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ENROLMENT NO:- 091378538 PROJECT REPORT TITLE: IMPACT OF MARKETING OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ON I.T. INDUSTRY A CASE STUDY
TABLE OF CONTENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….2 - 5 Open Source Software Profile………………………………………………………………..6 - 9 Research Methodology………………………………………………………………………..10-25 Data Collection………………………………………………………………………………26 - 41 IT Progression Procedure in the market…………………………………………………….42 - 48 Need for Improvement………………………………………………………………………49 - 51 Data projection and interpretation…………………………………………………………...52 - 56 Frame work of Market Progression………………………………………………………….57 -60 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………….61 - 62 Conclusion …………….……………………………………………………………………63 - 72 Suggestion………………………………………………………………… ……………….73 - 74 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………...75 - 76 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………77 - 81
CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF I.T. INDUSTRY
The word "Information Technology" had been coined as a trick by at least 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960s. Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology." Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC and IBM. The first company founded to provide software products and services was Computer Usage Company in 1955. The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. Universities, government, and business customers created a demand for software. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers. Some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. Others were done on a commercial basis, and other firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation (founded in 1959) started to grow. The computer-makers started bundling operating systems software and programming environments with their machines.
IT is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include but are not limited to things such as processes, computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages, and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the domain space known as Information Technology (IT).
IT professionals perform a variety of functions (IT Disciplines/Competencies) that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware,
database and software design, as well as management and administration of entire systems. Information technology is starting to spread farther than the conventional personal computer and network technology, and more into integrations of other technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automobiles, and more, which is increasing the demand for such jobs.
In the recent past, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Association for Computing Machinery have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards for degrees in Information Technology as a distinct field of study as compared to Computer Science and Information Systems today. SIGITE (Special Interest Group for IT Education) is the ACM working group for defining these standards. The Worldwide IT services revenue totaled $763 billion in 2009.
OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE has existed since the 1960‘s, only in the last few years has it gotten
Although Open Source Software
much attention. In 1983 the Free Software Foundation was founded by Richard Stallman. The term ‗Open Source‘ was introduced in 1998. Since then more and more companies have taken an interest in Open Source Software . Recently Novell acquired Suse Linux, one of the distributions of the Linux operating system, taking their embrace of Open Source a step further, and with this expanding the enterprise market for Linux. Open Source Software is defined by its attached license which abandons essential rights granted to the original creator by copyright law. This procedure gives anyone the opportunity to redistribute and modify any received Open Source Software . Open Source Software is software whose source code is openly published, which is usually available at no charge, and which is often developed by voluntary efforts. Software development is undergoing a major change from being a fully closed software development process towards a more community driven Open Source Software development process Open-source software products provide access to the source code in addition to executable programs, and allow for this source code to be modified and redistributed. This is a rarity in an industry where software makers zealously guard the source code as intellectual property. Open Source Software offers the source code along with the software, at no charge. This enables the user to change the instructions of the software, changing its behavior, adding functionality, and so on. It gives anyone the opportunity to participate in the development of the software project. Open Source projects are, in most cases, run on the Internet. In fact, the Internet enabled Open Source projects to form and grow. Open Source projects‘ websites carry much information: discussions, documentation, bug
OSS has leapt to prominence by starting to take a significant market share in some specific parts of the software infrastructure market. Open Source is no longer seen as an insignificant niche market but as a serious development in the software market. Businesses as well as educational institutions can be benefited from Open Source Software . Other famous open-source products include Apache [a program used to run websites]. However. he is at liberty to do it himself. the code will be a part of the software for everyone. News stories about the risks of Open Source Software . have taken interest in this growing software market that shows some strong differences with traditional software. but needs to be understood before evaluating the software for use in businesses and institutions. If the user keeps the code to him. The Open Source Software market offers some great opportunities. OpenOffice [an alternative to Microsoft Office] and Sendmail. The software industry is very fast moving. large and small. it is still a mysterious and sometimes even scary world for many people. which has emerged as a credible threat to Microsoft‘s products especially on the server side. he will have to find a way to integrate any updates to the software in with his changes. In making the source code freely available. This approach has led to the popular operating system. Open Source Software developers work together voluntarily to create and improve a product they want to use. Open Source Software development is very different from traditional proprietary software. Open Source has been getting much attention in the last few years. and so on. The Open Source Software market is getting more and more attention. but which ultimately fail to live up to their initial press hype. can cause uncertainty with the IT managers that have to make the decisions about the company‘s IT policy and the software they use. whether they are genuine or not. and frequently throws up promising new developments that initially promise to make great changes in the marketplace. which will keep it maintained and avoid problems when upgrading the software. The result is a community of developers spread around the world working to better a product. but by working together with the project community and contribute the changes in source code back to the project. These are just a few of the many news headlines that show the rise of Open Source usage in business and government. This information is very valuable for the evaluation of Open Source Software . LINUX.5 databases. They also get a certain satisfaction from being part of the project. When the user wants something changed or added to the software. . a large number of developers are able to work on the product. Large IT corporations such as IBM and Novell are investing in Open Source Software . Many corporations.
6 CHAPTER – 2 Open Source Software Profile .
secure and robust than proprietary codes (Kogut & Metiu 2001).g. Apache and Sendmail represent very successful innovation model without giving their producers strong intellectual property rights. The Linux open source operating system has between seven and twenty one million users in the world and is growing with a 200% annual growth rate. SourceForge. The three related dimensions make sure that in Open Source Software production a very efficient concurrence of design and testing is working that makes these programs more innovative. Credit Suisse First Boston). it has recently triggered attention by the public and by innovation researchers. Open Source Software like Linux. It is winning unexpected converts like government agencies (e. It received many industry awards for excellence. a repository of open source projects. a) (partly) public ownership of the intellectual property b) user driven distributed innovation c) voluntary contributions in ―communities of innovation‖. It is now widely discussed that the great success of Open Source Software might challenge standard economic rationale for strong property rights to give potential innovators the incentive to incur the cost of innovation. OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PROFILE While for a long time Open Source Software was only known by insiders of the information technology industry.000 projects and more than 450. The closest competitors are Windows Microsoft Exchange (18%) and Unix qmail (17%). They will be discussed in turn: a) Open Source Software royalties by allowing is produced under different licences that assure public ownership without . Sendmail routes at least 42% of mails in the Internet. lists more than 45.000 registered users Three dimensions characterize Open Source Software in contrast to proprietary software.net. In August 2002 the open source webserver software Apache was used by over 65% of active servers across all domains.7 2.g. the German Parliament) and investment banks (e.
These are contributions to the source code which are published and reviewed by peers before they become part of the next release of the software. They only can give feedback to the seller about the malfunction. A large audience tests the program. is often condemned as a thread to the ideals of the open source community.8 to read the program. however. in Open Source Software production the program innovations are disclosed to the users. Secondly the members of these communities have a common understanding of what they do. It ensures that any derived software will remain free software. It forces every program that contains a free software component to be released in its entirety as free software. all bugs are shallow‖ (Raymond 2000a). It ―infects‖ the Open Source Software with a ―virus‖ to enforce compliance to the copyleft. to make copies and to distribute those copies to have access to the software´s source code. They share collective knowledge on an expert level which helps to overcome the ―stickiness‖ of information (Brown & Duguid 1998). Development and debugging is separated. In contrast to the conventional copyright this licence is called ―copyleft‖. The user driven rapid feedback cycles work not only with debugging but also with the production of whole modules or patches. This kind of blending open and proprietary codes. This is the reason why Open Source Software is considered to have a lower defect density than proprietary software and a lower vulnerability to viruses: ―given enough eyeballs. Thus the Open Source Software code constitutes a public good in the classical sense. Other licenses like the one of Apache allow programmers to make their modifications private. This new form of product development was characterized by Raymond (2000a) as a ―bazaar‖ versus a ―cathedral‖. c) Voluntary“communities of innovation” make firstly sure that contributors share a strong culture (Wenger and Snyder 2000). debugs it during using and gives immediate feedback. In contrast. In contrast to proprietary software the users of Open Source Software . The most far reaching is the GNU General Public Licence (GPL). In traditional software production the software is sold in a form giving no access to the source code. b) User driven distributed innovation in rapid feedback cycles implements concurrence in design and testing of software modules and thus enables a very efficient new product development process. Customers therefore have only limited possibilities to detect mistakes (so called ―debugging‖) and to improve the program. The various open source licenses differ in the extent to which they allow public property to be mixed with private property rights. as a necessary first step before one can change it to publish improvements to the program under the same terms as the license of the original software (O‘Reilly & Associates 1999).
Amabile. Hadley & Kramer 2002). tend to listen to their smartest customers‖. As Nadeau (1999) put it: ― In every release Microsoft always listens to its most ignorant customers [. on the other hand. Amabile 1998. p.9 are often more sophisticated. 47). .g..]. Thirdly the community members are intrinsically motivated because of their voluntary work without time pressure. Linux and OS/2 developers. Experimental research shows that the speed of learning and conceptual understanding are reduced when people work because they are monitored (Deci and Flaste 1995.. This kind of motivation favours creativity (e.
10 CHAPTER – 3 Research Methodology .
In addition to it we will check how OSS market can affect the performance of IT industry considering some OSS implemented IT industries by taking data from website. to find out the benefits of OSS in IT industry. evaluate and monitor marketing actions. graphs for measurement of OSS for IT industries in general.11 3. management thinking. marketing research is the function which provides the necessary information about the consumer to the marketer. to study different tools. In the process. literature on it. one should. In Second stage. information related steps required for implementation of OSS in IT industry in general. journals. after collection of required data we will compile the data to establish the framework of OSS in IT industry in general. start with a concise statement of the issues to be investigated. ― Marketing research is a systematic collection and analysis of information that is ultimately used in evolving some marketing decisions. or what are their sources of information and influence process etc. In first stage the general data for IT industry will be collected related to possibility of OSS market in IT industry. In third stage we will conclude with how OSS in IT industry affect the rural sector development. charts. For instance. an organisation can identify new opportunities in the market. indicate . RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology for this project is planner in three stages. and in general. It is thus imperative to understand what the consumers want. performance. how they make the various choice decisions. internet. ROLE OF MARKET RESEARCH ―Marketing research is defined as the objective and formal process of collecting information. evolve better marketing progamme to serve the interests of the consumer. analysing the results and communicating the findings and their implications in terms of marketing actions. As such. of IT industry and will come to know the benefits and limitations OSS in IT industry in general. All stages of a research study must be carried out in a logical manner. MARKET RESEARCH The principal task of marketing management is to fulfil the aspirations of the consumers. practice in vogue etc. knowledge of employees etc. different factors which affects the OSS in IT industry etc. general framework of OSS market in IT industry. Thus marketing research acts as the link between the consumer and the marketer.
