SKN-BENTEX group started operations 50 years back at Delhi, the capital state of India with manufacturing of Electrical items. Chopra Brothers Mr. Satish Chopra, Mr. Kapil Chopra & Mr. Nishit Chopra have promoted the group. SKN-BENTEX” Group products are at the forefront of innovation in industrial and agricultural field for protection and control of Electric Motor. It is the pioneers and leaders in the field with latest international engineering products based on the world’s best technology since last four decades. “SKNBENTEX” Group has a rich history of success, which has been achieved through dedication, teamwork and visionary thinking and sincere service of pride in result oriented performance. “SKN-BENTEX” Group has been continuously restructuring to set up state-of-the-art electrical products manufactured at their own plants under strict quality control standard. In this thrust, most of group companies adopted International Quality Standard and have been certified for ISO-9001 Certification and products are also available on ISI-Marked. The SKN-BENTEX Group of Companies engaged in wide range of products and has mainly three subgroups of electrical product range such as “ SKN”, “SKN” Bentex Linger “BENTEX-Linger” with their separate products line and “SKN-BENTEX ” Group is a collection of smaller companies specialist in a specific range of products. Besides this “SKN-BENTEX” group engaged in the field of, LPG Home Appliances, LPG Regulators, Building Construction and Export Activities. Home Appliances: LPG Gas Stove , Cooking Range (OTG & Oven), LPG Burner, LPG Regulator & Adaptor, Gas Stove with Copper Brazed Cylinder, Hotel Equipments: Kitchen Equipments, Service

Trolleys, Deep & Vertical Freezers, India Railways: Water Tanks, Luggage Racks, Doors. Electrical Appliances: MCB, MCCB, ELCB, Energy Meter, Motor Starters & Complete Range of Electrical Products. Mono Block Pump, Exhaust Fan, Auto LPG Conversion Kit with Cylinder, CNG Conversion Kit, Building Construction Township Development, Hotel & Clubs, Retail Shopping Malls, LPG Dispensing Station To undertake Turnkey Project for installation & Commissioning. Haryana City Gas to Undertake Turnkey Project for distribution of Natural Gas to Domestic, Commercial, Industrial and Transport sector.

Firm Type Proprietorship : Manufacturer,Export/Import Nature of Busin International ess : Expansion level :

Today, with the above wide range of products SKN-Bentex group is a well-recognized name in Indian Household. Group has already achieved turnover of USD 50.00 Millions and has employed more than 1000 employees in eight manufacturing locations in National Capital region of Delhi and regional offices supporting our business through- out the country. After making


its presence felt in the domestic market, Group has already spread wings in internationally and started exports to various countries through a separate export division.



An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a residence, business or machine. Electricity is a clean, convenient way to deliver energy. The electricity meter is how electricity providers measure billable services. The most common type of meter measures kilowatt hours. When used in electricity retailing, the utilities record the values measured by these meters to generate an invoice for the electricity. They may also record other variables including the time when the electricity was used. Since it is expensive to store large amounts of electricity, it must usually be generated as it is needed. More electricity requires more generators, and so providers want consumers to avoid causing peaks in consumption. Electricity meters have therefore been devised that that encourage users to shift their consumption of power away from peak times, such as mid-afternoon, when many buildings turn on air-conditioning. For these applications, meters measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. In some areas, the meters charge more money at certain times of day, to reduce use. Also, in some areas meters have relays to turn off nonessential equipment. Providers are also concerned about efficient use of their distribution network. So, they try to maximize the delivery of billable power. This includes methods to reduce tampering with the meters. Also, the network has to be upgraded with thicker wires, larger transformers, or more generators if parts of it become too hot from excessive currents. The currents can be caused by either real power, in which the waves of voltage and current coincide, or apparent power, in which the waves of current and voltage do not overlap, and so cannot deliver power. Since providers can only collect money for real power, they try to maximize the amount of real power delivered by their networks. Therefore, distribution networks always incorporate electricity meters that measure apparent power, usually by displaying or recording power factors or volt-amp-reactive-hours. Many industrial power meters can measure volt-amp-reactive hours.


