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GLASGOW COLLEGE OF NAUTICAL STUDIES FACULTY OF MARITIME STUDIES SUBJECT: MAGNETIC COMPASS

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THE COMPASS
The simplest form of compass consists of a magnetised needle free to rotate in a horizontal plane. Such a needle tends to settle in the magnetic meridian. PIVOTED NEEDLE FORMS SIMPLE COMPASS This simple arrangement is unsatisfactory aboard ship. The needle would tend to oscillate and provide an unsteady compass and it would be difficult to make efficient correction on all headings for the disturbing effect of the ship's magnetic field. The mariners' compass must therefore be specially designed. THE DRY CARD COMPASS Consists of a system of short magnetised needles suspended by silk threads from a light aluminium ring. Usually 6, 8 or 10 needles are employed, symmetrically disposed so that their poles lie on the circumference of a circle and the mean of the angles subtended at the centre between pairs of like poles is 60. The aluminium ring is suspended from a centre piece into which is set a sapphire bearing. The bearing rests on a hard iridium point, thus forming an almost frictionless pivot. The card is maintained nearly horizontal by arranging that the centre of gravity of the card and needles is below the pivot. The weight of the card is contained largely in the aluminium ring at its circumference and it therefore possesses a large moment of inertia in comparison with its weight. This fact, in association with an appropriate magnetic moment for the system of needles, produces a stable card and no external damping is necessary. Dry cards are usually made 10 inches in diameter, and the degree markings are then large enough to be easily read. These markings are printed on rice paper divided into segments so as to prevent any extensive error due to distortion of the paper. THE LIQUID CARD COMPASS Has greater stability than the dry card compass. The effect of the liquid is to quickly damp out any oscillations which the card may tend to develop, giving the card what is sometimes termed a "dead beat" action. The liquid card is generally smaller than a dry card (often 6 inches in diameter). It is made of a mica scale mounted on a hollow float containing the sapphire bearing. The magnetic system is enclosed and attached below the card; it may consist of separate needles or a single magnet in the form of a ring. The liquid in the compass bowl is distilled water to which ethyl alcohol is added so that the viscosity of the mixture is lower than that of pure water and the freezing point is -30C. This liquid has a small coefficient of expansion, but since its volume changes slightly with change of temperature a flexible corrugated plate or an expansion chamber is fitted to the bowl. Part of the weight of the card and magnets is supported by buoyancy and part by an iridium point fitting into the sapphire bearing. As in the dry card compass, the point of support is above the centre of gravity of the card so that the card will remain substantially horizontal in all latitudes.

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LIQUID CARD

From Below

In Section

Upper edge of card carries graduation Float

Ring magnet in case below float

TESTS FOR COMPASS CARDS Both dry and liquid cards may be tested for pivot friction by deflecting the compass card a few degrees. If the pivot is in good condition the card should return to and settle in its original position with no sign of sticking or jerkiness.

THE BINNACLE A compass card is contained in a brass bowl and this is slung by means of gimbals in a binnacle. Binnacles are constructed of wood, brass or plastic, and in addition to housing the gimbals they also hold the various correctors. Care should be taken when using the magnetic compass and the relevant Marine Guidance Notices should always be consulted especially if any magnetic material Is placed in the vicinity. Different types of magnetic compass include Standard Compass, Steering Compass, Projector Compass, Reflector Compass and Transmitting Magnetic Compass. Transmitting Magnetic Compasses are fitted with off course alarms. A separate off course alarm unit is used for other magnetic compasses.

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TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM The earth is surrounded by an irregular magnetic field. This field is conveniently imagined to be caused by a short magnet at the centre of the earth.

MAGNETIC POLES The area of the earth's surface (about 50 miles square) on the magnetic axis of the imaginary short magnet at the centre of the earth. The north magnetic pole is in the Hudson Bay area approximate position Latitude 75.5 North, longitude 100W and the South magnetic pole in Latitude 67.5South, longitude 140 East. The lines of force are vertical at the Pole.

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EARTH'S TOTAL FORCE This varies all over the earth being generally greatest near the Magnetic Poles. The direction of the earth's total force is that taken up by a freely suspended magnetic needle when under the influence of the earth field alone.

Earths Horizontal Field H + ve Dip Earths Vertical Field Z

Total Field T The earth's total field is represented by T. The horizontal component of the earth's total field is represented by H. The vertical component of the earth's total field is represented by Z.

Magnetic Foci:

Are areas in the northern and southern hemisphere where the earth's total force or field strength is at a maximum. Is angle between the earth's total force and the horizontal. Is the angle between the vertical plane through the earth's total force and True North.

Dip: Variation:

The Magnetic field at any position is constantly changing both in intensity and direction. Secular Change: Solar Change: This is the gradual change in variation marked on charts. Regular daily changes of almost constant amplitude throughout the year which also have an 11 year cycle associated with sun spot activity. Regular diurnal change which is probably related to atmospheric tides. There is also a relatively large annual range.

Lunar Change:

Irregular Changes in Magnetic Storms are probably due to emissions from the sun. They occur all over the world at the same time and increase the value of H and decrease the value of Z. These changes are of no significance to a navigator.