It is an objective process as it attempts to provide accurate authentic information. and finally state the research findings and their specific implications for marketing decisions making. generate. define the methods to be adopted to collect those data. customer and public to the marketer through information-information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems. Marketing Research is a well-planned.‖ Marketing Research is systematic problem analysis. ―Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer. specify the relevant technique to be employed for analysing the data. refine and evaluate marketing actions. monitor marketing performance.12 the information required to study those select problems. and improve understanding of marketing as a process. According to American Marketing Association. . model building and fact finding for the purpose of important decision making and control in the marketing of goods and services. Marketing Research is sometimes defined as the application of scientific method in the solution of marketing problems. It uses scientific method. systematic process which implies that it needs planning at all the stages.
Being a systematic inquiry it requires careful planning of the orderly investigation process. .13 ROLE OF MARKET RESEARCH well-planned Market Reseach exercise may take many forms but systematic inquiry is feature common to all such forms. marketing research often follows a generalized pattern. Though it is an over simplification to assume that all research process would necessarily follow a given sequence. which can be broken down and studied as situational stages.
14 RESEARCH STUDY This topic relate to : # Research objective # Research Methodology # Research Methodology adopted Steps in Research Study :- .
RESEARCH DESIGN It is the framework or a blueprint for the research study which guides the collection and analysis of data. 8. 6. To develop an understanding as to how OSS marketing principles and methods have been put into effect in IT industry. To recognize employees for their knowledge. 2. skills. This subject is chosen with the aim to study with following objectives: 1. To develop an understanding of the relationship between OSS marketing principles and the theories and models studied in proprietary software. a research design should furnish at least the following details : 1. industry. To know the OSS application & organizational performance of IT industry. and contribution toward market improvement. The data needs are further clarified by the type of research design chosen as well as by the nature of research. The initial emphasis is upon the type of data sources and option available to the researcher. 5.T.15 Research Objective The main objective of the research work is to study the impact of marketing of open source software in I. To study management style that focuses on continuous improvement in OSS market. 9. To study management style that focuses on customer satisfaction in IT industry. To be effective . 7. RESEARCH METHOD Once the research objectives have been defined the next logical step is to identify the nature and type of information needed to achieve these objectives. To study management style that focuses on the elimination of monopoly in IT industry. depending upon the needs of the researcher may be a very detailed statement or only furnish the minimum information required for panning the software research project. The research design . To develop an implementation framework for OSS in software market. 4. 3. A statement of objectives of the study or the research output. . To identify barriers for OSS market growth.
Quality of data collected. Time taken for the study 2. A sample is only portion of the universe of the population. Physical impossibly of complete enumeration 4. specifically it address three question whom to survey (the sample unit). . Enough reliability of inference based on sampling 6. Properly done sampling produce representative data of the entire population. Practical infeasibility of complete enumeration 5. An integral component of research design in the sampling plan. A statement of the data inputs required on the basis of which the research problems is to be solved. 3.16 2. This aggregate is known as population and the selected part which is used to ascertain the characteristics of the population is called sample. The reason for resorting to sampling are :1. According to Yule . a famous statistician the object of sampling is to get maximum information about population with minimum efforts. Making a census study of entire universe will be impossible due to the limitation of time and money hence the sampling becomes inevitable. The methods of analysis which shall be used to treat and analyze the data inputs. how many to survey (the sample size) and how to select them (the sampling producers). Cost involved for the study 3. SAMPLING The terminology ―sampling‖ indicates the selection of a part of a group or an aggregate with a view to obtain information about the whole research subject.
in this it is possible to quantify magnitude of the likely error in inference made. The picking up of a sample is therefore insulted against the judgments.17 METHOD OF SAMPLING Probability sampling means defining a procedure for picking up the sample . . In this every item of the universe has an equal chance or non zero probability of getting included in the sample. convenience or whims of any person involved with the study . and avoiding changes in the sample expect by way of a pre-defined process again. based on chance .
Depth Interview and Content Analysis . Through Projective Technique 10. 1. 3. In this sample may be picked up based on the judgments or convenience of the enumerator there is no way that the magnitude of error can be quantified. Interview Method 3. Through Schedule 5. Simple Random Sampling 2. 1. to be included in the sample. 2.18 Probability sampling may take the form of :1. Consumer Panel 8. Using Mechanical Device 9. Sequential Sampling 6. Distributors Audit 7. Warrant Cards 6. data can be secondary or primary and can be collected using variety of tools. Multi Stage Sampling Non probability sampling is any sampling process which does not ensure some non zero probability for each element in the population. Stratified Sampling 4. then primary data are obtain either through observation or direct communication with respondent in one form of another or through personnel interview this in other words means that there are several methods of collecting primary data particular in survey and descriptive research. Convenience Sampling Quota Sampling Judgment Sampling Panel Sampling DATA COLLECTION METHOD Collection of data is a basic activity in decision making. Cluster and Area Sampling 5. Through Questionnaire 4. 4. Observation Method 2. Systematic Sampling 3. In descriptive type of research a survey are done whether the sample survey or census surveys. The data collection follows the formulation of the research design including the sample plan .
19 In marketing research field survey are commonly used to collect primary data from the respondent through interview which may be :1. The data collected from the field has to be processed and analysed. Mail 3. 2.testing before final used. 50 Product Distributors/Partners and 100 IT users from different scale of companies. Whatever it is personnel or mail survey . Telephonic It is common practice to use structure questionnaire prepared in advance to elicit the necessary information from the respondent. The interaction are made with the IT companies employees to get their respective views. . A questionnaire was prepared and consumers . retailer and distributors of IT products. data is collected from IT companies websites along with software providers. interaction with the consumer . etc. After data processing some statistical methods are applied to draw the conclusions. classification and tabulation so that they are available for analysis. 5. 6.Descriptive Research Research Instrument Structure : . it is necessary to design suitable questionnaire after conducting a pilot survey and must undertake a pre. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ADOPTED Research Design :. coding. middle and lower class.Non-distinguished Questionnaire SAMPLING PLAN Primary data was collected by discussion and interview with near about 5 software companies. Following are the statistical methods : 1. Chi square Test Median Test The Kruskal Wallis Test Regression Analysis Discriminate Analysis Factor Analysis . Personal 2. retailers with distributors were told to reply honestly. The researchers to support his view also collects secondary data. While collecting information. Questionnaire etc. 4. Users included belongs to upper. The pre-testing will enable researcher to rely the shortcoming and is valuable indicator of the effectiveness of a questionnaire to collect data. The processing of data primarily means editing . Statistical Methods : From the selected sample data is collected by different method like observation. 3.
collected by him as primary data. Observation Method: The investigator collects the requisite information personally through observation. his training. As the investigator is solely responsible for Collection of data by this method. in order to study the conditions of students residing in a university. primary data become available. discussion method . The investigators for his research project originally calls the data.. The information about the extent of damage caused by natural calamities like flood can be collected by personal observation by a trained investigator.Non probability sampling (convenience sampling) Sample Unit – Sample size IT companies. Depending. Primary Data : When the data used in a statistical study was collected under the supervision of the investigation such type of data is referred as primary data. The primary data is collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character.20 Sampling Method :. skill and knowledge play an important role on the quality of primary data. Product Distributors/Partners and Software users SAMPLING DESIGN Convenience sampling as the name implies is based on the convenience of researcher who is collecting sample. The collection of primary data thus requires a great deal of deliberation and expertise. In this researcher may stand at a certain prominent point and interview all those selected people who pass through that area . Respondents in the sample are included in it merely on account of being available on the spot where the survey is in progress. Sources of data Data used in statistical study is termed either primary or secondary depending upon whether it was collected specifically for the study in question or for some other purpose. Most of the Commissions of Enquiry or Committees appointed by Government collect primary data by this . For this research work the data will be collected by observation method. retailers and distributors. in this study the survey was taken in Software area. or by mail or telephone. The structured questionnaire will be used to collect the information from customers. The collection of primary data for business research of paramount importance to assist management in making decision. Persons who are likely to have information about the problem are interrogated and on the basis of their answers. the investigator meets the students in their hostels and collects necessary data after a personal study. Depending upon the nature of information necessary different methods of collecting primary data are available like`s questionnaire method through personal interview . interview and with the help of questionnaires. For example. 1. A slight variation of this procedure is indirect oral investigation where data are collected through indirect sources.
2. The method of collecting data by mailing the questionnaires to the respondents is most extensively employed in various business and economic surveys. The absence of an investigator. renders the responses less reliable. The enumerators visit the dwellings of individuals and put questions to them which elicit the relevant information about the subject of enquiry. Mailed Questionnaire Method A set of questions relevant to subject of enquiry are mailed to a selected list of persons with a request to return them duly filled in. Telephone Interview This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone itself. recording their answers in a structured questionnaire. Occasionally a part of the questionnaire is unstructured so that the interviewee can feel free to share information about intimate matters with the interviewer. Much of the accuracy of the collected data. This method is inexpensive but limited in scope as respondents must possess a telephone. however. The accuracy of the primary data collected by this method depends largely upon the type of persons interviewed and hence these persons have to be selected very carefully. The telephone interview method is used in industrial surveys specially in developed regions. . As the data are collected by the field staff personally it is also known as personal interview method. 4. who should be subjected to special training as to how they should elicit the correct information through friendly discussions. depends on the ability and tactfulness of investigators. however. This method can only be used when the respondents are literate and can answer the questions in writing. This information is recorded in the questionnaire. The method also suffers from a large degree of non response. The complete enumeration of Indian decennial census is performed by this method. Questionnaire Method A popular and common method of collection of primary data is by personally interviewing individuals.21 method. 3. The questions should be very clear without any ambiguity keeping in mind that there is no investigator to help the respondent. Supplementary instructions regarding the definitions of terms used and the methods of filling up the forms should also accompany the questionnaire. This method saves both time and cost and can cover a large area.
