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Seminar Report

Cyber Terrorism

Seminar Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of




(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to JNTUH) Maheshwaram – 501 359, R. R. Dist. Phone: 9441119508


Seminar Report

Cyber Terrorism

JJ Institute of Information Technology
(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to JNTUH)
Maheshwaram – 501 359, R. R. Dist. Phone: 9441119508

Department of Information Technology



Head of Dept. CSE GUIDE AME: PRASANTH SIR Mr. A. ARUN KUMAR Assoc. Professor & HOD

INTERNAL N Name with Designation


Seminar Report

Cyber Terrorism

Name with Designation


I thank GOD almighty for guiding me throughout the seminar. I would like to thank all those who have contributed to the completion of the seminar and helped me with valuable suggestions for improvement.

I am extremely grateful to ARUN KUMAR, HOD , Division of Information Technology, for providing me with best facilities and atmosphere for the creative work guidance and encouragement. I would like to thank my coordinator, Omprakash Sir, Sr. Lecturer, Division of Information Technology, and my guide Mrs. Prashanth sir, Lecturer, Division of Information Technology , SOE for all help and support extend to me. I thank all Staff members of my college and friends for extending their cooperation during my seminar.

Above all I would like to thank my parents without whose blessings, I would not have been able to accomplish my goal.



Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism ABSTRACT Cyberterrorism is a new terrorist tactic that makes use of information systems or digital technology. The difference between the conventional approaches of terrorism and new methods is primarily that it is possible to affect a large multitude of people with minimum resources on the terrorist's side. especially the Internet. with no danger to him at all. As the Internet becomes more a way of life with us. try to curtail its growth. the consequences could be disastrous.. in the sense that computing technology is now available to the whole world. but if this gift is used wrongly. it is becoming easier for its users to become targets of the cyberterrorists. and figure out ways of ensuring the world's safety from cyberterrorists. so that we can heal the present. but it cannot be said that any establishment is beyond attack. The number of areas in which cyberterrorists could strike is frightening. as either an instrument or a target. Various situations that can be viewed as acts of cyber-terrorism have also been covered. A number of issues here are ethical. 4 . as the Information Technology people of tomorrow need to study and understand the weaknesses of existing systems. The growth of Information Technology has led to the development of this dangerous web of terror. We. and live the future. and why the Internet is such an attractive alternative to them. to say the least. Banks are the most likely places to receive threats. We also glimpse into the reasons that caused terrorists to look towards the Web.. Tips by which we can protect ourselves from cyberterrorism have also been covered which can reduce problems created by the cyberterrorist. for cyberterrorists could wreak maximum havoc within a small time span. It is important that we understand and mitigate cyberterrorism for the benefit of society.



the key differences 7 . thanks to the advent of computers and Information Technology. The old. with less risk to the terrorists. This causes the terrorist to take to the net. Cyberterrorism can either be "international". The cause for this kind of a transition stems from the fact that the terrorist has long since realized that removing one official from office only causes another official to take his place. From disabling a country's economy to shutting off power in large areas. as terrorists head towards the Internet to pull their stunts. which is not the end-result the terrorist wished to achieve. according to the nature of the act. thus affecting a wider section than could otherwise have been targeted. in that a new terrorist tactic. Why IT is so attractive to the terrorist? Terrorist groups have been using computer technology to secure many of their goals. Cyberterrorism is any act of terrorism that uses information systems or digital technology (computers or computer networks) as either an instrument or a target. conventional methods of assassination and hostage taking are slowly fading. commonly called Cyberterrorism has developed.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism Introduction The world is a very large place. However. "domestic" or "political". They have been exploiting existing modern technology to accomplish the same goals that they have been working towards in the past. However. the progress that we've made in these fields also has a dark side. but it is getting smaller. it's all possible. but it is always an act involving a combination of the terrorist and the computer.

