. dry mouth. DONEPEZIL AKA: Aricept. flushing. high blood sugar. Precautions: It should not be used by those who have liver damage. agitation. sinus inflammation. Carbamazepine. Ox-prenelol. frequent urination. It can increase the effects of Cortisone. and body odor. pancreas inflammation. Food or drink (including mineral water) should not be consumed for at least thirty minutes after taking Alendronate. nausea. Cimetidine. Norwich Extra-Strength. while aspirin toxicity may occur when combined with Bumet-anide. weakness. vision problems. ASPIRIN AKA: Alka-Seltzer with Aspirin. leg cramps. intestinal bleeding. and hair loss. Bromocriptine. or ringing or buzzing in the ears develops. and coma. Stomach or intestinal problems can result when mixed with aspirin. Empirin. seizures. convulsions. Sandimmune. facial flushing. a flushing of the skin. convulsions. and rapid heartbeat. Octreotide. Diltiazem. Metoclo-pramide. It is also used for the treatment of infertility (both male and female). and those using gold. fainting. vomiting.ergokryptine. who have peptic ulcers or a bleeding disorder. a form of senility in which small blood clots form in the brain. sulfonamides. marijuana. and styrofoam cups should be avoided). Measurin. Phenobarbitol.CHAPTER 11 Medical Drugs ALENDRONATE AKA: Alendronate sodium. Other possible side effects include hives. Papaverine. difficulty sleeping. who are allergic to aspirin or tartrazine (a common food coloring). asthma. Precautions: It elicits adverse effects in those who have severe kidney disease or an allergy to Alendronate. Combined with marijuana. Excessive doses of 2000 mg or more per day can lower blood sugar. and tiredness. heartburn. It can lead to a decreased tolerance for alcohol. Danazol. nausea. Aspirin can decrease the effects of Acebutolol. and Terazosin. vomiting. For those over 60. Bufferin. cocaine. Lisinopril. dizziness. Allopurinol. A drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. shortness of breath. The lethal dosage is 30 to 90 regular-strength tablets and 20 to 40 maximum-strength tablets. Taking it with food may help prevent an upset stomach. The effects of aspirin can be decreased when combined with antacids. Clarithromycin. convulsions. Arthritis Pain Formula. facial swelling. 2-bromo-alpha. anemia. Phenothiazines. BROMOCRIPTINE AKA: CB-154. anticoagulants. or high potassium/low sodium foods can increase blood potassium. Aspirin can result in low blood sugar when combined with oral anti-diabetic medication. and weight loss. Tacrolimus. There is evidence that bromocriptine may be addictive. vision difficulties. it may slow the body's recovery from injury or illness. including dental surgery. Haloperidol. or kidney disease may find that cyclo-sporine aggravates their conditions. and stomach irritations. Precautions: It should not be taken by those allergic to bromocriptine or Ergotamine. irregular and rapid pulse. Erythro-mycin. diarrhea. muscle pain." It has proven effective against multi-infarct dementia (MID). Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. As yet. A severe overdose produces symptoms which include fever. ZORprin. and may play roles in enhancing memory. Sulfinpyrazone. Tiopronin. hallucinations. Methotrexate. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. fluid retention. excessive vomiting. severe abdominal pain. marijuana and bromocriptine may result in fatigue. nightmares. Indomethacin. excessive drowsiness. Individuals who have liver problems. Itracona-zole. excitement. plastic. visual disturbances. and other oral medications. severe stomach pains or cramps. Bufferin Extra Strength. immuno-suppressants may increase the risk of infection. night sweats. heart attacks and strokes. epilepsy. hearing loss. Parlodel. The absorption of Alendronate can be interfered with by antacids. which should not be taken within thirty minutes of Alendronate. heartburn. Propranolol. It can also reduce the body's production of melatonin by 75 percent. thirst. brittle hair or fingernails. potassium-sparing diuretics. Gentamicin. and boosting immunity. it can be mixed with apple juice and orangejuice. cortisone drugs. potassium-sparing diuretics. Buffered effervescent tablets and sodium salicylate should not be used by those who need to restrict sodium in their diet. constipation. headache. drowsiness. Carteolol. Phenytoin. diarrhea. An ergot derivative like LSD and Hydergine. making overdosage much more likely. Bayer 8-Hour. numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. Aspirin can significantly reduce blood coagulation. insomnia. upset stomach. a ringing in the ears. Diclofenac. and tobacco. Effects: It is an anti-oxidant and anti-depressant. seizures. sweating. so the dosage of any of these drugs must be reduced when it is taken. calcium supplements. continuous doses). penicillin. which could possibly overcome brain damage caused by strokes. tingling and numbness of the hands and feet. and some pituitary tumors. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. diarrhea. and render urine tests for blood sugar inaccurate. headache. bromocriptine may weaken the antiParkinson effect. thirst. this has not been supported by clinical evidence.S. When combined with levodopa. and increased formation of stomach ulcers and stomach bleeding. A mild overdose produces symptoms which include deep and rapid breathing. Methyldopa. and fainting. potassium supplements. androgens. and more juice should be poured into the glass and drunk to insure that the complete dose has been taken. a peptic ulcer. and Prednisolone. as the aspirin has started to deteriorate and is no longer effective. Tobacco will interfere with the drug's absorption. though more research needs to be done. Precautions: Cyclosporine should be prescribed only by doctors who have had experience in immunosuppressive therapy and organ transplantation. salt substitutes. Fos-amax. and headache. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. itching. Bayer. headaches. irregular heartbeat. Dextrothyroxine (in large. Phenobarbital. bromocriptine is prescribed for the treatment of certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as muscle rigidity. male breasts that are painful or swollen. and doses of tetracy-clines and aspirin are taken at least an hour apart to avoid any interactions. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). conjunctivitis. anxiety. though studies have yet to be done to confirm this. which is believed to comprise about 20 percent of all cases of senile dementia. or who have a history of nasal polyps. impotence. constipation. Rare side effects include high blood pressure. Melphalan. It should not be taken by anyone with chicken pox or herpes zoster. and even a few aspirin can cause the body to excrete vitamin C at up to three times the normal rate. NSAIDS. an increased risk of bleeding when combined with Levamisole. caution must be exercised. and virus vaccines may cause adverse reactions to the vaccines. chills. Sotalol. The possibility of stomach ulcers and/or bleeding increases when it is taken with adrenal corticosteroids. adverse side effects may be more frequent and severe. hallucinations. Ecotrin Maximum Strength. as a side effect. Effects: There are two anecdotal cases of patients who have had improved memory and mental functioning after taking it. Overdose symptoms include upset stomach. heart or lung disease. fainting. blurred vision. vomiting. Nafcillin. Rare side effects include confusion. and increase the risk of aspirin-related ulcers. weakness. confusion. Ketoprofen. who have taken an MAO inhibitor in the previous two weeks. psychosis. vomiting. diarrhea. Ethacrynic acid. The effects of overdosing are irregular heartbeat. loss of appetite. Salicylates. Trimethoprim-Sulfame-thoxazole. liver damage. Ticlopidine. muscle cramps. BENACTYZINE An anti-cholinergic drug used in Europe.. Ketoconazole. Effects: According to Pearson and Shaw. It can also interfere with the effects of some diuretics when taken by those with severe liver disease. dark or discolored urine. loss of appetite. they may be enhanced by other anti-Parkinson drugs. estrogens. abdominal discomfort. Ascriptin A/D. hearing loss. When combined with alcohol. Lovas-tatin. which may cause problems for diabetics. Dosage: One tablet a day. Vancomycin may cause hearing loss or kidney damage. nausea. and Verapamil enhance the effect of cyclosporine. and Rauwolfia alkaloids. throat irritation. Lifethreatening or overdose symptoms include muscle twitches. Less common side effects include fever. but grapefruit juice can affect the breakdown of the drug. body spasms. drug allergy. Use of cyclosporine becomes life-threatening if the symptoms include wheezing and shortness of breath. extending life span. Methylprednisolone. Cyclosporine produces adverse effects when combined with a number of drugs: Itraconazole or Nimodipine increase its toxicity. Effects: According to the authors of The Pill Book. or rhinitis. infections. confusion. rashes. Rare side effects include intense headaches. Continued use may cause reduced kidney function and hypertension. Terfena-dine can mask some symptoms of aspirin overdose. . Minoxidil. irregular heartbeat. beta-blocking drugs. and bloody stools. joint pains. Carna Arthritis Pain Reliever. Probenecid. liver or kidney disease. Furosemide. nausea. and convulsions. or Ticlopi-dine. Furosemide. gas. The effects of bromocriptine may be diminished by oral contraceptives. The effects of both drugs can be enhanced when combined with Guanfacine. Progestins. Aspirin should be taken with food. or medicines toxic to the kidneys (e. liver or kidney failure. acromegaly. Rare side effects include taste perception changes and vomiting. and Rauwolfia alkaloids. swallowing difficulties. tremors. It activates dopamine in the brain and. and large doses of vitamin C. Fluconazole. Ascriptin Extra Strength. or who have narrow-angle type glaucoma. and problems with walking. Ranitidine. Lovastatin may cause heart and kidney damage. it can also worsen such gastrointestinal disorders as swallowing difficulties. Aspergum. the effects of bromocriptine may be decreased. and dangerously increase blood pressure when taken with other ergot alkaloids or MAO inhibitors. jaundice. heart attack. Common side effects include mood swings. mouth sores. The oral solution is mixed in a glass (paper. Allop-urinol. Spirono-lactone. sore throat. and muscle pains. CYCLOSPORINE AKA: Neoral. rash. Enalapril. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. anti-convulsants. Use should be discontinued if dizziness. and coma. It can decrease the blood pressure when taken with anti-hypertensives. The effects of both drugs are enhanced when aspirin is combined with other anti-coagulants. and milk may render it unpalatable. Some suggest that aspirin may be helpful in preventing Alzheimer's. and possibly Rifabutin diminish the effect. If taken on a regular basis. difficulty in urinating. coma.g. high blood pressure. Maximum Bayer. nausea. Common side effects include abdominal or stomach discomfort. ulcer. ulcers. chest pain. it can block phobic memories and projections.A. Tobramycin. lethargy. black or bloody stools. When combined with cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins. A. An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. acne. depression. Alzheimer's disease. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. and low levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood. and sodium and fluid retention when combined with Terazosin. Cyclosporine can cause problems with the body's ability to remove Digoxin. aspirin may lower the risk of colon cancer. reduction of white blood cells. lethargy. as aspirin can accumulate in the body over time. itching. such as arthritis medications) may cause kidney damage. When taken with cocaine. increases the libido. Other common substances that could cause toxic reactions include alcohol. bloody urine. and Parkinson's disease. and ulcers. Micardipine. "aspirin may be the closest thing we have to a wonder drug" and "is the standard against which all other drugs are compared for pain relief and for reduction of inflammation. A physician should be consulted first if an individual has diabetes. Para-aminosalicylic acid. and bleeding. Amphotericin B. Less common side effects include dizziness. Common side effects include kidney toxicity. Azapropazon. gum inflammation and growth. Ecotrin. Rifampin. and so should not be taken at least a week before — and probably some time after — surgery. flushing of the face. nervousness. loss of hearing. Aspirin can also help prevent migraines. constipation. a sudden drop in blood pressure when combined with Nitroglycerin tablets. hallucinations. Any product containing aspirin that gives off a strong vinegar odor should be discarded immediately. breathing problems. vitamin B-6. and increased hair growth. or water to reduce the risk of upset stomach or bleeding. and Valproic acid. or Phenylbutazone.