Generally speaking. unpublished biographies and autobiographies. The secondary data. one must be specially careful about the units in respect of currency. Reserve Bank of India Bulletin (Monthly) (Published by Reserve Bank of India). but along with other things. Various publications of foreign governments or of international bodies : The important publications are publications of international bodies like UNO. Indian Agricultural Statistics (Annual) (Published by Ministry of Food and Agriculture ). Some examples of this kind of publications are "Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Mines in India" (issued annually by the office of the Chief Inspector of Mines. For example. letters. reports prepared by various universities. The sources of secondary data could be : i) Various publications of Central. on the other hand. India-Annual. The secondary data provided by such publications are authentic. secondary data are information which have previously been collected by some organisation to satisfy its own need but it is being used by the department under reference for an entirely different reason.22 Secondary Data : Secondary data are data which have been collected and analysed by some other agency. the officials of the department of Registrar General will visualise the census figures as primary data. Index Number of Wholesale Prices in India (Weekly) (Published by Ministry of Commerce and Industry). Yearbook of Labour Statistics (Published by ILO. Chambers of Commerce provide secondary data in respect of some important items. iv) . Bombay).: Published by responsible trade associations. UNESCO. ii) iii) Journals of trade. diaries. FAO. The other sources of secondary data are books. Geneva). Statistical Year Book (Published by the Statistical Office of the United Nations). the census figures are published every tenth year by the Registrar General of India. magazines and newspapers. engineering etc. But a demographer using the same census figures to prepare a mortality table will consider them as secondary data. State and local governments : The important official publications are Statistical Abstract. Monthly Abstract of Statistics (both published by Central Statistical Organisation ). which greatly vary from one country to another. But the census figures are also used by demographers and other social scientists for planning and research. Thus. weight etc. WHO. economics. ILO. Dhanbad) and "Indian Textile Bulletin (issued monthly by the Textile Commissioner. commerce. are those which have already been collected by some other agency and which have already been processed. historical documents.
Depending upon the nature of information necessary different methods of collecting primary data are available. 1993. quality management news. The collection of primary data for business research is of paramount importance to assist management in making decisions. Pettigrew. as the name suggests. Research Settings Due to the large size of the population the accuracy of the research will depend heavily on the sampling technique used. management university. direct quotes (interviewee excerpts) were used to bring out actual voices from the informants. in this technique every possible entity has a known equal chance of being in the sample drawn from the population for the research. Throughout the study. The main idea for this research into open source software development was to use existing data on the projects available to the public . different IT industries‘ data through internet & its outlets. The investigator for her research project originally calls the data collected by her is called as primary data. 1989) where data codes and categories were largely developed from the data. OSS reference books. The collection of primary data thus requires a great deal of deliberation and expertise. We have chosen this case study approach because we wanted to investigate Open Source Software phenomenon within its real life context in organizations. In addition. Convenience sampling technique has been used in this research. The research presented in this is based on an interpretive approach to case study. IT council of India. we were flexible in questioning similar themes to overcome subjective observations (Lincoln & Guba. The large amounts of verbal information became easy to analyse using empirical material summaries and concepts from grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss. periodical IT management magazines . The data will be collected through external sources like OSS websites. The primary data is collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. project management books. Therefore the CVS-repository of the OPEN SOURCE project was used . For this research work the data will be collected by observation method. Orlikowski.23 Data has been collected to help to solve the source objective of research being conducted. technical university. interview method and with the help of questionnaire. discussion method. journals & associated websites for collecting data. 1967. 1981).
the GNU Network Object Model Environment. discusssion lists and bug-tracking archives. CVS (Concurrent Versions System) is a version control system which is being used extensively in the free software community. the wellknown GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP). To provide for further refinement.g. This data included programmer. and uses the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). storage in a database was chosen.g. but the possibility exists for people to only post messages in discussion lists or programmers who do not participate in discussions. gnumeric. gimp). e. lines-of-code added and deleted. as identified by a filename and a directory path (which is necessary as some filenames are duplicates. As all data retrieved needed to be managed. e. A module can therefore also be viewed as a separate subproject. A posting is a separate message to a discussion list pertaining to the OPEN SOURCE project. On the other hand. as will be most common. The CVSrepository then stores this checkin with the changes in the lines-of-code (LOC) and further data. Therefore.g. were also identified. In order to access CVSarchives in a more convenient way the Mozilla project developed Bonsai which allows to connect to a particular archive via a web-based interface. the web interface of the CVS-repository was used to retrieve the necessary data concerning checkins. Open Source-core.g. A file. a file named ―makefile‖ exists in several directories) can be checked in to the CVS-system by one and only one programmer. This vendor neutral project includes a set of standard desktop tools and applications. This was done with a Perlscript which generated successive queries simulating a browser-based input form. As a first step. A release is a complete and public version of a predefined set of modules of the OPEN SOURCE project. revision number and some comment given by the programmer for every checkin. a data model of an open source software project was developed to include all publicly available data. date. Access is accomplished via a client which requires a password authentification. A module consists of several files and constitutes a self-contained part of the OPEN SOURCE project (e. One real-world person can fulfill both roles. there are posters that participate in discussions pertaining to the software. OPEN SOURCE.24 for data collection. additional sources of data. It was assumed that several important aspects of a large scale software project in this special form of organisation could be checked using this source . maybe in reply to a prior posting. file. is an open source software project building a desktop environment for users and an application framework for software developers. The following notes seem to be necessary for understanding the entityrelationship model presented: There exist both coders (or programmers) that actually do work on the project by submitting (―checking in‖) files. Each query concerned a particular day in the . e.
the short name each programmer uses for checkins had to be matched to the full name or e-mail adress used for posting. The result of each individual query was a HTML page which was subsequently parsed extracting the necessary attributes conforming to the data model exposed above and fed into a database (Postgresql under Linux). Of course. the data concerning programmers was strictly anonymized. the subject. especially concerning the past history of projects. In addition. this approach does not intrude on the software project under consideration and is inexpensive.25 history of the CVS archive. The necessary queries were then performed and the output analysed using a statistical package. For 175 persons this has been possible using several regular expressions with human check-up. the lack of data. This approach of using existing information publicly available eliminated one of the most pressing problems in software engineering research. time and complete text. . Also retrieved by a Perl-script were the postings to the relevant discussion lists including the sender. The requests were distributed over a four day period in order to distribute the load. For the analysis of the posting behaviour of the programmers.
26 CHAPTER – 4 DATA COLLECTION .
2 was released 17 months after version 2. Robles et al. The main objective of the project is to perform this integration work and to produce a system that is stable and easy to install and use. Debian was founded in 1993 and has produced several releases of its software distribution since then.1 Debian Debian is a volunteer project with the aim of producing a complete operating system based on FOSS. As a result of these huge delays. thereby making them available to users. solutions that were implemented as well as outstanding problems. the project has faced severe delays with its releases. For a long time. 2006). freezes that were instituted in order to start the preparations of a release were usually announced out of the blue.27 DATA COLLECTION Time Based Releases: 7 Case Studies Depicted In this chapter. there has been a significant increase in the time between releases in the last few years: Debian 2. While the project made regular releases in the past. Members of Debian forward bug reports from users to the respective developers of the software and integrate bug fixes made by those developers. At this point. the majority of software is obtained from other sources and integrated into a system which plays together very well (Gonz´alez-Barahona et al. 2004. Because of this lack of planning. This study has identified several problems with the way release management was performed in Debian. Robles et al. 4. Even though the project writes some software on its own. In recent years. version 3. 2005.0 followed 23 months later and then users had to wait almost three years for version 3. yielding the project a reputation for being slow and never on time.1.1).1 (see table 5. The project also acts as an important interface between users on one side and FOSS developers on the other side. seven case studies will be presented which investigate how the introduction of a time based release strategy has affected projects. Each case study will investigate problems that prompted the change to a new release strategy. many developers tried to . Debian has taken a very ad-hoc approach to release management: there were no clear goals or milestones and release updates were posted only infrequently. many developers no longer believe that the project can release on time and this perception may contribute to further delays.
which is an important thing to make. much software was out of date by the time it was finally released. many tasks fell into the hands of the release team simply because nobody felt responsible. that we have plans. Another problem caused by bad planning was that some crucial issues which had to be resolved before the release were discovered only after all software was frozen. many changes were made and the freeze was pushed back. 2006. In thepast. Even though the decision to introduce these release criteria was initially quite controversial. Debian) Even though the project has not met this deadline. Debian) Another important move was to explicitly assign the responsibility for resolving blockers or implementing goals to specific teams or individuals. approximately 18 months after the release of version 3. followed by a huge discussion on the mailing lists. (Andreas Barth. In particular. the release process of 4. they decided that a release cycle of 15-18 months was appropriate for the project and announced a target date for version 4. In a meeting in Vancouver. In order to combat these problems. this flurry of activity had the opposite effect intended by the freeze announcement. (Andreas Barth.1. Sometimes there were issues with the support of a hardware architecture but nobody felt responsible. Updates are regularly sent out to the announcement list for developers and various information resources have been implemented which show the release status. As a consequence. A problematic example of this is the support for a wide range of different hardware architectures which is a unique feature of Debian.1: We showed people very early in the release cycle that we have goals. This is possible because targets are now more clearly defined and kept track of. After the release of Debian 3. it worked out very well in the end.0: December 4. An important change is that the release team is more pro-active regarding release issues and keeps the whole project up to date regarding the release status.However. Developers .1 release cycle and has significantly improved the release process. The release team also required at least five active developers for each architecture. that we‘re determined to really do it better. The project moved away from a single release manager to a release team which consists of several developers actively working on the release. the Debian project has made some structural changes during the 3.0 has been a lot smoother compared to previous releases and many improvements were made. targets have been split into real blockers for the release and goals which are optional: [Goals] still have a high visibility which allows people who would like them to happen to give the same attention to them as to release blockers but we‘re not going to hold our release for them. Instead of slowing down development in order to prepare for a release. specific criteria were defined which architectures had to fulfil in order to be considered for inclusion into a release.28 make changes which they felt were needed before the next version was released .
The biggest challenge the Debian project still has to solve is to show its users and developers that the project can meet deadlines and release on time. several new and unexpected blockers were found during the release process. there have been a number of important improvements to the release process during the release cycle of Debian 3. Past Problems • Release management was not very organized and release updates were posted only infrequently. freezes were often announced out of the blue. When this release was finallypublished.1 and in particular during the preparation for version 4.29 working on architecture support became more active and the explicit criteria which have been established show which work is necessary. leading to delays. but the release team has used its influence to make it easier for developers to fix packages maintained by someone else. • The fact that Debian has experienced significant delays with several of its recent releases has led to problems with the image of the project. Because of this and the lack of a roadmap. in the case of Debian 3. • The unexpected delays meant that software was frozen for a long time. This is also associated with frustration in the developer and user community. many components were already out of date and would often not meet customer demands. • Due to the unorganized nature of the release. . The release team also encouraged developers to help with bugs in software packages they are not responsible for. This has not only led to many bugs being fixed but has also prompted developers to become more actively involved in the release process in general. There is a perception that Debian is slow and cannot meet deadlines. Most developers in Debian maintain software packages and there is a strong sense of ownership (Michlmayr 2004).1 for over a year. In summary.0.