as well as increased anonymity. One of the most demonstrative examples. Iraq. Specific examples of the facilitation of terrorism through the use of computer technology illustrate the appeal this technology has for terrorist groups interested in advancing their particular agendas. Mexico. These are achieved by: • Political propaganda • Recruitment • Financing • Intra and inter-group communication and coordination • Information and intelligence gathering • Ease of operations that are cost-effective. it even offered a video clip of its members preparing for their mission. 1996 takeover of the Japanese Ambassador's residence in Lima. even more difficult to counter such acts. Terrorist groups take advantage of computer technology to create support structures that serve to strengthen their tactical and strategic plans and goals. and needless to say. The use of the Internet for propaganda and disinformation purposes is an especially popular one. It is extremely difficult to detect such clandestine operations. 8 . involves the case of the December. and ability to strike worldwide. Peru by the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. both in terms of resources used. Not only did this terrorist group use the Internet to communicate its revolutionary message to the rest of the world through a European website. Many exiled political opposition groups from such states as Iran. Northern Ireland and Saudi Arabia have used the World Wide Web for just such purposes. however.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism between their old tactics and their newer methods lie in the ease with which their operations can be performed.

computer networks and access to the World Wide Web are equally important. Physical distance and national borders that once separated terrorists from their coconspirators. more resilient terrorist groups. Organizations such as the Islamic fundamentalist groups that follow Osama Bin Ladin rely on computers to coordinate their activity. In the case of the intelligence gathering activities of terrorist groups. Modern computer technology has not only enhanced much of the above activity. is known to respond to press inquiries via e-mail. state-funded terrorist organizations. it also heightens fear in the target audience by reminding it of the potential for future violence. The attractiveness of this feature for groups eager to expand their activities can be explained as follows: Information Technology gives individuals and groups a reach and influence that was previously reserved for well-organized. the potential for 9 . but it has done so in such a fashion that the terrorist groups that utilize it are now able to operate beyond the range of traditional counter terrorist approaches.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism The added attractiveness of the Internet for terrorists is that the widest possible audience for their violent activity not only reminds them of the major themes of their campaigns. The nature of modern computer technology is such that it also lends itself to the communication and intelligence activities of terrorist groups. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Various supremacist groups in the United States have also used the Internet for financial gain. In addition to aiding terrorist propaganda. for example. computer networks also enhance terrorist recruitment and financing. In turn. their audience and their targets cease to exist in the world of modern telecommunications and the Internet. communication and especially financing without the knowledge of state authorities may inevitably lead to stronger and hence. The terrorist ability to engage in "growth activity" such as recruitment.

Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism terrorist groups to engage in activity that focuses less on threats and more on actions that can be seen and felt is significantly heightened. public safety and national security. Cyberterrorist threats can include: • rapid communication of threats to a wide or specific audience • threats to public utilities and transportation threats to commercial • threats to individuals institutions and transnational corporations • threats to IGOs and NGOs 10 . These threats can take any number of forms. and perhaps even more importantly the advent of computer networks has spawned a new direction in the organizational structure of terrorist groups.) Terrorist groups use their own computer technology to threaten or attack a victim's computer resources. more elusive and deadlier than their earlier counterparts. generates most of the interest we have in cyberterrorism today. Terrorist groups utilizing computers for communication are likely to move beyond hierarchical organizational structures and employ networked ones. This can take the form of threats or attacks against national infrastructures that have become heavily reliant and interconnected to computer networks. "low tech" operations against a victim's "high tech" infrastructure should not be ignored. but are generally seen as computer versus computer confrontations (While the current discussion focuses on the use of "high tech" applications in terrorist operations. What the Cyberterrorist can do? Terrorist groups engaging in cyberterrorism are noted for threats to commerce. Moreover. Activity of this sort is tangible in nature and thus. Modern terrorist groups that are able to develop undetected may become stronger.

In summary. and the environment (communications. there have been no instances where cyberterrorism has been directly translated a catastrophic loss of life or physical destruction associated with the most violent acts of "conventional" terrorism. public inconveniences or financial loss. Examples of Cyberterrorism Cyber terrorism takes many forms. The fact that the terrorists may be in another in another country adds 11 . religious or nationalist entities (all of these can include other terrorist groups) identified as "the enemy" • threats to security forces • threats to nation states What we occasionally see (what is reported) is actual damage to the above targets in the form of temporary disruption of services. The terrorists hack into the system and then leave an encrypted message for senior directors. This message says that if the bank does not pay a set amount of money.) in which they operate.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism • threats to political groups or other ethnic. however." There is a wide spectrum of possibilities for "evil actions" in cyberspace. At this point it is also helpful to speak in terms of "cyberspace-based threats. These incidents. then the terrorists will use anything from logic bombs to electromagnetic pulses and high-emission radio frequency guns to destroy the bank's files. are most often in the form of cyber crime and fall short of what is considered as cyberterrorism. The threat. These include attacks on the data contained within the systems. remains real and takes on an added significance when the growing potential of terrorist group resources is considered. the programs and processing hardware running those systems. One of the more popular is to threaten a large bank. however. networks. etc. which threatens the bank.