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Local Anomalies:

Are due to ferro-magnetic substances in the sea bottom or in mountains near the coast. These areas are marked on the chart i.e. Madagascar, West Coast of Scotland, North Australia, and the compass should be checked frequently in these regions. Is a wavy curve joining all places where the dip is zero. Join places where the variation has the same value and sign. Join places where the variation is zero. Join all places where dip has the same value and sign. Sometimes called Magnetic Latitude. Is the line of no dip or magnetic equator. Join places of equal force, horizontal or vertical.

Magnetic Equator: Isogonic Lines: Agonic Lines: Isoclinic Line:

Aclinic Line: Isodynamic Lines:

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MAGNETIC COMPASS
DEVIATION If a magnetic compass could be placed on a ship so that it will be acted upon only by the earth's field the North point on the compass card would indicate the direction of the Magnetic Meridian and the graduation of the compass card against the lubber line would indicate the ships magnetic course. Local magnetic fields in a ship may cause the resultant field at the compass position to lie in a different direction from the earths field alone. The compass indicates the direction of this resultant field by pointing to Compass North. The angle between Compass North and Magnetic North at the compass position is known as Deviation. It is named Westerly if Compass North is to the West of Magnetic North and Easterly if Compass North is to the East of Magnetic North. A ship is built largely of mild steel and this material may be thought of magnetically as an alloy of hard iron and soft iron. It is convenient to deal with these two components separately. When a ship is built, its structure becomes magnetised by induction from the earth's field. After the ship is launched, the hard iron component will be permanent and will remain constant whatever the direction of the ships head; however the soft iron component will vary with the direction of the ships head. The overall effect of the permanent magnetism on board is known as the directive force. The earths horizontal field will decrease as latitude increases. Therefore for the same directive force on board the ship the deviation will increase.

H H

Deviating Force (df)

In order to analyse and correct the factors which cause deviation, the hard iron and soft iron elements of a ship magnetic can be sub-divided into hard iron components and soft iron components. These sub divisions can then be grouped according to the way in which the deviation they cause varies with the direction of the ship's head. The effect of each group is expressed as a co-efficient.

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SHIPS MAGNETISM When iron or steel is placed in a magnetic field it becomes a magnet, and when the field is removed it tends to lose its magnetism. The lag between cause and effect is termed 'hysteresis'. In some alloys of iron the lag may be small; in others it may be relatively large. SOFT IRON Is the name given to a magnetic substance which is instantly magnetised when placed in a magnetic field and is instantly de-magnetised when removed from the field. The magnetism of soft iron is termed 'induced magnetism'. HARD IRON Is the name given to a magnetic substance which offers considerable resistance to magnetic change, i.e. the substance is difficult to magnetise and also difficult to de-magnetise. The magnetism of hard iron is referred to as 'permanent magnetism'. All magnetic substances exhibit both hard and soft iron characteristics. By convention lines of force emanate from the north end of a magnet and enter at the blue end so that when a piece of iron is magnetised by induction a blue or south pole is induced where the lines of force enter and a red or north pole is induced where they leave. A ship lying in the earth's field at the builders is subject to considerable heating and vibration and therefore becomes a permanent magnet. Where possible a vessel is placed in the fittingout basin with her head in the opposite direction to that of the building berth. Ship Built Heading South in Northern Hemisphere DIP 50.

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Ship Built Heading West in Northern Hemisphere DIP 65.

The permanent magnetism of the ship magnet which is acquired on the building berth is resolved into the following three components. P Force: The fore and aft component of permanent magnetism acting at the compass position. +P an attraction towards the bow. -P an attraction towards the stern. The athwartship component of permanent magnetism acting at the compass position. +Q an attraction towards the starboard side. -Q an attraction towards the port side. The vertical component of the permanent magnetism acting at the compass position. +R an attraction towards the keel. -R a deflection away from the keel.

Q Force:

R Force:

The vessel built in a northern hemisphere heading south in a dip of 50 with the compass aft will therefore have a +P, zero Q and +R forces. The vessel heading west in a northern hemisphere in a dip of 65 will have zero P, -Q and +R. Consider these three forces and the effect they have on the compass when the vessel is upright.

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The fore and aft component of permanent magnetism is called a P force and is termed a +P if the attraction is to the bow and a -P if the attraction is to the stern. +P FORCE COEFFICIENT +B

North

East

South West

The deviation is zero (0) on north and south as the P force is in line with the compass needle. The deviation increases as shown on the graph as the P force moves off the line of the compass needle and reaches a maximum when the P force is at right angles to the compass needle. The maximum value occurs on east or west by compass and its value on these courses is called hard iron coefficient B. As the deviation has the same name through 180 it is called semi circular deviation. As the above curve is a sine curve the deviation due to a P force varies as the sine of the compass course. Deviation = B Sine Compass Course The value of coefficient B (total) is found by steadying the vessel on east and west by compass and taking the mean of the deviation on east and west by compass after reversing the sign of the deviation on west.

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-P FORCE COEFFICIENT - B

North

East

South West

Sine curve

Coefficient B is corrected by steadying the vessel on east or west by compass and removing the deviation caused by force P with fore and aft magnets. It is obvious that if the deviating force, that is the P force is increased the deviations will be increased, i.e. the deviations vary directly as the deviating force.

It can also be seen that if the deviating force is kept constant and the directive force, i.e. H is increased the deviation will be reduced, i.e. the deviation will vary inversely as the directive force.