heart or lung disease. it can lead to lowered blood pressure and weakness or faintness when standing up. fever. feelings of stimulation. Diltiazem. rapid or irregular pulse. with MAO inhibitors. The effects of both drugs can be diminished if combined with Acebutolol. skin rash. anticon-vulsants. high blood pressure. bloody urine. Methylprednisolone. anxiety. urinary infection. with Guan-facine. kidney disease. or allergic to the drug. When combined with Albuterol. vomiting. a viral infection related to Epstein-Barr may also occur. bitter taste. some hair loss. narcolepsy and mild depression in the elderly. breathing difficulties. eyelid spasms. peptic ulcer. excessive salivation. with alcohol can result in drowsiness. headache. euphoria. Cis-platin. visual disturbances (including double vision). and so should be used with caution by those driving or using hazardous equipment. Less common side effects include swelling. Danazol. L-3. rapid heartbeat. ulcer. and Oxyphenbuta-zone. coughing. blood levels of FK506 can be decreased by Carbamazepine. stomach pain. and uncontrolled body movements. muscle aches. and pain in the upper abdomen. Papaverine. but may be more severe manifestations of the above side effects. and suicidal tendencies. changes in muscle function. changes in blood potassium level. chills. vomiting. Ritalin. it can aid in weight loss by suppressing the appetite and stimulating the release of growth hormone. a flushing in the face. 0. itchy skin. headache. and decreased by anticholinergic drugs. sleeplessness. liver disease. fainting. teeth grinding. and possibly severe psychotic episodes. suicidal tendencies. Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. in which serotonin levels in the body are too high. pelvic pain. and mildly elevate blood potassium. tiredness. When combined with cocaine. and dryness in the nose and mouth. Rare side effects encompass symptoms occurring almost everywhere on the body. muscle twitches. nausea. B-5. agitation. and tiredness.Effects: Increases the availability of acetylcholine in the brain. high blood pressure. Guanethidine. laryngitis. Taking it just before sleep is probably the best strategy for stimulating the release of growth hormone. Cimetidine. B-6 and L-dopa may have to be taken one-half to four hours apart to prevent this. or who have malignant melanoma or suspicious skin lesions. it is a powerful anti-oxidant. weakness. It could cause a condition called the serotonin syndrome. asthma. can raise blood pressure and increase the risk of heartbeat irregularities. high blood pressure. and yellow fever should be avoided. restless leg syndrome. or Oxprenolol.5 to 8 grams/day according to a person's individual needs. visual disturbances. swallowing troubles. euphoria. stimulating the release of growth hormone. high blood pressure. though dosage is always adjusted according to the individual. constipation. Overdose symptoms include muscle twitches. instability. joint pains. numbness. and the drug Hydergine may prevent free-radical damage caused by dopamine byproducts. An overdose will result in increased side effects. decreasing the levels of prolactin. confusion. it can decrease dopamine levels in the brain. Dosage: A subcutaneous injection of 8 million units every other day. and herpes infections. changes in blood pressure or pulse. uncontrolled movements. Common side effects in adults include nervousness and insomnia (which are usually controlled by reducing or eliminating the afternoon or evening dose). sweating). memory. Bromocriptine. reduced blood-platelet count.4 dihydroxyphenylalanine. confusion. muscle spasms. tiredness. eating problems arising from a loss of muscle control. tingling in the hands and feet. Tacrolimus. the minerals selenium and zinc. cystitis. reduced blood magnesium. Dosage: For its use in transplant surgery. anxiety. Taking vitamin C may maintain the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the body. sinusitis. For life-extension and cognitive enhancement purposes. Lopar. Less common side effects include heart palpitations or irregularities. and body odor. and information processing by releasing norepi-nephrine in the brain. diarrhea. liver inflammation. insomnia. itching. asthma. rash. chills. liver or kidney abnormalities. poor coordination. Molindone. voice changes. Precautions: Continued or excessive use can lead to dependence or addiction. Effects: It may reverse or even prevent the deterioration of the body generally associated with aging by fully restoring the hypothalamus' ability to maintain the body's biochemical home-ostasis. Interferon beta-Ib. and —when taken within 24 hours of each other — Cyclosporine. it can lead to dangerously high blood pressure (individuals should cease taking MAO inhibitors two weeks before starting L-Dopa). a yellow discoloration in the skin or whites of the eyes. high blood pressure. fungus infection of the mouth. reducing side effects considerably. weakness. and some take Sinemet (a combination of L-dopa and Carbidopa) to keep brain dopamine levels high. 20 to 30 mg/day in two to three divided doses. delirium. A mild to moderate elevation in blood pressure may indicate kidney damage. psychosis. increased libido. and fluid retention. mood swings. fever. have narrow-angle type glaucoma. Overdose symptoms are not known. anemia. and live vaccines such as BCG. METHYLPHENIDATE AKA: PMS-Methylphenidate. decreased frequency of urination. menstruation that is painful or irregular. constipation. Nitrates. the latter also elevating blood pressure to dangerous levels. and coma. anti-hypertensives. weakness or feelings of faintness. Periplum. hallucinations. it may increase energy without the addiction and depressive aftermath associated with amphetamines. as will MAO inhibitors. The drug should be taken one hour before or two hours after meals to avoid absorption be food. INTERFERON BETA AKA: Betaseron. which could possibly overcome brain damage caused by strokes. It should be taken with food to avoid upset stomach. pink eye. hoarseness. breast pain. Methylphenidate can reduce the effectiveness of antihypertensives. Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) or a high protein diet can decrease the effects of L-dopa. It should be used with caution by those with glaucoma or other visual problems. a burning feeling on the tongue. it can hide the cause of tics. confusion. Excessive suppression of the immune system can occur when it is taken with other immunosuppressants. agitated. and with cocaine. confusion. tremors. hallucinations. especially in high doses. lethargy. or where careless or excessive brushing and flossing causes bleeding). and fainting. and seizures. Methyldopa. antidepressants. Precautions: Nothing is known about the effects it might have on those without MS. and adverse reactions may be more frequent and severe in those over age 60. Phenylbutazone. Rare side effects include stomach bleeding. muscle aches. tremors. dental infections (in the absence of good oral hygiene. excessive sleep. or who have had surgery within the last two months (including dental surgery) that required general or spinal anesthesia. chest pain. Clarithromycin. sweating. dizziness. with Metoclopramide. nausea. Common side effects include headaches. bronchitis. low blood pressure. changes in weight. lung problems (including fluid in the lungs). fluid retention. Rifampicin. Haloperidol. cysts. diarrhea. Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). diarrhea. It may increase the chance of developing a lym-phoma or other malignancy. Additional kidney damage may occur when taken with other drugs that cause kidney problems. When combined with Pimozide. nausea. such as aminoglyco-side antibiotics. Effects: According to Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw. abdominal pains. headache. Since it is a stimulant that causes the release of norepinephrine. drooling. Rare side effects include blurred vision. tremors. feelings of depression and a severely compromised immune system could occur between the time the neu-rotransmitter is metabolized and the body is able to make more. or Rauwolfia alkaloids. delusions. An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. with tricyclic antidepressants or anti-hypertensives. glaucoma. which in turn is converted from phenylalanine. dizziness when standing up. It is metabolized from tyrosine. difficulty in urinating. sore throat. it can lead to fatigue. diabetes. and it may act as a sexual aid by increasing the levels of the neurotrans-mitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. confusion. thyroid goiter. it can lead to a greater risk of heartbeat irregularity. nausea. and Parkinson's disease. muscle weakness. There are no known food or drug interactions. high fever. benzodiazepine-type tranquilizers and sedatives. often adjusted to the lowest effective level to reduce side effects. NlMODIPINE AKA: Nimotop. coma. the usual dose is 0. or other anti-Parkinsonian drugs. loss of appetite. L-DOPA AKA: Larodopa. or other nervous-system problems. Methylphenidate can reduce the rate at which the following drugs are broken down in the body. Overdose symptoms include vomiting. Blood levels of FK506 (and attendant side effects) can increase when taken with antifungal drugs. It should be used with extreme caution by those with a history of psychosis. Common side effects include muscle spasms. resulting in higher levels in the bloodstream: anticholinergics. migraine headaches. Dextrothyroxine can greatly enhance the effects of Methylphenidate. blurred or double vision. while taking one or more of such anti-oxidants as vitamins B-l. convulsions. measles. anti-convulsants. hiccups. heart palpitations. hallucinations. have taken an MAO inhibitor in the previous two weeks. it is generally suggested that 125 to 500 mg/day be taken. improving memory in Alzheimer's patients for a short period of time. Vaccination efficacy may be reduced by FK506. and which is characterized by restlessness. . abnormal heart rhythms. sinus irritation. Less common side effects include dream abnormalities. epilepsy. speech problems. blood changes (including anemia). a history of heart attacks. tiredness. oral polio. Methionine. vomiting. and cystic breast disease. plus other psychological. stomach bleeding. It is used to treat Parkinson's disease. it can lead to a higher absorption of L-dopa in the blood and a diminishing in the latter drug's effects on the stomach. rapid heart rate. high blood sugar. have a history of stomach ulcers. Food Sources: Velvet beans. and a reduction in white blood cells. hot flashes. sweating. It is best taken 30 to 45 minutes before meals. and reducing the levels of serotonin. The effects of L-dopa can be increased by antacids. Phenytoin. convulsions. rapid heartbeat.075 to 0. a stuffy and runny nose. phenothiazine antipsychotic medications. Precautions: It should not be taken by transplant patients who are sensitive or allergic to FK506. Phenobarbitol. TY 21 typhoid. the shrinking of male genitals.15mg per pound of body weight a day in 2 divided doses. some loss of mental abilities. fever. Gua-nadrel. hormone disease. an overall feeling of illness. epilepsy or seizures. sweating. mood changes. hair loss. headaches. chest and stomach pains. Amphotericin B. or those who are generally tense. The hazards of L-dopa may be increased for those with diabetes. hair loss. and when combined with marijuana. drowsiness. agitation. which allows it to cross the blood/brain barrier much more easily and allows the dosage to be reduced by as much as 75 percent. anticoagulants. increased white blood cells count. high blood pressure. and Metoclopramine. It is sometimes administered with Carbidopa. sweating. it can lead to increased effects of both drugs. rubella. and social disorders. flu-like symptoms. Minoxidil. calcium channel blockers. pain. dark urine. agitation. pneumonia. diarrhea. A precursor of the neurotransmit-ter dopamine. A central nervous system stimulant used to treat attention deficit disorder in children. seizures. severe depression. sore throat. dizziness. convulsions. it can increase the risk of heartbeat irregularities. While B-6 can increase dopamine levels in the blood. weakness. depression. Dosage: For Parkinson's patients. appetite loss. dizziness. changes in mental state and sense perception. unusual breathing patterns. eyelid spasms. Dosage: For the treatment of various disorders in adults. feelings of a need to urinate. Phenytoin. Alzheimer's disease. depression and suicidal feelings. high blood pressure. stiffness. It may cause kidney damage in liver patients. aching in the muscles and joints. and Terazosin. Those taking Interferon beta may experience flu-like symptoms (fever. dry mouth. psychotic episodes. FK506 AKA: Prograf. It is a stimulant that can mask symptoms of fatigue. leg cramps. heavy perspiration. educational. L-dopa is an amino acid found naturally in the body. Combining with caffeine drinks and foods containing tyramine can raise blood pressure. abnormal heart rate. whereas its effectiveness can be reduced by anti-depressants and Cisapride. it has been shown to improve learning. loss of appetite. Common side effects include some form of pain at the site of injection. It may also cause tremors. skin rashes. convulsions. and the pain resulting from herpes zoster (shingles). flushing. The elderly may be given a lower dosage to compensate for loss of kidney function. and extreme tiredness. back pains. nightmares. Selegiline. central nervous system stimulants. even though it is classified as a prescription drug. increased body temperature. black-and-blue marks on the skin. Erythromycin. or 35 to 125 mg/day in combination with Carbidopa. Rifampin. hallucinations. mumps. levodopa. constipation. itching. breathing difficulties. A preliminary study has shown that interferon beta can counteract the memory loss that often occurs with multiple sclerosis. hand tremors. and E. bleeding. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic to L-dopa or Carbidopa. stomach gas. abdominal pain. B-6. paranoia. vomiting. buildup of abdominal fluid. tricyclic anti-depressants. strange thoughts. upset stomach.