The release is now handled by core release managers with the help of several release assistants.2 GCC GCC started as a compiler for the popular C programming language and used to be known as the GNU C Compiler. • The use of the experimental repository has been promoted to make sure that the main development repository is in a good shape most of the time. Only blockers hold up the release whereas goals can be postponed for a future release. Outstanding Problems • Developers still need to be convinced that targets can be met. The majority of software is now frozen when most blockers have been resolved. that deadlines are real and that Debian can release on time. 4. the project has a troubled past. • Release announcements are sent more frequently and various information sources have been implemented through which developers can stay informed about the release status. There are better criteria now defining these responsibilities. GCC is a very important project because many FOSS projects rely on this compiler and there is also major deployment of GCC in closed source projects. the scope of GCC changed as support for more languages. development of GCC was only open to a few people. In particular. • Release targets have been defined better and there is a distinction between blockers and goals. In the middle of the 1990s. Over time. • A staged freeze has been implemented according to which software is frozen in stages according to its importance. • A release date for the next release has been set well in advance and there is more planning. was incorporated. Even though the GCC project has a flourishing development community now. such as C++. Debian moved from a single release manager to a team during the 3. and GCC is now known as the GNU Compiler Collection.1 release cycle.30 Solutions • The project has implemented more mature release management structures. • The release team has shifted the responsibility of achieving targets to specific developers and teams. The . • The release team is increasingly giving encouragement to developers to help out with software packages and bugs which normally do not fall into their domain.
there should theoretically be a new release every six months. (Joe Buck. In the first stage. GCC) A group of people formed the EGCS team and produced a compiler based on GCC that incorporated many new features and bug fixes. gave the EGCS team permission to take over development of GCC. Since each of the three stages lasts two months. major changes which have been proposed and accepted by the release manager can be incorporated in a controlled manner. The last stage is devoted to bug fixes and updates to the documentation. there was a ‗develop like mad‘ phase followed by a ‗freeze and stabilize‘ phase. 3. Over the years the GCC project has produced several releases. like for many projects. development snapshots were not available to the public and it was hard to get features and fixes accepted: Having a closed list. . This development method consisting of three stages has been introduced to ensure a controlled development process: In a way it evolved from an earlier period when. In January 2007. and created a steering committee which has the power to appoint maintainers and make important decisions. GCC) This development approach is also an important coordination mechanism because it shows developers which big projects are scheduled to be merged during stage one. the founder of the GNU Project. Someone argued that the release cycle has been getting longer over time and that this is a reflection of problems with the development process. In October 1998. The development environment was more open and releases were published regularly. and the compiler would sometimes be broken badly by all of the last-minute code drops. such as high levels of peer review. Richard Stallman. with one person as bottleneck for all patches was a completely broken way to do something as large as GCC. a discussion about the release cycle was started on the GCC development list. The project split the development phase into three stages 1. very long cycles between releases without allowing wide public testing of snapshots. The project instituted rigorous processes. 2. (Joe Buck.31 mailing list was by invitation only. The second stage allows smaller improvements but major changes may no longer be merged.
• The development process was divided into three stages in order to coordinate code submissions and keep the development tree reasonable stable. were not available to the public. • Each development stage lasts two months. • The branch criteria may need revision to make it easier to create a branch which leads to the next stable version.3. theoretically yielding a release every six months.32 Past Problems • The GCC project suffered from a closed development style in the past: few people could make code changes and the mailing list was closed. which contained bug fixes and features. GNOME has established . KDE. GNOME was started in 1997 because the major desktop environment for Linux at that time. Outstanding Problems • The release manager is busy and has not pushed the release forwards as much as would be possible. significant code changes were often made which required a long stabilization phase. • When development opened and picked up. GNOME GNOME is a desktop environment for Linux and other Unix compatible systems. 4. relied on the Qt library from Trolltech that was not under a FOSS license. A regular release cycle ensures that it is not the end of the world if a feature does not make it into the following release. • There was a long time between releases and development versions. Even though Qt is now FOSS. • All code submissions are peer reviewed on the development mailing list and need approval. Solutions • The project moved to a more open development style and established a steering committee which has the power to appoint new maintainers and make important decisions.
The main goal of this release was to clean up internal interfaces. (Murray Cumming. after more than a year of work. Instead of one development tree to which everyone contributed. you‘re changing very old code. . (Havoc Pennington. it never came. but for one reason or another. Red Hat) As a result. and. which was important for future development but changed little from the perspective of an end-user. GNOME) This unplanned nature of the release process had an impact not only on volunteer developers working on GNOME but also on vendors that wanted to improve GNOME and ship it as part of their systems. GNOME) Another problem was that the release process was very disorganized and lacked planning. During the 2. which means they get to wait even more. the lack of a roadmap meant that they could not plan appropriately:When you made your changes on the development branch you wouldn‘t know when you would be able to use those changes. This practice led to a lot of fragmentation. in particular during the preparation for GNOME 2. like in Debian. For them. and.0 cycle several delays occurred. This led to a lot of frustration and stress for developers working on GNOME: I think that freezes were sudden. The move towards a six month time based model in GNOME stemmed from major problems. developers had the feeling that they had to add more value to make the release attractive to users: There was this thought that because people had to wait so long they should really get a lot when they get to see something. But if you‘re making changes on the stable branch. (Murray Cumming. this was not always the case.0. many vendors had their own version and little work happened on the official development tree. The exploratory interviews in chapter 3 have revealed that many FOSS developers consider GNOME with their six month schedule as the reference project for time based release management. This means six months of working incredibly hard for a deadline which is constantly moving away from you. many vendors backported changes from the development version to the last stable version or implemented features based on that version.33 itself and is installed as the default desktop environment on many Linux distributions. The release was always close. Even though GNOME has a very smooth release process now. we were promised a freeze and then it wouldn‘t happen for six months.
therefore leading to delays. . the project agreed to fundamentally change their release strategy. The structure of GNOME at that time also meant that only a small number of around twenty core developers had to agree to the new release process. Vendors did not know whether they should aim for the next version or focus on the previous version and backport fixes.0 was to change internal interfaces but after more than a year of work the project felt they had to deliver more user visible changes. Because of the frustration developers experienced during the 2. known as Maemo. Freezes also often came unexpectedly. • Developers were disappointed with delays and that their work was not available to users.34 When GNOME 2. Developers constantly had to ask about the release status. In fact. Such projects include the interface called Sugar that was implemented for the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project as well as the interface of the Nokia 770. they were willing to try something new. • Vendors had deadlines but the GNOME schedule was unpredictable. Past Problems • The main goal of version 2. • GNOME introduced policies to keep the development tree fairly stable.0 release cycle. • It was not clear what was going on. • The project introduced the idea of reverting: if a feature was not ready on a certain cut-off date. it would be taken out again.0 was finally released in the middle of 2002. • Freezes were announced and people worked towards them but then they were delayed. • There was a core team so few people had to agree to the introduction of a schedule. It was proposed to make releases according to a six monthly schedule. It is therefore expected that GNOME will continue to deliver incremental improvements twice a year. there are already a number of new projects that are built on GNOME technologies but which have structurally changed what the components of the interface are. Solutions • The project introduced a rigorous schedule promising a release every six months.
5.6 series in December 2003.4.6) would denote a stable release while odd numbers (2. In the past.5) would be opened and most attention of the developers would be drawn to it. felt that this period was too long. in particular since the first stable release of the 2. The project has seen major changes to its development and release strategy in the last few years. commonly known as the ―Linux versioning scheme‖: a release would receive a version number in the form of 2.2 Developers and vendors had to backport features from the main development tree to older releases and features developed for older.35 Outstanding Problems • The six month schedule has been successful in the delivery of incremental updates. a new development tree (e.4). At the end of January 2007. there was no development tree in order to encourage developers to focus on the stable release. posted a job opening for an engineer who would track and manage defects in the Linux kernel.and forward-porting‖. the Linux kernel was known for its clear development cycle. .x. 2.x was that the release cycles were too long. He stated that the ―problem with major development trees like 2.y where x indicated whether the release was part of a stable or development series (Moon and Sproull 2000). 4.5) indicated a development release.3.g.0. Even numbers (2.4 Linux The Linux kernel is one of the largest and prominent FOSS projects. This series was opened almost three years after the 2.4 series in January 2001 (see table 5. all development would focus on getting it even more stable.4. the creator and maintainer of Linux. 2. This role includes working with the Bugzilla bug tracker. 2. In that period. who make significant use of the Linux kernel and employ Andrew Morton. There are some concerns whether this release cycle makes the project less innovative and ambitious regarding major changes that would lead to GNOME 3.g. Google.x vs 2. which is currently not well integrated into the development process. and that people hated the back. After the new stable series had further stabilized for a few months.4). When a new stable series was released (e. Linus Torvalds. stable releases from vendors had to be forward-ported so they could be integrated into the official development tree. 2.
5.org is an office suite offering various integrated applications. such as a word processor and a spreadsheet. This is being addressed with Adrian Bunk‘s 2. Better control and tracking of regressions are needed. • Vendors can directly work with current releases and get their changes into official versions easily.16 long-term maintenance tree but whether it will have a big impact remains to be seen.36 Past Problems • Because of the long release cycle. • Hardware support and crucial features had to be backported to the latest stable kernel.org is based on StarOffice. • The Bugzilla bug tracker needs to be integrated better into the development process and it would be helpful to have a QA person. Solutions • New versions are now released every two or three months. • Regressions between versions are introduced more frequently.6 kernel. many changes accumulated. The source code of the suite was released in July 2000 and . • There is now a steady flow of code into production and many people get to test the new code.org OpenOffice.6. OpenOffice. • Vendors backported many features to their own releases. • Features got out very slowly because of the long release cycle. • Features get out more quickly. The code base from different vendors diverged a lot from each other and from the official development version. It was hard to get the development stable and there were few testers. OpenOffice. an office suite originally developed by StarDivision and later acquired by Sun Microsystems. 4. Outstanding Problems • There is no long-term stable version based on the 2.
meant that little testing occurred for a long time because developers believed the release was far away. making testing towards the end very difficult. Solutions • After the 2.org. While Sun still maintains fairly tight control over the development of OpenOffice. • Many changes accumulated during the long development phase. • Because planning is now possible. even during the beta cycle. Past Problems • The long release cycle of 18 months. • Features were put in very late.37 OpenOffice. many other vendors. There is some evidence that some users do not want new features every three months and that the aggressive release cycle of three months puts a lot of pressure on the QA team. • The release process has become more transparent. bound to the commercial StarOffice product. allowing voluntary contributors to take a more active part in release preparations. • Motivation in the project has increased because people see their contributions getting out to users within a reasonable time. • The faster release cycle and more collaboration among vendors has promoted code review.org entered the FOSS world as the biggest freely available office suite.0 release. Outstanding Problems • There are discussions about changing the release interval to six months. . in particular Novell. because of the perceived 18 month delay to the next release. and leading to a ‗big bang‘ release. collaboration between vendors on the same code base is much easier. are important contributors to the project. This model promises a tight feedback loop with users. the project moved to a three month release interval.