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The athwartship component of permanent magnetism is called a Q force and is termed a +Q if the attraction is to the starboard side and a -Q if the attraction is to the port side. +Q COEFFICIENT + C

North

WEST

East

EAST

South

West

Cosine Curve

The deviation is zero on east and west as the Q force is in line with the compass needle. The deviation increases as shown on the graph as the Q force moves off the line of the compass needle and reaches a maximum when the Q force is at right angles to the compass needle, i.e. on north by compass. The maximum value occurs on north or south by compass and its value on these courses is called hard iron coefficient C. As the deviation retains the same name through 180 it is also called semi-circular, deviation due to a Q force varies as the cosine of the compass course. As the curve is a cosine curve the deviation due to a Q force varies as the cosine of the compass course. Deviation = C cosine compass course. The value of coefficient C is found by taking the mean of deviations on north and south by compass after reversing the sign of the deviation on south.

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Sketch the effect of a -Q force in the space below.

North

EAST

East

WEST

South

West

Cosine Curve

Coefficient C is correct by steadying the compass on north or south by compass and removing the deviations caused by force Q with athwartship magnets. The deviations due to a Q force are affected in the same manner as the deviations due to a P force. Directly as the deviating force and inversely as the directive force.

FORCE R When a vessel is upright the vertical force R will be acting at right angles to the compass card and will therefore cause no deviation.

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SUMMARY Soft Iron - magnetic state changed with ease. Hard Iron - magnetic state changed with difficulty. +P is an attraction towards the bow. -P is an attraction towards the stern. +Q is an attraction towards the starboard side. -Q is an attraction towards the port side. +R is an attraction towards the keel. -R is a deflection away from the keel. P forces cause hard iron coefficient B. A +P causes a +B coefficient. Hard iron coefficient B = mean of hard iron deviations on east and west by compass with the name changed on west. The deviation due to P varies as the sine of the compass course. The deviation due to P varies inversely as H Deviations due to P are corrected by fore and aft permanent magnets. Q forces produce hard iron coefficient C. A +Q causes a +C coefficient. Hard iron coefficient C = the mean of the hard iron deviations on north and south by compass with name changed on south. The deviation due to a Q force varies as the cosine of the compass course. The deviation due to a Q force varies inversely as H. The deviations due to Q forces are corrected by permanent athwartship magnets.

Force R causes no deviation when the ship is upright.

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SHIPS INDUCED MAGNETISM The magnetism of the soft iron in a ship will vary continuously as the vessel sails from port to port. If the intensity of the total force varies, the strength of the ship magnet will vary. If the dip varies the proportions of H and Z will vary. If the vessel alters course the ship magnet will vary. A vessel heading northwest in a northern hemisphere where the dip is + 50 will have induced magnetism as follows: Blue on deck; Red at the keel; Blue to port; Red to starboard; Blue aft; Red forward.

Consider a vessel in the following positions and indicate the polarity of the induced magnetism, vertical, fore and aft and athwartships. Course SW S E E S NW Dip - 30 - 60 + 40 0 0 +90 Deck RED RED BLUE Keel BLUE BLUE RED Port Starboard BLUE RED RED RED BLUE BLUE BLUE BLUE RED RED For'd BLUE BLUE Aft RED RED

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"a" rod

The vessel is a continuous piece of steel under the compass an "a" rod effect exists. A - a" rod is normal, indicating the continuous fore and aft structure of the vessel. Most of the body of the vessel is abaft and below the compass so that a - c" rod is normal. A - "e" rod is normal, indicating continuous transverse structure of the ship. Since the vessel normally extends further aft from the compass than it does forward a - "g" rod is normal. The vessel is mostly below the compass we can expect to find a + "k" rod effect.

"c" rod

"e" rod "g" rod

"k" rod

"b, d, "f" and "h" rods are normally absent because the vessel is symmetrical about the fore and aft vertical plane through the compass. To summarise we can say that in a merchant ship with the compass in the fore and aft centre line of the vessel and about one third of the length from the bow, the only soft iron effects we will have to consider in the ship will be represented by -a, -c, -e, -g and + k rods.

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THE CO-EFFICIENTS

C EAST W E

D E W W

E W E

EAST

E WEST

COEFFICIENT A: Consists of those elements which give rise to a deviation which is constant in value and sign for all directions of the ships head. It may be caused by a combination of fore and aft soft iron to one side of the compass with one induced pole abreast of it, and athwartships soft iron either forward of abaft the compass with one induced pole in the fore and aft line. Any horizontal soft iron which is unsymmetrically disposed about the compass position will have components which give rise to a co-efficient A. Co-efficient A is not amenable to correction but it may be avoided by setting the compass in a position on the centre line of the ship so that the horizontal soft iron will be symmetrically disposed on either side. If Co-efficient A is present, it may easily be allowed for since it does not vary with either change of course or change of latitude. On most ships the value of Coefficient A is usually negligible or very small. CO-EFFICIENT B: Consists of those elements which give rise to a deviation varying as the sine of a vessel's compass course. This may be caused by fore and aft hard iron or by vertical soft iron in the fore and aft plane with an induced pole level with the compass. The distribution of steel in most ships is such that both these components are present. PERMANENT B: The permanent magnetism in the hard iron of a ship will, in general have a component in the fore and aft line. This will create a constant attraction of the North end of the compass needle either towards the bow or the stern.