This flattening causes odd harmonics which are not permissible if they exceed specific limits. including reactive and actual. such as a motor. This is equal to the product of root-mean-square volts and amperes. which is equal to the amount of energy used by a load of one kilowatt over a period of one hour. Demand is normally measured in watts. other types of metering are available. A capacitive load has a leading power factor. Meters which measured the amount of charge (coulombs) used. A purely resistive load (such as a filament lamp. Some electricity companies use the SI mega joule instead.600. will have negative reactive power. heater or kettle) exhibits a power factor of 1. or 3. A "leading". Current harmonics are a measure of distortion of the wave form. Distortion of the electric current by loads is measured in several ways. known as ampere-hour meters. This can lead to a significant voltage drop near the supply voltage peak which shows as a flattening of the voltage waveform. as they are not only wasteful. Reactive power is measured in "Volt-amperes reactive". will have positive reactive power. but averaged over a period. most often a quarter or half hour. For example. Other units of measurement: In addition to metering based on the amount of energy used. and an inductive load has a lagging power factor. which was 5 . Volt-amperes measures all power passed through a distribution network. Harmonic emissions are mandated by law in EU and other countries to fall within specified limits. or capacitive load. These were dependent upon the supply voltage remaining constant for accurate measurement of energy usage. electronic loads such as computer power supplies draw their current at the voltage peak to fill their internal storage elements. Power factor is the ratio of resistive (or real power) to volt-amperes. (varh) in kilovar-hours.UNITS OF MEASUREMENT: The most common unit of measurement on the electricity meter is the kilowatt hour.000 joules. A "lagging" or inductive load. were used in the early days of electrification. but may interfere with the operation of other equipment.

The meters fall into two basic categories. Some meters measured only the length of time for which current flowed. ELECTROMECHANICAL METERS 6 . Neither type is likely to be used today. TYPES OF METERS: Modern electricity meters operate by continuously measuring the instantaneous voltage (volts) and current (amperes) and finding the product of these to give instantaneous electrical power (watts) which is then integrated against time to give energy used (joules.not a likely circumstance with most supplies. These were only suited for constant load applications. Electromechanical and Electronic. with no measurement of the magnitude of voltage or current is being made. kilowatt-hours etc).

CONSTRUCTION: 7 . A permanent magnet exerts an opposing force proportional to the speed of rotation of the disc. The field of the voltage coil is delayed by 90 degrees using a lag coil. The disc drives a register mechanism which integrates the speed of the disc over time by counting revolutions.ELECTRO-MECHANICAL METERS INTRODUCTION: The most common type of electricity meter is the Thomson or electromechanical induction watt-hour meter. The metallic disc is acted upon by two coils. The type of meter described above is used on a single-phase AC supply. This produces eddy currents in the disc and the effect is such that a force is exerted on the disc in proportion to the product of the instantaneous current and voltage. It consumes a small amount of power. invented by Elihu Thomson in 1888. The number of revolutions is thus proportional to the energy usage. much like the odometer in a car. typically around 2 watts. Different phase configurations use additional voltage and current coils. The electromechanical induction meter operates by counting the revolutions of an aluminum disc which is made to rotate at a speed proportional to the power. One coil is connected in such a way that it produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the voltage and the other produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the current. in order to render a measurement of the total energy used over a period of time. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces results in the disc rotating at a speed proportional to the power being used.

Moving System 4. The function of these bands is to bring the flux produced by the shunt magnet exactly in quadrature with the applied voltage. However. This coil is called the pressure coil. thus the friction is drastically reduced. Copper shading bands are provided on the central limb. The upper bearing of the rotor (moving system) is a steel pin located in a hole in the bearing cap fixed to the top of the shaft. A unique design for the suspension of the disc is used in the floating shaft energy meter. therefore. The moving system thus floats without touching either bearing surface. The core of one of the electromagnets is excited by the load current. This coil is called the current coil. Consequently the two electromagnets are known as series and shunt magnets respectively. Driving System 3. There are four main parts of the operating mechanism: 1. The rotor runs on a hardened steel pivot. the differences are very minor in nature. and the only contact with the movement is that of the gear connecting the shaft with the gear of the train. Moving System This consists of an aluminum disc mounted on a light alloy shaft. Braking System 2. The position of these bands is adjustable. Braking System The permanent magnet positioned near the edge of the of the Aluminum disc forms the 8 . where the upper magnet of the shaft is attracted to a magnet in the upper bearing and the lower magnet of the shaft is attracted to a magnet in the lower bearing. The pivot is supported by a jewel bearing. This disc is positioned in the air gap between series and shunt magnets. The core of the electromagnets is made up of silicon-steel laminations. Registering System Driving System The driving system of the meter consists of two electromagnets. The coil of second electromagnet is connected across the supply and.The construction varies in details from one manufacturer’s product to the next. The pinion engages the shaft with the counting or registering mechanism. screwed to the foot of the shaft. carries a current proportional to the supply voltage. Here the rotating shaft has a small magnet at each end.