it may cause the heartbeat to be dangerously fast. insomnia. stiffness or spasms in the muscles of the neck and back. it is probably the only calcium-channel blocker not used for angina or high blood pressure. dizziness. and tyramine. Less common side effects include chest pain. Side effects may be more pronounced in the elderly. others have shown no significant increase for several types of memory tasks. and swelling of the feet. 18. Precautions: Releases vasopressin in the body. creating greater nerve stimulation and possible improvements in learning. and is lifethreatening. depression. irritability. stuffy nose. difficult urination. hallucinations. SD Deprenyl. headache. severe psychosis. and Parkinson's disease. difficulty in opening the mouth. Betaxolol eye drops. with Disopyramide. Nimodipine can lead to dangerously low blood pressure when combined with alcohol. and cause various problems when combined with levodopa. it may increase the risk of adverse reactions from either drug. swollen legs or feet. Prolonged use can damage the liver. mood changes. which could result in a depletion and feelings of depression. and abnormal heart rhythms. joint pain and swelling. pulse or blood pressure irregularities. dizziness. L-dopa. neck. swollen lymph glands. anxiety. Experts advise that all such interactions be avoided. it has relieved depression in 50 percent of those who suffered severely from this illness. impaired memory. and concentration. Dosage: For therapeutic uses. Overdose symptoms include nausea. not to exceed 112. It may be dangerous for individuals with liver or kidney disease. Less common side effects include chest pain. chills. impotence. more significantly. fever. ankles. Digoxin (large doses).5 to 75 mg/day. jaundice. arms. breast. and stomachache. memory. 37. with beta-adrenergic blocking agents. and sexual difficulties. and is usually prescribed for strokes and migraine headaches. vision problems. sore throat. and mental stamina. a possible irregular heartbeat when combined with cocaine and marijuana. epilepsy. Less common side effects include itching. leg pain. Effects: Removes heavy metals from the body. weakness. . abdominal pains. diarrhea. Effects: It is believed to improve short-term memory by about 20 percent in patients taking the drug. hydantoin anticonvulsants. it may result in an irregular heartbeat and a worsening of congestive heart failure. the recommended dosage is 60 mg in two divided doses. with iron supplements. and ethanol intoxication. hyperactive reflexes. and diminished when combined with food. and treat heavy metal poisoning. In fact. hallucinations. deepen the sedative effect of other central nervous system depressants. bleeding or bruising. attention. Timolol eye drops. Common side effects include increased sensitivity to ultra-violet rays from the sun. and a possible rapid heartbeat when combined with tobacco. pale skin. coughing up blood. lip smacking. Effects: It can help slow the progress of Alzheimer's to a moderate degree by protecting the brain cells from the damaging effects of oxygen. It may also increase acetylcholine levels. a heartbeat that is abnormally fast or slow. increased incidence of bruising. which could possibly overcome damage caused by strokes. increased angina. and general mood. moving the tongue. Effects: Increases the level of nor-epinephrine in the synapses of the brain. low blood pressure. A small percentage of Caucasians and Asians are poor metabolizers of the drug because of a lack of inadequate liver enzyme to break it down. a heartbeat that is abnormally slow or fast. nausea. weight loss. Driving or piloting any craft. additional side effects include loss of the skin's tensile strength (an effect that may be prevented by adequate nutrition) and a loss of zinc and vitamin B-6 (possibly prevented by supplementation of 100 mg/day of each). and decreased by calcium (large doses). constipation. speech difficulties. and with vitamin B-6. difficulty in walking or balancing. It should not be taken by those who are allergic to it. unusual or uncontrolled body movements. coughing. it can increase the need for this vitamin. It can be taken with food or drink if stomach upset occurs. rash or other skin problems. It can strengthen the effects of anti-hypertensives. Quinidine. and involuntary movements of the lips. eyelid spasms. Common side effects include rash. convulsions. tinnitus. stiffness or weakness in the limbs. Car-bamazepine. Nimodipine can increase the effects (and possible toxicity) of oral anti-coagulants. Common side effects include trouble with swallowing or speaking. high blood pressure. Common side effects include loss of appetite. Phenytoin. Taking it on an empty stomach may cause stomach upset. profound dementia. urine that is bloody or cloudy. Less common side effects include sore throat. Life-threatening symptoms include severe chest pain. drowsiness.75 to 75 mg/day is said to provide 6 to 12 hours of mental stimulation accompanied by physical relaxation. cold or clammy skin. Dosage: John Mann recommends 250 mg/day to start. confusion. tiredness. or irregular. Procythol. and heart disease (excluding coronary artery disease). It may be dangerous for those with a history of peptic ulcers. nausea. tyrosine. and cardiac arrest. though grapefruit juice should be avoided. psychosis. fatigue. and may also increase concentration. The effects and possible toxicity of both drugs can be increased when combined with antiarrhythmics and Nicardipine. Rare side effects include weight loss. enlarged pupils. PENICILLAMINE AKA: Cuprimine. Rare symptoms include hypersensitivity to the drug. and for those who do take it. Clozapine can also diminish the effects of the drug. and taking it too late in the day may result in troubled sleep. as it could damage blood cells and kidneys. wheezing. as can Carbamazepine. face. and limbs. and uncontrolled body movements. coughing up blood. Precautions: While some studies show dramatic improvements in those with Alzheimer's. irregular heartbeat. prevent kidney stones. 100 mg of vitamin B-6. operating any heavy machinery. frequent and decreased urination. though further research has been unable to replicate these results (it is still not fully known how the drug works). and legs. and toothache. Jumexal. and with Tocainide. sweating. or working in high places should not be undertaken while under the effects of the drug. taking five days for a steady dose to reach the blood instead of the usual one. insomnia. and Theo-phylline. mouth sores (including ulcers and white spots). difficulty urinating. it can lessen the effect of penicillamine (they should be taken at least two hours apart). bloody or black stools. severe nausea and vomiting. Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. hallucinations. headaches. SELEGILINE AKA: Deprenyl. It should not be taken by anyone allergic to selegiline. Cimetidine. puffing out the cheeks. high blood pressure. rapid heartbeat. kidneys. muscle cramps. loss of appetite. for brain-boosting effects. hallucinations. The effects of penicillamine can be enhanced when combined with alcohol. What effects it has when combined with cocaine or marijuana are not known. dementia. aspirin. Life-threatening symptoms are known as the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Risperidone can increase levels of the hormone prolactin. stomach pain. drowsiness. as side effects may be more pronounced and more frequent. or a previous bad reaction to selegiline. unusual blood clotting. fainting. This last symptom is known as torsade de pointes. A drug modified from an amino acid in penicillin. and coma. Rare side effects include temporary blindness. Overdose symptoms include agitation. Nimodipine may pose risks to those who have kidney or liver disease. When combined with Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. though no documented cases have been noted. jaundice. a burning on the lips or in the mouth. Juprenil. and may have some anti-stress and anti-aging properties. unpleasant tastes. coughing. mental changes. A standard prescription drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in combination with levodopa and Car-bidopa. and coma. jaw clenching or teeth gnashing. paranoia. Life-threatening and overdose symptoms include ulcers. flushing of the skin. memory loss. constipation. allergies to other medications. wandering eye. the usual dosage is 120 mg/day in three divided doses. Precautions: Its memory-enhancing effects on non-schizophrenics are still unknown. Rare side effects include general pain. Rare side effects consist of such involuntary actions as smacking the lips. many of them lived beyond the maximum life expectancy for that species. and joint pain. regular liver function tests are recommended. weakness. One study has found that 90 mg in three divided doses over a 12-week period had a significantly positive effect on memory. and a stiff neck. Those over 60 should exercise caution. Overdose symptoms are merely more extreme manifestations of expected side effects. Those over 60 may find that side effects may be more frequent or severe. it is the only calcium-channel blocker known to improve neurological function after a stroke. seizures. tardive dyskinesia. or working in high places. chest pain. which increases the flow of blood in the brain and decreases the chance of oxygen deprivation to the brain cells. Combining Penacillamine with gold compounds or immunosuppres-sants can damage the kidneys and blood cells. and abdomen. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are sensitive or allergic to it. It accumulates in the highest concentrations in the brain and spinal fluid. Penicillamine may be dangerous for those who suffer from kidney disease or who are allergic to any penicillin antibiotics. and reaction times in those with Parkinson's. fast and irregular heartbeat. Alzheimer's disease. ringing in the ears. Those over 60 may be able to get by on smaller doses for a shorter period of time. which exists in both plants and animals (and is the so-called "love chemical" in chocolate). and 1 to 6 grams of phenylalanine). anemia. depression. Common side effects include tiredness. irritability. one study has shown that it may work synergistically with vitamin B-6 and phenylalanine in this regard (5 mg of selegiline. depression. sweating. Eldepryl. blurred vision. and blood cells. increased saliva in the mouth. and it may lead to photosensitivity in some people. Overdose symptoms (which can occur in doses of more than 10 mg/day) include high (and possibly fatal) blood pressure. however. and. it can lead to high levels of potassium in the blood. headache. Mover-gan. it may cause a dangerous drop in blood pressure. breathing problems. and mild nausea. fever. fever. constipation. loss of consciousness.Effects: Prevents the constriction of blood vessels. age-related degenerative diseases. involuntary muscle movements. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic or who have severe anemia. for cognitive enhancement. magnesium pemo-line. Jumex. sores. According to John Mann. vomiting. or marijuana. PEMOLINE AKA: Cylert. tongue. The molecular structure is similar to phenylethylamine (PEA). and peeling skin. cocaine. irregular heartbeat. and include high fever. itchy skin. L-deprenyl. restlessness. Those taking it should refrain from driving or piloting any craft. and uncontrolled movements of the head. headaches. muscle spasms in the neck and heel. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may be an aphrodisiac. phenylalanine. it can lead to changes in blood pressure. profuse sweating. gas. norepi-nephrine. seizures. an increase in weight. fainting. muscle rigidity. nervousness. slurred speech. shortness of breath. It has increased the life span of rats by an average of 30 percent. heartburn. Rifampin. Dosage: For migraine headaches. with diuretics. or a history of seizures. The effects of Risperidone are enhanced when taken with Clozapine. Nimodipine is taken at least one hour before or two hours after meals. insomnia. vivid dreams. dopamine. RAPAMYCIN An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. and mental depression when taken by itself. can cause bleeding. unnatural tiredness. nausea. nausea. rash. and also resembles such compounds as amphetamine. Side effects are generally mild. vomiting. The effects (and possible toxicity) of Nimodipine can be enhanced by antiarrhythmics. dry mouth. RlSPERIDONE AKA: Risperdal. dizziness. dizziness. confusion. possibly leading to tumors of the pituitary gland. and loss of taste. An amphetamine derivative and central nervous system stimulant prescribed for attention deficit disorders in children and daytime sleepiness. rash. It should not be taken by those allergic or sensitive to it. blisters. A drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. drowsiness. diarrhea. swollen feet. vomiting. breathing difficulties. It also has an intensified sedative effect when combined with alcohol. heart failure. and pancreas. increasing to 1000 to 2000 mg/day in four divided doses. excessive tremors. Cyclosporine. acne. wheezing. In doses of 15 to 60 mg a day. skin rash. hair loss. It is considered a possible treatment for Alzheimer's. and vitamin D (large doses). vision changes. lowered sex drive. agitation. selegiline hydrochloride. or who have very low blood pressure. alertness. Depen. fainting. it is prescribed to treat rheumatoid arthritis. and weaken the effects of Lithium. changes in blood pressure. convulsions. a swelling of the arms and legs. slow. joint pain. hand tremors. headaches. abdominal pain.5 mg/day. anxiety. Levobutanol eye drops. It also benefits memory. stomach bleeding. chest pain. liver inflammation or jaundice. with anti-hypertensives. a numbness or tingling in the hands or feet. fever. and drowsiness. dizziness or lightheadedness when moving from a prone or sitting position to a standing position.