the life of the nurse was probably ruined. the assassins hacked into the hospital computer and changed his medication so that he would be given a lethal injection. it could have unpredictable effects that could have terrible results. the viruses can consume system resources until networks become useless. however. Thus. Cyberterrorists are often interested in gaining publicity in any possible way. For example. to cover their tracks so that the nurse would be blamed for the "accident". cyber-terrorism can be used for an assassination. after it had been incorrectly administered. This appreciation.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism to the difficulty of catching the criminals. In one of its more unusual forms. a Mafia boss was shot but survived the shooting. They then changed the medication order back to its correct form. In many instances there is little effort to distinguish the obvious differences between the two. Even if the person never meant to harm someone with their virus. Cyber crime is similar to cyberterrorism in its use of computer networks and information systems but clearly different in its motivation and goals. along with the reputation of the hospital and all its 12 . In one case. Some people treat cyberterrorism simply as an extension of cyber crime. He was dead a few hours later. is often overlooked. because many people are affected by these cases. a man was killed by the hackers' actions. Also. This is a serious ethical issue. A second difficulty is that most banks would rather pay the money than have the public know how vulnerable they are. but also as a way for the designer of the viruses to "show off" his "creativity". That night while he was in the hospital. information warfare techniques like Trojan horse viruses and network worms are often used to not only do damage to computing resources. costing companies lots of time and money. For one. Significant confusion in understanding cyberterrorism also emerges when cyberterrorism is confused with "cyber crime" and vice versa.

Ethical issues in this case include things like invasion of privacy and ownership conflicts. The patient could die waiting for help because the computer wouldn't allow the necessary access for the doctor to save his or her life. Minor attacks come in the form of "data diddling". results. known as the Chaos Computer Club. to disable large networks. the person who needed access to the machine was trying to save someone's life in a hospital and couldn't access the machine. even life and death. Such a group. Cyber-terrorists often commit acts of terrorism simply for personal gain. 13 . there are often more victims in a terrorist situation that the immediate recipient of the terrorism. This could easily be used to steal money from users all over the world that have the Quicken software installed on their computer. They had created an Active X Control for the Internet that can trick the Quicken accounting program into removing money from a user's bank account. Hackers may even prevent users who should have access from gaining access to the machine. which can have disastrous. This type of file is only one of thousands of types of viruses that can do everything from simply annoy users.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism employees. The rumour caused thousands of people to panic. Terrorism can also come in the form of disinformation. was discovered in 1997. It could be even more serious if. and the number of people affected was unlimited. Recently. for instance. where information in the computer is changed. the rumor that a group of people was stealing people's kidneys and putting them for sale was spread via the Internet. This may involve changing medical or financial records or stealing of passwords. Terrorists can many times say what they please without fear of action from authorities or of accountability for what they say. Thus.

the most common method of protection is encryption. The wide spread use of encryption is inhibited by the government's ban on its exportation. including e-mail messages.. is unaffected by encryption. which may carry logic bombs. Others promote the use of firewalls to screen all communications to a system. The director of the FBI's stance was that the Internet was not intended to go unsupervised and that the police need to protect people's privacy and public-safety rights there. Currently there are no foolproof ways to protect a system. Most of the militaries classified information is kept on machines with no outside connection. so intercontinental communication is left relatively insecure. The resources to launch a cyber attack are commonplace in the world. created the Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. a computer and a connection to the Internet are all that is really needed to wreak havoc. such as a virus. The board found that the combination of electricity. communications and computers are necessary for the survival of the U. an attack designed to cripple the whole system.S. They may come in the form of a computer. The Clinton administration and the FBI opposed the export of encryption in favor of a system where by the government can gain the key to an encrypted system after gaining a court order to do so. Encryption's drawback is that it does not protect the entire system.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism What can be done about Cyberterrorism? In response to heightened awareness of the potential for cyber-terrorism President Clinton. The completely secure system can never be accessed by anyone. Adding to the problem is that the public and private sectors are relatively ignorant of just how much their lives depend on computers as well as the weaknesses of those computers. Firewall is a relatively generic term for methods of filtering access to a network. Apart from such isolation. as a form of prevention of cyberterrorism. in 1996. router other communications device or in the form of a network 14 . all of which can be threatened by cyberwarfare.