The position of the permanent magnet is adjustable. The pressure coil winding is highly inductive as it has very large number of turns and the reluctance of its magnetic circuit is very small owing to presence of air gaps of very small length. The reluctance to the path of flux is large and hence its magnitude is small. The aluminum disc moves in the field of this magnet and thus provides a braking torque. This flux divides itself into two parts. Flux is in phase with current I and is proportional to it. Registering System The function of a registering or a counting mechanism is to record continuously a number which is proportional to the revolutions made by the moving system. Now the eddy current Ies interacts with flux to produce a torque and eddy current interacts with flux to produce another torque. These two torques are in opposite direction and the net torque is the difference of these. it induces an eddy emf E in the disc which in turn produces eddy currents. The major portion of it flows across the side gaps as reluctance of this path is small. The load current I flows through the current coil and produces a flux. These rotate on round dials which are marked with ten equal divisions. This flux is proportional to the load current and is in phase with it.braking system. This flux produces eddy current Ies in the disc. a train of reduction gears the pinion on the rotor shaft drives a series of five or six pointers. Since flux is alternating in nature. braking torque can be adjusted by shifting the permanent magnet to different radial positions. By a suitable system. This flux goes across aluminum disc and hence is responsible for production of driving torque. This is because the winding has a small resistance and there are iron losses in the magnetic circuit. 9 . Thus the current I through the pressure coil is proportional to the supply voltage and lags it by a few degrees less than 90. OPERATION The supply voltage is applied across the pressure coil. Therefore flux is proportional to voltage V and lags it by an angle a few degrees less than 90. and therefore. Current produces a flux.

Some Important Readings: Lag Adjustment Devices: Meter will register true energy only if the angle is made equal to 90. This requires that the pressure coil winding should be so designed that it is highly inductive and has a low resistance and the iron losses in the core are small. Thus the angle between the shunt magnet flux and the supply voltage V should be equal to 90. 10 . But even with this the phase of flux is not 90 wrt V but a few degrees less than 90 The required mmf is obtained from a ‘lag coil’ which is located on the central limb of the shunt magnet close to the disc gap and links with the flux that cuts the disc.

11 . and stray magnetic fields. Adjustable Resistance: A few turns of fairly thick wire are placed around the central limb of the shunt magnet and the circuit is closed through a low adjustable resistance. current and mmf AT produced by the shading bands and therefore the values of lag angle decreases. This results in greater values for induced emf. Light Load or Friction Compensation: Despite every care taken in the design of both the jeweled-pivot bearing. which acts in the direction of rotation and which is nearly as possible equal in magnitude to the friction torque. the rotation being thus limited to a maximum of half a revolution. In some cases a small piece of iron is attached to the edge of the disc. The magnetic shunt approaches saturation and so its permeability decreases at overloads. The force of attraction exerted by the brake magnet on the iron piece is sufficient to prevent creeping of disc. CREEP: In some meters a slow but continuous rotation is obtained even when there is no current flowing through the current coil and only pressure coil is energized. The other causes for creeping are excessive voltage across the potential coil. If the friction compensating device is adjusted to give a driving torque to compensate for starting friction which is bigger than the running friction. In order to prevent this creeping two diametrically opposite holes are drilled in the disc. there is a tendency for the disc to run even when there is no current through the current coils because the friction compensation torque is independent of the load current as the compensating device is voltage actuated. The resistance of the lag coil is so adjusted that angle becomes equal to 90. This is usually obtained by means of a small shading loop situated between the centre pole of the shunt magnet and the disc and slightly the one side of the centre-line of the pole. vibrations. Overload Compensation Its customary to add an overload compensating device. which forms the lower bearing for the spindle. The resistance of this circuit is altered to adjust the lag angles of flux. This is called creeping. practically independent of the load on the meter. so that a larger portion of the flux appears in the disc air gap and contributes to driving torque. Thus at large currents the magnetic shunt diverts less of series magnet flux. The major cause for creeping is over-compensation for friction. it is therefore necessary to arrange for small torque. and of the simple sleeve pin-type bearing at the top of the spindle. the disc will come to rest with one of the holes under the edge of a pole of the shunt magnet. In order to ensure accurate registration at low loads. This usually takes the form of a magnetic shunt for the series magnet core.The arrangements for adjusting the mmf of the lag coil are: 1. As the shading bands are moved up the limb. copper shading bands L are placed around the central limb of shunt magnet instead of a lag coil with adjustable resistance. The adjustment can be done by moving the shading bands along the axis of the limb. they embrace more flux. Shading Bands: In this. 2. friction errors are liable to be serious particularly at light loads.

