This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Alexandre Marino Fernandez and Fernando Iazzetta Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil
Abstract The present article aims to inscribe Circuit-Bending in Do it Yourself (DIY) Culture and analyze the anti-consumerist, rebellious, and creativity aspects which make up the culture. The main goal is to show the subversive status of DIY culture, using the specific case of circuit-bending, which, seen through this prism, can subvert the hegemonic “distribution of the sensible,” achieving what Jacques Attali, in the late 1970s, called the “age of composition,” in which creators are enticed to produce their own aesthetics.
Introduction Circuit-bending consists of opening up low voltage (battery powered) electronic devices (musical toys, radio apparatuses, electronic keyboards, synthesizers, cd and dvd players, etc.), change (bend) the way electricity flows through their circuits until achieving an ‘interesting’ sound. One typically practices circuit-bending by removing and/or adding electronic components, connecting different circuits, or even adding organic elements to the circuit (such as the circuit-bender’s hand, or even fruits and vegetables). Upon obtaining the desired result, the next step usually calls for soldering the component into the circuit or marking the specific places to be touched. At the end of the process, some choose to design a nice case for accommodating this newly created instrument - an infra-instrument, in the words of John Bowers and Phil Archer in the article Not Hyper, Not Meta, Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments (Bowers & Archer: 2005).
In 1992, Qubais Reed Ghazala named the technique in a series of articles he wrote for Experimental Music Instrument magazine. He describes how he discovered this method of creating instruments, when, in 1967, he accidentally let a screwdriver come into contact with the circuitry of a battery powered amplifier, producing a short circuit that sounded rather ‘interesting.’ As he puts it: If this can happen to an amp, not supposed to make a sound on its own, what might happen if one were to short out circuits that already make a sound, such as keyboards and radios and toys? (Ghazala: 2004, 97)
As part of the experimental music tradition, circuit-bending follows the paths of such innovators as Alvin Lucier, David Tudor, Gordon Mumma, John Cage, among others, who advanced the limits and frontiers of musical creation. As Ghazala puts it, over the last several years, “experimentalism has taken flight and can be heard within many popular genres.” Currently, for instance, several popular music groups, such as Radiohead, The Flaming Lips, Mike Patton, and Bjork, use bent instruments in their setups (sometimes instruments not bent by themselves). Ghazala argues that “circuit-benders are at the very forefront of this experience of new experimentalism, constantly pushing music forward with original discoveries.” (Ghazala: 2005, 23)
At first, one sees a rebellious characteristic in circuit-bending as part of an experimental attitude. Circuit-bending creates a rupture in the consumerist society, since experimentalism is based on the need for free time, time to “waste” on making mistakes (a trial-and-error attitude). The goal is the unexpected, neither perfection nor efficacy. Benders seek, within this
but rather to create something unique. As John Cage says: “the utility of the useless is good news for the artists. the error. and therefore the artist must “accept outside contributions and even displeasing things. perform. working only with inputs and outputs in a simplistic way.unexpectedness.” (Cage apud Campos: 1998. When practicing circuit-bending. and listen. a learning experience. freed from personal preferences and open for new experiences” (Campos: 1998. 135). At the end of the 20th century. and the glitch are the stimulants that feed music: “musical sonic material are the noises that electronic devices generate” (Iazzetta: 2009. sound art. discovery. but also a small amount of design. Lo-fi aesthetics display another key aspect of circuit-bending. the principal aim is not to play the latest hi-tech tool. 189). 130) Transforming the useless and the expendable into raw material for creation and production is the tonic note of circuit-bending. a mixture of electric engineering and music. connecting those who create. Has to do with changing of minds and spirits. creation. is an interdisciplinary practice. breaking the barriers between them. and performance. It approaches other artistic models. . circuit-bending proposes an art that is not intended for specialist musicians. Experimentalism manifests as a discipline of the ego. For art does not have a material objective. Emphasis lies in its procedural character and its focus on the concept. the flaw. Circuit-bending. then. Following this logic. allowing for niches to open where the ordinary person can (re)approach the musical creation.
