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All rights reserved. ISSN 1069-6679 / 2009 $9.50 + 0.00. DOI 10.2753/MTP1069-6679170104
The future viability of malls has been a topic of discussion within the retail and marketing literature during the past few years. Many researchers have noted that traditional malls have lost momentum and may be falling out of favor with consumers (Haytko and Baker 2004; Wakefi eld and Baker 1998). Perhaps as a result of this change in consumer attitudes and behavior, malls are metamorphosing (Chebat and Morrin 2007), with outlet malls now accounting for over 30 percent of all malls (Reynolds, Ganesh, and Luckett 2002). Other types of malls, including the part enclosed, part open-air hybrid malls, have shown marginal success levels in their infancy (Mander 2001). The future viability of malls may rest on how malls are perceived by emerging generations of adult shoppers. Industry observers have noted that baby boomers as a generation have not had the impact on shopping centers that was expected of them. Boomers have entered their peak earning years, but instead of spending money on shopping, many are instead paying for higher than anticipated college tuitions, saving for retirement, and paying taxes (Hazel 2002). In addition to the fi nancial pressures on baby boomers, several analysts have also noted that boomer‘s attitudes toward malls as places to shop are not overwhelmingly positive. Malls were initially conceived as places of convenience where multitudes of products could be brought together to foster one-stop shopping, but time-crunched baby boomers may see these large and cumbersome places as a detriment. Instead they seem to be fl ocking to category killers, discount stores, warehouse clubs, superstores, factory-outlet malls, online retail options, television, and catalogs (Reynolds, Ganesh, and Luckett 2002). As importantly, many adult consumers indicate that they just do not enjoy the experience of going to the mall (Cavanaugh 1996). Many adolescent consumers, on the other hand, have embraced the mall experience. Setlow (2001) notes that going to the mall is a high priority for teens and that shopping for clothes is their top activity. Many malls, in fact, have begun to recognize the dollar potential associated with this generational cohort group and have developed regions in the mall that are specifi cally designed for adolescent shoppers (McCartney 2002). The central purposes of this paper are to explore whether adolescent consumers do in fact have different attitudes and perceptions of malls than current adults, and to determine if specifi c motivations to consume infl uence these mall attitudes and perceptions. Data gathered from mothers and daughters were examined to investigate how these consumers feel about specifi c dimensions of malls, and their motivations to consume.
SHOPPING MALL PERCEPTIONS
Marketing academics have noticed that consumption excursions to shopping malls are often motivated by the anticipation of positive social experiences (Michon et al.
1989). The research in this area also appears to indicate that the perception of malls and the behavior of mall shoppers changed signifi cantly during the 1990s. craig.edu. Bloch. 50 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice Feinberg et al. One of the most important implications associated with these studies is that they suggest that malls do not have universal appeal and that different segments of consumers may be responding to different aspects of a mall. The data included information about the mothers‘ and daughters‘ perceptions of mall environmental variables. They noted that the biological term habitat could be used to describe the space encompassed by a mall. University of Memphis). Moreover. Martin (Ph. These authors used a fi eld study to examine adult shoppers‘ perceptions of certain noneconomic factors when they studied the effects that tenant variety. and Dawson (1994) conducted a study focusing on the social environment of a mall. Gordon Ford College of Business. KY. Their fi ndings showed that shoppers‘ excitement levels infl uenced their response to the mall. (1989) argued that consumers have social and psychological motives for shopping that go beyond acquiring goods and that the success of malls often hinges on their ability to foster social interaction. and to determine if specifi c motivations to consume infl uence these mall attitudes and perceptions. However. and mall involvement had on shoppers‘ excitement and desire to stay in a mall. In a study that compares mall shoppers from 1993 and 1999. and that they differ signifi cantly in terms of their perceptions of critical mall environmental variables.martin@wku.D. This paper would not have been possible without the assistance and guidance of the late Lou Turley.. CONSUMPTION MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTIONS OF MALLS: A COMPARISON OF MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS Craig A.2007). Martin The central purposes of this paper are to explore whether adolescent consumers have different attitudes and perceptions of malls than adults. Wakefi eld and Baker (1998) have also raised the issue about whether perceptions of malls were infl uenced by the age of the shopper. Nicholls et al. Craig A. they also suggested that age is a moderating factor in a consumer‘s response to a mall‘s environment. Feinberg and Meoli (1991) suggested that in the modern consumer culture. malls are the center of the universe. They note that as mall stores‘ prices and convenience become more standardized. Bonnin‘s (2006) appropriationbased framework suggests that the pleasurable components of a store‘s atmosphere can be numerous. Ridgway. Their research suggested that within this context. Data were gathered from 110 dyadic pairs of mothers and daughters. Bowling Green. His contribution is much appreciated. a location such as a mall may be the source of pleasurable consumption by those consumers who visit them. The results indicate that mothers and daughters are motivated to consume by different factors. mall environment. Associate Professor of Marketing. Lou provided valuable insight in the preparation of this paper before his untimely death. (2002) reported that shoppers in 1999 reported purchasing . and their motivations to consume at shopping malls. noneconomic factors such as a mall‘s social environment become more important (Feinberg et al. Western Kentucky University.