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INDUCED B: Is due to the induction of the vertical soft iron ("C" rod) so that an effective pole is level with the compass in the fore and aft line through the compass with its acting pole immediately forward or abaft the compass. It is clear that the deviation caused depends upon the direction of the ships head, the same way as permanent B (i.e. varies as the sine of the compass course) so that the deviation is maximum on East and West, zero on North and South. TOTAL CO-EFFICIENT B: Is a combination of permanent and induced components. Since permanent B and induced B vary according to different rules total B may be split into its component parts mathematically, provided its value is observed in two places of different magnetic latitude. CO-EFFICIENT C: Consists of these elements which give rise to deviation varying as the cosine of a vessels compass course. This may be caused by hard iron in the horizontal athwartships plane or by soft iron with an induced pole level with the compass in the athwartships plane. CO-EFFICIENT D: Consists of those elements which give rise to deviation which varies as the sine of twice the compass course. It is due to an arrangement of horizontal soft iron which has fore and aft and athwartships components symmetrically disposed about the compass position. The components may be continuous through the compass position or divided on either side, but the usual effect aboard ships is that of both fore and aft and athwartships continuous soft iron, the latter being more effective because its poles are nearer the compass. CO-EFFICIENT E: Consists of these elements which cause a deviation that varies as the cosine of twice the compass course. Horizontal soft iron which lies in a line from four points on one bow to four points on the opposite quarter gives rise to co-efficient E. The soft iron may be continuous or divided about the compass position. In a normal ship with the compass carefully sited on the centre line there should be no unbalanced diagonal soft iron component and consequently no co-efficient E.

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Coefficient A: Is the constant deviation caused by induction in unsymmetrical horizontal soft iron (unusual on most ships). Coefficient A: Coefficient A: Is positive when there is a constant easterly deviation. Is negative when there is a constant westerly deviation.

The value of coefficient A is found by taking the mean of the deviations on all cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass. Unsymmetrical horizontal soft iron which crosses the vessel at any direction other than fore and aft athwartships or 045 will cause both coefficient A and coefficient E. Coefficient A and E are caused by the unsymmetrical distribution of soft iron about the compass. APPARENT COEFFICIENT A The coefficient A mentioned above is due to the magnetic effect of unsymmetrical soft iron. However other factors may give an apparent "A" which is not due to magnetic effects. Some of these are listed below. 1. Lubber line not on the fore and aft line. 2. Magnetic axis of needles not in line with north south line of compass card. 3. Error in magnetic bearing. (Variation) 4. Swinging ship too rapidly in one direction (Gaussin error). 5. Azimuth mirror distorted. If a coefficient A is found the following checks should be made: a) check azimuth mirror. b) Check variation used. c) Check the hour angle used. d) Check true bearings used. e) Check lubber lines. f) Check gyro setting. g) Check alignment of card and needles. If the coefficient A still appears after these checks have been made it must be due to unsymmetrical horizontal soft iron.

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-C ROD

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

Co-efficient Induced B Is due to induction in vertical soft iron so that an effective pole is level with the compass in the fore and aft line through the compass, and in most ships the grater proportion of soft iron will be aft of the compass position. In the Northern hemisphere a blue pole will be induced at the top of the vertical soft iron and the deviation produced as shown above. The deviation caused depends on the direction of the ships head in the same way as permanent B (i.e. it varies as the sine of the compass course - a sine curve) and as with permanent B the deviation due to induced B will vary inversely as H i.e. Deviation 1/H. In addition the magnetism induced in the vertical iron will depend on the value of the earths vertical field Z and this also varies with change of magnetic latitude. If the value of Z is doubled the strength of the magnetism included in the vertical iron is also doubled and provided only small angles are involved the deviation will also be doubled. Deviation due to induced B varies directly as Z Deviation

Z Z
H

When a vessel changes its magnetic latitude the value of both H and Z will alter and combining these two effects. Deviation

At a position on the magnetic equator the value of Z is zero and there is no induction in vertical soft iron. It follows that in this position there will be no deviation due to induced B.
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In the Southern hemisphere the polarity is reversed to that in the Northern hemisphere. On similar courses the deviation caused will therefore be opposite in the name in the two hemispheres. The two parts of coefficient B can be identified and corrected as follows: a) Observe coefficient B at or near the magnetic equator and correct deviation by magnets. Deviations which appear in higher magnetic latitudes should then be removed by Flinders Bar. OR b) Observe the coefficient in two widely separated latitudes. Form two equations involving hard iron B and induced B and solve for each with simultaneous equations. Correction of co-efficient induced B is achieved by securing a vertical bar of soft iron (the Flinders Bar) to the binnacle so that it lies in the vertical fore and aft plane through the compass position so that the pole induced at the top of the bar causes a horizontal field at the compass position. Where the compass is sited forward of amidships the length of Flinders bar should be attached forward of the binnacle to counteract the effect of the ships vertical iron. Where the predominance of vertical iron is forward of the compass position the Flinders bar should be attached to the after side of the binnacle. The Flinders bar is contained in a brass case attached to the binnacle, the soft iron being supplied in lengths of 12", 6", 3", 1" and two lengths of ". To achieve the required horizontal field at the compass position when a length of 12" or 6" is used the top end of the bar should be level with the compass. When less than 6" is used the top end of the bar should be lower than the compass. This is achieved by fitting wooden spacing pieces in the lower part of the brass tube.