pickled or smoked fish. fermented sausage (summer sausage. recommends the following dosages: Age 3035 3540 4045 4550 5055 5560 6065 6570 7075 7580 80+ Dosage 1 mg twice a week 1 mg every other day 1 mg/day 2 mg/day 3 mg/day 4 mg/day 5 mg/day 6 mg/day 8 mg/day 9 mg/day 10 mg/day . incoherence. coma. or soy sauce. excitement. and raisins. possibly. since it only inhibits MAO-B and not MAO-A. liver. figs.coma. nose drops. cheese. Dosage: Smart drug users prefer the liquid form to the pill because it is easier to calibrate into smaller doses and is more readily absorbed into the body. yohimbe. miso soup. however. nightmares. It should not be combined with Milacemide. It should not be taken with any overthe-counter medications such as cough and cold medications. With Sinemet (a combination of Carbidiopa and levodopa). beer (including nonalcoholic beer). The effects when combined with Sumatriptan are unknown. or yohimbine. There is an increased risk of mental instability and. convulsions.. weakness. shock. Jozsef Knoll. opiates. heart attack. especially if taken with vitamin B-6 and phenylalanine. Even less may be effective. or vitamins without consulting a physician first. laxatives. there is a greater risk of side effects. meat. yeast extracts. there could be an increase in levodopa's side effects. insomnia. severe headache. a rapid heart rate and high blood pressure. et al. or poultry. irritability. with cocaine. one manufacturer of selegiline. Combined with marijuana or tobacco. or death. M. or caffeine. it avoids this dangerous interaction. Ward Dean. bananas. an increased depressive effect may result. bean curd. fava beans. there could be a toxic interaction that may result in seizures. drowsiness. With Sertraline. insists that. and muscle spasms in the face. Mark Mayell. Dr. diet pills. With Meperidine (Demerol) and other MAO inhibitors. there could be a severe drop in blood pressure — as well as potentially fatal reactions — and with narcotics. confusion. wine. pepperoni). and liquors. restlessness.D. state that some individuals have taken up to 60 mg for three weeks with no significant side effects. It should not be taken with any foods that contain the enzyme tyra-mine — avocados. which may be enough to produce feelings of well-being and increased energy in the average person. antacids. the usual dose is 5 mg with breakfast and lunch. bean pods. For Parkinson's. vivid dreams. flushing of the skin. high fever. bologna. Discovery Experimental and Development. overripe fruit — chocolate. When taken with levodopa. as it could result in severe toxicity or death. recommends 10 to 15 mg/ week for the average healthy person age 45 and over. it could result in a rapid heart rate and. anxiety. salami. death when combined with fluoxetine (there should be at least a five-week span between the time one drug is stopped and the other is taken).. overstimula-tion. who developed selegiline.

though many use it to treat arthritis and sports injuries. It is an antidepressant as a result of it's being an MAO inhibitor. It may improve learning. Effects: It is believed to improve memory. with the bottle securely capped to prevent the absorption of moisture which might deteriorate the solution. and tremors. increase learning ability. FlPEXIDE AKA: Attentil. gray hair. Dosage: The most effective cognitive-enhancing dose is 1000 mg/day. mixed with tomato or grape juice to mask its foul taste. and stroke). after it has scavenged the hydroxyl radicals from the body. dysfunctions in speech and motor skills. Serenity. Marucotol. discomfort. solutions contain acetone. a burning sensation when urinating. and increases the rate of synthesis of RNA and the manufacture of new proteins. along with headaches. in turn. the Gerovital product DEAE is an antidepressant. While this new free radical is less damaging than the one removed and can be counteracted with the various vitamin. in which the high-speed electrical signals that link the brain's complex neural circuits are failing. Precautions: Causes convulsions. and vitamin K. a cloudy or discolored appearance indicates impurities. learning disabilities. but it has not been adequately tested on humans as yet. it may be useful to those who could suffer loss of oxygen to the tissues. but are undocumented in humans). meclofenoxate. protect against the effects of radiation and freezing. diarrhea. biotin. sleepiness. It is very similar structurally to the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. headaches. No overdose symptoms are known. or contraindications known. paint thinner. metabolizing protein. motion sickness. It also aids the intestinal bacteria in producing the vitamins folic acid. BP 662. As it can carry other substances directly into the blood. seizures. remove lipofuscin deposits (it may be better than DMAE in this respect. with a 30-day interval between periods of use. NRG3. A common side effect is a harmless garlic taste that can persist for up to three days. Toxicity is uncommon in therapeutic doses. a class of biochemicals. not by lubricating joints or by deadening pain. and coma. it is only prescribed for interstitial cystitis and bladder inflammation. 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 2-dimethy-laminoethyl ester. Helfergen. It should be dabbed on. In Europe. and disturbances in color vision. scars. dizziness. GH-3. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may provide benefits to those with Down's syndrome. hives. or blistering on the areas where it has been applied. Precautions: Causes convulsions. Precautions: It may be dangerous for those with a bladder malignancy. It has been found to reduce the severity of paraplegia in cats subjected to crushing spinal cord injuries. Composed of choline and acetylcholine. and benzene. Precautions: Other researchers have been unable to duplicate discoverer Ana Asian's positive results. Effects: Increases energy and promotes sleep. but by scavenging free radicals. GHRE. potassium metabisulfate. bath oils. forty older people with advanced cognitive disorders improved their scores on a number of various tests after taking it. 1. itching.CHAPTER 12 Nootropics Nootropics is a term used by proponents of smart drugs to describe medical drugs and nutritional supplements that have a positive effect on brain function. According to Pearson and Shaw. as they are more sensitive to DMSO than the rest of the body. and which can cause liver damage and death. and that 80 mg/kg of body weight (the dosage most often used in clinical trials) is sufficient. The drug appears crystal clear and has a very distinct sulfur or garlic odor. itching. Most of the industrial grade. Dosage: The typical oral dose is 1 to 2 teaspoons a day. so that the dosage can be reduced over a period of time. Vigilor. atherosclerotic dementia. Thunder Nectar. or soaps have already been applied. insomnia. improved learning may be attributed to the higher levels of dopamine. Ana Asian has made it a very famous and popular anti-aging drug. It has been shown to increase circulation. it converts to a sulfoxide free radical. GEROVITAL AKA: Gerovital H3. In the bloodstream. it is converted by the body into GHB. hyperexcitability. unconsciousness. In addition. Nathaniel Phillips reports that concentrations greater than 70 percent can cause the skin problems. improve mood. It may exacerbate the effects of some allergens. or who is allergic to DMSO. it is also very controversial — its promoters claim that it can cure over 200 diseases and ailments associated with premature aging. it probably has no effect on Alzheimer's. has been found to enhance communication between brain cells. and amino acid antioxidants. In the body. It is dabbed on. but not recall. . Precautions: No side effects. cosmetics. Chemically similar to piracetam. Effects: Said to greatly increase the creativity in people who are already creative. and any excess wiped off after half an hour. as well as those with other forms of brain damage and dysfunction. Effects: Can enhance dopamine to a certain degree. fatigue. DMSO should not be applied to the skin where skin medications. though others say that such doses are unnecessarily high. The effects appear to be cumulative. and the effects of burns. the effects of both drugs maybe intensified. and it is always stored in its pure state. converted into choline by the cells. along with redness. motion sickness. stimulate immunity. it is not very effective. AMPAKINE Effects: A drug developed from ampakines. digestive disorders. attack free radicals. though W. Because it has so many benefits. a chemical relative to DMAE that is. proponents tout it as the wonder drug of the 21st century. and useful in treating such eye problems as cataracts. and performing the various functions of the skin. or solvent grade. and anti-freeze. Precautions: Toxicity and side effects seem minimal. though more research is needed. It appears to be an all-purpose solvent. hyperexcitability. protect animal brains from the effects of hypoxia (in this respect. Concentrations of 40 percent or more may prolong bleeding. Revitalize Plus. It takes effect very fast. Rare side effects include nasal congestion. and the San Francisco General Hospital Brain Trauma and Edema Center has used it to treat brain injuries. ETIRACETAM A nootropic drug similar to piracetam. infertility. Symptoms of deficiency include constipation. DMSO AKA: Dimethyl sulfoxide. much of the DMSO sold over the counter or by mail order contains unwanted impurities such as dimethylsulfone. it contributes nothing to people who are not so inclined. increase mental alertness. It is difficult to perform double-blind studies on DMSO. RIMSO-50. Those with fair skin use no more than a 50 percent concentration. paradoxical drowsiness. Dosage: Studies to date have used 600 mg/day in three divided doses. nitrogen oxides. Gerovital is a chemical mixture of procaine hydrochloride. Somatopro. and skin rash. and possibly nausea. Legally. but produces good results when taken with procaine hydrochloride. BEMEGRIDE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. The amount needed is mixed at the time of application. One life-threatening symptom is breathing difficulties. Precautions: Products containing BD have been associated with over 120 cases of adverse side effects. never rubbed in. impurities can be carried directly into the bloodstream. By itself. including three deaths. Ro 13-5057. side effects are also rare. be a beneficial supplement to cancer therapy. protect against aging (has been shown to increase the life span of lab animals 30 percent). and it may show promise in helping those with such disorders as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. When taken orally. and concentrations greater than 50 percent are not applied to the face and neck. diabetes. CENTROPHENOXINE AKA: Brenal. burning. Proserout. it breaks down into DMAE and supplies the same basic building blocks as DMAE for manufacturing acetylcholine and speeding nerve transmissions across synapses. disodium phosphate. bacteria. kidney or liver problems. headaches. The Gerovital product PABA helps in forming blood cells. which is readily carried into the blood by DMSO. and depression. Side effects include dangerously low heart rate and breathing. Lucidril. photophobia (light intolerance). Sarpul. BD AKA: Enliven. repair synapses. macular degeneration. though some say that this is just speculative). Injections should only be administered by a physician. lotions. and various age-related mental problems. and glaucoma. and benzoic acid. thus providing a better atmosphere for learning to take place. DlAZADAMANTOL Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. headaches. not rubbed in. While the work of Dr. such as some victims of angina. Weight Belt Cleaner. Effects: May improve memory by promoting better utilization of oxygen in the brain. and facial swelling. intermittent claudication [severe pain in the calves when walking due to restricted blood flow in the legs]. help protect against fungus. procaine breaks down into the B vitamin paraminobenzoic acid (PABA) and diethylaminoethanol (DEAE). it imparts to the breath and skin an immediate garlic odor. insomnia (especially if taken later in the day). toxi-city. strengthen the immune system. tremors. Effects: Has been shown to protect the brains of lab animals. as it evaporates slowly. among others. dimethylsufide. In one study.4 butanediol. Cellative. How it works is still unknown. mineral. Dosage: Some say 1000 to 3000 mg/day. reduce keloids. but is about ten times stronger and treats more symptoms. it has been used to treat reading problems. and promote a sense of well-being. POET A substitute phenylalanine. It is not used for more than 30 days at a time. toxicity may occur if it is inhaled. which can improve motor coordination. convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. Precautions: Centrophenoxine may be dangerous to those who suffer from severe hypertension (high blood pressure). When combined with any other bladder medication. Methoxynal. and is not recommended for any other use. Less common side effects are vision problems (these have occurred quite frequently in lab animals. and has been used as a degreaser. pantothenic acid. Clocete. Effects: It works. ANIRACETAM AKA: Draganon. Subjects have been shown to have enhanced performance on memory tests. Despite this. nausea. stimulate wound healing. and irritability. as they are more sensitive to DMSO. and senile dementia. and viruses. depression. vomiting. but include depression. though this is based only on one study.