CONSUMPTION EXPERIENCES Research indicates that shopping and the experiences associated with this activity increasingly have the potential to signifi cantly infl uence a young consumer‘s consumption behaviors and attitudes.more nonfood and beverage merchandise. in fact. visited malls less frequently. As such. stayed longer when they came. Children have listed ―going shopping‖ as their second favorite after-school activity.‖ A more recent research study noted that a variety of factors infl uence the mall shopping experiences of teenage females. Taylor and Cosenza (2002) note that a cohort group of shoppers that appears to have very favorable attitudes toward malls and. Last. the amount of time spent in malls on an average shopping excursion. with watching television being fi rst (Schulman and Clancy 1992). Magi. love to shop in them are teenage females. and indicated that they were less infl uenced by the atmosphere of the mall than the shoppers in 1993. An important outcome of the Haytko and Baker (2004) study is that a teenage female‘s mall perceptions and experiences are likely to be highly infl uenced by the individual(s) present on each shopping experience. The interviews suggest that a combination of individual shopping characteristics (education level and awareness of shopping trends). Multiple adolescent females noted that mall shopping with their mother was often an important factor as mothers were often the individuals paying for the purchases made by their teenage daughters. and mall perceptions (including but not limited to safety. Their results tend to indicate that consumers are going to malls less often but doing more meaningful shopping while there. Guiry. Understanding these possible differences is critical for mall executives who are responsible for attracting mall shoppers. while children as young as age 10 experience an average of 250 shopping expeditions annually (Dotson and Hyatt 1994). The results of this study also note that teenagers prefer malls to other outlets. The fi ndings from the Taylor and Cosenza (2002) study indicate that the excitement level generated by the mall is an important infl uence on later-aged teenage girls. situational infl uences (shopping companions and shopping motivations). and specifi c mall selection. and Lutz (2006) have shown that shopping enthusiasts. comfort. or those consumers who are committed to recreational shopping as a rewarding activity. Moreover. and atmosphere) are likely to infl uence a teenage female‘s mall experiences and mall shopping habits. as indicated by . and the authors label teenage females as consumers who are ―born to shop. Haytko and Baker (2004) utilize in-depth interviews with adolescent female shoppers to uncover factors that infl uence important outcome variables such as purchase intentions. are more likely to be younger consumers. Dotson and Hyatt (2005) have shown that the importance a child places on shopping. the overriding implication from the aforementioned studies is that there might be signifi cant differences in mall perceptions based on the age of the mall shopper.
and experiences that differ signifi cantly from those of older consumers. children are inclined to believe that they have a signifi cantly greater impact on consumption within a household as compared to parents‘ perceptions of the child‘s impact on household consumption (Foxman. adults are more likely to search for salient benefi ts or value perceptions in advertising (John 1999). consumption experiences of children or younger shoppers are often dissimilar or contradictory to those Winter 2009 51 of adults. Darden. especially when the comparisons are between children and their parents. Beatty and Talpade (1994) found evidence that mothers and daughters differ in terms of their dyadic perceptions of shopping infl uence as compared to the dyadic perceptions of shopping infl uence between fathers and sons. The overall implication drawn from the previous research studies is that younger consumers often have consumption perceptions. attitudes. research has suggested that information search differs as consumers age and gain greater shopping experience (Capon and Burke 1980). However.the child‘s level of enjoyment of the shopping experience. Research has also shown that children and their parents are likely to be infl uenced differently by advertising. such as the purchase of a . this type of behavior occurs when consumers have an explicit shopping goal to accomplish. Utilitarian behavior is often seen as task specifi c and rational (Sherry 1990). Initially. children are often likely to have varying perceptions of retail consumption experiences as compared to their parents. Moreover. the following section is devoted to developing hypotheses that will empirically examine the differences between a mother‘s perceptions of retail-based consumption characteristics and a daughter‘s perceptions of the same characteristics. is a major consumer socialization factor. and different attitudes toward retail environmental characteristics as cues in the shopping process. and Ekstrom 1989a. younger consumers are likely to spend less time during the overall information search process when making consumption decisions as compared to older or adult-aged consumers (Moschis and Moore 1979). In most instances. Moreover. Likewise. children and adults are likely to form different perceptions of how to appropriately shop for products. Therefore. Adolescents are more likely to rely on their peers and friends for their purchasing-related information than are older consumers (Moschis and Moore 1979. Conversely. Children often focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of advertising. 1989b). Tansuhaj. HYPOTHESES Previous research has indicated that two separate shopping values exist in the minds of consumers. Finally. and Griffi n (1994) established that consumption or shopping experiences could lead to both utilitarian rewards and hedonic rewards. Tootelian and Gaedeke 1992). As such. Babin. searching for information that can be utilized to select products based on image or perception.