For example. The Plone project believes that a synchronization with Zope‘s release schedule will benefit the project since it can more easily make use of new Zope features in their software. which has also been considered in this case study of Plone. the project decided to move to a six month time based release.7). • Plone consultants can decide in advance which version of Plone to use for future commercial projects. Plone decided to move the release target to March 2007. partly because the Zope framework on which it builds has done so. the next release after 2. Plone Plone is a content management system that is built on the powerful Zope application server. new features have to be proposed as a PLIP which the framework team reviews. decided to move to such a release schedule. Because of the unpredictability of Plone. followed by a release in October. First. Archetypes. version 2. . Past Problems • Releases.38 4.6. Solutions • Plone moved to a time based release.1 experienced many delays and took almost one and a half years to be released (see table 5. Since many volunteer contributors might be unavailable during that time.1. The Plone project has taken their first step towards a regular time based release but it remains to be seen whether the project can meet deadlines and release future releases according to their roadmap. It provides a system for managing web content that is ideal for a wide range of users. Second. took a long time to get out. The reasons for this decision are two-fold. • Deadlines have motivated developers to get their features done within a certain time frame. on which Plone is built and with which it has very strong links. • Many Plone developers work as consultants building web sites.5 in June 2006 would have been during the Christmas period. in particular version 2. • Releases had many changes and caused some migration problems. Zope. In 2005. According to a six month release cycle. it was difficult for them to decide which version to use for future projects. is a framework designed to ease the building of applications for Plone. • Time based releases allowed the project to implement more structure.
2 in the middle of . Even though X.org and established a productive work environment. As a direct consequence of this license change and because of the long-lasting structural problems within the project. The first modular release of X.org 7. Over the years. While X. six months after the release of 7.1. In previous times. with version 4. The following release was planned for November 2006.0. Effectively. Most Linux distributions have swiftly moved from XFree86 to X.0.4. but the project failed to meet this target and released version 7.org and nowadays the X. only few performed testing and it was difficult to prepare such a huge system for release. X. they soon made plans to move towards a more modular system.org has a long history.org took place in December 2005 and was followed by another roll-up release five months later (see table 5.8).org in which all stable components are put together. The source code is one monolithic code base which uses an archaic build system many developers are not comfortable with. In February 2004. they also adopted a more modern build system.39 Outstanding Problems • As the project has moved to time based releases only recently. 4. the structures within the XFree86 project became rigid and the project failed to innovate and keep up with the pace of the wider FOSS community. Because of this monolithic code base. such as GNOME.org used this monolithic system initially.org had were related to the huge codebase on which both projects build. Using this opportunity of change. the project is fairly new in terms of a FOSS community. the project moved to a development mechanism which features two release mechanisms: individual components can be released as needed and there is an overall release of X.7.org X. they still need to show whether they can consistently release on time. Some problems that XFree86 and X. most Linux distributions and other FOSS projects relied on the XFree86 system. the project moved to the modular system in which components are developed and released separately. These roll-up releases take place every six months. the majority of developers moved to X. it was hard to attract new contributors to the project. the XFree86 project changed its license in a way which many people considered very controversial. As of X.org project is where the majority of development is taking place.org is an implementation of the X Window System which provides an interface between display hardware and a desktop environment.
the last stable version of this component can usually be incorporated. The rollup releases have taken a lot of pressure from the release manager because there is a fall back: if an individual component is not ready at the time of the roll-up release. The modularization effort has been received very positively. • The move to the modular system allowed them the introduction of two release mechanisms: individual components can make releases on an ongoing basis and roll-up releases take place every six months. both by users and in particular by vendors because it makes it easier for them to integrate new components in their system. had no plan. This is possible because the interfaces between components are fairly stable.40 February 2007. The X. This made it hard for new contributors to get involved and was bad for testing. such as the move to the odular system and the adoption of a more modern build system. Since the move to the modular system with time based releases. • The roll-up releases have a fall back mechanism in case a specific component is not ready for release: the former version of this component can be incorporated. Nevertheless. The project needs to work out interfaces between the server and drivers in more detail so updates to hardware drivers can be made more frequently. and the project‘s structures were very rigid. Solutions • X. • The code base was huge and monolithic. This made it easier to perform testing and it made it possible to give contributors write access to specific components. It had an archaic build system that few new developers were comfortable with. .org has taken towards regular releases look promising. Past Problems • XFree86 made only infrequent releases every few years.org community is very active and has implemented a number of changes which would have been difficult in the XFree86 project with its rigid structures. the steps X. the project found that it is easier to find testers for individual components and to give contributors write access to specific parts of the system.org moved from a monolithic to a modular system.
.41 Outstanding Problems • The project needs to work the interface between the server and drivers. Even though there are still outstanding problems and some case projects have not yet implemented time based releases with full success. so updates to hardware drivers can be released more often than other components. These are presented to study studies investigating projects that have implemented a time based release strategy. the introduction of this release strategy has overall led to improvements in the release process. The next three chapters will present findings from a crosscase analysis in order to discuss why this release strategy may be associated with certain benefits and to investigate factors and practices that related to successful implementation of time based releases.
42 CHAPTER – 5 IT PROGRESSION PROCEDURE IN THE MARKET .
Figure 1: Graph of source lines of code added [millions] (Approach 1) . The Y-axis shows the number of lines of code added each month and the X-axis shows the time. We can see an upward trend in the amount of code added over time. Both Approach 1 and 2 show a similar pattern of growth.1 Growth in source code Figures 1 and 2 show plots that represent the growth in source lines of code added using Approach 1 and 2 respectively. 5. The time frame is 1995 through 2006 for all projects.43 5 IT PROGRESSION PROCEDURE IN THE MARKET We first analyze growth rate and total growth in open source software code and then analyze growth rate and total growth in open source software projects. Each data point on the plot represents the total number of lines of code added during that month.
Table 2 shows the statistical models for the two approaches.44 Figure 2: Graph of source lines of code added [millions] (Approach 2) Table 1 shows models for the two plots. We observe that the total code in Approach 2 is lower than in Approach 1 but follows a similar trend.5 months. Table 1: Model of source lines of code added Figure 3 shows the total number of lines of open source code over time. giving us confidence in the validity of the claim that the amount of code added is growing exponentially.9. In both cases. . The doubling time for Approach 1 is 12.9 months. and the doubling time for Approach 2 is 14. the best fitting model is an exponential curve with an R-square value of about 0. This behavior is expected as we eliminated all large commits in the second approach to exclude copy and paste contributions.
the initial commit action).2 Growth in projects Figure 4 shows the number of projects added over time and Table 3 shows the model and its fit with the data. there is a first occurrence of a project action (for example.45 Figure 3: Graph of total source lines of code [millions] (both approaches) Table 2: Model of total source lines of code 5. This is the point of time when the project is counted as added to the overall set of projects. . For each project. and that point of time is considered the birth date of the project.
And again. little known or obsolete packages such as the Zoo archive utility are ignored. Many of the projects that were included in a Debian distribution around 1998 are not popular enough today (as stand-alone projects) to be included in our copy of the Ohloh database. we get the best fit for the resulting curve for an exponential model with an R-square value of 0. .88. Popular projects such as GNU Emacs are counted as projects of their own.46 Figure 4: Graph of number of open source projects added Table 3: Model of number of open source projects added Large distributions like Debian are counted as one project.
Figure 5: Graph of total number of open source projects Table 4: Model of total number of open source projects 5. It should be noted that if we were to break up the data sets into separate time .9 months.3 Review of findings This section shows the growth of source code in open source projects as well as the growth of open source projects itself. we get the best fit for an exponential model with an R-square value of 0. Again.47 Figure 5 then shows the total number of projects and Table 4 shows the corresponding model and its fit with the data.96. The doubling time is 13. The doubling time based on the exponential models is about 14 months for both the total amount of source code and the total number of projects. We consistently get the best fit for the data using exponential models.
48 periods. each of which is best explained by a separate growth model. Our analysis shows that the average commit size is almost constant while the commit frequency (number of commits per week) increases exponentially between Jan 1995 to Dec 2006. In  we discuss the size and frequency of code contributions to open source projects. the lines of code added can be assumed equal to the product of the average size of a commit in terms of source lines of code and the commit frequency. Specifically. We can use those results to further increase our confidence in the results presented above. we might find better fits for other models than the exponential model. This verifies our findings about the exponential growth in open source. . In future work we will analyze the overall growth in distinct phases.
6 NEED FOR IMPROVEMENT .49 CHAPTER .
is that the involvement of most of the users of applications are technically sophisticated while the average desktop user is not very sophisticated and is lacking in basic computer skills. Include a module that would focus on public relations. corporate and end users. Our results open gates for further research around the growth of open source and the acceptance of open source in industry and government. the number of new open source projects. It was also determined that if typical users are included in the development process of OSS projects. It was concluded in the study software developers in the future need to design better for the usability of OSS projects. Future research should explore questions like what factors are influencing this exponential growth. as concluded in the paper by David M. how source code growth relates to the number of engaged software developers. The total amount of source code and the total number of projects double about every 14 months. an area lacking in the value chain at this time.50 6. NEED FOR IMPROVEMENT The significance of open source has been continuously increasing over time. the total project size (measured in source lines of code). OSS products are available for free and the focus should be on growing market share as : Those that participate in the volunteer Field Sales would be invited based on their previous commitment and contribution to the community such as theirinvolvement in newsgroups and projects Modules similar to the ones for development would be the organizational structure and would be divided up into the targeted selling areas including education. Nicholsis. Our work shows that the additions to open source projects. this can be accomplished. and whether or how long open source can sustain this exponential growth. . The main problem holding back OSS growth. There is great opportunity for OSS to become more readily available than proprietary softwarein the future. and the total number of open source projects are growing at an exponential rate. Our research validates this claim by looking at the total growth of open source. Ongoing online training of products would be made available to participants on OSS. government.