About three-quarters to one and a half grams produces a high. Additionally. placidity. Effects: Has been claimed to be an "all-purpose brain booster. and uncontrollable muscle twitches. it does not elicit the side effects normally associated with these types of substances. and dimethy-laminoethanol (DMAE). Rare symptoms include fainting. Liquid Ecstasy. decreases the development of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain. concluded. and recall. Dosage: In various studies doses of 6 to 8 g/day for eight to ten days. Some obscure French studies done in Africa may indicate it is an effective treatment for sicklecell anemia. It is also one of the most widely researched and prescribed. and reduce the severity of some AIDS symptoms. Thorazine. drowning. 4-hydroxybutyrate. Food can dissipate or delay its effects. euphoria." as it improves blood flow to the brain. Common side effects include abrupt sedation. which assists the inosine in penetrating the blood-brain barrier. Cushing's syndrome. . Of 10 known cases of individuals who have suffered side effects. It rapidly metabolizes to carbon dioxide and water. It may also increase the levels of some transmitters in the brain and may promote the growth of some dendrite nerve fibers. results. 10 to 30+ grams. skin flushing. though how many of these are due to impurities. It may be dangerous to individuals with low blood pressure. diarrhea. keeps a proper balance of several major neurotransmitters in the brain. Gamma OH. intense drowsiness. as it may have a negative effect on memory and brain function. a slight lowering of body temperature.5 grams). gangrene. but non-hallucinogenic.3 A procaine formula similar to Gerovital and Vitacel. Sublingual tablets are ineffective if swallowed intact.g. which begins to break down as soon as it enters the blood. two involved individuals with a history of epilepsy or grand mal seizures. Somatomax PM. NAFTIDROFURYL A metabolic brain-enhancer. reduced anxiety. GHB AKA: Alcover. vomiting. opiates. it often does not produce grogginess upon waking. GRISEOLI£ACID Derivatives are known metabolic brain-enhancers. Hydroloid. sulphonamide drugs. It is believed to improve memory. 2 to 4 grams. as ergot — a deadly poisonous dark purple or black fungus which thrives on wet grains such as rye — generally causes hallucinations. heart. The precautions that apply to Gerovital also apply to K. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may reduce fat and help build lean muscle tissue. or psychosis. and create adverse fatty changes in the heart. A review of the scientific literature seems to back these criticisms. Deapril-ST. it is 9 mg/day in three divided doses. and decrease the ergoloid effect when combined with marijuana or tobacco. various painkillers (e. though this is. It is taken on an empty stomach (preferably three to four hours after the last meal) to avoid nausea. it may result in decreased circulation to the limbs. drowsiness. followed by a period of two to four weeks of no K. nasal congestion. According to Prevention magazine and Dr. and a delayed onset of effects. with many deaths attributed to it. lethargy. lead to overstimulation when combined with cocaine. and sensuality. Illicit GHB invariably contains dangerous — even toxic — impurities. It is rather expensive. GHB is often administered with a potassium supplement in which the elemental form is equal to 10 percent of the weight of the GHB consumed. 4 to 8 grams — very deep sleep of three to four hours. Other physiological effects include a slight elevation of blood sugar. Since it apparently has an inverted Ushaped dose-response curve. It remains a popular "rave" drug. hyperprolactinemia. Sleep induced by GHB tends to be slightly deeper and somewhat shorter than sleep attained without the use of drugs. and a stimulation of the release of acetylcholine in the brain (which may improve memory and cognition. Use of GH-3 and related formulations is avoided by anyone on MAO inhibitors. It could greatly intensify the effect of caffeine. and sleep disorders. heart attacks. and combining with other drugs is unknown. It is not combined with central nervous system depressants such as benzodiazepines (e. K. with feelings of bliss. convulsions. 1 to 2 grams. headache." Others report that there has been one documented case of addiction. the "active ingredient" is evidently the anesthetic novacaine. dizziness when arising. strong relaxation. and that it can severely deplete the body's white blood cells. and increased sociability. It is generally prescribed to slow age-related memory loss and impaired concentration. etal. and will easily absorb water and turn liquid overnight. and drug overdose can sometimes be revived by intravenous injection— and on hospital patients just before standard surgeries (it gives doctors more time to handle any medical emergencies should they arise in the course of the operation). It was discovered by Albert Hofmann. vomiting. with the result that it has shown extremely low toxicity. sodium oxybutyrate. Precautions: It is not taken by individuals who are allergic to ergot or any of its derivatives. It stimulates the release of growth hormone in the body and. unproven). sulfa drugs. and may be a neurotransmitter itself.H.. and decreased inhibition in those taking 2 to 6 teaspoons (approximately 5 to 15 grams) twice nightly over a period of several years. In a 1992 report.D. Pure GHB powder has a salty/ licorice taste. temporary amnesia. render some herpes viruses inactive. nausea. which is used by the body to make RNA. loss of coordination. gammahydroxybutyrate sodium. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitter GAB A. convulsions. nausea. are life-threatening: allergic reactions. incontinence. Precautions: Possible side effects include elevated liver enzymes. and blurred vision. LSD-25. soreness under the tongue. Stuart Berger states that PABA is not a vitamin. though Ward Dean. and decreases cholesterol levels. liver disease. nausea. The dosage is adjusted according to body weight. hypothalamus. slowed heartbeat arising from conduction problems. Works synergistically with piracetam. vomiting. a prolonged. is an immune stimulator which may have antiviral properties. normalizes systolic blood pressure. strokes.5 g/day for several years produced no adverse side effects. and has been shown to increase the effectiveness of Interferon.S. It could result in a reduced ability of the body to adjust to cold temperatures. The exact method by which it works is unknown. intelligence. which are a combination of three substances produced by the ergot fungus. HYDERGINE AKA: Circanol. and headache. possibly because of its effect on growth hormone. a mild slowing of the heart. ergot alkaloids dihydrogenated. Niloric. sleepwalking. Dosage: The optimal dosage seems to be 400 to 1200 mg/day. though not common. Common symptoms include runny nose. or over-the-counter allergy and sleep remedies. but otherwise no adverse effects have been reported. Two of the ingredients in isoprinosine are inosine. Similar in chemistry to LSD. and basal ganglia. and 2.. Dosage: One tablet/day for 25 days. dizziness.g. Overdosing can cause agitation. cause an excessive drop in blood pressure when combined with alcohol. sleep of three to four hours. Dosage: The recommended dosage in the U. ergoloid mesylates. it can cross the blood/ brain barrier. but a sunblock. Side effects. and kidneys if taken internally in significant amounts. Valium. gamma-hydroxy-butyrate. in Europe. sleepwalking. phenothiazines (e. Unlke GABA. both working for the California Department of Health Services. electrocution. seizures. whose heartbeat is less than 60 beats per minute. Less common symptoms are a slow heartbeat. tingling fingers. severe cardiovascular disease. while having no effect on memory on those afflicted with Alzheimer's or schizophrenia.3. while 2. Effects: A few studies have shown it to improve certain aspects of memory in normal people. Precautions: It should not be used by anyone suffering from epilepsy.some claim it is because they used straight procaine rather than GH-3. and critics assert that most of the improvements are merely the result of its anti-depressant properties. and caffeine can block its dopamine-related effects. four of those cases involved combining it with alcohol. Some speculate it may have aphrodisiac and life-extension properties. but one study has shown that healthy young people taking 12 mg/day saw greater alertness and mental abilities after only two weeks. Xanax). smaller doses (unless used in combination with other smart drugs) and larger doses may have insignificant. Kreutzer. epidemiologist Ming-Yan Chin and Richard A. blurred vision. however. The initial dosage is small —an eighth to a fourth of a gram — and dissolved in water. Dosage: 1 or 2 capsules a day with meals for five months.. concentration. Because it may deplete levels of potassium in the body. Before it was banned by the FDA in 1990. Dr. M. improves the oxygen supply to the brain. the chemist who discovered a more famous ergot derivative. mainly because PABA and DEAE are quickly excreted by the body.H. a tightness in the chest. breathing difficulties. or combinations like cotrimoxazole. There are rare allergic reactions. headaches. It may take at least half a year before the effects are noticeable. a drop in blood pressure. who suffer from any kind of psychosis. or even negative. severe hypertension. or whose systolic blood pressure is below 100. Nor is there any evidence for physiological addiction. GHB also increases levels of prolactin. such as deprenyl. when the two are combined.5 grams induces sleep. Effects: It produces a mild high. which could be serious. turns from a chalky texture to a greasy one when rubbed between the fingers. hemorrhage.5 to 6 mg/day appears to produce good results. and death. but there is much evidence to suggest that they are virtually identical. Bodybuilders who had taken GHB switched to GABA after the ban. protects the brain from hypoxia. 20 to 30 g/day for a week. M. a significant decrease in cholesterol. protects brain cells from free-radical damage. misidentification. brown fat. and loss of appetite. Effects: Assists the brain in certain key functions relating to memory formation and promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells. coma. Severe side effects include confusion. ISOPRINOSINE AKA: Methisprinol. "there are no documented reports of long-term [adverse] effects. vomiting. It works synergistically with piracetam. Mild side effects include a numbness of the legs. Stellazine). very deep sleep of up to 24 hours. Precautions: It is not taken by those allergic to procaine or who are taking sulfa drugs or MAO inhibitors. and recall. Asian's research has been attacked for not being well-designed and controlled. rash.H. extreme ebullience. the dosages taken were not known. published the following general doserelated expectations: less than 1 gram gives rise to mild relaxation. it is used routinely on accident victims — those suffering from shock. MlLACEMIDE AKA: 2-n-pentylaminoacetamide. Food Sources: Meat. Because it is a weak MAO inhibitor. Many doctors are not convinced of its efficacy. or any kind of severe illness. increases brain cell metabolism. weakness. and disorientation.g. collapse. stomach cramps. It promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells. it had been studied for 25 years. Hydergine is one of a class of drugs called ergoloid mesylates. smaller doses of each are just as effective as a larger dose of one. a sudden drop in blood pressure. it is — paradoxically — one of the easiest smart drugs to obtain. Liquid X. liver. will fully dissolve in water. as yet. In Europe.3. flushing in the face. though there is no evidence of withdrawal symptoms. Precautions: It should not be used by those with gout or who are predisposed to developing it. Much more research needs to be done. It may be useful in treating alcoholism. anxiety. gamma hydrate.D. A natural component of every cell in the body. and convulsions. nausea. barbiturates).. When combined with other ergot preparations or sympathomimetics. Dr. followed by a 5 day period of abstinence. dihydroergotoxine. Complete recovery from even the most severe side effects. where it is coupled with hematoporphyrin. alcohol. Ronald Klatz. learning. It is not combined with any MAO-B inhibitor drug. appears to occur within a few hours and with no apparent long-term side effects. and two involved combining it with tranquilizers or such central nervous system depressants as Vicodin and diphenhydramine hydrochloride. skeletal muscles. unarousability. but 4. sodium oxybate. diarrhea. uncontrollable shaking.. increasing gradually to the desired dose (one level teaspoon equals approximately 2. unlike drugs with a similar effect. unlike other remedies for insomnia. It is chemically similar to DMAE. which increases the effectiveness of procaine. Effects: Allegedly improves alertness. and amnesia. respiratory problems. GHB is found in the greatest concentrations in the kidneys. is 3 mg/day. along with a host of physical disorders. it comes in gelatin capsule form. and brief (one to two hours) non-toxic coma.