the qualitative study completed by Haytko and Baker (2004) found that fi ve mall characteristics were important decision-making criteria for teenage females in choosing which malls would be visited. Moreover.specifi c product (Babin. Hypothesis 1: Adolescent daughters will exhibit a signifi cantly greater perception of mall (a) ambient factors. research has shown that later-aged female teens search for shopping venues that offer the possibility of excitement. Wakefi eld and Baker (1998) have developed multiple variables that defi ne mall environmental perceptions. (e) excitement levels. the money they spend at malls. Often hedonic rewards are obtained via recreational shopping experiences where no specifi ed product purchase was planned or made. Baker and Haytko (2000) have implied that shopping malls are seen as viable entertainment options for teenage females. (b) design factors. Hedonic value is derived through pleasurable shopping environments or conditions (Fischer and Arnold 1990). conversely. and that the desire to stay at a shopping venue for these female shoppers was a direct result of their perceptions of a mall‘s environment (Taylor and Cosenza 2002). Moreover. retail mix. we propose that these retail environmental characteristics are likely to play a more important role in 52 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice the shopping experiences of younger consumers than older consumers. and their intention to return to the mall (Lueg et al. these variables are often utilized by consumers to develop perceptions of the hedonic rewards derived from a shopping experience. is characterized by a shopping excursion‘s potential entertainment or emotional value. proposing that adolescent females will exhibit signifi cantly higher perceptions of these environmental characteristics than their mothers. Therefore. (d) variety factors. the variety available at the mall. (c) layout factors. Matthews et al. Each of the factors represents an environmental variable associated with a traditional shopping mall. than will their mothers. (2000) established that mall shopping is clearly a social experience for teenagers. and (h) desire to return to the mall. the consumer‘s perceptions of involvement and excitement within the mall. Darden. design factors. indicating that the shopping mall environment plays a key role in the value teens perceive during an average trip to the mall. and (g) exhibit signifi cantly greater desire to stay at the mall. accessibility. and Griffi n 1994). As such. Examinations in the area of consumer socialization appear to suggest that younger consumers possess a greater desire for hedonic value in their shopping experiences than do adults. (f) involvement levels. and atmosphere. 2006). . the mall‘s overall layout. safety. These fi ve mall characteristics include comfort. A more recent study indicates that shopping involvement plays a critical role for teenagers in determining their motivation to spend time at malls. Hedonic behavior. and the consumer‘s desire to stay at and return to the mall. These variables include ambient factors.
quality. two separate motivations to consume exist. Darian (1998) found that parents were more likely to mention price. young consumers rarely mention the price of a product when listing the type of information that they would like to have about an unfamiliar product prior to purchasing it (Ward. social motivations to consume have been shown to be positively related to many of the variables associated with materialism (John 1999). ―In most cases. In a study analyzing apparel-related decision making of parents and their children. social motivations to consume refl ect the importance a consumer places on the perceptions of others and are often based on the importance a consumer places on conspicuous consumption and self-expression via this type of consumption (Moschis 1981). and practicality as important attributes as compared to their children. Finally. Previous research has found that adolescent objective motives for consuming are positively infl uenced by consumption-related communication among family members and negatively related to television exposure (Moschis and Churchill 1978). on the other hand. John (1999) proposes that young consumers pay little attention to price because these younger consumers do not have the required purchasing experience needed to understand the relationship between product price and product quality or value. and Adjei (2006) found that adult females score high on the shopping motives of merchandise uniqueness and assortment seeking. or objective reasons (Moschis 1978). Greater exposure to television is likely to lead to higher social motivations to consume in adolescents (Moschis and Churchill 1978). Noble. social motivations to consume are often perceived negatively. In contrast. functional. Wackman. Early research in consumer socialization established that children frequently do not know the prices for items that they regularly purchase (Stephens and Moore 1975). and have a much greater understanding of the importance of price. and Wartella 1977). which are both commonly classifi . p. As such. although adolescent females often visit malls for both utilitarian and hedonic reasons. young girls have hedonic motives for visiting malls. Recent research suggests that older teenage females often utilize shopping as an opportunity to experience leisure and enjoyment (Bakewell and Mitchell 2003). 79). even when performing utilitarian tasks‖ (2004. Moreover. Therefore. Haytko and Baker note that. Moreover. Adults. in a study of mostly adult consumers. often relate a product‘s price to the economic foundations of supply and demand. By defi nition. Griffi th. these perceptions are often perceived as desirable decision-making stimuli in retail environments (John 1999). More recent research suggests that information such as the name of the brand is more important to young consumers than price (McNeal 1992). Objective motivations to consume refl ect a consumer‘s desire to purchase products based on economic. Moreover.The consumer socialization literature has also established that a consumer‘s motivation to consume is a critical element infl uencing a variety of consumption-related experiences and outcomes.