Eric Paulos and Stacey Kuznetsov. It dates back to the practices in which a craft and the unskilled amateur’s stage were opposed to professional practice and industrial . as seen in Ghazala’s book Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments: My aim. (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. XIII) Circuit-Bending and DIY culture In the above quotation. pose a concise and pertinent definition for DIY: any creation. then. more than a decade ago when I began to write about the DIY of circuit-bending. unique instruments by means of explaining only the general discovery process of circuit-bending instead of using the more standard “this wire goes here” dialogue — a dialogue that usually results in exact duplications of a target instrument. but rather. Ghazala clearly inscribes circuit-bending in DIY culture. to emphasize that most of DIY culture is not motivated by commercial purposes. modification or repair of objects without the aid of paid professionals. to explore and conceptualize DIY culture and its relationship to circuitbending.In short. We use the term “amateur” not as a reflection on a hobbyists’ skills. (Ghazala: 2005. which are often quite advanced. Communities. 01) Thus. the DIY phenomenon is clearly nothing new. and Cultures. was to launch new. the immediacy and singularity of the instruments created represent two intentional aspects of circuit-bending. It is compelling. in Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects.
However. The fragmentation of the production chain and the alienation of the individual brought about by mass production sparked a new interest in manual and craft activities. high-fidelity audio. According to this way of thinking. Model building. Such activities were organized through magazines. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Mass production becomes established in the 18th century as part of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Historically speaking. massive social condition. books. and/or build throughout most of history.mass production. this new mode of production spread throughout western society. They also entailed connecting hobbyists to a specific social network that helped define their identification with an increasingly homogenized. modern societies changed this principle by the gradual valorization and establishment of mass-production which led to the consumerist society in which we currently find ourselves. DIY was the production method used to develop. and suppliers. all created a vast multitude of technical hobbyists who gathered around specific interests. It is noteworthy to see how this movement manifests during the modern era. can be bought at a nearby mega-store. clubs. Together with the ideals of liberals such as Adam Smith. (as well as the flourishing appeal of science and technology) led to a boom in inventors and hobbyist activities. and/or make repairs. A remarkable case in which audio technology attracted the attention of hobbyists was the radio that was sold in kits for home assembly in the 1920s and ‘30s. Hobbyists’ activities played an important social role because they allowed laymen to tackle complex science and technology topics which were shaping the very idea of modernity. photography. as well as any product. create. professionals and specialists can be hired to build. decorate. . for any necessity. create.
to working on all kinds of electronic projects. increasing the amount of adherents in several fields: from growing herbs indoors. 89). the Punk movement also emerged as a rebellion against this hegemonic order. for example. Ravelry. Etsy. Dorkbot. For these artists. knitting. as Paul Hegarty argues. with the Internet becoming a vast network of information exchange. and Adafruit). and criticizing the musical marketplace from a DIY perspective. and crocheting. learn new skills. In the 1970s. Similar to Free Jazz. most important being to express oneself. ineptitude was seen as virtue. bringing DIY to the scene. In the 1990s. however. the DIY movement became stronger due to rave culture and the beginning of the netlabel movement. In one of the most clarifying charts presented. both focusing on independent production (of events and records). . bypassing the record industry. with its focus on unrestrained improvisation and the production of records outside of the industrial chain. weakened the hobbyist and amateurist movement for a period of time. and create things. punk artists such as Crass.The Second World War and the globalized consumerist model. Craftster. also joined forces to release their records. one sees how a commercial interest is one of the least important incentives for the DIY community. An initial reaction to such standardizing appears in the Free Jazz movement of the 1960s. producing textiles. In the above mentioned article. “the creativity that comes from a lack of preconceptions and willingness to try out anything. the DIY movement expanded. by such associations as AACM (Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians) and Candid Records. Kuznetsov and Paulos present some rather significant data from surveys taken by DIY websites (such as Instructables. In the 21st century. even if badly” (Hegarty: 2008. imposing a mass consumption mentality throughout most of the western world.