Opportunities to meet face-to-face with supporters and those seeking to convert.51 Target users that are not as Internet sophisticated as has been the case in the past. Consider those users when developing new software Recruit volunteers seeking real hands on experience from marketing organizations such as the Marketing Association of America and Universities. This would be encouraged at events such as Linux World held annually in San Francisco and other relevant seminars .
52 CHAPTER – 7 DATA PROJECTION AND INTERPRETATION .
this scenario assumes that things are going to progress following the same path. In fact it is astounding how it has done it so well with so little outside support (including support from governments and big corporations). ``Aggressive'' support to open source software is provided by these institutions.53 7. and the great mobility of the information technology environment makes it difficult to do `crystal ball' predictions. . However. As companies are discovering. And. almost no explicit support has been granted by governments in any part of the world to open source development. Our consideration in this respect is that currently open source systems are already a noticeable part of our computing environment. the investors are already betting with their money on their capability to succeed. let us just sketch the following cases: No action is taken by the European Commission and governments. Therefore. it is possible to live off open source. And as the Red Hat and VA Research IPOs have showed . No action scenario Up to the present moment. the open source movement has already proved how it can progress by itself. especially in the server and development areas. the variability of the approaches. But we will try to describe some possible scenarios of how the support of the European Commission and governments could impact on the future of the open source movement. where they are already playing an important role in the information technology infrastructure. Limited support is granted by these institutions to open source software. in any case. That said. DATA PROJECTION AND INTERPRETATION Forecasting software technology is always risky.
In fact. and in the long term. the progress of the open source movement. or loss of global vision. As more and more people come to use and produce open source software. Instead of buying some proprietary systems.54 If no action is taken by the European Commission and other governments. and therefore to the loss of the real advantages of the model. some government offices will decide to buy open source systems and servers. Legal impediments. as a lower cost or technically better alternative to proprietary systems. this trend is already starting to take shape in several countries (at least in Europe). the loss of some of the advantages of the open source model. Since the movement is already proving to be self-sustaining in both the economic and the technical field. uncertainty. The legal framework could make more difficult. as more and more resources are devoted to this effort. In this scenario (and in part also in the others). Dissolution. causing divisions in the community and in the code base. some threats for the open source movements will also have to be dealt with. some which are already being discussed within the open source community are: FUD (fear. Among them. and it is competing head to head with the leaders in several market niches. The issue of software patents (discussed in . there is the risk that a significant part of them don´t really understand how open source really works. In this case no specific benefit will be reaped by governments. or even impossible. but the situation could change in the future. Open source will be preferred in many situations simply on economic or technical grounds. by the people composing the open source community. doubt) techniques. we can expect that only private companies and individuals will try to walk this route. afraid of losing their market share or supremacy. used by companies or organizations committed to proprietary software. without the need of any specific endorsement. Ignorance. without any real meaning for many people. This could lead to the conversion of open source in just another buzzword. except for the direct cost savings on licences. it seems unreasonable to doubt its future health. and all the lessons learned by the community over the last few decades. Probably open source software will be used as a standard part of the infrastructure by most governments. due to systems and licences which can be confused with open source software. or by the societies they serve. Until now those techniques have not been a real problem.
can benefit from open source software. and adaptability. and will understand more clearly some of the benefits in terms of flexibility. probably they will also help to overcome the future problems (specially those related to the legal framework) that have been described. probably it makes most sense to ask how society. With time. they will identify some strategic open source projects where they want to contribute. administrations and governments in general. and how they can use it for their own advantage. . usefulness in the entire life cycle.2) is one of the more obvious legal impediments that could be found in the next years Limited support scenario In a limited support scenario. In this case. The recent case of the German government funding the development of GPG (GNU Privacy Guard) because it is found to be of great benefit for society shows how this scenario may develop in the short to medium term. rather than the other way around (how can the open source movement benefit from governmental support). In the long term. this will give results. tomorrow can be considered as just common sense and normal business practice. because of the amplifier effect that its use in governments has on society. they will probably invest some time and resources to assess the feasibility of open source software in their areas of interest. and the European Commission in particular. They may be interested in trying open source software for several (especially mission critical) components of their infrastructure. If they finally recognize the benefits of the open source model.55 subsection 6. especially in the form of greater acceptance of open source software in society in general. and to identify the barriers which could impede their adoption of open source technologies. Aggressive scenario We are completely unable to predict what exactly `aggressive' may mean. and because what today may seem `aggressive'. because legislation may preclude some specific kinds of action.
56 As an example. and the society in that area can benefit earlier from reduced costs. social or economic reasons). In our opinion. and widespread diffusion of new technologies. Another interesting action could be the active promotion (by direct or indirect funding) of the development of open source alternatives to proprietary systems in those areas where it is identified that this is convenient (because of strategic. indulge . If open source is not a passing fashion. greater economic activity. This would create an enormous market for open source consulting and solutions. the impact could be similar to that of Internet technologies during the last decade. currently very biased against Europe because the majority of widely distributed (usually shrinkwrapped) software systems come from the United States. but is here to stay. the whole matter of the level of support that open source deserves is mainly a matter of betting on its future. if the open source community becomes strong in any given area of the world. In fact. Also. these measures should have some measurable impact on the import/export balance for information technology products. the support that Europe (or any other country) gives to it can only be transformed into more benefits. improve significantly the skills of the European information technology work force. the more radically that a society adopts it as a technological enabler. In this case. and probably increase the usefulness of information technology systems. that area has a far greater possibility of competing in a software market with changing rules. we can think of legislative actions on the part of the European Commission and the national governments to give preference to open source solutions whenever they are technically feasible. If open source software is really going to change the whole landscape of the information technology industry. the more benefits that society will get from it.
57 CHAPTER – 8 FRAMEWORK OF MARKET PROGRESSION .
58 8. Red Hat and Sun Microsystems. In the following. for example. The benefits of Open Source Software have also not gone unnoticed by several governmental institutions. A business role model that comprises all business roles required in the Open Source model. These facts are forcing software companies to think about business opportunities offered by the Open Source model. such as Apple Computer. as many people believe. The Apache Web Server. IBM. FRAME WORK OF MARKET PROGRESSION During the past few years several business models have been established with respect to Open Source Software . have been in existence for several years. have recommended the use of Open Source Software in their respective administrations. All telecommunications operator adopted business models are analysed in detail in part 1 of the project deliverable. Something that was initially started with no business goals in mind but pure "political / religious" ideologies by independent and individual players is now starting to be backed by very strong industrial players. such as the cost reducer model. some of the most famous models will be presented and related to companies that work according to these models. Germany and Italy. for others there is no experience at all. . which is sponsored by more than 20 companies. And both a working group of the European Commission and the US President‘s Information Technology Advisory Committee are recommending the use of Open Source. These examples show that Open Source and good business are not in contrast to each other. Lotus Development. It is possible to make business and earn money with Open Source. France. In the following. appropriate business models must be introduced where telecommunications operators may occupy different roles of the business role model. a short summary of our results is given. Fujitsu. In order to make a profit from Open Source or at least to reap some economic benefits from it. Some examples of this are: 1. Siemens Computers. Some models. The national governments of China. The various Open Source business models identified below are in varying stages of maturity.
59 2. MICO. such as Motorola. SuSE. Red Hat. VA Linux Systems.. Compaq. AT&T. The Enhydra project. which is sponsored by more than 10 companies. which is sponsored by Alcatel. and France Telecom CNET. 3. Deutsche Telekom and EURESCOM . NEC Soft.
61 CHAPTER – 9 LIMITATIONS .
however. as projects have moved on from no configuration management (CM) to CM with CVS and on to other CM tools. Project source. For the purposes of our analysis. we have the most recent history. However. However. Sample size. The total number of open source projects in the world is much larger.000 projects (lower bound) are actually active . Subversion and Git source code repositories. Thus. Data incompleteness. which is most relevant for our analysis. the effects are rather limited. However. for a current project. Some amount of revision control information in open source projects has already been lost forever. frequently dropping the history with each move. because we are interested in the overall trend. the project history for each project is not always complete. Thus. it is not a major issue. LIMITATIONS The quantitative analysis and the conclusions we draw have the following shortcomings and limitations. We are continuing our work to iron out possible pitfalls based on these limitations. Our approach to eliminating copy and paste issues (Approach 2) is limited in its effectiveness: The filter excludes a lot of good values while still allowing minor copy and paste to pass. and even the conservative Approach 2 still validates our hypothesis of exponential growth.62 9. the lack of some of the early histories of some of the open source projects has little effect on the validity of our conclusions. We believe that this limitation is not a big issue for our purposes because almost all open source projects are maintained in one of these repositories and our sample size can be considered representative. we believe that while the respective critiques can be made. Daffara estimates that of the total number only 18. as argued above in each case. . Copy and paste. So we believe that the sample we are using is relevant for analyzing trends and patterns in open source growth. We considered 5122 active and popular open source projects. A current limitation of Ohloh is that it only connects to CVS.
63 CHAPTER – 10 CONCLUSION .
For many developers. most of the history of information science and programming. Highly prized factors are clean design. For instance. As a shorthand. and hence often suggest both bug fixes and enhancements as actual changes to the source code. reliability and maintainability. Open Source Software developers are evidently motivated by many factors but favouring features over quality is not noticeable amongst them. Although it may seem surprising at first view. started . in fact. Consequently the quality of software produced by the Open Source community sometimes exceeds that produced by purely commercial organisations. these developers are not part of corporate cultures where the best route to large salaries is to move into management. hence some Open Source developers are amongst the most experienced in the industry. very motivated developers. CONCLUSION I would like to conclude my project report with the points as follows: Organizational benefits from the use of Open Source Software o o o o o o Reliability Stability Audit ability Cost Flexibility and Freedom Support and Accountability Open Source's proponents often claim that it offers significant benefits when compared to typical commercial products. This psychological effect is really important in explaining why so many projects are started out of the blue. security and similar less glamorous attributes. it is not that rare if we put it in context.64 10. The Open Source community attracts very bright. In addition. we shall describe this phenomenon as quality vs features. with adherence to standards and shared community values finest. so it's likely that they will prefer to build software that is admired by their peers. In addition all users of Open Source products have access to the source code and debugging tools. with seemingly no reward. are often very disciplined. Commercial products typically favour visible features (giving marketing advantage) over harder-to measure qualities such as stability. peer review and acclaim is important. who although frequently unpaid.