fraud. 4. 2. Change the network configuration when defects become know. Types Of Cyber Crimes: -Broadly three types of cyber crimes are recognized: * Hacking without any intention to commit any further offence. If you are ever unsure about the safety of a site. One method is to screen user requests to check if they come from a previously defined domain or Internet Protocol (IP) address. Check with venders for upgrades and patches. Firewalls serve to define the services and access that are permitted to each user. 3. * Unauthorized access with intention to commit further offences. 2. These can include theft. Here are few key things to remember to protect yourself from cyber-terrorism: 1. They can make the computer do nearly anything they want it to. Crackers – They break into computer systems circumventing operating systems and their security is their favourite pastime. trogon horses. 15 . It could be trouble. don't access it. difficult to guess. or receive suspicious email from an unkown address.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism configuration. miss-appropriations. logic bombs. * Distribution of digital information through use of virus. forgery. Another method is to prohibit Telnet access into the system. All accounts should have passwords and the passwords should be unusual. 5. Hacking: Hackers might be 1. Audit systems and check logs to help in detecting and tracing an intruder. Code hackers – They know computers inside out. cracking.

16 . must compromise one of the following. There must be an unauthorised entry lawfully obtained into or upon property but unlawfully remaining therein. so uncontrollable that even largest companies in the world are finding it difficult to cope up with their incessant attacks. There must be an unauthorised entry into or upon property against the will of the person in possession. 1. Password attacks. IP spoofing: - An IP (internet protocol) Spoofing attack occurs when an attacker out side the network enters pretending as if he is inside network and takes all information from network or destroy information. Cyber pumps – They are masters of cryptography.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism 3. Attacker uses pocket sniffers to get passwords accounts etc. Five common methods of attacks through internet: Network pocket sniffers: - It is package softer which uses a network adaptor card in promiscuous made to capture all network pockets that are sent across a local area network this provide user with meaningful and often sensitive information such as accounts and passwords. An act to constitute trespass under-section 441 I. 4. or 2. Hackers are becoming menacing.P. Distribution of sensitive internal information to external sources. Phreakers – They combine their in-depth knowledge of the Internet and mass telecommunication systems.C.

have become popular tools for sharing the information in market. Boot sector virus 3. 2. Logic bombs Types of Viruses 1. 3. VIRUS 2. E-mail online Spam: Because spam-junk e-mail. In 1997 1152 crimes were reported. Alternation And Destruction Of Digital Information: This is largest menace facing the world of computers. File infectors 2.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism • Man – in – the – middle attacks Fraud on Internet: This is a form of white collar crime whose growth may be as rapid and diverse as growth of the internet itself. Bulletin boards: Online bulletin boards – whether newsgroups. 2. use nets or web-based. Some of these are also found to be fraudulent. They are the programs created by humans which do destruction. Worms 4. Types of Fraud 1. They are :1. Trojan horses 3.is so cheap and easy to create.Macro VIRUS 17 . fraudsters increasingly use it to find investors for bogus investment schemes using a bulk e-mail program Spammers can send personalized messages to thousands and even millions of internet users at a time. But some of them are found to be tools for fraud. But in 1998 they skied up to 7500. Online investment newsletters: These are major tools for advertising the investments in stock market and growth of companies.

Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism Impact of Cyber Crimes on functionality.T. offences. OFFENCES I. Contraventions have resultant monetary penalties. work culture and their results:- If any system which is working with help of internet is hacked. act delineates two separate types of penal provisions. offences. CONTRAVENTOINS AND COMPENSATOINS/PENALTIES Contraventions – Accessing or securing access to the computer/network. it is obvious that its source code will be modified and system falls in malfunctionality. the offences may result in the offender being imprisoned or paying a fine or both. along with a few other statutes. If this situation happened in banks.T. It also amends the I. Introducing or 18 .P.C. Downloading any data or information from the computer/network. Hence Government of India passed some rules to counter Cyber crimes. 2000:---- This act. Hence all functions taking this system’s help will also fall in malfunctionality. contraventions and I.T. CONTRAVENTIONS AND I. military control systems and etc the loss will be of great amount. Cyber crimes And Information Technology Act.T. passed with the objective of promoting a secure electronic environment deals with issues subsidiary to this secure electronic environment such as contraventions relating to electronics transactions and I.

4. 3. Charging the service availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer/network. ACT 2000 in I. Hacking is punishable with imprisonment up to 3 years or fine up to 2 lakh rupees or both. data base or any other programs residing in it.P. data. This offence is punishable with imprisonment up to three years or with fine up to 2 lakh rupees or both.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism causing to be introduced any computer contaminant or computer VIRUS into the computer/network. Obscenity: Publishing or transmitting any material which is lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest or of its effect is such so as to tend to deprave and corrupt person who are likely concerned to it. Damaging or causing to be damaged the computer/network.T. offences as described in chapter XI of the I. Hacking: Destroying. If nay such person fails to comply with such 19 . This is punishable on FIRST CONVICTION with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 5 years and with fine which may extend to 1 lakh rupees and in event of a SECOND or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years and also with fine 2 lakh rupees. 1. 2.T. The following acts are punishable according to I. Failure to comply with controllers directions: The CCA [Controller Complying Authority] may give certifying authorities to take certain measures to ensure compliance under act.C. Source code attacks: KNOWINGLY OR INTENTIONALLY destroying computer/network source code that is used to maintain computer/network. Deleting or altering any information or diminishing its value or utility by any means with intent to cause loss or damage to the public or any person.

7. Making Available Digital Signature for Fraudulent Purpose: Is punishable with imprisonment for 2 years or fine up to 1 lakh rupees or both. TYPES OF HACKING 20 . In national or public interest or fails to support to CCA in such cases the subscriber is punishable with an imprisonment for a term that may extend to seven years. Subscriber’s failure to comply with controller’s requirements for decryption.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism directions liable to imprisonment up to three years or fine up to 2 lakh rupees or both. HACKING Original term referred to learn programming languages and computer systems. now associated with the process of bypassing the security systems on a computer system or network. sometimes used to describe a person who breaks into computer system for the purpose of stealing or destroying data. HACKER: A term sometimes used to describe a person who pursues the knowledge of computer and security systems for it’s own sake. Hacker's and criminals to transmit computer viruses. steal or corrupt valuable information. 5. Publishing false digital signature certificate: If a person knows that a digital signature is false and still goes ahead and certifies it is guilty and he is punishable with imprisonment up to 2 years or fine up to 2 lakh or both. 6. invade privacy.

Americans be prepared to die”. ADVANTAGES :  Web business have recently found an old way to protect their new concepts by making the patent application public on his site Mr. CRASHING OF SITES: Sometimes a mischievous hacker tries to crash down site by sending millions of email like the tempest site. 21 . TRANSMISSION OF VIRUS: In hacking a hacker can paralyze the systems by transmitting virus they by affecting the whole data be it of any company. 5. which translates as “Allah is the greatest of all. 4. the hacker adds 500 mg of penicillin to his usual dose of medication. 3.Tim Grey effectively put copycats on notice. He applied for a patent and after three years of waiting his site his one of a handful of net business that can count a newly granted patent as one of its assets. 2. Say. CYBER MURDERS: A hacker breaks into hospital medical records and maliciously alters prescriptions. HACKING INCIDENT CLOSES SECURITY NEWS SITE: A hacker had offered $10. The pages were defaced with the flag of Saudi Arabia and a message in Urdu.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism 1.  Like Grey Natgoldhaber had fears about his company cybergold being copied. The hackers called themselves ‘mujihadeen’ threatened further cyber terrorism. 6. a notorious hacker who defaced the schmitz site.Two US government sites were hacked late last week by a group calling themselves ‘mujihadeen’. if a patient is allergic to penicillin. The owner’s site came crashing down. MANIPULATING STOCK MARKETS: A hacker can some how go to the stock markets web site and manipulate various shares they by giving some companies great losses and some great profits. The nurse administers the drug causing immediate death.000 bounty for information about fluffy bunny. EFFECT ON US GOVERNMENT SITES: US government sites were hacked by ‘mujihadeen’.

