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04/14/2012

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# EE 2400

The Passive Sign Convention And Conservation of Power

Lloyd A. “Pete” Morley The University of Alabama 2005 .This powerpoint presentation was prepared by Dr.

.V ment b If the reference direction of the current (i.side of the voltage reference. the direction the arrow is pointing) is from the + side of the voltage reference through the element to the .e.The Passive Sign Convention Consider the following circuit: a + I ele. then … .

. This is called the passive sign convention.a + I ele.V ment b P=VI and a value of P > 0 signifies that power is being absorbed by the element while a value of P < 0 signifies that power is being provided by the element.

.Proving the Passive Sign Convention a + I ele.V ment b Let’s prove and understand this concept by looking at each of the four possible cases for V and I and considering conservation of energy within the circuit.

The charge thus loses energy as it travels from a to b through the element. and this energy (or power) must be absorbed by the element. . charge at point a has a higher level of energy than charge at point b. Since V is positive.V ment b a + Case 1: V > 0 and I > 0 The physics: Since I is positive. charge moves from point a through the element to point b.Proving the Passive Sign Convention (cont.) I ele.

) I ele. The charge thus gains energy as it travels from b to a through the element. . charge moves from point b through the element to point a.Proving the Passive Sign Convention (cont. charge at point a has a higher level of energy than charge at point b. Since V is positive.V ment b a + Case 2: V > 0 and I < 0 The physics: Since I is negative. and this energy (or power) must be provided by the element.

) i(t) ele.v(t) ment b a + Case 3: V < 0 and I > 0 Case 4: V < 0 and I < 0 You work these two cases right now on your own paper.Proving the Passive Sign Convention (cont. .

Conservation of Power For complete circuits. circuit exhibits conservation of energy and conservation of power) Power generated = Power absorbed .. the sum of all powers generated and absorbed is zero (i.e.

charge at point b has a higher level of energy than charge at point a.) I ele. charge moves from point a through the element to point b.Proving the Passive Sign Convention (cont. The charge thus gains energy as it travels from a to b through the element. and this energy (or power) must be provided by the element. .V ment b a + Case 3: V < 0 and I > 0 The physics: Since I is positive. Since V is negative.

charge moves from point b through the element to point a.Proving the Passive Sign Convention (cont. . and this energy (or power) must be absorbed by the element. Since V is negative.) I ele. The charge thus loses energy as it travels from b to a through the element.V ment b a + Case 4: V < 0 and I < 0 The physics: Since I is negative. charge at point b has a higher level of energy than charge at point a.

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