Temperature Compensation An increase in temperature is accompanied by a rise in resistance of all copper and alluminium parts and results in: 1 A small decrease in the potential coil flux and a reduction in angle of lag between V and flux. The shunt magnet flux produces a dynamically induced emf in the disc which in turn results in a self-braking torque which is proportional to square of the supply voltage. Incorrect magnitude of fluxes: This maybe due to abnormal values of current or voltage. 2. Preliminary Light Load Adjustment: The disc is so positioned that the holes are not 12 . energy meters must be compensated for this variation. This maybe due to improper lag adjustments. Changes in strength of brake magnet 2. Incorrect phase angles : There may not be proper relationship between the various phasors. 3. 2 A decrease in torques produced by all shading bands 3 An increase in the resistance of the eddy current paths 4 A decrease in the angle of lag of the eddy currents ERRORS IN SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METERS The errors caused by the driving system are: 1. 2. The sequences of these adjustments are: 1. The errors caused by the Braking system are: 1. The relationship between shunt magnet flux and the supply voltage is not linear owing to saturation in iron parts. abnormal frequencies. Change in resistance with temperature etc. Abnormal friction of moving parts ADJUSTMENT IN SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METERS Some adjustments are carried out in energy meters so that they read correctly and their errors are within allowable limits. The shunt magnet flux maybe in error due to changes in resistance of coil or due to abnormal frequencies. a driving toque is produced which makes the meter creep. Self braking effect of series magnet flux 4. Lack of Symmetry in magnetic circuit : In case the magnetic circuit is not symmetrical. Changes in disc resistance 3. Voltage variations cause errors owing to two reasons: 1. Therefore.Voltage Compensation A certain amount of variation is permitted in the declared voltage of supply.

Using the value of Kh. The lag device is adjusted till the meter runs at correct speed. adjacent pointers generally rotate in opposite directions due to the gearing mechanism. The electricity company will normally require a visit by a company representative at least annually in order to verify customer-supplied readings and to make a basic safety check of the meter.2 is commonly seen. and one revolution took place in 14.f. This method can be used to determine the power consumption of household devices by switching them on one by one. The register is a series of dials which record the amount of energy used.5 p. Full Load Unit Factor Adjustment: The pressure coil is connected across the rated supply voltage and rated full load current at unity power factor is passed through the current coils. as above. Creep Adjustment READING ELECTROMECHANICAL METERS The aluminum disc is supported by a spindle which has a worm gear which drives the register. 5. post or over the internet.f. lagging.2. the power is 1800 watts. 13 . 4. the reading may be supplied to the power company by telephone. if Kh = 7. one can determine their power consumption at any given time by timing the disc with a stopwatch. then the power in watts is P = 3600. 3. The amount of energy represented by one revolution of the disc is denoted by the symbol Kh which is given in units of watt-hours per revolution.2. The dials may be of the cyclometer type. Rated voltage is applied to the potential coil with no current through the current coil.4 seconds. Lag Adjustment (Low Power factor adjustment): The pressure coil is connected across rated supply voltage and rated full load current is passed through the current coil at 0.5 p. The performance is rechecked at 0. It should be noted that with the dial pointer type. Most domestic electricity meters must be read manually. an odometer-like display that is easy to read where for each dial a single digit is shown through a window in the face of the meter. The value 7. lagging. The light load device is adjusted until the disc just fails to start. Kh T For example. underneath the electromagnets. whether by a representative of the power company or by the customer. Where the customer reads the meter. or of the pointer type where a pointer indicates each digit. If the time in seconds taken by the disc to complete one revolution is t.