PHENYTOIN AKA: Dilantin (extended action). Nizatidine. prevents memory loss caused by physical injury and chemical poisoning. tri-cyclic antidepressants. insulin. numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes. The exact mechanism by which it works is still not understood. May contribute to the growth of more cholinergic receptors in the brain. there could be an irregular heartbeat. mouth. anticancer drugs. Phenytoin may deplete the body's stores of B-12. Diphenylan (prompt acting). and Valproic Acid. Ibuprofen. The anticonvulsant effect is diminished when Phenytoin is taken with alcohol (habitual use). though calcium will decrease the amount of Phenytoin the body absorbs from the small intestine). fever. lymph gland enlargement. or 25 to 50 mg/day are given for cognitive-enhancing effects. including hepatitis. and narcotics. slow. with daily marijuana use. retention of water. and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. it could result in an increased risk of paranoia. NEFIRACETAM Effects: Like piracetam. Prolonged use can weaken the heart muscles. diarrhea. and passivity. Effects: Protects the brain against — and helps it recover from — hypoxia. benzodiazopine tranquilizers and sedatives. it could result in an excessive drop in blood pressure. with Encainide. There have been reports of insomnia. Gabacet. antacids. and staggering. It may also interact with certain ingredients in over-the-counter cold.g. polarizing the electrically charged elements of the cells. Probenecid. PlRACETAM AKA: Cerebroforte. Less common side effects include agitation. headaches. joint pain. or emphysema). Griseofulvin. Common side effects include constipation. concentration. there could be an increased tranquilizer effect. when taken with MAO inhibitors. or oral antidiabetic medications. salicylate drugs such as aspirin. though some recommend 800 to 2400 mg/day. hay fever. Dicumarol. Chloramphenicol. and a diminished beta blocker effect when combined with Dextrothyroxine or Indomethacin. Levonorgestrel. abdominal pain. When taken in combination with anticoagulants or Propafenone. decreased intelligence. it could result in seizures. staggering. lack of alertness. Cyclosporine. There is an enhanced beta blocker effect when combined with betaxolol eyedrops or Levobunolol eyedrops. muscle twitches. and an increased risk of liver toxicity when taken with Acetaminophen. breathing difficulties. Effects: Though it is mainly used as a treatment for epilepsy. and kidney failure. Phenothiazine antipsychotic medicines. by those with hypotension. sensitivity to bright lights. Precautions: Causes convulsions. diarrhea. Itraconazole. it could damage the heart muscle. there could be a delay in the excretion of phenytoin with a resultant excess remaining in the blood. sore throat. oral contraceptives. has had surgery within the last two months that has required general or spinal anesthesia. succinimide antiseizure medicines. an important component of creativity. marijuana (with attendant drowsiness and unsteadiness). Sulfa drugs. confusion. Precautions: It appears to be nontoxic. when taken with nitrates. insomnia. violent behavior. numbness of the hands and feet. Molindone. Neuractiv. produces tingling in the extremities. Trimethoprim. alertness. a drop in blood pressure. jaundice. the effects of both drugs are weakened. Glutethimide.NDD-094 Effects: A compound said to stop. An analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid. or a blood disorder. fruits. comprehension. Effects: It apparently stimulates the flow of information between the two hemispheres of the brain in rats and mice. it can decrease the painrelieving effects of the latter while increasing its side effects. nightmares. and sore throat. Nimodipine. depression. and vomiting. mental confusion and learning disability. or arterial spasms. The severity of side effects and adverse reactions increases when taken with Felbamate. diabetes or hypoglycemia. or Valproic Acid. Ethotoin. Methotrexate. interfere with the absorption of vitamin D and folic acid (supplements of calcium should be taken along with vitamin D and folic acid. Those over 60 should realize that adverse reactions and side effects will occur more often and much more strongly than they do in younger individuals. by those with asthma. Phenytoin can interact unpredictably with Clonazepam. headaches. Mexiletine. The anticonvulsant effect can be enhanced when taken in combination with Amiodarone. and with tobacco. insomnia. has liver damage or impaired liver functioning. and peak performance. when taken with Meperidine. ISF-2522. it has some anti-aging effects. tremors and in some cases. swollen glands. Effects: Stimulates theta rhythms in the brain. but it is believed to influence the electromagnetic fields. The anticonvulsant dose may need to be adjusted when taken with tricyclic antidepressants. Phenothiazines. and even reverse. gums that are bleeding. Metyrapone. sedatives. nystagmus. though some recommend as much as 100 mg/day in two to four divided doses. kidney or liver problems. learning. Mebendazole. Dopamine. and may increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. the side effects maybe more severe and frequent. rash. a neurotransmitter. and Leucovorin could counteract the effects of phenytoin. lower blood pressure. there could be an irregular heartbeat and a decreased betaadrenergic effect. as it lowers blood pressure. potassium supplements. lead to a heightened need for thyroid hormone. levodopa. memory loss. there could be a rise in blood pressure if the latter is discontinued. Chlorphi-ramine. protects against metabolic stress related to low oxygen flow to the brain resulting from intense athletic performance. it could result in an increased polythiazide effect. when taken with Omeprazole. conjunctivitis. Hypoglycemics. but increase its effectiveness if taken for any other medical reason. impotence. an increased chance of bleeding or bruising. dizziness. Dinagen. Rare symptoms include abdominal pain. and weight gain. it is derived from pyrrolidone. and when taken with Valproic acid. Use of phenytoin may even cause liver damage. heart disease or poor circulation in the limbs. but abrupt cessation could trigger severe epileptic seizures. which is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. or Guanabenz. Nicardipine. vegetables. cough. cold hands or feet. Dosage: Doses of 1200 to 2400 mg/day seem to produce the greatest improvement in cognitive function. drowsiness. It is not habit-forming. Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). unexplained bleeding or bruising. Furosemide. Sucralfate. however. high altitude conditions. or Warfarin. good oral hygiene is recommended). a substance found in meat. Carbamazepine. the effects of both drugs are intensified. cognitive-enhancing doses are taken. Precautions: It is not taken by anyone with an allergy to any beta-adrenergic blocker. though these also disappear as time goes on and dosage is reduced. Mephenytoin. The effects of Phenytoin can be increased when taken with alcohol (small amounts). has diabetes. About an eighth of that. PlCROTOXINE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. anxiety. corticosteroid drugs could hide any Phenytoinsensitivity reactions. nausea. aggravates any condition of congestive heart failure. Mesantoin. Ditan (prompt acting). with cocaine. liver toxicity in the first month or so of use. Carbamazepine. drowsiness. An overdose can cause problems in maintaining balance. Nitrofurantoin. nausea. and can lessen the effects of antihistamines and beta-agonists. barbiturates. apparently by regrowing nerve cells that create acetylcholine. and dryness of the eyes. bronchitis. influenza virus vaccine. shallow breathing. fever. Precautions: There may be side effects. Sotalol. and smoking. with Molindone. nervousness. and could include such symptoms as fever. There is an increased drop in blood pressure when taken with alcohol. Peganone. Allopurinol. it has been the subject of at least 8000 papers. and allergy remedies. an overactive thyroid function. spastic eye movements. Quinidine. Loxapine. and it may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia or alter the results of some medical tests. and dry burning eyes. gum overgrowth (though this occurs mainly in children and is rare in instances where the lower. weakness. rash. there could be an increase in drug levels in the blood when taken in combination with gold compounds. pollen allergies. it can supposedly improve intelligence. it should be taken with meals. steps up the rate of metabolism and level of energy in the brain cells by increasing the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and improving the blood flow within the brain. Cimetidine. OXJRACETAM AKA: CT-848. and light-headedness. liver damage. fear. Theophylline drugs. which are associated with periods of creative thinking. and some kinds of learning in normal humans (probably by helping the brain synthesize new proteins). If stomach upset occurs. balding. and when taken with Xanthines. barbiturates. Pyridoxine. and constipation. Disopyramide. long-term memory. Carba-mazepine. Methadone. corticosteroids. It has been used in the treatment of dyslexia. improves memory. Little research has been done on healthy individuals. PHT. hydroxypiracetam. Other symptoms cited by some sources include anemia. and reduce the occurrence of vascular headaches. When taken with Lithium. Paroxitine. it could increase the antihypertensive effect of one or both drugs. A severe allergic reaction could be life-threatening. antihypertensives. OXPRENOLOL A beta-adrenergic blocking agent prescribed to reduce angina attacks. Common side effects include a pulse rate slower than 50 beats per minute. slurred speech. Methylphenidate. Propranolol. Quinidine. irritability. NOOTROPYL AKA: 2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide. and speed of visual-motor coordination. Rifampin. there is an increased risk of toxicity when taken with Cimetidine. Oxyphenbutazone. Rare symptoms include rash. and dairy products. or Theophylline. when taken with Phenacemide. Omeprazole. Haloperidol. swollen glands. or tender. anger. Precautions: It is not taken by anyone who is allergic to hydantoin anticonvulsants. called high density lipo-protein (HDL). increased susceptibility to sunburn. calcium channel blockers. upper respiratory disease. stabilize an irregular heartbeat. Phenytex. and skin. vision changes. an increase in facial and body hair. Clonidine. with MAO inhibitors. Long-term effects may be weakened bones. mild dizziness. in small doses. An analogue of piracetam that is about two to three times more potent. Neuromet. When combined with angiotensin-converting (ACE) inhibitors or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Less common side effects include hallucinations. Phenacemide. Isoniazid. patients taking NDD-094 have registered improved brain activity levels on PET scans. the incidence of seizures increases when taken with cocaine or oral contraceptives. Diazoxide. there could be oversedation when taken with central nervous system depressants. and Warfarin. constant eye movements. Fluconazole. Digitalis preparations. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH). and curtail the effects of Amiodarone. charcoal tablets.. it increases the "good" form of cholesterol. drowsiness. asthma. Nootropil. Much more research needs to be done. including restoring the homeostasis of the neuroendocrine system. with no ill effects in doses as high as 2400 mg/day. Phenytoin can amplify the effects of Estrogen. there may be a changed seizure pattern when taken with barbiturates. For those over age 60. Precautions: Causes convulsions. or surgery within the previous two months (including dental surgery) that requires general or spinal anesthesia. The most commonly prescribed drug for epilepsy. slurred speech. It can decrease the effectiveness of Digitalis if taken for congestive heart failure. . confusion. there could be circulation problems in the hands and feet. and facilitates the flow of information between the two hemispheres of the brain. PENTYLENETETRAZOL AKA: Metrazol. Disul-firam. it can stabilize behavior by suppressing obsessive thoughts. tiredness. slow reaction time. depression. swollen. Doxycycline. chest pains. insight. chest pain. It is used by those who have chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (e. Dosage: Adult epileptics are generally given doses of 200 to 400 mg/day in two to four divided doses. it has a number of other various effects: it can normalize electrical activity in the cell membranes. including nausea. Normabrain. still. Effects: It has been shown to reduce phobias and eliminate anxiety. Phenylbutazone. breast swelling. coma. Diazoxide. cortisone drugs. hallucinations. there is a greater chance of bone disease when taken with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Miconazole. Its chemical structure is very close to the amino acid pyroglutamate. or by those who have taken MAO inhibitors or other psychiatric or psychotropic drugs within the preceding two weeks. it can increase the toxicity of the latter drug. Metro-nidazole. It can intensify the effects of antidiabetics. fatigue.