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INDUCED COEFFICIENT C As a compass is usually placed on the fore and aft line the magnetic effects to port and starboard are usually equal. However, if the compass is not on the fore and aft line or the magnetic material is not symmetrical to port and starboard then there will be an 'f' rod. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE f rod effect

F.B.

F.B.

f rod effect

INDUCED COEFFICIENT C This is the maximum semi circular deviation caused by an athwartship attraction due to induced magnetism in vertical soft iron (f rod). This deviation will be: (1) maximum on north and south by compass, zero on each and west. (2) on intermediate headings proportional to the cosine of the compass course. To correct for induced coefficient B and induced coefficient C the Flinders bar should be slewed so that: Tan angle of slew = f rod c rod or Ind Coeff C Ind Coeff B

This correction once properly made will, for the reasons explained above, hold good in all magnetic latitudes. Correct for Ind. B & C Correct for Ind. B only

F.B .

Correct for Ind. C only

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COEFFICIENT D Induced magnetism in symmetrical fore and aft and athwartship soft iron causes Coefficient D. Consider the effect of continuous horizontal athwartships soft iron (-e rod).

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Consider the effect of continuous horizontal fore and aft soft iron (-a rod).

The two conditions above are those most commonly found. Coefficient D: Is positive when the deviations are easterly in the northeast and southwest quadrants. Is negative when the deviations are easterly in the northwest and southeast quadrants.

Coefficient D:

The value of coefficient D is found by taking the mean of the deviations on northeast southeast northwest and southwest after reversing the sign on southeast and northwest. Deviation varies as sine of twice the compass course. Deviation = coefficient D x sine twice the compass course. The deviation due to horizontal soft iron will remain unchanged as the vessel changes her magnetic latitude because the force which causes the induced magnetism in the HSI and hence the deviating field is also the directive force. As the deviating field and the directive are both caused by the horizontal component of the earth's field they will both change in proportion and hence there will be no change in the vessel's deviation when she alters her magnetic latitude. The value and sign of coefficient D remains unchanged in any magnetic latitude and a sign of coefficient D depends entirely on the arrangement of the horizontal soft iron.

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As the normal ship has continuous fore and aft (-a rods) and continuous athwartships (-e rods) soft iron the deviation curves due to symmetrical soft iron will be as shown:

North

(-a Rod) Smaller deviation due to effective poles being further from compass

(- e Rod) Larger deviation due to effective poles being nearer compass

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Sketch the diagram for: (a) Interrupted horizontal athwartship soft iron (+e rod).

CORRECTION OF COEFFICIENT D Coefficient D is caused by induced magnetism in symmetrical fore and aft and athwartships horizontal soft iron. In the normal ship the continuous fore and aft and athwartships iron has the predominant effect at the compass position. The continuous athwartships iron gives a plus D coefficient and the continuous fore and aft iron gives a minus D coefficient; as these two effects partially cancel each other adjustment is made by reducing the plus D effect and increasing the minus D effect. Coefficient D is corrected by soft iron spheres placed athwartships. They should be moved inwards for + D and outwards for -D. The spheres have the effect of increasing the fore and aft (-a rod) component and decreasing the effect of the continuous athwartships soft iron (e rod) by introducing continuous fore and aft horizontal soft iron and interrupted athwartship soft iron.

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COEFFICIENT E Consider the effect of horizontal soft iron running diagonally across the vessel from the port bow to the starboard quarter at 45 to the fore and aft line. +E

Similar effects to the above "magnet" could be produced by the fore and aft and athwartships soft iron. A "b" rod is horizontal athwartships soft iron that has its acting pole either for'd or abaft the compass. A "d" rod is fore and aft horizontal soft iron that has its acting pole abeam of the compass. (b and d rods, of equal value and same sign.) Coefficient E: Is positive when the deviations are easterly in the north and south quadrants and westerly in the east and west quadrants. Is negative when the deviations are westerly in the north and south quadrants and easterly in the east and west quadrants.

Coefficient E:

The value of coefficient E is found by taking the mean of the deviations on north, south, east and west after reversing the sign on east and west. Deviation varies as cosine twice the compass course. i.e. deviation = E cos twice the compass course. As coefficient E is caused by horizontal soft iron it will not change in different magnetic latitudes as the deviating field is caused by the directive field.

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CORRECTION OF COEFFICIENT E Coefficient E is caused by induced magnetism in unsymmetrical horizontal soft iron and is compensated for by slewing the spheres. Tan 2M = Coeff. E Coeff. D (where M is the angle of slew)

The angle of slew is from the athwartships line if there is a plus D coefficient. The angle of slew is from the fore and aft line if there is a minus D coefficient. When the sign of both the coefficients is the same the spheres are rotated clockwise. When the sign of both the coefficients is different the spheres are rotated anti-clockwise.

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APPROXIMATE AND EXACT COEFFICIENTS If the courses used in calculating the coefficients are the magnetic courses then the coefficients are known as the exact coefficients and are written with the bar thus: _ _ _ _ _ A B C D E In practice it is more convenient to use the compass courses and the coefficients then obtained are called the approximate coefficients and are written A B C D E etc.

