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SET _ 1
UNIT-I PART-A 1. Define Isotropic radiator. 2. Calculate the directivity of an Isotropic antenna. 3. Differentiate Radian & Steradian. 4. Define Gain & Beam width of an antenna. 5. Derive an expression for effective aperture area of antenna. 6. Calculate the maximum effective aperture area of antenna which is operating at a wavelength of 2 meters and has a directivity of 100. 7. Define Antenna Efficiency. 8. Write note on radiation pattern. 9. What is radiation intensity and explain in terms of poynting vector? 10. Explain directivity of an antenna. 11. Find out the radiation resistance of a ?/16 wire dipole in free space. 12. Define power gain and write down the relation between directive gain and power gain. 13. Define radiation resistance and write down the expression for it. 14. Differentiate antenna bandwidth and beam width. 15. Define beam solid angle and antenna beam efficiency. 16. An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72 Ohms, a loss resistance of 8 Ohms and a power gain of 12dB. Determine the antenna efficiency and its directivity. 17. Define Terminal impedance. 18. State reciprocity theorem and briefly explain it. 19. Calculate the radiation resistance of short dipole. 20. Calculate a maximum effective aperture of a half wave dipole. 21. Calculate the length of a half wave dipole antenna meant to have correct half wave length at 60 MHz. 22. Calculate the maximum effective aperture of a microwave antenna which has a directivity of 900. 23. Calculate the radiation resistance of an antenna which is drawing 15A current and radiating 5 KW. 24. Calculate the power being radiate by an antenna having a radiation resistance of 50 Ohms and is drawing a current of 8A. 25. Calculate the radiation resistance of an antenna which is radiating 1000W and drawing current of 5A. 26. How much current does an antenna draw when radiating 1000W and is having a radiation resistance of 300 Ohms. 27. Mention the radiation and Induction field component for a small current element. 28. Show the directivity of an electric current element 3/2. 29. Define poynting vector. 30. What is effectiveness ratio? 31. What is scattering loss aperture? 32. Define effective length of an antenna. PART - B 1. Explain the retarded vector potential in detail. 2. Derive an expression for the power radiated by the current element and calculate the radiation resistance. 3. Derive an expression for the far field component of a half wave dipole of an antenna. 4. a) Derive the total power radiated by half wave dipole. b) Show that the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is 80?2 (dl/?)2 Ohms. 5. Explain the reciprocity theorem in detail. 6. Derive an expression for the electric field and magnetic field due to a current element at a distance point in free space. 7. a) Derive an expression for the gain of half wave dipole.
9. At what distance in ?. What are the applications of loop antenna ? 2. What are the applications of Yagi – Uda antenna ? .Broad side array ii. What is primary radiation and secondary radiation as applicable to parabolic reflector ? 11. What is collinear array? 6. Direction of pattern minima ii. 7. What is pattern multiplication concept? 8.SPECIAL PURPOSE ANTENNAS PART-A 1. UNIT –II – Antenna Arrays PART . Give the reason for poor radiation of a loop antenna . Write short notes on various forms of arrays i. What is a folded dipole ? What are its important properties ? 6. How the secondary lobes are eliminated? 12. What is Broad side array and draw its radiation pattern? 4. What is End fire array and draw its radiation pattern? 5. Write a note on Binomial array. Distinguish between sectorial and pyramidal Horn antenna.Parasitic array 2. What is a Phased array? 14.periodic antenna. 3. 11. What is parasitic array? 7. Binomial arrays ii. What is tapering of array? 10. What is a uniform linear array? 3. Explain the array of N.b) Explain effective aperture area with its types in detail. What is a smart antenna? PART-B 1. What is Pascal’s triangle? 13. Explain the principle of Pattern multiplication. Why is flaring required in Horn antennas ? 10. 4. What is an array and mention the various forms of antenna arrays? 2.End fire case i) Direction of pattern maxima ii.Collinear array iv.sources of equal amplitude and spacing. 9. Phased arrays UNIT-III .Broad side case i. Direction of pattern minima ii) Beam width of major lobe 6. 8. Explain the array of N.End fire array iii. What is a Yagi – Uda array ? 8.A 1.sources of equal amplitude and spacing. is the radiation component of magnetic field twice the inductance component ? At what distance is it 100 times. Direction of pattern maxima ii. Write short notes on i. Beam width of major lobe 5. What is the reason for using Yagi antenna for TV broadcast reception ? 12. 4. State Babinet’s principle. What are the advantages of folded dipole ? 5. Draw the structure of Log. List some of the advantages of pattern multiplication. Derive the expression for the far field pattern of an array of 2 – isotropic point sources i) Equal amplitude and phase ii) Equal amplitude and opposite phase iii) Unequal amplitude and any phase 3.
