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used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 126.96.36.199 could be an IP address. Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates. The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC -- assign Internet addresses from the following three classes. • • • Class A - supports 16 million hosts on each of 126 networks Class B - supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks Class C - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks
The number of unassigned Internet addresses is running out, so a new classless scheme called CIDR is gradually replacing the system based on classes A, B, and C and is tied to adoption of IPv6.
Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. For example, the two URLs below point to two different files at the domain pcwebopedia.com. The first specifies an executable file that should be fetched using the FTP protocol; the second specifies a Web page that should be fetched using the HTTP
. VoIP also is referred to as Internet telephony. this is a much faster operation. which can be a time-consuming operation. One advantage of VoIP is that the telephone calls over the Internet do not incur a surcharge beyond what the user is paying for Internet access. much in the same way that the user doesn't pay for sending individual e-mails over the Internet. VoIP Short for Voice over Internet Protocol. Some. Instead of forwarding the request to the Web server where Page 1 resides. First user X requests a certain Web page.Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. Proxy servers have two main purposes: • Improve Performance: Proxy servers can dramatically improve performance for groups of users. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. MSN and Yahoo. The major online services such as America Online. come bundled with popular Web browsers. There are many Internet telephony applications available. In addition. user Y requests the same page. for example. a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions of the PSTN. employ an array of proxy servers. like CoolTalk and NetMeeting. which we'll call Page 1. it forwards the request to the real server. Sometime later. Consider the case where both user X and user Y access the World Wide Web through a proxy server. Since the proxy server is often on the same network as the user. IP telephony. Real proxy servers support hundreds or thousands of users. Others are stand-alone products. such as a Web browser. SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. or Voice over the Internet (VOI) proxy server server that sits between a client application. and a real server. the proxy server simply returns the Page 1 that it already fetched for user X. This is because it saves the results of all requests for a certain amount of time. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application. If not.
settings for the display and printers HKEY_Dyn_Data . acronym for random access memory. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices. For example.all preferences set for current user HKEY_User . a company might use a proxy server to prevent its employees from accessing a specific set of Web sites. Registry A database used by the Windows operating system (Windows 95 and NT ) to store configuration information. but it is also more expensive than dynamic RAM. you must take great care because errors in the Registry could disable your computer.exe) provided with the operating system. which makes it faster. .settings for hardware. at least during installation.file associations and OLE information HKEY_Current_User . You can edit the Registry directly by using the Registry Editor (regedit. The Registry consists of the following major sections: • • • • • • HKEY_Classes_Root . such as printers.performance data Most Windows applications write data to the Registry. meaning that they lose their contents when the power is turned off. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second. a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly. and installed applications HKEY_Current_Configuration . Static RAM does not need to be refreshed. However. RAM Pronounced ramm. There are two basic types of RAM: • • dynamic RAM (DRAM) στατιχ ΡΑΜ (ΣΡΑΜ) The two types differ in the technology they use to hold data. operating system.• Filter Requests: Proxy servers can also be used to filter requests. Both types of RAM are volatile. dynamic RAM being the more common type. any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes.all the current user information for each user of the system HKEY_Local_Machine . that is.
Most personal computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes). In fact. This is called external fragmentation. With modern operating systems that use a paging scheme. whose fonts are often stored in ROMs. both types of memory (ROM and RAM) allow random access. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip. unused holes scattered throughout it.0 and later systems.In common usage. and modifying files. Unlike main memory (RAM). whereas RAM is volatile. therefore. ROM (read-only memory) refers to special memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. This . FRAGMENTATION (1) Refers to the condition of a disk in which files are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. A variation of a ROM is a PROM (programmable read-only memory). it cannot be removed and can only be read. acronym for read-only memory. but it can slow down the speed at which data is accessed because the disk drive must search through different parts of the disk to put together a single file. a computer with 8M RAM has approximately 8 million bytes of memory that programs can use. creating. For example. that defragment a disk. ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the computer. (2) Fragmentation can also refer to RAM that has small. At some point. In contrast. RAM should be referred to as read/write RAM and ROM as read-only RAM. You can also buy software utilities. PROMs are manufactured as blank chips on which data can be written with a special device called a PROM programmer . the term RAM is synonymous with main memory. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile. In DOS 6. called disk optimizers or defragmenters. To be precise. In addition. the memory available to programs. ROM Pronounced rahm. the operating system needs to store parts of a file in noncontiguous clusters. a more common type of RAM fragmentation is internal fragmentation. deleting. Fragmentation occurs naturally when you use a disk frequently. you can defragment a disk with the DEFRAG command. computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. This is entirely invisible to users. ROMs are used extensively in calculators and peripheral devices such as laser printers.
On multiprocessing operating systems. however. Server ser´ver) (n. Also see the Server Types page in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia for a comparison of server types. For example. meaning that they perform no other tasks besides their server tasks. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers. a single computer can execute several programs at once. . Any user on the network can store files on the server. Servers are often dedicated.occurs when memory is allocated in frames and the frame size is larger than the amount of memory requested. A server in this case could refer to the program that is managing resources rather than the entire computer.) A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. A database server is a computer system that processes database queries.
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