. sore throat. sties. with daily marijuana use. Common side effects include headaches. It may also increase the effects of such drugs as amphetamines. a tingling in the hands and feet. but increase its effectiveness if taken for any other medical reason. a coldness in the hands and feet. and improve learning. and Hydergine. it could lead to an irregular heartbeat. Kugler. dizziness. cough. SABELUZOLE Effects: Preliminary evidence indicates that it may prevent Alzheimer's from progressing. testes. excess saliva. stomach pain. It is avoided by those with severe kidney failure and those taking anticoagulant drugs. diverticulitis. Other possible side effects include short-term memory loss. gingko biloba. spleen. and with tobacco. and has no contraindications. though the usual prescribed dosage is 5 to 10 mg. produces tingling in the extremities. it may promote circulation problems in the hands and feet. and can lessen the effects of antihistamines and beta-agonists. with MAO inhibitors. enabling them to perform normal activities again. kidney or liver problems. specific tremors. tacrine hydrochloride. and other areas. There is an increased drop in blood pressure when taken with alcohol. Tetrahydroaminoacridine. barbiturates. vein irritation. and general brain function. it may cause gastrointestinal distress. Effects: Has a good track record for improving memory in Alzheimer's patients. Dosage: Some recommend 10 to 30 mg a half hour before the trauma-inducing event. as it is the only drug proven to raise levels of acetylcholine in the brain. or surgery within the last two months (including dental surgery) that requires general or spinal anesthesia. or lecithin. heavy sweating. convulsions. it is a mixture of RNA from twelve organs (placenta. conjunctivitis. it could raise blood pressure if the latter is discontinued. There is some evidence that it increases the number of receptors in the brain. liver. DMAE. fainting. swelling in the legs and feet. nausea. Developed by Hans J. facial swelling. so a choline supplement may be needed. Effects: Promotes alertness. loss of bowel control. Hydergine. It may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia or alter the results of some medical tests. and certain cardiac arrhythmias. or by those who have taken MAO inhibitors or other psychiatric or psychotropic drugs within the preceding two weeks. It is prescribed for those who have chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (e. SYGEN AKA: GM1 ganglioside. A compound similar to Hydergine. greater chance of tiredness or weakness.or fear-inducing event may help an individual overcome his or her aversion to that situation. Clonidine. Deaner. antihypertensives. pituitary. fever. pollen allergies. RlBAMOL AKA: 2-hydroxytriethylammo-nium ribonucleate. eyes that are dry or itching. sweating. rash. changes in taste. PRAMIRACETAM AKA: CI-879. heart attack. dehydration. anxiety. along with yeast-derived nucleic acid. It is used as a "smart drug" only by those with Alzheimer's. Common side effects include a slow pulse rate (fewer than 50 beats per minute). glaucoma. and narcotics. hypothalamus. thalamus. insomnia. PROPANIRACETAM A nootropic drug similar to piracetam. Inderal LA (long acting). liver inflammation. it is derived from pyrrolidone. Dosage: 75 to 1500 mg/day.g. as it lowers blood pressure. strengthens long-term memory. with Encainide. Still other theories suggest that it improves protein synthesis in the brain. A beta-andrenergic blocking agent medication prescribed for high blood pressure patients and used in the treatment of angina. weakness. psychotropics. and may improve memory and learning in normal individuals. alcoholism. Less common side effects include loss of appetite. Women are likely to retain more of this drug in their blood and suffer side effects. and nightmares. hypertension. senile dementia. SULBUTIAMINE AKA: Arcalion. fatigue. Less frequent symptoms include abdominal pain. and kidneys). It can decrease the effectiveness of Digitalis if taken for congestive heart failure. angina pains. a dryness of the mouth. slow heart rate. it also reduces the oxygen requirements of the heart and reduces the contractions of the blood vessels in the heart. It is not as fully tested and researched as piracetam. which is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Propranolol could increase the antihypertensive effect of one or both drugs. runny nose. or Guanabenz. and paranoia. It is not taken by anyone with an allergy to any beta-adrenergic blocker. and sickle-cell anemia. choline. blood pressure changes. ROLZIRACETAM Effects: Like piracetam. blood clots in the lung. Precautions: More than three 200 mg tablets a day may result in severe headaches. inflamed tongue swollen gums. eyes that are dry and burning. impotence. diabetes or hypoglycemia. A variant of piracetam. it could increase tranquilizer effect. When combined with angiotensin-converting (ACE) inhibitors or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). heart disease or poor circulation in the limbs. deafness. Dosage: 800 to 1600 mg/day after an initial daily dose of 1200 to 2400 mg/ day taken in the morning for the first two days. and weakness. upper respiratory disease. indigestion. the side effects may be more severe and frequent. bloody stools. bronchial muscle spasms leading to breathing difficulties. nausea. muscle aches. bladder disease. Use is discontinued by decreasing the dosage gradually over a period of two weeks. lowers anxiety. cataracts. hemorrhoids. earache. Toxic psychosis will occur when the dosage is high (i. memory. A doctor should be consulted first if any one of the following conditions are present: heart rhythm problems. but not the psychological ones. double vision or other vision problems. migraines. hallucinations. Rare side effects include excessive bleeding and bruising. Precautions: Most studies have been short term (six weeks or so). PRL-8-53 Effects: An experimental drug that has been shown to increase recall in subjects by as much as 150 percent. it stimulates the functioning of the cholinergic system. Precautions: It is not taken by those allergic or sensitive to Tacrine or acridine derivatives. Overdose symptoms include a drop in blood pressure. liver disease. improves the function of nerve fibers in the corpus callosum (thereby assisting the flow of information between the two halves of the brain). upset stomach. aggravates any condition of congestive heart failure. the combination of Piracetam and choline is particularly effective. ulcers. elevated blood cholesterol.e. among other conditions. There is an enhanced beta blocker effect when combined with betaxolol eyedrops or Levobunolol eyedrops. RN-13 AKA: Regeneresen. it could lead to an irregular heartbeat and a decreased beta-adrenergic effect. and a diminished beta blocker effect when combined with Dextrothyroxine or Indomethacin. a sickly appearance. Others recommend 2400 to 4800 mg/day in three divided doses. by those with hypotension. nervousness. depression. skin rash. There is also evidence that it controls the physical symptoms of anxiety. constipation. Precautions: Though piracetam is derived from pyrrolidone. but stronger. diarrhea. asthma. cerebral cortex. In rare cases. Precautions: Causes convulsions. It is not believed to be toxic or addictive. dry mouth and throat. and allergy remedies. fever.. Effects: Said to double the life span of dwarf mice. cold and sweaty skin. and broken bones. joint pain. cardiac insufficiency. or a previous reaction to tacrine that has caused jaundice or elevated bilirubin. vomiting. dizziness. ringing or buzzing in the ears. headaches. but at much lower doses (it is approximately 15 times stronger than piracetam). Effects: A study has shown that it may improve the brain functioning of those with mild to moderate forms of Alzheimer's disease. and weight gain. joint pain and inflammation. difficulty urinating. have a rejuvenating influence on the human body. bronchitis. stroke. and improves resistance to stress. Prolonged use can weaken the heart muscles. hyperactivity. Precautions: Toxicity is rare. spasticity. insomnia. or that it reduces free radicals. and numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes. mouth sores. while still others a more modest dose of 500 to 600 mg/day for a healthy person and 1000 to 2000 mg/day for an elderly person with mild to moderate memory impairment. drowsiness. and even then it loses its effectiveness after only a few months. diarrhea. and more recent evidence does not support the claim that it works consistently over the long run. sinus inflammation. asthma. but it also seems to increase blood flow to the brain. with Molindone. and known side effects are few. abnormal heart rhythms. especially when taken with deprenyl and lecithin. thousands of milligrams a day). Diazoxide. ovaries. diarrhea. heart palpitations. adrenal cortices. and skin. TACRINE AKA: Cognex. or arterial spasms. Works synergistically with centrophenoxine. Taking it a half hour before an anxiety. drowsiness. It can intensify the effects of antidiabetics. fights fatigue. sore throat. and emotional instability. an overactive thyroid function. difficulty swallowing. eye pain. vertigo. STRYCHNINE SULFATE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. Propranolol will have a greater effect if taken with meals. It may also interact with certain ingredients in overthe-counter cold. improves reaction time. the exact mechanism by which it works is still not fully understood. heart failure. visual disturbances. Effects: May enhance memory and learning. by those with asthma. propranolol hydrochloride. chest pain. confusion. esophagus and stomach irritation. fainting. a substance that is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. impacted . bronchitis or emphysema). infections of the middle or inner ear. Neupramir. It may result in acetylcholine's being used up more rapidly in the body. It is most effective for those whose memory problems are the result of too little acetylcholine. THA. stomach gas. for improving memory. chills. convulsions. a loss of alertness. a slow or weak pulse. calcium channel blockers. It could be hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver) and should only be taken under a physician's guidance. PROPRANOLOL AKA: Inderal.stroke. insomnia. and light-headedness. difficulty breathing. Effects: In use in Italy as a treatment for Alzheimer's and memory disorders. though it does not help other damage caused by this disease. and psychomotor agitation. insulin. difficult breathing. hiatal hernia. it could damage the heart muscle. headache. as abrupt cessation could damage the heart. lack of coordination. scalp. Effects: Reduces fear and stress by blocking the muscle's receptor sites for adrenaline. RlVASTIGMINE The first in a new class of drugs known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. vascular walls. bleeding or ulcers in the stomach or intestines. Dosage: 400 mg/day with breakfast for 20 days. a flushing in the face. seizure disorders. heart failure. rash. For those over age 60. pneumonia. eyes. vomiting. with cocaine.