Where source code is freely published and widely distributed. Where several authors work in parallel. a bug .65 this way in academic circles. In the following paragraphs we look at the claims. addresses some of the economic drivers in more depth and provides models which can reverse this apparent conflict of interests. it seems clear that it has an extremely good impact on developer's productivity. perhaps what many people would mean when they use the term `bug'. Although this effect of self-reward is perhaps not so common in the world of proprietary software development. the best-of-crop solution can be chosen in place of the only solution (as would be typical for a commercial product). we can take it to mean the absence of defects which cause incorrect operation. There are a number of principal reasons adduced for this: Authors are motivated by pride and peer recognition rather than a development plan supplied by the marketing department. Reliability Broadly. And what is even more important. Most want to use the software themselves and they prefer robustnesss before adding features. outline why they are considered benefits and describe the ways that the Open Source process provides substance to the claims. yet run almost directly counter to the commercial needs of typical software development businesses. the motivation to do so for the common good is much higher. There is abundant anecdotal evidence for truth in those claims but reliable and comparable statistical measures are not available to our knowledge. it is today a strong force in the open source community. Strictly. the users of the product will often discover and correct defects themselves. where a continuous revenue stream (usually through the mechanism of upgrades or high-priced support) is needed. an interesting effect in a discipline where differences in productivity from person to person are often a matter of orders of magnitude. data loss or sudden failures. And still many non-applied sciences advance thanks to the work of scientists who feel more rewarded by research in itself than by money. Authors are likely to consider it a ‗win‘ if they can reduce the complexity and improve the maintainability of software. Many of the qualities that are claimed for Open Source Software are exactly those that are wanted by those who have to use or deploy software. This rarely comes high on the product plan for commercial software. If no commercial entity benefits from that work.
This is more or less directly counter to what motivates software vendors . Determining what constitutes a bug is usually by agreement amongst the developers and users of the software (an overlapping community in many cases). Users of the software can choose whether to use the unofficial fix or wait for an `official' version. and mature Open Source products are setting new industry standards for bulletproofnes. Unless the job changes or more efficient processes are discovered then there is rarely pressure or need to alter the software that is being used to assist the task. Each of these kinds of bugs is usually addressed with speedy fixes wherever possible and Open Source advocates will claim very rapid time-to-fix characteristics for software. Users of the software are much more at the mercy of the vendor's internal processes than with the Open Source arrangement and the personal experience of the authors is that it can be extremely frustrating to move from the Open Source to the closed model. as is failure to conform to appropriate published standards. Obvious failure to perform is easily recognised as a bug. Security related failings (exploits or vulnerabilities) are clearly bugs too. By `official' we mean a release blessed by the project team itself or a trusted authority such as one of the main distributors of Open Source packages.66 would also mean failure to meet the specification. a tool to do a job. This mechanism clearly works very well in practice. it's hard to point to that as good way of defining what is a bug and what is a feature. particularly as practiced by Linux. The market greatly values robustness. a process wich is undoubtedly assisted by the availability of the source code. Able developers who discover a bug will commonly also fix it and then report it to the maintainers as well as issuing an updated version of the software on their own authority. Severe defects tend to be fixed within hours of their being detected. encourages a large market of early adopters (compared to the size of the early market for commercial products) who actively help debug the software. Consequently much Open Source Software becomes highly robust at a surprisingly early stage of its development. and the Open Source model. The pattern with closed-source software is typically that a defect report needs to be filed and then there will be a delay before the vendor determines when or whether to issue an updated release. Stability In a business environment software is mostly a necessary evil. but since most Open Source projects dispense with the concept of anything easily recognisable as a formal specification.
67 who are in the unpleasant position of supplying a commodity that does not wear out or age much. incompatible file formats can be less of an issue.then they cannot be undocumented since the source code that uses them is itself published. some upgrading and maintenance effort will always be needed. The problem for users of the software is that they rarely have much control over that process and are left isolated if they choose to remain with older versions that they consider to be acceptable. when incompatible formats are used it is commonplace for a Perl or similar converter program to be shipped with them which will upgrade data to the new format. but the worst effects of vendor-push can be mitigated. Typical tactics include moving to allegedly new and improved file formats (which require the new and improved software to read them) or to withdraw support and bug fixes for older versions after a short period. A choice to use Open Source Software can provide a counter to the pressures to upgrade for the vendor's commercial purposes but cannot shelter every user from any change. If a software supplier can establish a virtual monopoly and then force upgrades onto its audience (as has been the history of the software industry since the mid 1960s) then the profits can be very high. Closed-source software forces its users to trust the vendor when claims are made for . no business is static and software changes to meet new requirements. In practice the track record of Open Source projects is usually good. This has cost and control implications for the business. Software vendors can apply a number of tactics to persuade their customers to upgrade more or less willingly. The way that Open Source products tend to conform closely to standards efforts has an inertial effect. putting the choice in the hands of the users rather than the suppliers is hard to criticise. Auditability A rarely-understood benefit of Open Source Software (any software where the source code is published) is its auditability. The vendors need a stable revenue stream to be able to keep their business going whilst their customers have not the slightest desire to change or upgrade any product that is working well enough to suit their needs. If they are standardsbased then they typically aren't an issue at all. and if they are formats unique to the software product — proprietary formats in a sense . Open Source Software is not a panacea in the world of ever-changing software. Having access to the source code can allow a business to choose to support itself on an old version where necessary and we belive that in general it gives more options and choice to the users. As a result. Nonetheless. since standards change but slowly and interchange formats are often particularly stable. In the real world.
adherence to standards and flexibility in the face of future changes. what's clear is that without access to the source. It has also already been shown that the traditional approach of security through obscurity leaves too many open holes.68 qualities such as security. authors make it possible for users of the software to have confidence that there is a basis for those claims. Both the open and closed source versions of the Interbase server contain a compiled-in back door account with a known password. freedom from backdoors. This CERT ( Computer Emergency Response Team) advisory notice carries the following summary: Interbase is an open source database package that had previously been distributed in a closed source fashion by Borland/Inprise. by many network- . By publishing the source code. The back door account was discovered when Borland released the source code of the software for public use. since it is possible to easily and quickly identify potential security problems and correct them. third party inspection is impossible. viruses and cracker attacks can pose a significant privacy and monetary threat. If the source code is not available those claims remain simply claims. Volunteers have created mailing lists and auditing groups to check for security issues in several important networking programs and operating system kernels. An often-quoted example of this in real life is the Interbase product from Borland (Inprise). We can easily see that Open Source Software has a distinct advantage over proprietary systems. This threat is one of the causes of the adoption of Open Source Software oriented software systems. Whether this takes the form of an cursory and informal inspection or more rigorous auditing. One is left wondering how many other software projects contain similar features — and it's not possible to know if the source code remains closed. but it's possible that as open source models become more popular then expectations of audits will rise. Even now that the Internet reaches just a part of the world. and now the security of Open Source Software can be considered equal or better than that of desktop operating systems. At present the industry does not insist on third party inspection or certification. One example of third-party auditing is the Linux Security Audit project which performs by-eye auditing of Open Source Software packages and maintains a database of results.
total cost of ownership (TCO) is what really matters. From a business perspective the purchase cost of software is only one factor. lower management costs) Claimed longer uptimes and reduced need for expensive systems administrators Near-zero vulnerability to viruses eliminating need for virus checking. Arguments in favour of low TCO for Open Source Software include: Possibly zero purchase price Potentially no need to account for copies in use. Cost Most current Open Source projects are also available free of royalties and fees. A plausible reason is that they simply don't know that it can be done. reducing vendor lock-in and consequent monopoly pricing Availability of source code provides greater continuity and security against o o Financial collapse of vendors of key products Vendors choosing to withdraw support for unprofitable products . Other things being equal. reducing administrative overhead Claimed reduced need for regular upgrades (giving lower/nil upgrade fees. Regrettably the English language does not have separate concepts for free-of-charge and free as in unconstrained. other languages are better equipped to describe the difference between `freedom' and `free of charge' (libre vs.69 At present company auditors are not known to be asking about the suitability and auditability of key software packages which support crucial business processes. data loss and downtime Claimed lower vulnerability to security breaches and hack attacks reducing systems administration load Claimed ability to prolong life of older hardware while retaining performance Some longer-term claims are more difficult to substantiate yet they need to be taken into account: Better adherence to standards permits competition in the market. gratis). That situation is not guaranteed to continue. leading to the confusion around the commonly used term `free software'. the solution with lowest TCO is usually the most desirable one. Proponents of free software licences tend to emphasise liberty over cost although in practice the main open source projects are free in both senses of the word.
Our view is that that flexibility should really mean business flexibility. Open Source projects have very little motivation to attempt this kind of lock-in strategy. If they can establish a bridgehead. adherence to de-jure or de-facto standards (where they exist) is typically high. solutions should not be unreasonably constrained by software. the fact that the source code is published means that .70 Protection against being required to fit your IT strategy to the cash needs of your software supplier Unfortunately in this area there are numerous claims and counter claims. then best-of breed solutions can be selected for particular components within the architecture. experience shows that it is often best to pick tried and trusted standards for interworking. Flexibility and Freedom In a business context. To obtain flexibility at the architectural level. Reliable TCO information is practically unobtainable. requiring a real act of will from management. What happens most often is that a vendor will make a `feature sale'. emphasising something which cannot be done through the standard infrastructure. Any astute vendor will attempt to do this. Many commercial software products will claim flexibility as a built-in feature and some will undoubtedly be correct. Since there is no commercial benefit to be had. Most businesses will have to chose the argument on on its merits and choose to back the use of Open Source Software where it seems most likely to provide either a clear cost win. Provided that the solutions can interwork suitably. Where standards for interworking do not exist. In particular. or valuable leverage over entrenched suppliers. Proprietary data formats are a particularly good tool for vendors to use. only vigilant managers can avoid the lock-in that follows. although the case studies which form part of this guide provide a large amount of circumstantial evidence in favour of the argument. the business should be able to avoid lock-in to a particular supplier and over-dependency. This is notoriously hard to manage. software flexibility is about being able to choose solutions suitable for the needs of the users. their competition will not only have to provide competing functionality. so that as requirements in the business change. If that is done. If they succeed then the business can become dependent on that particular solution and unable to choose alternatives at a later date. we view this as being especially important in the area of infrastructure components — the architecture of the IT solution rather than any one package. but also data conversion tools from a (typically) undocumented or even protected format.