encroaching upon the basic rules of capitalist society. distribute. pursuing singular forms of expression. then think. creating a community feeling. an industrial one.” which he compares to movements like Situationism. independent from industry. outside of mass culture. which seeks to change ordinary mercantile .” and is rather based on action: “first act. written for the Spanish magazine Icono. and promote a product.” For Gallego Perez. this way of thinking is based on a subversion of the age-old “look before you leap. in the article DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia. “along with the possibility that anyone could be a creator. He follows by showing that the DIY movement “changes social relations. He argues that one of DIY’s main goals was to abolish specialization. as we see in experimental music. and. 279) By way of this prism.Figure 1: Motivations for contributing to DIY projects (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. He argues that this form of production allows “any person to create.” (Perez: 2009. regardless of origin or background. one of its characteristics was to rupture the lines that separated worker and creator. he shows that DIY culture implies three states: an ideological/political one. rebelling against the hegemonic marketing order. searching for new ways of production. analyzes DIY culture in similar terms. and an aesthetic one. 6) Juan Ignácio Gallego Perez.
Along this line of thought. and Composition. For Marx. Repetition. a text to decipher. It is at the heart of the progressive rationalization of aesthetics. Repetition is the era we . Clamor. 280). In noise can be read the codes of life. Harmony.) More than colors and forms. it is a means of power and a form of entertainment (Attali: 1999. Social Context French economist Jacques Attali presents an important view on the subject. Representation. Melody. Dissonance. for Nietzsche. Sacrifice represents societies focused on religion. It is all of that. 6). when it is fashioned by man with specific tools. it is sounds and their arrangements that fashion societies. when it invades man’s time. Hence. noise is the source of purpose and power. (. he analyzes society through the musical forms of different ages. for it is one of the sites where mutations first arise and where science is secreted. Representation relates to the rational view of the world beginning in the Renaissance.relationships” (Perez: 2009. of the dream – Music. With music is born power and its opposite: subversion. he divides history into four different ages: Sacrifice. the expression of truth. the relations among men. when it becomes sound. In his book Noise: The political Economy of Music. He states: the cardinal importance of music in announcing a vision of the world is nothing new. and it is a refuge for residual irrationality. With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. the social order we have just discussed merits further inquiry. where mythological customs prevail. culminating with the Enlightenment. for Freud.. music is the mirror of reality..
(Attali: 1999. but the consumption of replications” (Attali: 1999. which begins to appear. having become the genetic code of society. then. they end up losing the time required to enjoy what is consumed . It marks the birth of industry and is a time when our daily lives are invaded by show business and celebrity mentalities. 101). in Free Jazz and Punk. It is no longer an enactment through representation. the embryonic form that subverts the Repetition era. The stockpiling of goods becomes.or almost anything else. an important contradiction emerges as people are no longer creators. in which “usage was no longer the enjoyment of present labors. It is spread among the different elements of the system. 88). commencing with the advent of recording devices. power can no longer be located simply in the control of capital or force. In this process. And finally. In this epoch. what interests us about Attali is the way he describes the Repetition era. that of mass production. as shown above. And if there are no longer any localizable power holders.currently live in. Composition. our relation to power is also disrupted: In this type of organization of the production of society. 90) Thus. For now. at the same time that Attali was writing his book. . the major goal (and maybe the only one possible) in our society. an era of a new kind of society. Use-time is obliterated by exchange-time. but only consumers: they must “devote their time to producing the means to buy recordings of other people’s time” (Attali: 1999. neither are there counterpowers that can be institutionalized in response. Power is incorporated into the very process of the selection of repeatable molds. Impossible either to locate or seize.
thereby destroying singularity together with the will to live (the libido). The side effect. is that these marketing strategies end up prevailing.which leads to a normalization of culture. by marketing strategies. human knowledge is short-circuited as a result of its technological reproduction and implementation.in order to create a chain of production and consumption. and all that remains is the “subcategory of the synchronic: that which marketing calls segment. to move the economy. but also the knowledge of how to live (savoir-vivre) of citizens. who thus become as such mere consumers: a good consumer is both utterly passive and irresponsible (Stiegler: 2010. to consume . a process in which creativity is substituted by profit and stardom. As Stiegler puts it. To captivate libidinal energy (what Jean-François Lyotard called libidinal economy) people are enticed. to the globalization of the consumerist model. This manner of considering our social context is complementary to that of French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. however. the diachronic (singular) is no longer achieved. for whom we live in an era of general proletarianisation: With general proletarianisation. Stiegler argues that the consumerist model emerged in the beginning of the 20th century as a way of solving an efficiency crisis in the capitalist order (World War I and the 1929 Stock Market Crash are two symptoms of that crisis). The problem is that this consumerist model leads to another crisis. after the Second World War (which is the time of Duchamp strictly speaking). to eliminate . leading. the crisis of libidinal energy1. In the consumerist model it is not only the know-how (savoir-faire) of workers that becomes obsolete. 11). within the opposition of diachronicity and synchronicity.