COMBINATION OF CO-EFFICIENTS: The deviation on any particular heading of a ship is due to a combination of effects from all the Co-efficients. Co-efficient A gives rise to a constant deviation whatever the heading. The effect of co-efficient B varies as the sine of the compass course. The effect of co-efficient C varies as the cosine of the compass course. The effect of co-efficient D varies as the sine of twice the compass course. The effect of co-efficient E varies as the cosine of twice the compass course. ANALYSIS: The value of the five co-efficients may conveniently be calculated if the deviation is observed with the ships head on eight equidistant points of the compass including compass North. A) All the co-efficients except A give rise to deviation on headings which can be grouped in pairs so that for each pair of headings the deviations are equal in value but opposite in name (e.g. the deviation due to B on NE is equal and opposite to that on SW). Coefficient A may thus be found by adding all the deviations and dividing the sum by eight. Co-efficient B has maximum deviation on East and West by compass but the name on West is opposite to the name on East. Co-efficients A and E, which also cause deviation on East and West by compass, are of the same name on each course. The value of coefficient B may thus be calculated by reversing the name of the deviation on West, adding this figure to the deviation on East and dividing the sum by two. Co-efficient C may be calculated similarly be reversing the name of the deviation on South, adding the figure to the deviation on North and dividing the sum by two. It may be noted here that, if the vessel has a constant angle of heel during the swing, the co-efficient found this way includes heeling error as well as C. Co-efficient D by noting the deviations on the intercardinal points the value of co-efficient D may be calculated by taking the deviations on NE and SW, reversing the name of the deviations on SE and NW adding them together and dividing the sum by four. Co-efficient E by noting the deviations of N, E, S and W, co-efficient E may be calculated by taking the deviations on N and S reversing the name of the deviations on E and W, adding them together and dividing the sum by four.

B)

C)

D)

E)

This method of finding the separate co-efficients from an observed set of deviations is best carried out in a form of tabulation.
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HEELING ERROR May be divided into permanent and induced components. Permanent heeling error is due to the vertical component of a ships permanent magnetic field. This causes no deviation when the vessel is upright, but when a vessel is heeled the field is carried out of the vertical and a deviation may be caused. If the original vertical field is directed toward the keel, the resulting deviation when the vessel heels will be towards the high side - If the original vertical field is directed upwards, the resulting deviation when the vessel heels will be towards the low side. + The greater the angle of heel, the further the original field will be taken from the vertical and for small angles the value of the deviations caused can be taken to vary directly as the angle of heel. Deviation

I (where I = angle of heel)

If a vessel with a constant angle of heel is swung through 360, and the vertical component of the ships permanent magnetic-field is directed towards the keel, the deviations caused will be illustrated by the sketch. HIGH SIDE HEELING ERROR - CO-EFFICIENT - J FORCE R when vessel heels blue pole is carried out to the high side

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The deviation is zero on East and West, and maximum on North and South by compass. The deviation curve is a cosine curve so that deviation due to heeling error may be said to vary as the cosine of the compass course. In this respect heeling error is similar to co-efficient C which is also caused by an athwartship effect. As with the deviation due to other hard iron the effect on permanent heeling error will vary inversely as H. Induced Heeling Error in a well placed compass is due mainly to two causes: 1. Induction in vertical soft iron gives rise to a similar effect to that described above, but since the magnetism induced in the vertical iron is due mainly to the vertical component (Z) of the earth's field, the deviation due to this cause varies directly as Z as well as inversely as H. i.e. directly as the tangent of the angle of dip. A permanent or induced pole vertically below the compass when vessel is upright but carried to one side when vessel heels. + k rod Compass Needle attracted to High Side

Heading North

2. Induction by H in athwartships horizontal soft iron gives rise to coefficient D when a vessel is upright. When a vessel is heeled, this iron becomes inclined to the horizontal and acquires a vertical component in which magnetism is induced by Z.

The greater the angle of heel, the greater is this induction and the greatest deviation due to this cause will occur when the angle of heel is 45. For small angles, it can be taken that the deviation varies directly as the angle of heel.

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Induction by Z in athwartships soft iron when vessel heels on Nly courses. -e rod

3. A third type of induced heeling error is caused by a horizontal fore and aft soft iron component with an effective pole immediately below the compass position. The effect of this is usually small and not taken into account of when correction is made. As with permanent heeling error, the deviation due to induced heeling error is zero on East and West and maximum on North and South by compass. The deviation varies as the cosine of the compass course. To summarise, it may be taken that heeling error due to a ship's permanent magnetism varies directly as the angle of heel, inversely as H and directly as the cosine of the compass course. The deviation due to a ships induced heeling error varies directly as the angle of heel, directly as Z, inversely as H and directly as the cosine of the compass course. The effect of heeling error is to cause a steady deviation when a vessel has a constant angle of heel and is on a particular course. It also has the effect of causing an unsteady compass when a vessel is rolling in a seaway, because the deviation changes its name as the vessel changes her heel from port to starboard. CORRECTION OF HEELING ERROR The deviation due to heeling error is corrected by introducing permanent magnets set vertically in a holder (or bucket) beneath the compass. This arrangement introduces a vertical field at the compass position. The field may be varied by raising or lowering the bucket or by varying the number of magnets used. Whatever the number of magnets used, they should be arranged symmetrically. Since an entirely permanent magnetic field is used to correct a combination of permanent and induced components, the correction of heeling error does not remain effective when a vessel's magnetic latitude changes.