mall variety.ed as utilitarian shopping motives. (1994) found evidence that adolescents were able to predict their mothers‘ dominant consumption motivations. However. Moschis and Churchill (1979) have found that adolescent social motivations to consume are signifi cantly related to the materialistic tendencies of the adolescent. mothers are expected to be objectively motivated to consume. Only recently has it been shown that prevailing motivations to consume play an important role in infl uencing a consumer‘s perceptions of retail environmental characteristics. Likewise. Although motivation to consume is not the only variable that can infl uence a consumer‘s perceptions of important consumption-related outcomes. and intentions to stay and return to the mall (Martin and Turley 2004). Carlson et al. Hypothesis 2: Mothers will exhibit a signifi cantly greater objective motivation to consume than their adolescent daughters. as the adolescent daughters in the present study are expected to exhibit signifi cantly higher social motivations to consume. research investigating the infl uence of specifi c consumption motivations in a retail setting has been scant. It is the position of the present paper that the dominant consumption motivation of the mothers and daughters examined in the present study will significantly and positively infl uence their perceptions of important mallrelated environmental variables. it is expected that the older consumers in our study—mothers—are more likely to be economically motivated to consume. see John 1999). and the younger consumers in our study—daughters—are more likely to be socially motivated to consume. Therefore. mall design. including perceptions of mall ambience. Haytko and Baker (2004) utilized in-depth interviews with females ages 12–19 to develop a conceptual model that suggests that the mall perceptions of adolescent females are directly infl uenced by the specifi c shopping motivations of hedonic and utilitarian motivations. the present study proposes that the daughters‘ social motivation to consume will positively and signifi cantly predict their perceptions of important mall-related environmental . Specifi cally. Hypothesis 3: Adolescent daughters will exhibit a signifi cantly greater social motivation to consume than their mothers. Therefore. the present study proposes that the mothers‘ objective motivation to consume will positively and signifi cantly predict their perceptions of important mall-related environmental variables. mall excitement. as proposed in H2. both social and objective motivations to consume have been shown in previous research to be related to a variety of variables important in the consumer behavior process (for a complete review. Recent research examining older Generation Y consumers found that a consumer‘s dominant motivation Winter 2009 53 to consume infl uences his or her perceptions of important mall-related environmental variables.
Measures The present study focused specifi cally on objective and social motivations for consumption.94.‖ Based on the mall-related study conducted by Wakefi eld and Baker (1998).79).94. race. Finally. 0.76. we also incorporated a series of mall perception scales into this study. Hypothesis 4: Mothers’ objective motivation to consume will signifi cantly and positively predict their perceptions of mall (a) ambient factors.variables.88. and important discriminatory attitudes. and zip code. and (h) desire to return to the mall. and (h) desire to return to the mall.84). alpha reliability for mothers = 0. Russell‘s (1980) fi ve-item mall excitement scale (0. and mall layout with four items (0. predispositions. Social motivations for shopping are based on the relevance of conspicuous consumption and self-expression through conspicuous consumption (Moschis 1981). we also asked a series of demographic items for all respondents that included age.78) is a fi ve-item scale. and their (g) desire to stay at the mall. 0. In order to assess consumption motivation.85) utilizes four items.79).92). (e) excitement levels. We included a measure of atmospherics developed by Wakefi eld and Baker (1998) and Wakefi eld and Blodgett (1996) that measures ambient factors with four items (alpha reliability for mothers = 0. Zaichkowsky‘s (1985) six-item involvement scale (0. . and the social motivation scale (alpha reliability for mothers = 0. 0. daughters = 0. and their (g) desire to stay at the mall. We also used Wakefi eld and Baker‘s (1998) three-item measure of mall variety (0. (d) variety factors. Objective motivations for shopping are based on the strength of a brand‘s functional and economic dimensions. 1981). 0. (f) involvement levels. 0.73.96. design factors with four items (0. Wakefi eld and Blodgett‘s (1994) two-item desire to stay scale (0. as these have been identifi ed within the socialization literature as critical to understanding how perceptions and attitudes of younger consumers are formed (Moschis 1978. daughters = 0.92). These divergent motivations are considered to be cognitive orientations. 1981). (c) layout factors. (e) excitement levels. The objective motivation to consume scale (Cronbach‘s 1951. (f) involvement levels. 0. (b) design factors. orientations toward comparison shopping. we used two separate measures developed by Moschis (1978.89). (b) design factors. and values that can determine how and why people consume and shop. 0. a fi eld-based mall intercept study was performed at a regional mall. and Oliver and Swan‘s (1989) four-item desire to return scale (0. STUDY METHODOLOGY In order to compare the differences in perceptions of malls held by adolescents and adults. daughters = 0. (c) layout factors.95).95. Hypothesis 5: Adolescent daughters’ social motivation to consume will signifi cantly and positively predict their perceptions of mall (a) ambient factors. (d) variety factors.84. Both scales are measured on a fi ve-point continuum anchored by ―strongly agree‖ and ―strongly disagree.72.78).91.