6. 12. Explain in detail the design aspects of Microstip antenna. 13. What are the various modes of Propagation? 2. Write short notes on Normal E region 11. What are the different modes of operation that can be used in Helical antenna ? 29. Why does the normal mode of operation is not preferred in Helical antenna ? 31. (b) With a suitable diagram explain the construction and principle of operation of a log – periodic antenna. How is a high frequency dipole antenna fed and matched with driving source ? 19. Explain the special features of various types of Horn antennas and frequency independent antennas. 2. Define pitch angle. Write short notes on Sporadic E region . (a) Explain the principle of operation and applications of folded dipoles. Explain the principle of operation and applications of loop antenna. Explain in detail the working principle of Helical antenna in (a) Normal mode (b) Axial mode 15. 7. Mention the antennas used in medium frequency range . What do you mean by Troposphere Scatter Propagation 7. UNIT-IV – Radio Wave Propagation PART-A 1. What is the principle of microwave antenna ? 26. Write detailed notes on (a) Horn antennas (b) Frequency independent antennas. What do you mean by Space Wave Propagation 6. What do you mean by Sky Wave Propagation 5. Explain the principle of operation and applications of loop antenna. How does a parabolic reflector provide very high gain ? 15. 24. Obtain the expression for the emf due to loop antenna and explain its use as a Direction finder. 9.13. discuss the construction and operation of a Yagi antenna. What are Traveling wave antennas ? 21. Distinguish between standing wave antenna and TWA ? 23. What are the parameters to be considered in the design of an helical antenna ? 28. 3. List the applications of Helical antenna. With a suitable diagram.B 1. Sketch the diagrams of various types of Horn antennas. What is cheese feed as applicable to parabolic reflectors ? 17. 32. Derive an expression for the radiated field due to a TWA. What is a parasitic element ? How does it act when length is greater than and smaller than ? /2? 16. How does a log periodic antenna provide a large bandwidth of operation? 11. Write short notes on Structure of Ionosphere layers 9. What is Cassegrain feed mechanism ? PART . 30. What is meant by smart antenna ? 25. Explain the principle of traveling wave radiator. how does the helical antenna behave ? 27. Distinguish between resonant antenna and TWA ? 22. Write detailed notes on (a) Parabolic reflectors (b) Log Periodic antennas 8. Write short notes on Structure of Troposphere 8. 5. Draw the structure of an Helical antenna with its parameters. Obtain the expression for the field produced by TWA and compare its radiation with resonant antenna. 20. Define Spill over. 18. 4. What is Duct Propagation 3. What do you mean by ground Wave Propagation 4. Write short notes on D region 10. Write short notes on (a) Slot radiators (b) Loop antennas 10. What are parasitic elements and where are they used ? 14. 14. When a = 0o and a = 90o.
17. Define Virtual Height 17. Explain the various layers of Ionosphere 5. What is Magneto Ionic Splitting? 15. What do you understand by Multi hop Propagation? 25. 16. Explain the effect of Earth’s Magnetic Field on Radio wave Propagation 6. Define Skip Distance 19. Describe the Slotted line technique for Impedance measurement. Define Polarization measurement. Radiation efficiency and Transmission bandwidth of an antenna. 4. Define Fading and Mention its types 23. Describe how the radiation pattern and Radiation resistance of a given antenna can be measured experimentally. Define Power Gain. What are Whistlers 24. UNIT V . Determine the gain and beam width for a parabolic antenna with 10M-diameter dish and dipole feed at 10GHz. PART-B 1. Define VSWR. 9. Explain briefly the various modes of Propagation 2. Define Optimum Working Frequency(OWF) 20. 2. Define Pattern measurements. State some Ionospheric abnormalities 21. Define Gain of antenna. Explain Virtual Height and derive the Expression 7. . Define Radiation Resistance. PART B 1. Explain Ground Wave Propagation in detail 3. Explain (a) Skip Distance (b) Optimum Working Frequency 9. Define antenna Radiation Efficiency. 19. Explain Super Refraction. 11. Write short notes on F region 13. 13. Determine the Effective Earth’s Radius in Space Wave Propagation 11. Explain briefly about Ionospheric abnormalities 10. Explain the Structure of Atmosphere 4. Give the relation between Vertical and Oblique incidence transmission. 20. Describe the methods for measuring the gain and beam width of antenna. Define Beam width of antenna. 5. Define Radiation pattern measurements. 15.ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS PART A 1. Define Maximum Usable Frequency(MUF) 18. 18. 7. Define Oblique incidence measurement. Define Directivity. 4. 3. List the different methods used for measuring the Polarization. 3. Describe the methods for measuring the Power gain. Write the ranges for various layers of atmosphere.12. 8. Define Impedance measurements. What is Critical Frequency 14. What are the types of antenna measurements? 2. Define Gyro Frequency 16. Define Antenna Aperture Efficiency. Define Vertical Incidence measurement. 6. What is standing wave ratio method of impedance measurements? 10. Define Sun Spot Cycle 22. 14. Explain Maximum Usable Frequency and show how to Calculate MUF 8. 12. Define Transmission bandwidth of an antenna.