Freedom from a single vendor Software vendors can go out of business. Many vendors have tried to create web servers to compete with Apache. Open-source software can be tailored for the way you do business. a short email to the project's mailing list will usually find a suitable consultant. followed by vigilance to ensure that freedom from proprietary lock-in is maintained in critical areas. Purchasers often perceive that the product works best with other products from the same manufacturer. and they can arbitrarily decide to cease development of a product. Any vendor that controlled the lions' share of the browser and the server market would feel strongly tempted to exclude competitors by proprietary extensions to the HTTP protocol if they thought they could get away with it. not only from the point of view of adherence to standards but also by helping to mitigate against insidious lock-in if they are chosen as core infrastructure components. but because the network protocol used between browsers and the web server is well specified they have had to compete on quality or features rather than through more insidious tactics. but the ability to continue to use it as your needs change. If in-house development skills don't exist. . predominantly their own. Open Source Software tends to be free of dependency on related products. Business users are most likely to obtain long-term flexibility through the careful choice of standards for interworking and data exchange.. making the feature-based ploy an easy one for proprietary vendors to use.71 proprietary data formats can't be used to manipulate lock-in. It is usually within the resources of all but the smallest companies to modify Open Source Software to suit their own needs (and potentially then to make those enhancements available as a public good). Open Source products are strong in this area. How would your business cope if it relied on such a product? Open-source software allows you to retain not just the right to use the software you already have. No single vendor has yet managed to control both ends of this equation to a great enough degree. The drawback is that standards inevitably lag in terms of glamorous features. Open Source Software offers its users greater freedom to purchase other products. This at least partly explains the relative success of Open Source Software in infrastructure areas. Proprietary software vendors must cater for many different companies. avoiding lock-in to particular manufacturers. Freedom to modify your software You aren't limited to what one company believes you need.
Support and Accountability It may appear counter-intuitive at first, especially to someone used only to dealing with proprietary software, but whilst the models for obtaining support and accountability for Open Source Software are clearly different, the Open Source outcome is generally better than for all but unusual cases of uservendor relationships. One of the most common counter-arguments to the use of Open Source Software is characterised as the ‗who do I sue?‘ question; in other words, who is liable if the software doesn't work? This argument seems plausible in theory. Unfortunately, though, that isn't what aplies in all but the rarest of circumstances. A moment's inspection of typical EULA (End User Licence Agreements) will dispel that myth. All usual software licences explicitly disclaim responsibility or liability for anything more serious than defects on the distribution medium, with the responsibilities being a one-way street and resting on the user, not the supplier. Proprietary software licences are intended to absolve the vendor of liability for almost any problem you may incur. Major vendors have large legal teams whose job it is to prevent the vendor from being liable for anything. This does not seem unreasonable – the vendor wants to sell software, not spend months or years at a time defending protracted tort and liability suits.
CHAPTER – 11 SUGGESTION
11. SUGGESTION Open-source software differ from proprietary software in this respect. Open-source licences typically disclaim all liabilities and warranties, including such basic warranties as merchantability and fitness for purpose. Those in the know, who have adopted Open Source Software already, will shrug their
shoulders and choose the practical benefits of increased reliablility and security over illusory options to sue or pursue other remedies from a negligent vendor. Detractors of open-source software quite rightly point out that the free licence to use the software includes no support contract. But they neglect to mention the other side of that issue: many proprietary software licences have no support included either. Indeed, the majority of massmarket proprietary software support is aimed at hand-holding for inexperienced users. Just as proprietary vendors will sell support contracts with agreed service levels, suppliers and third parties will provide support for open-source software. An example of this is the Gnat translator for the Ada programming language, as reported in and elsewhere. Some software vendors produce free software, and obtain large parts of their revenue from service and support (e.g. Zope). In other situations, open-source consultants will provide training and/or support for software they recommend. The fundamental advantage of open-source software when it comes to support is that it's always possible to retain a company to provide support. Because the source code is freely available, organizations are not limited to obtaining support from the authors. There is no restriction on other suppliers learning enough about the software to provide adequate support whenever demand exists.
CHAPTER – 12 BIBLIOGRAPHY
4. HELLO. PERENS.76 12. OPEN SOURCE: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH. ISBN 156592-582-3. 2008-04-16. RETRIEVED 2010-08-19. RAYMOND. ISBN 1860946658. (2008-01-13). "FREE SOFTWARE". "GOODBYE. MUFFATTO. O'REILLY MEDIA.COM/WB/ARTICLE?ID=AR751706. 7. IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS. AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO MICROSOFT‘S MARKET DOMINANCE 6. MORENO (2006).OREILLY. 2.PHP. OPEN SOURCES: VOICES FROM THE OPEN SOURCE REVOLUTION. 3. "CREATING WEALTH WITH FREE SOFTWARE".WORLDBOOKONLINE. HTTP://WWW. HTTP://WWW. BRUCE. VERTS. (1998-02-08). "OPEN SOURCE"". RETRIEVED 2008-09-08. ROTHWELL.COM/PUB/PR/796. 8. OPEN STANDARDS. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. RICHARD (2008-08-05). "OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ". OPEN SOURCE ADOPTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR.ORG/~ESR/OPEN-SOURCE. IGNOU STUDY MATERIALS.HTML. ERIC S. A B CASSON AND RYAN.FREESOFTWAREMAGAZINE.HTML. HTTP://PRESS. "THE OPEN SOURCE DEFINITION BY BRUCE PERENS". WORLD BOOK ONLINE REFERENCE CENTER.COM/COMMUNITY_POSTS/CREATI NG_WEALTH_FREE_SOFTWARE. 10. 1999. HTTP://STANDISHGROUP.CATB. 9. RETRIEVED 2008-09-08. "OPEN SOURCE PIONEERS MEET IN HISTORIC SUMMIT". "STANDISH NEWSROOM .OPEN SOURCE".COM/CATALOG/OPENSOURCES/BOOK/PERENS. 1998-04-14. WILLIAM T. 5. PRESS RELEASE. JANUARY 1999. . RETRIEVED 2008-08-13.OREILLY.COM/NEWSROOM/OPEN_SOURCE. HTTP://WWW. HTTP://WWW. FREE SOFTWARE MAGAZINE.
77 CHAPTER – 13 APPENDIX .
78 13.OpenOffice. APPENDIX Open Source Software.org questions presented to users General topics : (1) How do I install Open Source Software on a Windows computer? (2) How do I upgrade to a newer Open Source Software version? (3) Does Open Source Software require a Java run-time environment? (4) What are good Open Source Software user settings? (5) How much RAM does Open Source Software require? (6) Does Open Source Software increase the size of the Windows profile? (7) How do I install and activate Finnish spelling and hyphenation? (8) How can I get a Swedish user interface for Open Source Software ? (9) What are the XML file formats used by Open Source Software ? (10) Can I assign Microsoft Office file formats as the default save formats? (11) How can I set the default application for Microsoft Office files? (12) What are the shortcut keys of Open Source Software ? (13) How can I enable/disable the Open Source Software Quickstarter? (14) How can I use document templates? (15) How can I assign my own document template as the default document template? (16) How do I find the style settings of a document? (17) Can I transform a Microsoft Office file to pdf format? (18) Does Acrobat Reader display the pdf files generated by Open Source Software ? Text processing – Open Source Software Writer (1) Is Open Source Software compatible with Lotus SmartSuite? (2) Is Open Source Software compatible with Microsoft Word2007? .
79 (3) What file formats does Calc read and tranfered? (4) Is Open Source Software compatible with Lotus SmartSuite WordPro? (5) Is Open Source Software compatible with Microsoft Word? (6) What file formats does Writer read? (7) What file formats does Writer save? (8) How do I copy text from elsewhere to a Writer document? (9) How can I create a document template from a text document? (10) Can I use text abbreviations? (11) What are the shortcut keys of text processing? (12) How do I set my own shortcut keys? (13) How do I find out the differences between two documents? (14) How do I use spelling in Finnish? (15) How do I hyphenate the Finnish text? (16) How do I use spelling and hyphenation in foreign languages? (17) How can I prevent a line break between two words? (18) How do I insert non-breaking hyphens? (19) How can I disable the display of conditional hyphens? (20) How can I make tab stops and return characters visible? (21) How do I set tab stops and indents? (22) How do I define a hanging indent as specified in the Finnish standard? (23) How do I use bullets and numbering? (24) How do I create headers and footers and insert date and page number fields? (25) How do I make a different layout for the first page? (26) How do I apply heading styles and generate a table of contents? (27) How can I add empty space between the numbers and titles in the table of contents? (28) How can I create watermark background for each page? (29) How can I prevent automatic formatting of the text? (30) How can I prevent automatic word completion? (31) How do I restore text back to default format? (32) How can I display/hide line numbers in the document? (33) How do I remove in Word the highlight marking of text made in .
1.80 Open Source Software ? (34) How can I disable the display of background colour in page number and date fields? Open Source Spreadsheets – Open Source Software Calc (1) Is Open Source Software compatible with Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3? (2) Is Open Source Software compatible with Microsoft Excel? (3) What file formats does Calc read? (4) What file formats does Calc write? (5) How do I open and save text files in Calc? (6) How do I refer to cells and cell areas in Calc? (7) How do I use the cell of another table (sheet) in a formula? (8) How can I automatically generate series in consequent cells? (9) How do I calculate the sum. number and average of cells? (10) How do I use the Function Wizard? (11) How do I transform the information in a table into a chart? (12) How do I format the dates of the cells? (13) How do I assign the border line settings of the cells? (14) How do I assign the background colour of the cells? (15) How do I create headers and footers for tables? (16) How do I use spelling in a spresdsheet? (17) How do I control line breaks in the cells of a table? (18) How do I print only a selected table (sheet)? (19) How can I print a table in the landscape format? (20) How can I adjust the height and width of printing? (21) How can I insert and remove page breaks? (22) How do I lock the rows and columns of a table? (23) Why isn‘t the number representation of date 1.1900 the same in Calc and Excel? Open Office presentations – Open Source Software Impress .
81 (1) Is Open Source Software compatible with Lotus SmartSuite Freelance Graphics? (2) Is Open Source Software compatible with Microsoft PowerPoint? (3) What file formats does Impress read? (4) What file formats does Impress write? (5) How do I add new slides to the presentation? (6) How do I add slides from another presentation? (7) How do I hide slides from the presentation? (8) How do I create slide headers and footers with date and page numbering fields? (9) How do I show the presentation without page numbers and dates? (10) How do I set the background of the slides? (11) How can I create a presentation template from a slide presentation? (12) How do I use spelling in a presentation? (13) How do I hyphenate the text of the presentation? (14) How do I adjust the slide contents to fit the print paper size? (15) How do I print several slides on one sheet? .