It is estimated that millions of dollars are lost due to the tampering of these meters. The advantages are: • Better reliability • Better accuracy • Ease of calibration • Anti-tampering protection • Automated meter reading • Security • Advanced billing Of particular importance to the utility company is the tampering of meters. The metering utilities that can be replaced are gas. water and electricity.INTRODUCTION Electronic meters compared to traditional mechanical solutions in use offer several additional advantages to the utility market. 15 . Among the tampering are temporary meter disconnect for a period of time before the readings are taken. the use of permanent magnets to saturate current transformers and insertion of mechanical devices to slow down the mechanical turning of the disc.

In addition. semiconductor vendors with mixed-signal and data conversion expertise have been developing ICs for electronic energy metering applications. power line or even infrared communications link. running the mechanical meter with its continuously spinning dial may require hundreds of milliamps. Moreover. A single hardware design may be customized for different customers and markets through changes in software. an electronic design can protect against meter tampering and theft of service. mechanical-meter replacements to advanced function all solid-state designs. producing big power savings for the utility. electronic meters pave the way for “sub metering” of smaller operating units (for example. so utilities can bill customers for energy based on time of usage. metering each apartment rather than just the building). But with an electronic implementation. In varying degrees. IC Development: Since the late 1990s. Thanks to these continually evolving metering ICs. For example. Another consideration is the demand for mechanical-meter replacements that are as inexpensive as possible. these components have integrated the energy measurement.Electronic energy meters are replacing traditional electromechanical meters in many residential. it is possible to reduce that error to less than 0. calculation and communication functions required to build electronic energy meters ranging from simple function. the error in the basic energy usage measurement is on the order of 1%. Improved accuracy and lower power consumption are other benefits of electronic metering.1%. That power consumption can be reduced to a couple milliamps in an electronic energy meter. It also can measure and record energy usage at different times of the day.and multi-chip meter designs are helping meter manufacturers and their customers realize these benefits. commercial and industrial applications because of the versatility and lowcost afforded by electronic meter designs. With a mechanical meter. Electronic meter designs also change the economics of manufacturing energy meters. the low cost of the electronic meter is its main attraction. whereby energy metering data is transmitted to the utility over an RF. calibrating the finished meter at the factory is much easier with an electronic meter design. meter builders can implement many features that were impractical with the older mechanical designs. In parts of the developing world where many new customers are being connected to the grid. 16 . An electronic energy meter also can enable automatic meter reading (AMR). Single. Furthermore.

so metering ICs target different applications. Another way to segment the energy metering ICs is according to the desired level of meter functionality. Consequently. which. commercial or industrial applications. 17 . As the metering ICs evolve. is affecting the types of meters that are being built. which is reflected in the energy measurement linearity of the new ICs. One way to differentiate these chips is by the number of phases that must be measured. in turn. there is also a trend to higher accuracy.As in most areas of silicon development. so that newer ICs offer more functionality and/or less cost. The energy metering market is far from monolithic. Within these categories. while others are crafted for multiphase (or poly-phase) applications. the level of integration for these components grows with time. the chips also are distinguished according to whether they target residential. Some ICs target single-phase applications. the cost of electronic metering is coming down.

18 .

Both of these vary with temperature as well. The largest source of long-term errors in the meter is drift in the preamp. samplers and quantisers followed by an ADC section to yield the digitised equivalents of all the inputs.e. This also has the responsibility of communication using various protocols and interface with other addon modules connected as slaves to it. These inputs are then processed using a Digital Signal Processor to calculate the various metering parameters such as powers. LCD display.CONSTRUCTION: As in the block diagram. 19 . memory and analog to digital converters. followed by the precision of the voltage reference. a microcontroller). LCD controller. The processing and communication section has the responsibility of calculating the various derived quantities from the digital values generated by the metering engine. On a modern meter most if not all of this will be implemented inside the microprocessor. a metering engine. RTC and other add-on modules are attached as slaves to the processing and communication section for various input/output functions. such as the Real Time Clock (RTC). energies etc. Characterizing and compensating for these is a major part of meter design. The metering engine is given the voltage and current inputs and has a voltage reference. communication ports/modules and so on. and other add-on modules such as RTC. A processing and communication engine (i. temperature sensor. and vary wildly because most meters are outdoors. the meter has a power supply.