What is Retarded Current? 7. Derive the relation between oblique and vertical incidence transmission. Directivity and effective aperture of a half wave dipole? (10) 5. Write short notes on Vertical incidence measurement of the ionosphere. What is radiation resistance of a half wave dipole? 17. 6. Derive the fields radiated from a quarter wave monopole antenna? (8) 6. Write down the expression for magnetic vector Potential using three standard current distributions? 8. Derive the radian resistance. 10. Derive an expression to determine the Directivity of an antenna. Describe briefly about Polarization measurements.5. What is the effective aperture and directivity of a half wave dipole? 13. 9. What is magnetic vector Potential? 5. What is a capacitance hat? 10. What is the effective aperture and directivity of a Hertzian dipole antenna? 14. Write short notes on Oblique incidence measurement of the ionosphere. Write down the expression for radiated fields of a half wave dipole antenna? 12. Draw the radiation pattern of a horizontal dipole? 3. Define scalar Potential? 6. Compare electric scalar potential and magnetic vector potential? PART – B 1. Define retardation time? 16. Define a Hertzian dipole? 2. Derive the expression for power radiated and find the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole? (16) 4. Find the radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current distribution? (8) . What do you mean by induction field and radiation field? 4. What is quarter wave monopole? 11. Write down the expression for radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole? 15. Define top loading? 9. 7. Derive the expression for the radiated field from a short dipole? (16) 2. Derive an expression to determine Antenna efficiency and Antenna Aperture. 8. Starting from first principles obtain the expression for the power radiated by a half wave dipole? (16) 3. SET _ 2 RADIATION FIELDS OF WIRE ANTENNAS PART – A( 2 Marks) 1.
Directivity and effective aperture of a hertzian dipole? (10) UNIT II ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS AND ANTENNA ARRAYS PART – A( 2 Marks) 1. What is the relationship between effective aperture and directivity? 3. What is axial ratio of a helical antenna? 24. State reciprocity principle? 27. Define loop antenna? 23. Define a broadside array? 8. List out the applications helical antenna? 28. What is collecting aperture? 16. Define pitch angle? What happens when =0 and =90? 30. What are advantages of helical antenna? 25. Define Beam solid angle or beam area? 11. Define BWFN? 19. Define an isotropic antenna? 7. What are the disadvantages of loop antenna? 26. Define radiation pattern? 9. Define directivity? 13. Define radiation intensity? 6. Write down the expressions for minor lobe maxima and minima for both broadside and end fire array? 22.7. What is meant by broadside array and end fire array? 5. Differentiate broadside array and end fire array? 21. Give the expressions for the field components of a helical antenna? 29. Define antenna gain? 14. Define array factor? 2. Write down the expressions for BWFN for both broadside and end fire array? 20. Derive the radiation resistance. What are applications loop antennas? PART – B . Define effective aperture? 15. What are the two types of radiation pattern? 10. Write the principle of pattern multiplication? 4. Define HPBW? 17. Define beam efficiency? 12. Define FBR? 18.
What are the applications of rhombic antenna? 6. explain the operation of helical antenna? (16) 2. Obtain the expression for the field and the radiation pattern produced by a 2 element array of infinitesimal with distance of separation /2 and currents of unequal magnitude and phase shift 180 degree? (16) 3. What are the applications of log periodic antenna? 5.1 db. Derive the expression for far field components of a small loop antenna. What are the limitations of rhombic antenna? 11. Explain the various types of amplitude distributions in details? (16) UNIT III TRAVELING WAVE (WIDE BAND) ANTENNAS PART – A( 2 Marks) 1. Explain pattern multiplication? (8) 7. What do you meant by self impedance? 7. minima directions. What are traveling wave antenna? 2. Draw the structure of 3-elements yagi-uda antenna and give the dimensions and spacing between the elements in terms of wavelength? 4.1. What is the main advantage of traveling wave antenna? 10. Derive the maxima directions. and half power point direction for an array of two point sources with equal amplitude and opposite phase? (16) 11. Calculate the maximum effective aperture of a /2 antenna? (8) 10. (16) 4. What do you meant by mutual impedance? 8. With neat sketch. Derive the expression for electric field of a broadside array of n sources and also find the maximum direction minimum direction and half power point direction? (16) 5. What are the two types of rhombic antenna design? 12. Derive the expression for electric field of a end fire of n sources and also find the maximum direction minimum direction and half power point direction? (16) 8. Find main lobe maximum? (16) 6. Write short notes a radiation resistance? (8) 9. What is the type of radiation pattern produced when a wave travels in a wire? 3. Define traveling wave impedance? 9. Define rhombic antenna? . Design a 4 element broadside array of /2 spacing between elements the pattern is to be optimum with a side lobe level 19.