philosopher. providing potential models for human existence in general. And this disindividuation is also a kind of proletarianisation. 17) It is important to note (and also as a way to further delve into this subject) that the French psychotherapist.” (Stiegler: 2007... Artistic practice forms a special terrain for this individuation. he argues that in order for this process of subverting the consumerist mindset to happen.diachronicity and the possibility of the assertion of a singularity. cease to be simply . their savoir-vivre. the revalorization of the amateur made possible by digital technology and strengthened by the Internet can create a new avant-garde and form new audiences.) The end purpose of subjectivity is nothing other than an individuation still to be won. subjectivity as production plays the role of a fulcrum around which forms of knowledge and action can freely pitch in. 88) Bernard Stiegler sees the process of de-professionalization of the contemporary era as a possible means of escape from this situation. 40) This context obstructs the process of individuation2. resulting in a process he calls disindividuation: a process that destroys the collective and destroys culture. For him. and semiotician Félix Guattari also talks about the importance of the individuation process in the construction of subjectivity. (Bourriaud: 2002. (. (Stiegler: 2010. Nevertheless. as seen in Nicolas Bourriaud's book Relational Aesthetics: in the Guattari order of things. users have to themselves become creators. and soar off in pursuit of the laws of the socius. and their theoretical knowledge. given that the proletariat in fact refers to those who have lost their knowledge – their savoir-faire.
calling for a “far-reaching process of de-proletarianisation. Like the ancient Greek philosopher. the recovery of knowledge of all kinds” (Stiegler: 2010. 2008. DIY culture (and circuit-bending as part of it) carries the same potential contradictions as digital technology. This question was raised by the audience during a talk by Richard Stallman (the creator of GNU. A paradox that emerges in a society where capital has infiltrated every single aspect of life. produce knowledge. can be sold for a lot of money. he sees the new digital technologies as pharmakon: at once a poison.passive consumers. and also can be a means to achieve fame and recognition. and try to find another way of earning money. heart of Linux). On the one hand.” . If you let profit-thinking invade free software production.. at MACBA (Barcelona): while discussing free software. on the other hand. he was asked how people would live their lives working with free software. on 5 April. enables an effective struggle against the poison which it also is. since both allow amateurs to leave the status of passive consumer. But. a way to learn new techniques and make new discoveries. 19). to which he responded: “Living their lives. He compares new digital technology to the invention of writing in Plato's era. 11). and this is without doubt a key to the 21st century (Stiegler: 2010. Only the digital itself. and shake the grounds of the capitalist structure. it can also be another way to create commodities (the infra-instruments created by benders. that is. insofar as it can be a remedy. Each person involved with it has to do it as a matter of belief and love.. like products crafted in the DIY fashion.another type of fetishism). DIY (and circuit-bending) can be a path to this process of de-proletarianisation. This infiltration clearly makes it difficult to live life without falling into such a trap. then the movement is dead. of course. due to their uniqueness . a remedy and a scapegoat.
Distribution of the sensible According to French philosopher Jacques Rancière. functions of words. 70). then. people have become mere consumers. it is mandatory to short-circuit this distribution of the sensible. destabilizing the “natural” functional order of relations in the social body (Rancière: 2009. 12) As seen before. our share of the sensible lies in what marketing analysts decide is good for us to consume. as seen in the words of Slavoj Žižek in the afterword of Rancière's book The Politics of Aesthetics: Politics proper thus always involves a kind of short-circuit between the universal and the particular: the paradox of a singular which appears as a stand-in for the universal. artistic practices are means for intervening in the general manner of doing things and in relationships with form and visibility. politics in the arts resides more in the distribution of the sensible than in the content of the works themselves: The distribution of the sensible reveals who can have a share in what is common to the community based on what they do and on the time and space in which this activity is performed. 26). thus. Rancière points out that the arts “never lend to domination or emancipation maneuvers more than what they are able to: positions and movements of bodies. slices of the visible and the invisible” (Rancière: 2005. Rancière argues that in order to change this hegemonic order. (Rancière: 2009. Production. affirms itself as a principle of a new distribution of the . in modern capitalist societies. Following this line of thought. or what we have enough money (or credit) to pay for.