product can be readily determined by processing of this information. 20 . Conveniently. the total energy passing through an alternating electrical supply circuit comprises a clock signal generator for generating timing signals at a frequency which is a multiple of the alternating supply frequency. then if the waveforms were sinusoidal. Such an arrangement may be used with a three phase supply in which case the three phase voltages and phase currents are separately sampled or it may be used with a single phase supply in which case only a single voltage and current has to be sampled. the power consumption is VI cos φ.s. The digital data processing means. The r. effects the required computations from the sampled values. If a single phase supply is considered with the circuit carrying a current I at a voltage V and with a phase lag (or phase lead) between the current and voltage of φ.m. pulse sampling means controlled by said clock signal generator and arranged to sample simultaneously the magnitude of the voltage on and the current in said supply circuit at a predetermined time instant or instants in each cycle and digital data processing means arranged to process the sampled data to determine energy consumption during successive predetermined periods of time and to integrate the successive determinations of energy consumption. which is typically a microprocessor system. It may be preferred to average successive determinations of V and of I cos φ separately over a number of cycles of the alternating supply frequency. from voltage and current signals. the timing signals being synchronized in phase with the incoming supply frequency. Preferably the measurement is made at the peak of the voltage waveform.WORKING: Kilowatt-hour meter for determining. so as to determine the instantaneous peak value of V and of I cos φ. this can be measured by pulse sampling during the peak of one of the waveforms.

the integrated output from the clock signal generator may be periodically updated over the data link. counted in a digital counter to provide clock time. If a data link is provided. The output from the clock signal generator may be integrated. It will be understood that such periodic updating is required to correct the clock in the event of any interruption of the supply.g. Such a clock may be used. for effecting changes in the data processing related to absolute time. for example. 21 . for example. the aforementioned clock signal generator may be utilized to provide clock timing for time-controlled operations. before determining the product and hence the energy consumption during this period. the customer's data processing means may compute monetary charges. e. e. e.g.g. to ensure correct clock time. variation of charging rates in accordance with time.typically a few hundred cycles.



Impulse Voltage Test 2. Test on Limits of Error 2. Test of Meter Constant 4. Test of Influence of Heating 5. Test of Influence of Immunity to Earth Fault 24 . Interpretation of Test Results 3. Test of Repeatability of Error 8. AC Voltage Test 3. Test of No Load 6. Insulation Test B) TEST OF ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS 1. Test of Starting Condition 5. TEST OF POWER CONSUMPTION 2. Test of Influence of Supply Heating 4. Test of Influence Quantities c)TEST OF ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. Test of Influence of Supply Voltage 3.A) TEST OF INSULATION PROPERTIES 1. Test of Ambient Temperature Influence 7.


Protection against Penetration of dust and water MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS 26 .iv.

a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and. Unlike a fuse. which operates once and then has to be replaced.MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER MCB A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. to immediately discontinue electrical flow. by interrupting continuity. from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Its purpose was to protect lighting circuit wiring from accidental short-circuits and overloads. although his commercial power distribution system used fuses. HISTORY: An early form of circuit breaker was described by Edison in an 1879 patent application. 27 .

OPERATION: All circuit breakers have common features in their operation. although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion due to interrupting the arc. and 28 . although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers. Mechanical circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts are worn. and electric motors to restore energy to the springs. and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. cooled. silver alloys. some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts. larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism. and other materials. in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. an arc is generated. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys. contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit. current rating and type of the circuit breaker. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated. although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating. Once a fault is detected. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery. This arc must be contained. and an internal control power source. but power circuit breakers and highvoltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. protection relays. When a current is interrupted.

the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit. MOUNTING ARRANGEMENT: MCB's can be installed on Standard (35 mm) DIN Bars by a simple snap action. only to explode when reset. MECHANICAL INTERLOCKING OF MULTIPLE MCB's : The tripping mechanism of all multiple MCB's is connected internally. It helps to low heat generation: quick arc removal and thereby long life. Short Circuit Current: A circuit breaker must incorporate various features to divide and extinguish the arc. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: • Lengthening of the arc • Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) • Division into partial arcs • Zero point quenching • Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits Finally. In a worst-case scenario the breaker may successfully interrupt the fault. Application of a breaker in a circuit with a prospective short-circuit current higher than the breaker's interrupting capacity rating may result in failure of the breaker to safely interrupt a fault. insulating gas. MCB.extinguished in a controlled way. or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. Different circuit breakers use vacuum. thus preventing single phase. 29 . once the fault condition has been cleared. such as low contact resistance reduces voltage drop and reduction in power loss. air. This ensures simultaneous tripping of all poles even if the fault occurs in any one of the phases. so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. The MCB mounting is easy tube snapped on and can be removed easily from DIN Bar.The maximum short-circuit current that a breaker can interrupt is determined by testing.