 BAG OF DIRTY TRICKS:  Password generators: Software in this genre is a hacker’s dream. Password cracking is an extremely common hacker technique. These software attacks serves millions of different combinations of letters and words until they find your password and hack into your system. According to him hackers are inventors who thirst for knowledge. 22 . yahoo or excite it’s vulnerable to hacker’s.  Credit card numbers: These are similar to password generators and can help a hacker find and use your credit card number. The media typically mislabels hackers as crackers and crackers as hackers. Shipley is proud to call himself a hacker.  Secondly the user is not notified when a number of failed login attempts have occurred. These services allow an unlimited number of log on attempts. They want to rule the world.  Password crackers attempt to obtain an account password by exhaustively guessing word and number combination. DISADVANTAGES: If you have an account on hotmail. He suggested the CHAOS THEORY which is given as below Media misconceptions: What is a hacker? A hacker is someone who pursues technology. They don’t want to destroy the world.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism ARE HACKERS REALLY CRIMINALS? Not according to Pete Shipley. an experimenter and a hacker. chief security architect at KPMG consultancy. Ben Franklin was an inventor.If a password attack has been attempted against a user.

VSN L PROXY SERVER INTERNET USER LOGBOOK AOL. YAH OO. 23 ...Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism Hacking is a euphemism for what is in fact an act of electronic war with devastating consequences.

6.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism e-mail leaves behind a trace leading back to it’s point of origin in the form of an email header. Use strong passwords: use passwords that are difficult or impossible to guess. Make regular backup’s of critical data: Backup’s must be done atleast once each day. This will throw of two boxes where you can view your e-mail ‘in full’.12. The IP address. complete with IP addresses. But only the police have authority to trace back the route of message up to the doorstep of the offending subscriber.111. Regularly down load security. Do not keep computers online when not in use: either shut them or disconnect them from Internet connection. 1. 5. 3. host based operating 24 . To view the header all we need to do is press ‘options’ button and then go to ‘preferences’. 2.can be traced to VSNL. Give different passwords to all accounts. Use firewall as a gatekeeper between your computer and Internet. PREVENTIVE MEASURES : The FBI’s national infrastructure protection has released a test of seven simple preventive measures. Computer users can take to step up a security on their machines from hacking. INTERLIANT BEEFS UP SECURITY OFFERING: The security vulnerability includes comprehensive audit of an enterprises network security including internal and external penetration testing. usually a number like 120. Use virus protection software this means three things having it in your computer check daily for new virus signature updates and then scan it. Do not open e-mail attachments from strangers. 4.

public organizations. as the following examples illustrate: • In 1998. Factors Leading To Cyberterrorism: 25 ." Intelligence authorities characterized it as the first known attack by terrorists against a country's computer systems. No attack so far has led to violence or injury to persons. according to reports." • In 1998. businesses. whether they were sufficiently harmful or frightening to be classified as cyberterrorism is a judgement call. although some may have intimidated their victims . Instances Of Cyber Terrorism Some attacks are conducted in furtherance of political and social objectives. Web defacements were also common. • During the Kosovo conflict in 1999. While these incidents were motivated by political and social reasons. In addition. E-mail was tied up and undeliverable to the ISP's users.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism system configuration topology and infra structure assessment and firewall router and switch analysis. Spanish protestors bombarded the Institute for Global Communications (IGC) with thousands of bogus e-mail messages. ethnic Tamil guerrillas swamped Sri Lankan embassies with 800 emails a day over a two-week period. The messages read "We are the Internet Black Tigers and we're doing this to disrupt your communications. NATO computers were blasted with email bombs and hit with denial-of-service attacks by hacktivists protesting the NATO bombings. IGC finally relented and pulled the site because of the "mail bombings. and academic institutes received highly politicized virus-laden e-mails from a range of Eastern European countries. and support lines were tied up with people who couldn't get their mail.