sensible. anyone can do it. to life. Since its functioning can be odd or even random it may not lead to any kind of virtuosity. 3-4) And also: Just as bending led me into “real” electronics. it is a new relationship between making and seeing. and specifically circuit-bending. The “products” created by benders are less interesting than the process by which they are created. To produce is to create and make visible (to distribute). “giving it back to work. Learning.” (Rancière: 2005. while they sought to suppress art as a specialized activity. of a singular instrument and in the way one experiments with it. Emphasis is placed on the creation of a particular aesthetic. (…) That’s pretty immediate! (Ghazala: 2005. 68) It is easy to see how DIY culture. Viva el electron! (Ghazala: 2005. As Qubais Reed Ghazala says: That’s the beauty of circuit-bending. XIV) . that is. which elaborates its own meaning. many benders report to me the same. You don’t need to be an electronics guru or a shop genius. It can already be seen in the avant-garde movements of the 1920s. as it unites the formerly opposite concepts of making and visibility. bending stirs great interest in electronics. as part of this musical practice. is always mentioned by benders as one of its key factors. All you need is the ability to solder and to think outside the box. As mentioned. can fit into this way of thinking. and new designers often follow their curiosity into schooling not otherwise planned.
This amateurism. a mythological or phantasmagoric figure. is a pivotal key for Bernard Stiegler. It flattened this phantasmagoria of the true into the positivist sociological concept of mentality/expression and belief/ignorance (Rancière: 2009. made into phantasmagoric objects in order to be interpreted as the expression of society’s contradictions. where art and life are no longer separate. again recalling the French economist Jacques Attali.reinforcing the mythological. the fact that the instrument created by the bender is unique. as we have already discussed. “a truly alien instrument.(. Scholarly history tried to separate out various features within the aesthetic-political configuration that gave it its object. second.. phantasmagoric figure of the transformation. 99) Two things should be noted in this last quotation: first the usage of the word Alien .) After all..) The Marxist theory of fetishism is the most striking testimony to this fact: commodities must be torn out of their trivial appearances.a word benders use frequently when talking about their instruments . This second aspect leads us to our conclusion. where the ordinary becomes beautiful as a trace of the true if it is torn from its obviousness in order to become a hieroglyph.” (Ghazala: 2004. that it exists nowhere else. now in hand is an instrument that exists nowhere else in the universe and that presents sounds no one else has yet heard. . and also fundamental for Rancière. That is exactly what circuit-benders do: transform an ordinary electronic device into an interesting musical instrument. 34). for this is the key to the aesthetic regime of the arts.. specialized subjects. (..
Doing solely for the sake of doing. that a new method of thinking about music would appear and replace Repetition. it relates to the emergence of the free act. Attali foresaw.Composition and Craftivism As already mentioned. A concept such as this seems natural in the context of music. and played/distributed: Sacrifice. We have also said that we currently live in the age of Repetition and discussed its implications. without trying artificially to recreate the old codes in order to reinsert communication into them. Representation. however. inventing the message at the same time as the language. (Attali: 1999. in the 1970s (in embryonic form. including even the code of exchange in repetition. Inventing new codes. is how DIY and circuit-bending fit into this fourth period. self-transcendence. Repetition. 134) Resonating with this way of thinking is the conception of Craftivism. That is what composing is. which alone can create the conditions for new communication. now that the codes have been destroyed. As Kevin Henry puts it in the article Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making: . pleasure in being instead of having. as he puts it). Playing for one’s own pleasure. We are all condemned to silence – unless we create our own relation with the world we try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create. Noteworthy. But it reaches far beyond that. he called it Composition: There is no communication possible between men any longer. Attali divides history into four different periods based on the way music is thought. and Composition. produced.