to ensure that the primary researchers were not visible to the respondents in the study. Interviewers were trained on how to approach respondents. Steps were taken.Mothers also were asked marital status. however. The most recent expansion focused on an $8 million food court remodeling. At least one of the primary researchers of the present study was present during each data collection time frame.M. interviewers wore mall name tags and told potential respondents that data were being gathered by the mall to investigate attitudes toward malls. Data were gathered on a weekend that management identifi ed as a ―typical‖ weekend based on historical sales data. This was done so that respondents would feel as comfortable as possible during completion of the questionnaires. and also includes eight quick-serve restaurants. The interviewers qualifi ed each respondent .M.–10:00 P. and number of children at home. The students chosen to participate as interviewers were the top six students from two separate classes based on their overall point totals for the course. The process of training students to become qualifi ed interviewers took place over a two-week period. data were gathered from 4:00 P. and ensure that respondents fully completed questionnaires. The mall was expanded and remodeled in 1996 and again in 2001–2. Interviewers were recruited from senior-level marketing classes and trained by the primary researchers of the study. This 54 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice particular mall has approximately 850. and from open to close on Saturday (10:00 A.) and Sunday (1:00 P. Based on an agreement with mall management. During this weekend. The interviewers were stationed at all direct entrances into the mall from the parking lot and instructed to approach all mother and adolescent daughter pairs as they entered the mall. income level.000. Table 1 contains the demographic characteristics of the respondents.–6:00 P. All students were required to meet with the primary researchers of the present study at least four separate times. a discount department store. This allowed only high achieving students to participate as interviewers.). According to mall data. occupation. Adjacent to the mall but still on mall property. and visitors spend an average of $55 per visit. until close on Friday. there are fi ve full-service restaurants.000 square feet of retail space.M. All of the measurement scales utilized in the present study are provided the Appendix.M. has four anchor stores and over 100 specialty retailers.M. A modifi ed mall intercept method was used to gather data. describe the study. a fi eld study at a regional mall in the southeast section of the United States was conducted. the average household income within a three-mile radius of the mall is $67. and a large offi ce space housing a fi nancial institution. 80 percent of customers who visit the mall make a purchase. This particular mall is owned by one of the largest mall development and holding companies and originally opened in 1987. with each meeting lasting between one-half hour and one hour. Methodology In order to explore these concepts.
the mother–daughter pairs were given a $5 mall gift certifi cate for each questionnaire when both were completed. To avoid the possibility of confusion for the interviewers. As an inducement to complete the questionnaire.000 41 $50.001+ 9 Missing 1 .000 25 $75. Questionnaires were then collected by the primary researchers at the end of each evening.pair by making sure that daughters were between the ages of 12 and 18. Interviewers stapled the two questionnaires together so that each mother–daughter pair could be identifi ed during data input. RESULTS H1 was examined using paired samples t-tests to identify signifi cant differences between mothers‘ and daughters‘ perceptions of mall environmental variables.001–$50. the two versions were color coded with one color for mothers and a different color for daughters. presented in Table 2. The results. indicate that daughters scored signifi cantly higher than their mothers on perceptions of Table 1 Characteristics of Sample Frequency Characteristic Mothers Daughters Race African American 8 7 Caucasian 84 92 Hispanic 3 4 Asian 2 2 Biracial 0 0 Other/Missing 13 5 Age 12 21 13 16 14 20 15 26 16 13 17 11 18 3 21–30 3 31–40 49 41–50 46 51–60 7 61+ 1 Missing 4 Marital Status Single 7 Married 88 Divorced 13 Other 2 Income Level $0–$25.000 17 $25.001–$75. Mothers and daughters were then separated and given questionnaires to fi ll out that were identical except for the additional demographic questions concerning occupation and family income that were added to the version completed by mothers. This method generated 110 mother–daughter pairs for a total of 220 respondents.001–$100.000 17 $100.
or her desire to return to the mall. desire to stay at the mall ( p < 0. Regression analyses were then run using both of the aforementioned mother‘s motivations to consume predicting each dependent variable being examined. mall design (H1b). desire to stay ( p < 0. H1 was partially supported. variety ( p < 0.05).Winter 2009 55 mall variety ( p < 0. Conversely. supporting H1d.01). a daughter‘s social motivation to consume does not signifi cantly predict her perceptions of mall ambience. desire to stay ( p < 0. The results of these multiple regression tests are presented in Table 3. and daughters exhibit a signifi cantly greater social motivation to consume ( p < 0.05). the mother‘s desire to stay.01). additional regression analyses were run. For H4. The lone mall perception variable not signifi cantly infl uenced by the mother‘s objective motivation to consume was her desire to return to the mall.01). involvement in shopping ( p < 0. excitement. layout.05).05).01).01). The mother‘s social motivations to consume only positively predicted one dependent variable. layout ( p < 0. The results in Table 3 indicate nearly full support for H4 and partial support for H5. The results of these tests were nearly identical to the results of the original regression analyses.01). mall layout (H1c). and involvement ( p < 0. In the second set of regression analyses. design. Mothers and their daughters exhibited no signifi cant differences in terms of their perceptions of mall ambience (H1a). excitement ( p < 0. H4 and H5 were tested using regression to assess the infl uence of the dominant motivation to consume for both mothers and daughters. and mall excitement (H1e). For H5. the daughters‘ social motivation to consume was used as the independent variable predicting perceptions of important mall environmental variables.01).01). and desire to return to the mall ( p < 0. a mother‘s objective motivation to consume positively and signifi cantly predicts her perceptions of mall ambience ( p < 0. desire to stay.01). and involvement ( p < 0. both H2 and H3 are supported. To further examine the relationships proposed in H4 and H5. and involvement. excitement ( p < 0. design.01). These results suggest that although the mother‘s .01). Therefore.05). design ( p < 0. For H5. layout. For H4. H1f. a mother‘s objective and social motivations to consume were utilized as independent variables (instead of only the mother‘s objective motivation as in the original analysis). the mothers‘ objective motivation to consume was used as the independent variable predicting perceptions of important mall environmental variables.01). For H4. Mothers exhibit a signifi cantly greater objective motivation to consume ( p < 0. the mother‘s objective motivation to consume remained a positive predictor of her mall perceptions of ambiance. H2 and H3 were also examined using paired samples t-tests to identify signifi cant differences between mothers‘ and daughters‘ motivations to consume. H1g. a daughter‘s social motivation to consume positively and signifi cantly predicts her perceptions of mall variety ( p < 0. variety. As seen in Table 2. and H1h.