Cimetidine can increase the amount of Tacrine in the blood. and C. are rare. muscle disease. lack of coordination. speaking difficulties. It is used as a treatment for radiation sickness in the former Soviet Union. dry skin. decreased heartbeat. kidney stones and infections. gallbladder irritation or stones. skin cancer. fluid in the lungs. very abnormal heart rhythms. skin inflammation. rapid breathing. macular degeneration. Dosage: 5 to 10 mg/day. loss of memory. furuncles. Parkinson's-type movements. and anticholinergics could diminish the effect of this drug. neurosis. vaginal bleeding. bladder or kidney tumors. It is particularly effective for disorders caused by poor or impaired circulation. nosebleeds. loss of muscle tone. tachycardia. inflammation of the brain and possibly the central nervous system. it causes gastrointestinal problems. chest congestion. It improves the brain's metabolism by increasing the blood flow. Bell's palsy. Effects: A vasodilator (improves blood flow to the brain and enhances the brain's utilization of oxygen). cysts. impotence. a reduction in white blood cell and platelet counts. hysteria. healthy people. ovarian cancer. increased appetite. Tacrine is taken at least one hour before or two hours after eating. melanoma. changes in stool color). It takes a year for the drug to reach its peak efficiency. convulsions. Effects: Reportedly a strong enhancer of memory and concentration. Overdose symptoms include a decrease in blood pressure. and disturbances or inflammation of the inner ear. according to creator Dr. Rare side effects include heat exhaustion. VlNCAMINE AKA: Oxicebral. Dosage: Subjects with Alzheimer's showed the best improvement when given doses of 120 to 160 mg/ day. tendinitis. B-6. recurring dizziness. bowel obstruction. but improvements in memory and the ability to think and reason lasted for only 24 weeks. delirium. respiratory infection. paralysis. It could also strengthen the effects of muscle relaxants during surgery. headaches. twitching. eczema. cold sores. nerve inflammation or disease. It bolsters the immune system and may increase life span. 2-MEA AKA: Cysteamine. blood infection. VlNPOCETINE AKA: Cavinton. A close relative of vincamine believed to elicit more benefits and fewer side effects. sudden choking. and certain ear problems. it has the active PEN ingredient as Gerovital. and heavy sweating. Users claim it improves memory and cognition. hair loss. herpes zoster (shingles). collapse. hypotension. skin ulcers. heightened sex drive. Precautions: It may cause a reduction in white corpuscles and a degeneration of muscle tissue. cystitis. such as stroke. skin peeling. and can remove heavy metals such as cadmium. and royal jelly for its high levels of vitamins B-5. urinary obstruction. oily skin. lung cancer. herpes infections. this last formulation helps the procaine hydrochloride stay active in the body for several hours. Made from an extract of the periwinkle plant. severe nausea and vomiting. drooping or inflamed eyelids.colon. convulsions. Effects: An antioxidant. . muscle weakness (leading to respiratory failure and death). thyroid changes. vomiting blood. blindness. which include dry mouth. but sufficient scientific research is lacking for normal. bursitis. asthma. urinating at night. blood and puss in the urine. Precautions: May actually shorten the life span if a very high dosage is combined with a very high dosage of vitamin E. and prostate cancer. speeding up the rate at which ATP is produced by the brain cells. breast cancer. osteoporosis. sugar in the urine. psoriasis. and mercury from the body. frequent urination. Precautions: See the entries under Gerovital and Royal jelly. duodenal ulcer. VlTACEL 3 The tablet form of GH-3. lead. suicidal thoughts. psychosis. inflammation of the male reproductive tract. skin rash. slow muscle movements. abnormal dreams. changes in liver function (resulting in yellow skin or eyes. Side effects. severe uncontrolled movements of the face. breast pain. anemia. acne. apathy. diabetes. some loss of the senses (particularly touch). increased salivation. Vitaeel 4 has the addition of bee propolis for its antibacterial and antiviral qualities. Robert Koch. Vitacel 7 has replaced the bisulfite and benzoic acid with vitamin-complexing agents to prevent allergy problems. kidney failure. and improving the use of glucose and oxygen in the brain. and weakness. In rare cases. genital itching. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day for life extension. Theophylline could intensify the effect of this drug. 2-mercapto-ethylamine. paranoia. Precautions: No toxicity or contraindications. after which the decline in mental abilities resumed. and tobacco can increase the rate at which it is broken down in the liver. Dosage: 60 mg/day in two divided doses.

They are highly synergistic with anti-oxidant vitamins. serum lipids.. Mann recommends lightly warming 16 ounces of safflower oil in a pan and stirring in 2 level teaspoons until all the crystals have dissolved. THIODIPROPIONIC ACID AND DILAURYL THIODIPROPIONATE A food preservative and its dilauryl derivative. though contrary to popularopinion. which goes away after a few days.D. TBHQ AKA: Monotertiary butyl hydro-quinone. which maybe avoided if nutrition is adequate. intense pain (consciousness is maintained until death).D. Precautions: It is a suspected carcinogen. butter. Those taking it have follow-up tests for liver function. It is still in the experimental stage. It works synergistically with most other anti-oxidants. when both BHA and vitamin E are taken together in very high doses. Precautions: More testing is needed. and death from respiratory paralysis. for that reason. candy. It can intensify the effects of barbiturates. of the Nuclear Medicine Service at the Jerry L. Effects: An anti-oxidant. particularly vitamins A and C. When taken in gelatin form. to inactive some viruses. Precautions: It was banned by the FDA in 1968 when high doses were found to cause kidney damage in rats. but some research suggests that. It is more quickly metabolized by the body and less likely to cause kidney problems than BHT. According to Jane Brody. or who have had a liver test that is abnormal.CHAPTER 13 Other BHA AKA: Butylated hydroxyanisole. Effects: An anti-oxidant. and a complete blood count. A food preservative. it may not be fully assimilated by the body and could irritate the stomach. Effects: Both are anti-oxidants. SODIUM BISULFATE A food additive that prevents discoloration and inhibits the growth of bacteria. According to Jane Brody. According to Pearson and Shaw. changes in the structure of liver cells. though any long-term effects are not known. Precautions: It destroys vitamin B-l. Effects: In rats. Laboratory rats fed ethoxyquin had a longer life span. though Joseph G. It is not used for frying. Precautions: It is extremely toxic. ice cream. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital and the Loma Linda University School of Medicine asserts that 2 grams is very close to the lethal dose. and a lower incidence of obesity than rats in the control group. A resinous substance extracted from a variety of plants (such as the creosote bush and Guaiac gum trees) that was once used as a preservative in pie crusts. Effects: An anti-oxidant. since rat urine is much more concentrated than human urine and rats urinate infrequently. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. and profuse sweating. ETHOXYQUIN AKA: Santoquin. John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. There may be possible harmful interactions with steroid hormones or oral contraceptives. A food preservative. After cooling for a few minutes. tertiary butyl hydroquinone. BHT AKA: Butylated hydroxytoluene. M. their life extension properties are severely curtailed. A food preservative added to prevent oxidation and reduce rancidity in oil-containing foods. After cooling for a few minutes. convulsions. This problem can usually be avoided if a quarter gram is taken at bedtime. their life-extension properties are severely curtailed. Precautions: Albino rats given 1000 to 4000 mg of ethoxyquin per kg of food showed signs of kidney fibrosis. it can also extend life and be used as a treatment for herpes. particularly vitamins A and C. An initial side effect is hypotension and lightheadedness when getting out of bed in the morning. In humans. It can produce a painful erection. Effects: An anti-oxidant. it has a stimulating effect on the spinal cord. SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE Effects: An anti-oxidant. DDC AKA: Ammonium diethyl-dithio-carbamate. Effects: An anti-oxidant. or alcohol when combined with these drugs. it has been proven to protect the body against certain carcinogens. STRYCHNINE An alkaloid found naturally in various plants.. Precautions: It is considered a possible carcinogen and. Ph. 2-tertiary butyl hydroquinone. Dosage: Pearson and Shaw take 2 to 6 g/day for its free radical-fighting and life-extending properties. which maybe avoided if nutrition is adequate. It is said to improve memory. Effects: An anti-oxidant which may have some life-extension properties. it may not be fully assimilated by the body and could irritate the stomach. The oil is used within a week or two so that it does not become oxidized. It is not used for frying. especially in combination with citric acid. PROPYL GALLATE A food preservative similar to BHA and BHT. most nutritionists warn that it should be avoided. this problem may not extend to humans. for that reason. Precautions: The few studies conducted have yielded contradictory results or have had flaws. As yet. fewer tumors. Effects: An anti-oxidant. Effects: An anti-oxidant. Dosage: Doses high enough to result in measureable improvements in brain functioning (2 mg or more) carry a very high risk of rapid heart rate. Dosage: John Mann recommends no more than 100 mg per meal. other downers. opisthotonus (a condition where the head is bent back as far as it will go). but some research suggests that when BHT and vitamin E are taken together in very high doses. It may cause a mild dermatitis resulting from an allergic reaction. it produces definite improvements in maze learning and visual and spatial discrimination. It is considered a possible carcinogen and. kidney disease. lard. BHT has been proven to protect the body against certain carcinogens. A food preservative added to prevent oxidation and reduce rancidity in oil-containing foods. and canned whipped cream. It is not to be taken by those with a diseased or damaged liver. . the oil is returned to the refrigerator until needed. with the dosage slowly increased over time. not in most hallucinogenic ones. The oil is used within a week or two so that it does not become oxidized. It works synergistically with most other anti-oxidants. a dangerously high heart rate. and provide some protection against carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. and possible damage to the thyroid. Llaurado. most nutritionists warn that it should be avoided. NDGA AKA: Nordihydroguaiaretic acid. excessive body heat. More studies are needed to evaluate the safety of this substance. no one has isolated the brain-enhancing component for safe commercial use. Mann recommends lightly warming 16 ounces of safflower oil in a pan and stirring in 2 level teaspoons until all the crystals have dissolved. It has also been linked to liver tumors in mice. the oil should be put back in the fridge until needed. When taken in gelatin form. Individuals have taken as much as 1000 to 3000 mg/day. It has been shown to prevent vitamin E deficiency in the diets of animals (the metabolic activity of the two are identical). doses small enough to avoid these risks do not produce any measureable improvements. It may cause a mild dermatitis due to an allergic reaction.