as Eudorah Moore puts it: “fashioning his lifestyle to realize the creative impulse so vital to the whole person. 94-95) The new definition of craft which Henry refers to is given by Richard Sennet in The Craftsmen: “the desire to do a job well for its own sake” (apud Henry: 2010. One-size-fits-all strategies of education change. (Henry: 2010. peer-to-peer production. overpopulation.that of the open source software. leads to a craftivistic approach . This definition . This new craftsman is no longer craftsman by necessity (since there is a massproduced solution for every necessity). 95). and selfsustainability. The result is a world challenged by climate change. The question of whether we are adequately preparing them for that challenge can be partially addressed with a new definition of craft. 95) Henry argues that this new approach is dependant on trial-and-error dynamics. in order “to focus on knowledge communities united by the goals of ‘problem-finding’ and problem solving. global terrorism. and global capital that moves at the speed of fiber optics.” (Henry: 2010.quite similar to Attali’s definition of the era of Composition . diminishing energy and material resources. . etc. containerization made economically feasible by cheap foreign oil. 217-218). but rather craftsman as a lifestyle choice. – issues for the most part that won’t go away but instead comprise the world our students will manage.according to Henry.Capitalist production has been hyper-accelerated by the exploitation of cheap foreign labor. providing those objects of the hand and the mind so necessary to us all” (apud Adamson: 2010.
Our basic idea is. test it. THIS IS YOUR FUTURE. and the amount of consumers wanting all new digital gizmos is rising exponentially. that all electronic sounds are just amplification of alternating current.As we have seen before. so any device that can be used to produce or modify the current can be used as an electronic instrument. Today’s digital technology-based lifestyle is not ecologically viable. open it. bend it and experiment with it as long as we get it to work in a way we consider interesting. subverting the consumption chain. by choosing a new lifestyle that has the potential to change the way we live. circuit bending and more. THIS IS NOT RETRO. As the Finnish circuit-bending group Kokeellisen elektroniikan seura (Association of Experimental Electronics) clearly states in their description3: Lo-tech. therefore. Composition and Craftivism. can act as de-proletarianisation tactics. We work mostly with electronic waste. a means to short-circuit the hegemonic consumerist distribution of the sensible. The lifespan of all devices is getting shorter and shorter. by reusing what is meant to be thrown away. . the low end of all sound production. and. 2. into the world of experimental electronics. creative electronics. can fit exceptionally well into this logic of “doing for the sake of doing”. not seeking commercial profit or stardom. creating something interesting and new. We do that for two reasons: 1. Think about it. We just take any device. and circuit-bending in particular. how long can this continue? Step out of the line. lo-fi. this way. DIY culture. creating one’s own instruments instead of buying some new hi-tech tool. The stuff we dig from the trash bins sounds so much better than any pluginshit. “outside the box”.
such as Dorkbot4. as shown in their pamphlet (Figure 2). Sensed Sounds.” As seen on the website of their New York based group. The same attitude as Dorkbot is present within HackLAB Rio. where we see a contrast of some high-tech images and some hand-drawn lines.We can also see this way of thinking explicitly in other circuit-bending-like events and/or groups. a global network of “people doing strange things with electricity. Sound Systems. Bricolage and the like”. experimentalist.” topics like “Ludic Electronics. even in the design of their folder. engineers. every Friday. designers. In Rio de Janeiro. In Dorkbot's philosophy we can see the interdisciplinary. Dorkbot meetings are free and open to the public. carrying much of the ineptitude attitude of Punk fanzines. students. scientists. Improvised Rhythms. people gather to “research together. created in 20005 : Dorkbot is a monthly meeting of artists (sound/image/movement/whatever). and other interested parties from the New York area who are involved in the creative use of electricity. Open Source. Experimental Luthierism. open-source attitude of DIY that we have discussed up to this point. .
com/contest/hackit/). We do not naively believe that DIY culture and. Cursor Records (http://www.org/2011/). n-1 (http://n-1. more specifically. like the Hack It! Challenge (http://www.net/).net. Instructables and its challenges.org/).art. the Bent Festival (http://bentfestival.Figure 2: Hack Lab . circuit-bending are solutions or simple ways out of the complex context presented in this article. such as Ônibus Hacker (Hacker Bus http://onibushacker.instructables. Many other examples of groups and/or events can be found.http://garoa.br/). . Garoa Hacker Clube (Drizzle Hacker Club .org/details/cr05RottedOrange). among others.Rio de Janeiro Shown above are three examples of what we have discussed in this article.br/wiki/).archive. We do believe. PaneTone (http://panetone.