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ARRANGEMENT OF HEELING ERROR MAGNETS

RED ENDS UP NORTHERN HEMISPHERE ORDER OF PLACING CORRECTORS The several correctors which have been mentioned should be placed in position in the correct order. This is necessary because there is an interaction between the correctors, and certain correctors produce small effects apart from their designed function. A proper sequence is therefore essential. The following established procedure should be adhered to: Soft Iron correctors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Flinders Bar Spheres Heeling Error Magnets Horizontal Magnets

1. a) Flinders Bar because of its dimensions produces "a", "e" and "k" rod effects. With F.B. in position first, these effects are corrected by the spheres, when they are shipped. b) The spheres contain a "-k" effect which is corrected by the HE magnets. Also the "e2" rod exists only after the spheres are in position, and "e 2" rod value is a factor of 2 from which the ship's multiplier is obtained for use in correct HE with the V.F.I. 2. The vertical H.E. magnet corrects for the R, -kZ, -e2 Z of the ship and also for the "k" rod effect in F.B. and in the spheres. The HE magnets also induce magnetism into F.B. which, because it is permanently induced, produces a P and R force. This P force factor will subsequently be corrected by the F.A. permanent magnets when total P force is corrected and the R force will be corrected by the HE magnets which cause it. 3. The fore and aft and athwartships permanent magnets may now be inserted, although no particular sequence is required, generally the larger coefficient is corrected first. Obviously, when the SI corrections are made first, then like is corrected with like. Thus, when these correctors are shipped in the above sequence, they are not being affected by induction from the F.A. and athwartships permanent magnets and the compensation is good.

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UNCORRECTED HEELING ERROR AND AN UNSTEADY COMPASS Uncorrected or overcorrected heeling error is a cause of unsteadiness in a magnetic compass when the vessel is rolling. It is not the only cause, but should be suspected if there has been a large change of latitude since heeling error was last adjusted. HEELING ERROR IS A MAXIMUM ON NORTH AND SOUTH COURSES Unsteadiness of the magnetic compass card is likely to be a maximum on northerly and southerly courses. When the unsteadiness is serious, it is necessary to adjust the vertical magnets at sea to produce a compass card steady enough to steer by. The north end of the compass is pulled to the high side when there is a downward force at the compass (+R) and to the low side when there is an upward force at the compass (-R). The corrector bucket should now be raised or lowered as required very slowly until the compass card is steady. It is possible that moving the corrector bucket by itself is insufficient to steady the compass, in which case a magnet the correct way up should be added or taken away. The heeling error is then properly corrected. When the HE corrector magnets are altered appreciably the correction of the permanent part of the coefficient B is upset. The two parts of coefficient B must be corrected separately, otherwise deviations on E and W courses will appear with a change of latitude and HE will appear on east and westerly courses. Acceleration errors are produced in the magnetic compass of high speed craft particularly when altering course. For this reason their use on such vessels is not recommended.

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HEELING ERROR OR VERTICAL FORCE INSTRUMENT

This instrument was invented by Captain Creak RN to correct heeling error when the vessel is upright. The instrument consists of a framework, which fits into the compass binnacle, with a magnetised needle pivoted horizontally a little above its centre of gravity so that in the absence of a magnetic field it would lie horizontally. In the presence of a magnetic field the needle (in the N Hemisphere) would tilt downwards and in the S Hemisphere tilt upwards. The force causing the needle to tilt from the horizontal is the vertical component (Z) of the earths field. The effect of the magnetic force affecting the needle may be counteracted by sliding a weight along the needle to make it balance in a horizontal position. The distance of the weight from the pivot is proportional to Z and may be measured by reading the graduation of the needle against the scale. CORRECTION OF HEELING ERROR The vertical force instrument is first levelled ashore in a position free from disturbing magnetic fields and the scale reading noted. The V.F.I is then taken back on board the vessel and placed in the compass binnacle preferably with the vessel heading East or West. If the weight was left at the same graduation position as was noted ashore, the needle will be found to lie inclined at an angle to the horizontal since the effect Z will be increased or decreased by the vertical permanent or induced magnetism of the ship's structure. The scale reading which was noted ashore (say N) is multiplied by the ships multiplier 2 = 0.9 for average ship. The weight is set at the graduation on the instrument equal to the product of the scale reading ashore and the ships multiplier (N x 2). With this setting and the vertical force instrument in the compass position the heeling error magnets are put in position to bring the needle horizontal again. The value of 2 is determined by the ships horizontal soft iron as modified by the spheres and this also causes the horizontal direction force at the compass position to be reduced by a factor 2. Numerically 2 = 2 (In practice it is 2 that is calculated).

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LAMBDA () This is the ratio of the mean directive force to magnetic North at the compass position to the directive force ashore. The same ratio after the spheres have been placed is called 2. The mean directive force is always less than 2 which is less the directive force ashore because: 1) a ship usually has continuous horizontal soft iron causing a red pole to the North of the compass. 2) the ship's structure has a screening effect on the compass. Reasons for find and 2 are: 1) to determine the best place for the compass. 2) to determine the value of the ship's multiplier. is found by using a horizontal vibrating needle ashore and then on board and comparing the periods of oscillation. To carry out the experiment the horizontal vibrating needle would be set up ashore about 3 feet above ground level at a place free from unwanted magnetic effects. The needle should be deflected 15 and the total time observed for a selected number of oscillations, e.g. 10. The needle should then be taken on board and vibrated in the compass position with the ship's head on each of the cardinal courses in turn and again observing the time interval for the selected number of oscillations on each course. From the above data 1 or if the spheres are in position 2 may be found.