68 0.324 Involvement 5. and involvement. the daughter‘s objective motivation to consume was not a signifi cant predictor of any of the mall perception variables examined.54 0. An interesting outcome of the present study is that mothers and daughters did not exhibit signifi cant differences in terms of their perceptions of mall ambience.000 Desire to Return 5.000 Notes: Summated scales were utilized to calculate mean values for variables examined. four of these higher mean scores were statistically signifi cant.99 –3.desire to stay is positively infl uenced by both forms of consumption motivation. mall design.67 0.09 –7. For H5.06 3. A daughter‘s social motivation to consume remained a positive predictor of her perceptions of variety.593 Design 3. the management of the mall utilized in the present study has put forth considerable effort to alter the retail climate and environment of this mall.99 0.92 –4.260 Variety 3.58 2. or mall layout.38 5.000 Consumption Motivation (social) 2.009 Consumption Motivation (objective) 4.74 –3. As seen in the results in Table 2. Therefore.491 Layout 3.69 0. desire to Table 2 Test of Dif ferences for Mean Values of Paired Samples Signifi cance Variable Mothers Daughters t-Value Level Ambience 3. The results of the second test confi rmed the results of the fi rst test. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Initially.65 4. adolescent female shoppers have positively perceived these changes.94 4.83 6. indicating that adolescent female teens are more impressed and infl uenced by these variables than their mothers.28 4.16 –2. it is important to note that mothers and their adolescent daughters have signifi cantly different perceptions of specifi c mall variables. Explanations for these results .000 Excitement 5. Similar to other malls around the country. Moreover. as seen in Table 2.001 Desire to Stay 3.28 –0. Boldface fi gures indicate signifi cance at p < 0. Regression analyses were then run using both of the aforementioned daughter‘s motivations to consume predicting each dependent variable being examined.96 –1. daughters exhibited higher mean scores on all eight of the variables as compared to their mothers.57 0. the variables that were positively predicted by objective motivation to consume in the fi rst set of tests remain the same in the second set of tests.41 3.05. As seen in Table 3. a daughter‘s objective and social motivations to consume were utilized as independent variables (instead of only the daughter‘s social motivation as in the original analysis). excitement. Moreover.65 0.85 3.06 0. Of the eight mall environmental variables examined in the present study.78 3.00 –0.16 5.82 0. 56 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice stay. a daughter‘s social motivation to consume did not signifi cantly infl uence the three aforementioned mall perception variables either.13 0.82 –0. these additional regression analyses provide strong support for the original regression analysis results completed for H4 and H5.
031 Involvement 0.62 0.002 0. The mean scores on each of the three aforementioned variables for both mothers and daughters are at or near four on a fi ve-point scale.037 Involvement 0.18 0.028 2. indicating positive perceptions of these variables. however.154 0.000 Design 0. As middle-aged female . The results also indicate that the mothers examined in the present study place a greater emphasis on objective motivations for shopping and utilitarian benefi ts.000 –0. and layout.378 Layout 0.085 –0.might come from the mall being examined.11 0.015 1.000 Desire to Return 0. The likely conclusion from an analysis of these results is that these mall perception variables are important.000 Desire to Stay 0. design.63 0.23 0.218 0. this target segment is a tremendously important segment of mall patrons.14 0. This Table 3 Regression Results of Consumption Motivation on Mall Perception Variables Predictor/ Standardized Adjusted Signifi cance Dependent Variable Beta Coeffi cient r2 t-Value Level Mother’s Consumption Motivation (objective) Ambience 0.327 0.094 0. The results in Table 3 show that a mother‘s objective motivation to consume is an important predictor of her perceptions of mall ambience.199 0.328 Design 0.039 2.681 0.134 4.161 4.099 3.12 0.005 1.022 Desire to Return 0.03 0.152 4.497 Variety 0.25 0.045 Desire to Stay 0.68 0. understanding a mother‘s consumption motivation is likely more important for mall managers in terms of creating acceptable shopping environments than understanding the consumption motivation of daughters.400 0.005 0.984 0.220 5.033 2.377 0.031 2. The fact that there was no signifi cant difference between the perceptions of mothers and daughters.034 Excitement 0. Based on the present results. should not imply that these factors are not important. As middle-aged females often comprise the largest and most lucrative consuming segment for traditional mall stores. but that factors other than motivation to consume are critical in forming an adolescent daughter‘s perception of mall ambience. It is possible that the atmosphere of the mall utilized in the present study is acceptable to both mothers and daughters.202 0.191 0.60 0.885 0.032 2. design.000 Layout 0. In other words.410 0. and layout. mall managers would be more successful in drawing these middle-aged females into their mall locations by emphasizing unique sales promotions in department stores or specialty stores within the mall.215 Daughter’s Consumption Motivation (social) Ambience –0.128 4.000 Excitement 0.119 0.107 Note: Boldface fi gures indicate signifi cance at p < 0.205 0.000 Variety 0.32 0.05. Winter 2009 57 information can be of critical importance for mall managers as they attempt to draw middle-aged females into their shopping malls.369 0.065 –0.54 0.476 0.