What are the advantages of stepped dielectric lens antenna? 13. of log periodic antenna? 14. spacing factor and frequency ratio. Explain the radiation from a travelling wave on a wire? (8) 2. What are the field components that are radiated from open end of a coaxial line? 12. What is Lunenburg lens? 15. What is Yagi-uda Antenna ?Explain the construction and operation of Yagi-uda Antenna . What is the difference between slot antenna and its complementary dipole antenna? 7. What are the different types of lens antenna? 9. What is a dielectric lens antenna? 10. Which antenna is complementary to the slot dipole? 4. Define lens antenna? 8. Explain the construction. Give the expressions for design ratio. State Huygens Principle? 2. How will you find the directivity of a large rectangular broadside array? 5. What are the drawbacks of lens antenna? 11. Mention the uses of lens antenna? . What is LPDA? 17. What is biconical antenna? 14. What are the applications of log periodic antenna? PART – B 1. Discuss in details about (a) Self impedance (b) Mutual impedance? (8) UNIT IV APERTURE AND LENS ANTENNAS PART – A( 2 Marks) 1.13. What are the three different regions in log periodic antenna and how they are differentiated? 15. Explain the geometry of a log periodic antenna? Give the design equations and uses of log periodic antenna? (16) 5. What is the relationship between the terminal impedance of slot and dipole antenna? 6. operation and design for a rhombic antenna? (16) 4.Also explain its general characteristics? (16) 3. What is frequency independent antenna? 16. What are the advantages of lens antenna? 16. What is Slot Antenna? 3.
What are the different types of horn antennas? 25. Bring out the expressions for voltage across the feed points of the biconical antenna and current flowing through the surface of the cone? 20. Explain the radiation from a rectangular aperture? (16) 3. Define the characteristic impedance of biconical antenna? 19.17. Derive the field components radiated from a thin slot antenna in an infinite cyclinder ? (10) 9. Define critical frequency of an ionized layer of ionosphere? 6. What do you meant by pyramidal horn? 22. Derive the various field components radiated from circular aperture and also find beamwidth and effective area ? (12) 8. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves? 7. Explain the radiation from the open end of a coaxial cable? (8) UNIT V WAVE PROPAGATION PART – A ( 2 Marks) 1. Define ground wave? 8. What is back lobe radiation? 23. Define Gyro frequency? 2. What are the effects of earth curvature on tropospheric propagation ? 5. What is multihop Propagation? 3. What are the components present in space wave? . Describe the parabolic reflector used at micro frequencies? (16) 5. What are the various feeds used in reflectors? 24. What are secondary antennas? Give examples? PART – B 1. Explain the different types of lens antenna? (10) 2. Discuss about spherical waves and biconical antenna? (16) 7. What do you meant by sect oral horn? 21. Define refractive index of lens antenna? 26. Show the relationship between dipole and slot impedances? (8) 10. Write short notes on luneberg lens? (16) 6. How spherical waves are generated? 4. Explain the radiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (or) explain the radiation from a Huygen’s source ? (16) 4. How spherical waves are generated? 18.
Explain the advantages of tropospheric wave propagation and sky wave propagation? (8) 8. Define duct Propagation? 23. Define Fading? 10. Explain the ground wave propagation? (8) 4. Deduce an expression for the critical frequency of an ionized region in terms of its maximum ionization density? (10) 9. What are height ranges of different regions in the ionosphere? 20. Explain in details. Define critical frequency? 15. Describe the troposphere and explain how ducts can be used for microwave propagation? (8) 6. Define MUF? 17. How will you find the range of space wave propagation or line of sight distances? 25. State secant law? 18. What is sporadic E layer in ionosphere? PART – B 1. How can minimize Fading? 13. What is skip distance? 24. Define space wave? 19. Explain in details about ionosphere? (8) 2. Discuss the effects of earth’s magnetic field on ionosphere radio wave propagation? (10) 5. What are the various types diversity reception? 14.9. Explain space wave propagation and sky wave propagation? (16) 3. Write down the expression for the refractive index? 21. What is OWF or OTF? 22. Derive an expression for the refractive index of the ionosphere in terms of the electron number density and frequency ? (10) . the diversity reception methods? (8) 7. What is virtual height? 16. Define ionosphere? 11. Define Troposphere? 12.
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