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used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 22.214.171.124 could be an IP address. Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates. The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC -- assign Internet addresses from the following three classes. • • • Class A - supports 16 million hosts on each of 126 networks Class B - supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks Class C - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks
The number of unassigned Internet addresses is running out, so a new classless scheme called CIDR is gradually replacing the system based on classes A, B, and C and is tied to adoption of IPv6.
Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. For example, the two URLs below point to two different files at the domain pcwebopedia.com. The first specifies an executable file that should be fetched using the FTP protocol; the second specifies a Web page that should be fetched using the HTTP
. or Voice over the Internet (VOI) proxy server server that sits between a client application. it forwards the request to the real server. Proxy servers have two main purposes: • Improve Performance: Proxy servers can dramatically improve performance for groups of users. MSN and Yahoo. Real proxy servers support hundreds or thousands of users. Since the proxy server is often on the same network as the user. the proxy server simply returns the Page 1 that it already fetched for user X. Consider the case where both user X and user Y access the World Wide Web through a proxy server. and a real server.Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. such as a Web browser. VoIP Short for Voice over Internet Protocol. a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions of the PSTN. SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. this is a much faster operation. which we'll call Page 1. First user X requests a certain Web page. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. Instead of forwarding the request to the Web server where Page 1 resides. VoIP also is referred to as Internet telephony. If not. which can be a time-consuming operation. The major online services such as America Online. In addition. This is because it saves the results of all requests for a certain amount of time. IP telephony. the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. Some. for example. like CoolTalk and NetMeeting. much in the same way that the user doesn't pay for sending individual e-mails over the Internet. One advantage of VoIP is that the telephone calls over the Internet do not incur a surcharge beyond what the user is paying for Internet access. There are many Internet telephony applications available. Sometime later. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application. employ an array of proxy servers. come bundled with popular Web browsers. user Y requests the same page. Others are stand-alone products.
a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly.• Filter Requests: Proxy servers can also be used to filter requests. The Registry consists of the following major sections: • • • • • • HKEY_Classes_Root . Static RAM does not need to be refreshed. and installed applications HKEY_Current_Configuration . Registry A database used by the Windows operating system (Windows 95 and NT ) to store configuration information. which makes it faster. However.performance data Most Windows applications write data to the Registry. operating system. acronym for random access memory. such as printers.exe) provided with the operating system. but it is also more expensive than dynamic RAM.all preferences set for current user HKEY_User . RAM Pronounced ramm. at least during installation.file associations and OLE information HKEY_Current_User . You can edit the Registry directly by using the Registry Editor (regedit.settings for hardware. For example. dynamic RAM being the more common type. .settings for the display and printers HKEY_Dyn_Data . that is.all the current user information for each user of the system HKEY_Local_Machine . meaning that they lose their contents when the power is turned off. a company might use a proxy server to prevent its employees from accessing a specific set of Web sites. Both types of RAM are volatile. any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. There are two basic types of RAM: • • dynamic RAM (DRAM) στατιχ ΡΑΜ (ΣΡΑΜ) The two types differ in the technology they use to hold data. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices. you must take great care because errors in the Registry could disable your computer.
both types of memory (ROM and RAM) allow random access. FRAGMENTATION (1) Refers to the condition of a disk in which files are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. it cannot be removed and can only be read. deleting. the memory available to programs. RAM should be referred to as read/write RAM and ROM as read-only RAM. This is called external fragmentation. At some point. creating. Once data has been written onto a ROM chip. This . and modifying files. (2) Fragmentation can also refer to RAM that has small. whose fonts are often stored in ROMs.In common usage. For example. In DOS 6. In contrast. A variation of a ROM is a PROM (programmable read-only memory). that defragment a disk. therefore. whereas RAM is volatile. called disk optimizers or defragmenters. You can also buy software utilities. but it can slow down the speed at which data is accessed because the disk drive must search through different parts of the disk to put together a single file. the operating system needs to store parts of a file in noncontiguous clusters. ROMs are used extensively in calculators and peripheral devices such as laser printers. the term RAM is synonymous with main memory. This is entirely invisible to users. unused holes scattered throughout it. a computer with 8M RAM has approximately 8 million bytes of memory that programs can use. ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. With modern operating systems that use a paging scheme. To be precise.0 and later systems. Unlike main memory (RAM). a more common type of RAM fragmentation is internal fragmentation. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile. In addition. you can defragment a disk with the DEFRAG command. computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. ROM (read-only memory) refers to special memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the computer. In fact. acronym for read-only memory. Most personal computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes). PROMs are manufactured as blank chips on which data can be written with a special device called a PROM programmer . ROM Pronounced rahm. Fragmentation occurs naturally when you use a disk frequently.
Servers are often dedicated. Also see the Server Types page in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia for a comparison of server types. .occurs when memory is allocated in frames and the frame size is larger than the amount of memory requested. A server in this case could refer to the program that is managing resources rather than the entire computer.) A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. A database server is a computer system that processes database queries. a single computer can execute several programs at once. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers. a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. however. On multiprocessing operating systems. Server ser´ver) (n. For example. and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic. Any user on the network can store files on the server. meaning that they perform no other tasks besides their server tasks.
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