Although Wakefi eld and Baker (1998) have initiated this type of . it would likely provide greater insight for mall managers if this scale could assess food. Specifi cally. differences in age between females appear to signifi cantly impact a consumer‘s perceptions of important mall environmental variables. Although the overall measurement scale showed acceptable reliability levels. and entertainment variety separately. First. purchase-oriented visits. while capitalizing on her desire for short-term. Doing so would allow mall managers the opportunity to gain greater understanding as to how each critical component of variety is perceived by mall patrons. In the present study. FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION Future research focusing on shopping mall perceptions of various consuming groups should likely expand the concept of the present study to focus on multiple developing areas. This would motivate the utilitarian middle-aged female shopper by saving her time and money. and promoting sales in these stores on the same weekend. Finally. research should attempt to determine the importance of gender in the shopping mall setting. Future research should seek to understand possible differences between different genders of mall shoppers. Future research should attempt to determine if certain mall environmental perceptions have an infl uence on other mall environmental perception variables. greater meaning could be taken from the results if dominant consumption motivations could be assessed as predictors of multiple item scales assessing each separate factor of variety. As the present study has suggested. focusing on the most popular stores for this consumer segment. all mall perception variables examined in the present study are viewed as dependent variables that are likely to be infl uenced by consumer motivations to consume. the present study does not examine the specifi c relationships between the mall perception variables examined. and entertainment variety.mothers are shown to exhibit a signifi cantly lower desire to stay in the mall and signifi cantly less desire to return to the mall as compared to their adolescent daughters. Mall managers might consider coordinating multiple department store sales. and signifi cantly predicted by the dominant motivation to consume of both the mother and the daughter). it is important to note that although the mall perception of variety appears to play an essential role in the results of the present study (signifi cantly different perception between mothers and daughters. The three-item scale used to assess variety focuses on three rather distinct components of a mall‘s environment. including food variety. store variety. no known research to date has compared the differences in perceptions of males and females. the overall implications of these results might not be as robust as fi rst perceived. it is important for these middle-aged female mothers to have an objective reason or motivation driving their mall visit. store. Second. Although the present study has attempted to determine the importance of differences in age within the category of female shoppers.
Therefore. societal changes and the development of differing family structures should be examined to determine if female adolescents from traditional households. parents are divorced. or others that might infl uence their shopping patterns. particularly for the daughters examined. and if these potential differences infl uence the adolescent‘s shopping behaviors . Although the relationships examined in the present study suggest that a mother‘s objective motivation to consume and a daughter‘s social motivation to consume both signifi cantly predict multiple important mall perception variables. little is known as to how this communication affects the shopping experiences of young consumers. one parent as primary caregiver. For the present study. it will be important to understand if adolescents raised in nontraditional households have different attitudes about consumption.e. where both parents are present in the home. Although John (1999) has noted that studies have been completed that examine parent–child communication. Taking this concept a step further. or examining differences in their infl uence based on gender or age of the mall consumer. children raised by someone other than a parent). greater focus should be placed on the communication efforts that take place between daughters and their parents. The current study took place in a setting where 88 of the 110 mothers participating were married (80 percent).research. Haytko and Baker (2004) note that shopping companions are important in determining mall perceptions. statistics from the latest census in the United States indicate that at the end of 2003. future research should focus on additional consumer socialization variables that might help explain the mall perceptions of mothers and daughters. it is possible that communication with these friends or peers can signifi cantly impact mall perceptions. differ in their consumption experiences at shopping malls as compared to female adolescents who have been raised in what are often labeled nontraditional households (i. as household composition continues to change and the infl uences on adolescents continue to evolve. peers. Moreover.gov). over 40 percent of mothers who have custody of at least one child. and over 55 percent of fathers who have custody of at least one child. Moreover. Third.census. However. the amount of variance explained in each variable is somewhat low (as seen in the adjusted r-squared values in Table 3). but most often the explanation for a low level of explained variance is that it might be an indication of missing explanatory or independent variables.. would aid mall managers in understanding the specifi c role that environmental variables play in attracting and satisfying shoppers. siblings. of all the households in the United States. A number of reasons can be cited for the low r-squared values in Table 3 (specifi cally that r-squared values are normally lower for cross-sectional data than for time series data). nearly 10 percent were comprised of single mothers with children at home (www. were either divorced or separated. examining a greater number of mall perception variables. 58 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice Finally.