Marketing people are very aware of those socioprofessionals of high profits who do not want more cars. That’s the core of movements called anti-publicity. and that won’t happen in a painless way. like I do. 26) And also: “What I describe here is a tendency: we are heading towards a scattering of consumption. is absolutely not a good sign. as also said in mechanical geniality. And if we believe. without suffering from consumption. from which it will be mandatory to get away. it is a destructive control.. to experiment. http://dorkbot. Notes 1. their desires.to/koelse 4.” (Stiegler: 2007. that the appearance of these movements and their growth in recent years shows the importance of discussing such subjects in an interdisciplinary manner. 16) 3. etc. natural resources.beam.) then. 35) 2. that we live in the era of the capitalist order that exploits libidinal energy (as it previously exploited fossil fuels. that is.org/dorkbotnyc/about.org/ 5.shtml . that is. however. or ‘ad-busters. to become what one is by making the passage to the act of a potential that lies within every noetic soul. it is mandatory that they first want them.” (Stiegler: 2010. without consuming oneself. “To individuate oneself is to learn. etc. But this captivation is destructive. because in order for people to consume objects.” (Stiegler: 2007. Bernard Stiegler talks about an important paradox of the hyper-industrial capitalist society: “industrial life tends to channel individuals’ libidinal potential. hyper-industrial capitalism is on the verge of a serious crisis.’ This. http://www.however. organized trips. meaning that what is submitted to control ends up being destroyed by what it controls. heading towards the consumer who does not want to consume anymore. http://dorkbot. people who begin dreaming about a world without consumption. meaning that the society we live in has gotten into a dilemma.
(1999) Noise: The political Economy of Music. In: Adamson. pp. (2009) Música e Mediação Tecnológica.) The Craft Reader. and Cultures. I.) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education. Ghazala. E.org/hci/KuznetsovDIY. Madrid.pdf (Accessed: 04/16/2011) Moore. (2010) Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects. F. Kuznetsov. R. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Perspectiva. pp: 92-97. Iazzetta. Oxford/Nova Iorque: Berg. Ghazala. P. London: Continuum. Hegarty. Bourriaud. R. (1998) Música de Invenção. São Paulo: ed. G. [Online] Available at: http://www. Not Meta. Dijon: Les presses du réel. (2004) 'The Folk Music of Chance Electronics: Circuit-Bending the modern coconut’. Spain. In: Revista Icono 14. K. . E.org/2005/proceedings. Q. In: Leonardo Music Journal. (2005) Not Hyper. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc.staceyk. São Paulo: ed.html (Accessed: 04/24/2011) Campos. & Paulos. S.14. & Archer. v. J. 278-291. C. J. Perpectiva. Bowers. [Online] Available at: http://www. San Francisco. (2008) Noise/Music: A History.Bibliography Attali. Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments. pp: 214-218. Communities. ‘DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia’. nº13. Q. N. (2010) ‘Craftsman lifestyle: The Gentle Revolution’. New York. K. Perez. (2010) ‘Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making’.nime. A. (ed. (2002) Relational Aesthetics. G. (2009). (ed. J. Amsterdam: ELIA. & Delfos. In: Corcoran. P. Henry. (2005) Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments.
) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education.Rancière. & Delfos. J. Rancière. B. . Continuum. Argos. São Paulo: Ed. K. (2009) The Politics of Aesthetics. (ed. B. (2007) Reflexões (não) contemporâneas. Stiegler. J. C. Amsterdam: ELIA. New York: Ed. Stiegler. 34: Exo Experimental. pp: 10-19. In: Corcoran. (2010) ‘The Age of De-proletarianisation: Art and teaching art in post-consumerist culture’. (2005) A partilha do sensível. Chapecó: ed.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?