GLS lamps . The magnetic tripping of B types MCB starts. Geysers and general electrical lighting systems.Technical Features : To suit typical circuit and market requirements MCB's are manufactured in two different categories. C Type (G Series): are designed to protect circuits with inductive loads like motor and generator etc the magnetic tripping commences above 5 times the rated current 30 . above 4 times of the rated current. B Type (L Series) : This series is specially suitable for protection of equipment like Ovens.


which produces a lower starting current than delta. where the windings are connected from phases of the supply to the neutral. A star-delta starter initially connects the motor in wye. which may be a serious issue with pumps or any devices with significant breakaway torque Increased complexity. then switches to delta when the motor has reached a set speed. where the windings are connected between phases of the supply. Delta (sometimes mesh in Europe). A delta connection results in a higher voltage to the windings than a wye connection (the voltage is multiplied by). as more contactors and some sort of speed switch or timers are needed Two shocks to the motor (one for the initial start and another when the motor switches from wye to delta) 32 . Disadvantages of this method over DOL starting are: • • • Lower starting torque.STAR-DELTA MOTOR STARTER An induction motor's windings can be connected to a 3-phase AC line in two different ways: • • wye (star in Europe).

32A 20 .42A 3 Phase H. 50 33 .P.OIL IMMERSED FULLY AUTOMATIC (COMPACT MODEL) STARDELTA MOTOR STARTER: [3 TO 50 HP] TYPE: SFA C / SFAC[P] / SSAC 440 Volts Relay Range 4 .6.5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40.32A 30 . 45.32A 20 .21A 20 .5A 6 – 10A 6 – 10A 9 – 14A 13 . 5 7.


15A 12.0 .0/11 20. of oil req.0/15 25. 11.0/18.) 505 35 . in 6. For Starters (41 to 150 H.0 .P.5 Ltrs.10A 9.0 .5 15.P.BDX SA/FA BDX SA/FA BDX SA/FA BDX SA/FA 10.) 400 B 310 415 C 285 380 D 290 310 E 205 210 Qty.0 Ltrs.0 .25A OIL IMMERSED MANUAL STAR DELTA MOTOR STARTER: [10 TO 200 HP] TYPE: SSD / SSD (DX) / SSD (SDX) TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION A For Starters(upto 40 H.20A 15.0/7.6 6.


At that time. in the United States.CEILING FANS A ceiling fan is a device suspended from the ceiling of a room. HISTORY: The first ceiling fans appeared in the 1860s and 1870s. 37 . which employs hubmounted rotating paddles to circulate air in order to move air.

Instead. which is experienced as a cooling effect. Rotor. or on the side of the motor. By World War I. when the fan's direction of rotation is set so that air is blown downward. thereby making more efficient use of their motors. this change allowed them to circulate more air. Besides making fans quieter. In summer. Older flywheels may become brittle and break. called blade irons. most ceiling fans were being manufactured with four blades instead of the original two. The flywheel inner ring is locked to the shaft by a lock-screw. the breeze created by a ceiling fan speeds the evaporation of sweat on human skin.for heating or cooling. to drive a system of belts which would turn the blades of two-blade fan units. a common cause of fan failure. MDF. a stream of running water was used. which connect the blades to the motor. alternative to blade irons  38 . In winter. which mount under. Flywheel. buildings in colder climates are usually heated. in conjunction with a turbine. Air naturally stratifies — that is. usually made of wood. and the blade irons to the outer ring by bolts that feed into tapped metal inserts. or plastic. metal. Metal arms. The electrically-powered ceiling fan was invented in 1882 by Philip Diehl. for reversing the direction in which the blades rotate. on top of. Most fans have a mechanism. PARTS OF A CEILING FAN:     An electric motor One to six paddles (called "blades"). commonly an electrical switch. Replacing the flywheel requires disconnecting wiring and removing the switch housing to gain access to the shaft lock-screw. a metal or tough rubber double-torus which is attached to the motor shaft. USES: Most ceiling fans can be used in two different ways . warmer air rises to the ceiling while cooler air sinks to the floor.they were not powered by any form of electric motor. and to which the blade irons may be attached.