It is believed that members of some Islamic extremist organizations have been attempting to develop a 'hacker network' to support their computer activities and even engage in offensive information warfare attacks in the future. either alone or in conjunction with acts of physical violence. or learning capability. there are few indications that they are pursuing cyberterrorism. and they use the Internet to communicate and coordinate action. The organization possesses little target analysis.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism • • • Whether there are targets that are vulnerable to attack that could lead to violence Whether there are actors with the capability and motivation to carry them Misuse of the technology that make it open to attack even after the high security • Involvement of the insiders. acting alone or in concert with the other terrorist misusing their access capabilities. Cyberterror Capabilities: There are three levels of cyberterror capability  Simple-Unstructured: The capability to conduct basic hacks against individual systems using tools created by someone else.command and control. The members of the militant Indian separatist group Harkat-ul-Ansar had tried to buy military software from hackers who had stolen it from Department of Defense computers they had penetrated. to modify or create basic 26 . However. Cyberterror In Practice: Terrorists do use cyberspace to facilitate traditional forms of terrorism such as bombings. or severe harm. They put up Web sites to spread their messages and recruit supporters. • Role of consultants and contractor causing grave harm. Advanced-Structured: The capability to conduct more sophisticated attacks  against multiple systems or networks and possibly.

so it may be harder to control an attack and Terrorists may be disinclined to try new methods unless they see their achieve a desired level of damage than using physical weapons. command and control.   and that terrorists generally lack the wherewithal and human capital needed to mount a meaningful operation. Novelty and sophistication of attack may be much less important than The risk of operational failure could be a deterrent to terrorists The barrier to entry for anything beyond annoying hacks is quite high.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism hacking tools.  old ones as inadequate.and organization learning capability. Drawbacks:  Systems are complex. heterogeneous defenses (including cryptography). command and control.  Complex-Coordinated: The capability for a coordinated attacks capable of causing mass-disruption against integrated. The organization possesses an elementary target analysis. assurance that a mission will be operationally successful. 27 . Ability to create sophisticated hacking tools. particularly when the new methods require considerable knowledge and skill to use effectively. and learning capability.   Terrorists generally stick with tired and true methods. Highly capable target analysis.

They might see greater potential for cyberterrorism than the terrorists of today. 28 . Hackers and insiders might be recruited by terrorists or become self-recruiting cyberterrorists. making cyberspace an attractive venue for carrying out an attack. Cyberterrorism could also become more attractive as the real and virtual worlds become more closely coupled. with ever more powerful and easy-to-use hacking tools at their disposal. with a greater number of physical devices attached to the Internet.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism Cyberterror In Future: The next generation of terrorists will grow up in a digital world. and their level of knowledge and skill relating to hacking will be greater. Some might be moved to action by cyber policy issues.

This information is available to everybody. so that we can heal the present. to be able to attempt putting an end to such activity. security firms and others who can benefit from them can exploit the basic myths surrounding terrorism for their own purposes. for producing such a person. then one could not blame technology. but society. Doomsday and other haunting scenarios involving weapons of mass destruction existed long before the advent of cyberterrorism and will continue to do so as long as political actors. It is extremely important that we try to understand and mitigate cyberterrorism for the benefit of society as a whole. and live the future. as part of the IT world need to realize that one of our immediate concerns must be to promote the good name of the profession we call our own.. Computer professionals the world over need to be aware of the problem areas of information systems that may be susceptible to terrorist attacks. and try to curtail its growth.. if an individual acted on this information. Cyberterrorists have been giving the entire computing profession a bad reputation. and made a bomb with evil intentions. However. but to provide insights on the dangers of cyberterrorism.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism Conclusion This article is not meant to give amateur hackers a crash-course in cyberterrorism. For example. There are a large number of ethical issues to be taken into consideration. 29 . and sites from which these materials can be purchased. not with the intent of destroying what He created. but we. as well. Technology must be used for the betterment of mankind. there are sites on the Internet that deal with methods of making bombs.

cyberlawindia.com 30 .com www.Seminar Report Cyber Terrorism REFERENCES ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ A Paper by Dr.seminarsonly.Peter Grabosky – Cyber crime A Paper by Gaylen Duncan – Cyber crime Computers @Home Magazine www.

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