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CHANGES IN DEVIATION DUE TO CHANGE IN MAGNETIC LATITUDE When a vessel changes her magnetic latitude the deviation due to hard iron will change and the deviation due to soft iron may change. HARD IRON As the deviating field is constant, the deviation will vary inversely as H. i.e. Deviation2 Deviation 1 = H1 H2

Deviating Force (df)

VERTICAL SOFT IRON a) As the vessel changes her magnetic latitude the vertical soft iron will be induced more or less strongly with the changing intensity of the vertical component (Z) or the earth's magnetic field. If Z is increased the vertical soft iron will be more strongly induced, a stronger deviating field is produced and the deviation is increased. b) Also if H is increased the directive force is stronger and the needle is more difficult to deviate and the deviation is decreased. Deviation varies directly as Z and inversely as H Z = tan dip. H Deviation in vertical soft iron varies as but

Z or tan dip. H The most common vertical soft iron on a ship is a "c" rod and is corrected by a Flinders Bar which is usually forward of the compass.

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HORIZONTAL SOFT IRON In this case the horizontal soft iron is induced by H, and therefore the strength of deviating field is directly proportional to H. However as the directive force is also due to H, the deviation also varies inversely as H. H a constant. H The deviation due to horizontal soft iron is therefore constant and will not vary as the vessel alters her magnetic latitude. Deviation due to H.S.I. varies as

H H

Deviating Force (df)

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GAUSSIN ERROR When a vessel is altering course to port or starboard, different parts of the vessel's structure are cutting the Earth's magnetic field at different rates. E.M.F.'s induced in the ship's structure cause electric currents to flow and the magnetic fields associated with these 'eddy' currents may cause deviations to the compass. Lenz's law states that the magnetic fields which develop will be such as to oppose the motion causing them. Thus if a vessel is swinging to starboard, magnetic fields will develop with a polarity which attempts to swing the ship to port and the compass card will be deflected in that sense. For a ship swinging to port the compass card would be deflected to the right.

Compass settles quickly

Compass Needle deflected to left (West)

Gaussin error is therefore Westerly for a vessel swinging to starboard from a Northerly course. While the swing continues the name of the deviation is constant thus giving a similar effect to Co-efficient A. The eddy currents will die out and the error will become zero within a few minutes of a vessel coming on to a steady course. When a vessel is swung to adjust compasses it is necessary to keep the ship's head steady on each heading for a few minutes before the deviation is observed to ensure that it is not distorted by Gaussin error.

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RETENTIVE ERROR When a vessel steers a steady course for some considerable time, the vibration of the ship and the influence of the earth's magnetic field combine to cause a gradual magnetic change in parts of a vessel's structure. If the vessel then changes course, this change in the magnetism will initially be retained but will gradually decay. Magnetism of this type is known as sub-permanent magnetism and the error it gives 'rise' to is known as retentive error.

Compass takes time to settle quickly Compass Needle deflected to left (West)

Red Pole develops

If as in the figure a vessel steers a steady northerly course for an extended period, the vessel's sub-permanent magnetism will acquire a red pole forward. If the vessel then alters course to starboard the red and blue poles will be temporarily retained and will cause westerly deviation. The deviation caused in this way is similar to that due to Gaussin error for alterations of course less than 180. The difference is that Gaussin error is due to an unsettling of the ship's induced magnetism due to the actual swerving of the ship in azimuth whilst retentive error is due to sub permanent magnetism developed while the ship is steering a steady course. The effect of Gaussin error is quickly lost when a vessel steadies on a new course but the effect of retentive error is only lost over a much longer period of time.

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REQUIREMENTS FOR A RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS It is required to indicate Magnetic North with reliability when on all courses in all latitudes in all weathers. It is required to maintain deviations at a minimum and that a 20 alteration of course is a 20 compass heading change. Compass performance should be monitored by frequently recording deviations in a compass deviation book, this should highlight any unreliability of the compass.

TENTATIVE METHOD OF ADJUSTMENT This method may be used when the ship has already been in commission and has had her compasses previously adjusted. i) The existing amount of Flinders Bar is altered only if there is reason to believe that a different length is necessary. ii) The spheres are tested for any retained magnetism by turning them in position. If they have not become magnetised, they are left in position. iii) Using an estimated value of 0.8 or 0.9 for the ship's multiplier, correct for Heeling Error with the vertical force instrument. iv) On E or W compass remove the deviations by adjusting the F & A magnets. v) On N or S compass remove the deviations by adjusting the athwartship magnets. vi) On any quadrantal heading by compass remove the deviation by adjusting the spheres. The adjustment made in vi) may upset those in iv) and v) so these should now be repeated with the ship on the opposite headings and half the remaining deviation, if more than 2, removed by adjusting the appropriate magnets. These adjustments may in turn upset the setting of the spheres in vi) so that with the ship on a quadrantal heading, half the remaining deviations if more than 2, should be removed by adjusting the spheres. vii) Swing for a table of residual deviations.

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