This style of fan is equipped with a metal-bead chain or cloth cord which. These fans typically have three speeds (high. Variable-speed control: During the 1970s and 1980s. and the era in which it was made. fans were often produced with a variable-speed control. 3. when pulled. Wall-mounted control: Some fans have their control(s) mounted the wall instead of on the fans themselves. and low). 2. medium. when turned in either direction. This was a dial mounted on the fan which. continuously varied the speed at which the blades rotated —similar to a dimmer switch for a light fixture. 39 . While some models do employ this as their sole form of operation. Operating methods include: 1. such controls and are usually proprietary and/or specialized switches.OPERATION OF A CEILING FAN: The way in which a fan is operated depends on its manufacturer. it is more common for a person to purchase an after-market kit and install it on an existing fan. Wireless remote control: In recent years. which interprets and acts on the signals. cycles the fan through the operational speed(s) and then back to off. remote controls have become an affordable option for controlling ceiling fans. style. Pull-cord control: This is the most common method of operation for household fans. The hand-held remote transmits radio frequency or infrared signals to a receiver unit installed in the fan.


MONOBLOCK PUMPS A pump is a device used to move fluids. Liquid and slurry pumps can lose prime and this will require the pump to be primed by adding liquid to the pump and inlet pipes to get the pump started. and from high volume to low volume. liquids or slurries. The clearances and displacement ratios in pumps used for liquids and other more viscus fluids cannot displace the air due to its lower density. air conditioning systems. pumps have a plethora of shapes and sizes: from very large to very small. water supply. Today. refrigeration (usually called a compressor). 41 . Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. gasoline supply. from high pressure to low pressure. Loss of "prime" is usually due to ingestion of air into the pump. sewage movement. Their names describe the method for moving a fluid. chemical movement. velocity. Because of the wide variety of applications. Pumps fall into five major groups: direct lift. flood control. the pump is used for irrigation. etc. buoyancy and gravity pumps. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure. displacement. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Early applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. APPLICATIONS: Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. they only displace fluid. such as gases. causing a flow. from handling gas to handling liquid. marine services.

Various aspects of pumping energy usage are covered in "Energy Efficiency in Pumping". Energy is consumed by the pump.Pumping Power: The power added to the fluid flow by the pump (Po). H is equivalent to the pressure head added by the pump when the suction and discharge pipes are of the same diameter. can be calculated using this spread sheet. H. Power needed to pump a given flow against a given head and pipe size. Q Where: Po is the output power of the pump (W) ρ is the fluid density (kg/m3) g is the gravitational constant (9. is defined using SI units by: Po = ρ. and also lost in the pipework. 42 .746). The power required to drive the pump is determined by dividing the output power by the pump efficiency. g.81 m/s2) H is the energy Head added to the flow (m) Q is the flow rate (m3/s) Power is more commonly expressed as kW (103 W) or horsepower (multiply kW by 0.

Monoblock Pumps. I did a deep study about the various methods of theft of electricity and also the techniques used to control such theft. Besides this. There are free tools that help calculate head needed and show pump curves including their Best Efficiency Points (BEP). I got well versed with various electrical devices and circuits.g. Thermodynamic pump testing is one method. the various latest trends in technology used for energy meters to get an accurate energy measurement. 43 . All in this entire visit has been really beneficial for me in gaining vital practical knowledge about various devices and circuits in the field of Electrical and Electronics. Its value is not fixed for a given pump. Pump performance data such as this is usually supplied by the manufacturer before pump selection. Pump efficiencies tend to decline over time due to wear (e. I gained knowledge about various other products manufactured by the company like MCB’s.[14] Pump efficiency is an important aspect and pumps should be regularly tested. SUMMARY During this complete visit. Once the Energy meters were deeply studied. One important part of system design involves matching the pipeline head loss-flow characteristic with the appropriate pump or pumps which will operate at or close to the point of maximum efficiency. increasing tolerances and impellers reducing in size). For centrifugal pumps.Pump Efficiency: Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power imparted on the fluid by the pump in relation to the power supplied to drive the pump. the efficiency tends to increase with flow rate up to a point midway through the operating range (peak efficiency) and then declines as flow rates rise further. efficiency is a function of the discharge and therefore also operating head. Ceiling Fans and Motor Starters etc.

44 .

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