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82 (3). ―The Effect of the Servicescape on Customers‘ Behavioral Intentions in Leisure Service Settings.‖ Journal of Consumer Research.A. and John E. and Mavis T. Russell. 341–352. .. Stephens.‖ Journal of Retailing.. Reynolds. David A. . 12 (3). 74 (4)..‖ Journal of Consumer Research. Spending.‖ Journal of Retailing.‖ DSN Retailing Today. 177–188. Wackman. 21–35. ―Price Accuracy as a Consumer Skill. 16. Carolyn (2001). Adjei (2006). James A. J. Wakefi eld. ―Traditional Malls vs. Blodgett (1994). Scott.. Fuan Li.‖ Journal of Retailing. it is important to know . and Robert M. ―Adults and Children. 45–61. and Michael Luckett (2002). and Roy L. 8 (3).‖ Journal of Services Marketing. (1980). Factory Outlets: Comparing Shopper Typologies and Implications for Retail Strategies.‖ Journal of Business Research. Stephanie M. 66 (2). Daniel B. 149–165. Nicholls. Gaedeke (1992). Jaishankar Ganesh.‖ Journal of Services Marketing. Susan Lee. 53 (2). 19 (2). 60 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice APPENDIX Measures of Constructs Consumption Motivation—Social (fi ve-point. 39 (6).‖ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. ―Excitement at the Mall: Determinants and Effects on Shopping Response. Robert. Setlow. 6 (2). Tootelian. Kranendonk. 393–408. Schulman. ―The Teen Market: An Exploratory Analysis of Income. 48.. and ——— (1996). and Julie Baker (1998). Zaichowsky. and Jeffery G. strongly disagree to strongly agree) Before purchasing a product at the mall. ―Drivers of Local Merchant Loyalty: Understanding the Infl uence of Gender and Shopping Motives. and Kevin Clancy (1992). ———. Kirk L.. what friends think of different brands or products. 40. ―A Circumplex Model of Affect.‖ Journal of Advertising Research. ―The Importance of Servicescapes in Leisure Service Settings.‖ Adweek. ―Younger Consumers Hit the Mall. 15 (August). Judith Lynne (1985). 9 (4). 515–539.‖ Journal of Marketing. Noble. strongly disagree to strongly agree) Before purchasing a product at the mall. Consumption Motivation—Objective (fi ve-point. ―Measuring the Involvement Construct. 27–34. . CA: Sage. . 19 (5). . Oliver. Swan (1989). ———. Beverly Hills. 10 (6). it is important to know . (1990).‖ Journal of Consumer Marketing. 174–200. ―Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction Transactions: A Field Survey Approach. How Children Learn to Buy. Cosenza (2002). 55 (9). a Real Gap. and Ellen Wartella (1977). 687–696.. 66–76. Griffi th. Dennis H. Carl J. Ward. 33 (February 10). 1161–1178. John F. about guarantees on different brands. Moore (1975). and Ralph M.Young: A Socialization Perspective. what others think of people who use certain brands or products.F. Jr. Taylor. ―The Seven Year Itch? Mall Shoppers Across Time. what kinds of people buy certain brands or products. 35–44. Kristy E. Lowndes. Sherry. and Sydney Roslow (2002). and Shopping Patterns. what brands/products to buy to make good impressions on others.‖ Journal of Consumer Marketing. ―Dealers and Dealing in a Periodic Market: Informal Retailing in Ethnographic Perspective. ―Profi ling Later Aged Female Teens: Mall Shopping Behavior and Clothing Choice. 1 (August 6). 101–112. Richard L.‖ Journal of Consumer Marketing.
This mall has an excellent variety of stores. doesn‘t matter–matters to me. I enjoy spending time at this mall. means nothing–means a lot to me. Design Factors (fi ve-point. Winter 2009 61 Excitement (seven-point semantic differential) The mall is unexciting–exciting. The mall is decorated in an attractive fashion. The mall temperature is comfortable. monotonous–sensational Involvement (seven-point semantic differential) In general. The overall design of the mall is interesting. This mall has excellent entertainment alternatives. Overall. unexciting–exciting. boring–interesting Desire to Return (seven-point semantic differential) In the future. unlikely–likely. the quality of store selling a particular brand. Mall music is played at an appropriate volume. strongly disagree to strongly agree) The variety of food offered at this mall is excellent. The mall lighting is appropriate. Layout (fi ve-point. unappealing–appealing. strongly disagree to strongly agree) The mall plays music that I like. going shopping is unimportant–important. The layout makes it easy to get to the restrooms. Ambient Factors (fi ve-point. boring–stimulating. The layout makes it easy to get to the food areas. my shopping at this mall will be not at all–very frequent.the name of the company that makes the product. dull–interesting. strongly disagree to strongly agree) I like to stay at this mall as long as possible. the kinds of materials different brands are made of. Variety (fi ve-point. Desire to Stay (fi ve-point. the layout makes it easy to get around. not probable–very probable. whether any brands are on sale. The interior wall and fl oor color schemes are attractive. unappealing–appealing. impossible–very possible . strongly disagree to strongly agree) The mall‘s architecture gives it an attractive character. strongly disagree to strongly agree) The layout makes it easy to get to the stores you want.
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